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Sample records for sound signal required

  1. 33 CFR 67.20-10 - Sound signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.20-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âAâ Requirements § 67.20-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “A” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated range...

  2. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  3. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  4. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... appliances. Each vessel under the 72 COLREGS, except the vessels of the Navy, is exempt from the requirements...

  5. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  6. Analysis of acoustic sound signal for ONB measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Kim, H. I.; Han, K. Y.; Chai, H. T.; Park, C.

    2003-01-01

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) was measured in a test fuel bundle composed of several fuel element simulators (FES) by analysing the aquatic sound signals. In order measure ONBs, a hydrophone, a pre-amplifier, and a data acquisition system to acquire/process the aquatic signal was prepared. The acoustic signal generated in the coolant is converted to the current signal through the microphone. When the signal is analyzed in the frequency domain, each sound signal can be identified according to its origin of sound source. As the power is increased to a certain degree, a nucleate boiling is started. The frequent formation and collapse of the void bubbles produce sound signal. By measuring this sound signal one can pinpoint the ONB. Since the signal characteristics is identical for different mass flow rates, this method can be applicable for ascertaining ONB

  7. Applications of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Speech and Sound Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed, and the natural applications are to speech and sound signals. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time, which give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. This method invention can be used to process all acoustic signals. Specifically, it can process the speech signals for Speech synthesis, Speaker identification and verification, Speech recognition, and Sound signal enhancement and filtering. Additionally, as the acoustical signals from machinery are essentially the way the machines are talking to us. Therefore, the acoustical signals, from the machines, either from sound through air or vibration on the machines, can tell us the operating conditions of the machines. Thus, we can use the acoustic signal to diagnosis the problems of machines.

  8. A homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-jiao; Chen, Hou-jin; Li, Ju-peng; Zhang, Zhan-song

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at secure analog speech communication, a homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference is proposed in this paper. We first split speech signal into phonetic fragments by a short-term energy method and establish an interference noise cache library with the phonetic fragments. Then we implement the homology sound interference by mixing the randomly selected interferential fragments and the original speech in real time. The computer simulation results indicated that the interference produced by this algorithm has advantages of real time, randomness, and high correlation with the original signal, comparing with the traditional noise interference methods such as white noise interference. After further studies, the proposed algorithm may be readily used in secure speech communication.

  9. Orientation Estimation and Signal Reconstruction of a Directional Sound Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco

    , one for each call emission, were compared to those calculated through a pre-existing technique based on interpolation of sound-pressure levels at microphone locations. The application of the method to the bat calls could provide knowledge on bat behaviour that may be useful for a bat-inspired sensor......Previous works in the literature about one tone or broadband sound sources mainly deal with algorithms and methods developed in order to localize the source and, occasionally, estimate the source bearing angle (with respect to a global reference frame). The problem setting assumes, in these cases......, omnidirectional receivers collecting the acoustic signal from the source: analysis of arrival times in the recordings together with microphone positions and source directivity cues allows to get information about source position and bearing. Moreover, sound sources have been included into sensor systems together...

  10. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  11. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  12. Fluctuations of radio occultation signals in sounding the Earth's atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the relationships that link the observed fluctuation spectra of the amplitude and phase of signals used for the radio occultation sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, with the spectra of atmospheric inhomogeneities. Our analysis employs the approximation of the phase screen and of weak fluctuations. We make our estimates for the following characteristic inhomogeneity types: (1 the isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and (2 the anisotropic saturated internal gravity waves. We obtain the expressions for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of radio occultation signals as well as their estimates for the typical parameters of inhomogeneity models. From the GPS/MET observations, we evaluate the spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations in the altitude interval from 4 to 25 km in the middle and polar latitudes. As indicated by theoretical and experimental estimates, the main contribution into the radio signal fluctuations comes from the internal gravity waves. The influence of the Kolmogorov turbulence is negligible. We derive simple relationships that link the parameters of internal gravity waves and the statistical characteristics of the radio signal fluctuations. These results may serve as the basis for the global monitoring of the wave activity in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  13. Plant acoustics: in the search of a sound mechanism for sound signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Ghosh, Ritesh; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-08-01

    Being sessile, plants continuously deal with their dynamic and complex surroundings, identifying important cues and reacting with appropriate responses. Consequently, the sensitivity of plants has evolved to perceive a myriad of external stimuli, which ultimately ensures their successful survival. Research over past centuries has established that plants respond to environmental factors such as light, temperature, moisture, and mechanical perturbations (e.g. wind, rain, touch, etc.) by suitably modulating their growth and development. However, sound vibrations (SVs) as a stimulus have only started receiving attention relatively recently. SVs have been shown to increase the yields of several crops and strengthen plant immunity against pathogens. These vibrations can also prime the plants so as to make them more tolerant to impending drought. Plants can recognize the chewing sounds of insect larvae and the buzz of a pollinating bee, and respond accordingly. It is thus plausible that SVs may serve as a long-range stimulus that evokes ecologically relevant signaling mechanisms in plants. Studies have suggested that SVs increase the transcription of certain genes, soluble protein content, and support enhanced growth and development in plants. At the cellular level, SVs can change the secondary structure of plasma membrane proteins, affect microfilament rearrangements, produce Ca(2+) signatures, cause increases in protein kinases, protective enzymes, peroxidases, antioxidant enzymes, amylase, H(+)-ATPase / K(+) channel activities, and enhance levels of polyamines, soluble sugars and auxin. In this paper, we propose a signaling model to account for the molecular episodes that SVs induce within the cell, and in so doing we uncover a number of interesting questions that need to be addressed by future research in plant acoustics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  14. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jankovic-Raznatovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1 shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2 shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  15. A review of intelligent systems for heart sound signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih-Ali, Mohammed; El-Dahshan, El-Sayed A; Yahia, Ashraf S

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. CAD systems could provide physicians with a suggestion about the diagnostic of heart diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the recent published preprocessing, feature extraction and classification techniques and their state of the art of phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis. Published literature reviewed in this paper shows the potential of machine learning techniques as a design tool in PCG CAD systems and reveals that the CAD systems for PCG signal analysis are still an open problem. Related studies are compared to their datasets, feature extraction techniques and the classifiers they used. Current achievements and limitations in developing CAD systems for PCG signal analysis using machine learning techniques are presented and discussed. In the light of this review, a number of future research directions for PCG signal analysis are provided.

  16. Separation and reconstruction of high pressure water-jet reflective sound signal based on ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Sun, Yuling; Li, Meng; Zhang, Dongsu; Wu, Tianfeng

    2011-12-01

    The impact of high pressure water-jet on the different materials target will produce different reflective mixed sound. In order to reconstruct the reflective sound signals distribution on the linear detecting line accurately and to separate the environment noise effectively, the mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were processed by ICA. The basic principle of ICA and algorithm of FASTICA were described in detail. The emulation experiment was designed. The environment noise signal was simulated by using band-limited white noise and the reflective sound signal was simulated by using pulse signal. The reflective sound signal attenuation produced by the different distance transmission was simulated by weighting the sound signal with different contingencies. The mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were synthesized by using the above simulated signals and were whitened and separated by ICA. The final results verified that the environment noise separation and the reconstruction of the detecting-line sound distribution can be realized effectively.

  17. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  18. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds.

  19. Optical Reading and Playing of Sound Signals from Vinyl Records

    OpenAIRE

    Hensman, Arnold; Casey, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    While advanced digital music systems such as compact disk players and MP3 have become the standard in sound reproduction technology, critics claim that conversion to digital often results in a loss of sound quality and richness. For this reason, vinyl records remain the medium of choice for many audiophiles involved in specialist areas. The waveform cut into a vinyl record is an exact replica of the analogue version from the original source. However, while some perceive this media as reproduc...

  20. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  1. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  2. Constructions complying with tightened Danish sound insulation requirements for new housing

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan

    2010-01-01

    New sound insulation requirements in Denmark in 2008 New Danish Building Regulations with tightened sound insulation requirements were introduced in 2008 (and in 2010 with unchanged acoustic requirements). Compared to the Building Regulations from 1995, the airborne sound insulation requirements were 2 –3 dB stricter and the impact sound insulation requirements 5 dB stricter. The limit values are given using the descriptors R’w and L’n,w as before. For the first time, acoustic requirements fo...

  3. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  4. On the sound field requirements in the hearing protector standard ISO 4869-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. S.; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    The sound field requirements in the ISO 4869 1 standard for hearing protector attenuation measurements comprise two parts: 1) a sound level difference requirement for positions around the head of the listener (ie at positions 15 cm from a reference point; up-down, front-back and left-right) and 2......) a directivity requirement for the sound incidence at the reference point, measured with a directional microphone, to ensure an approximate diffuse sound field. The level difference requirement (1) is not difficult to fulfil but the directivity requirement (2) may lead to contradicting results if the measurement...

  5. Automated signal quality assessment of mobile phone-recorded heart sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David B; Brennan, Thomas; Ntusi, Ntobeko; Abdelrahman, Hassan Y; Zühlke, Liesl J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifford, Gari D

    Mobile phones, due to their audio processing capabilities, have the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of heart disease through automated auscultation. However, such a platform is likely to be used by non-experts, and hence, it is essential that such a device is able to automatically differentiate poor quality from diagnostically useful recordings since non-experts are more likely to make poor-quality recordings. This paper investigates the automated signal quality assessment of heart sound recordings performed using both mobile phone-based and commercial medical-grade electronic stethoscopes. The recordings, each 60 s long, were taken from 151 random adult individuals with varying diagnoses referred to a cardiac clinic and were professionally annotated by five experts. A mean voting procedure was used to compute a final quality label for each recording. Nine signal quality indices were defined and calculated for each recording. A logistic regression model for classifying binary quality was then trained and tested. The inter-rater agreement level for the stethoscope and mobile phone recordings was measured using Conger's kappa for multiclass sets and found to be 0.24 and 0.54, respectively. One-third of all the mobile phone-recorded phonocardiogram (PCG) signals were found to be of sufficient quality for analysis. The classifier was able to distinguish good- and poor-quality mobile phone recordings with 82.2% accuracy, and those made with the electronic stethoscope with an accuracy of 86.5%. We conclude that our classification approach provides a mechanism for substantially improving auscultation recordings by non-experts. This work is the first systematic evaluation of a PCG signal quality classification algorithm (using a separate test dataset) and assessment of the quality of PCG recordings captured by non-experts, using both a medical-grade digital stethoscope and a mobile phone.

  6. 78 FR 2868 - Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses, low... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  7. Fish protection at water intakes using a new signal development process and sound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffelman, P.H.; Klinect, D.A.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    American Electric Power Company, Inc., is exploring the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and sound system to guide aquatic animals with underwater sound. Sounds from animals such as chinook salmon, steelhead trout, striped bass, freshwater drum, largemouth bass, and gizzard shad can be used to synthesize a new signal to stimulate the animal in the most sensitive portion of its hearing range. AEP's field tests during its research demonstrate that adult chinook salmon, steelhead trout and warmwater fish, and steelhead trout and chinook salmon smolts can be repelled with a properly-tuned system. The signal development process and sound system is designed to be transportable and use animals at the site to incorporate site-specific factors known to affect underwater sound, e.g., bottom shape and type, water current, and temperature. This paper reports that, because the overall goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using sound to divert fish, it was essential that the approach use a signal development process which could be customized to animals and site conditions at any hydropower plant site

  8. Sounds of Modified Flight Feathers Reliably Signal Danger in a Pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trevor G; Zeil, Jochen; Magrath, Robert D

    2017-11-20

    In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]. It remains to be shown, however, that such sounds are signals used in communication. Here we show that crested pigeons (Ochyphaps lophotes) signal alarm with specially modified wing feathers. We used video and feather-removal experiments to demonstrate that the highly modified 8 th primary wing feather (P8) produces a distinct note during each downstroke. The sound changes with wingbeat frequency, so that birds fleeing danger produce wing sounds with a higher tempo. Critically, a playback experiment revealed that only if P8 is present does the sound of escape flight signal danger. Our results therefore indicate, nearly 150 years after Darwin's book, that modified feathers can be used for non-vocal communication, and they reveal an intrinsically reliable alarm signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ROS signalling – Specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2011-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 may induce a general stress response, but it does...... messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. (This is a new project funded by FNU) References: Møller, I.M. & Sweetlove, L.J. 2010. ROS signalling – Specificity is required. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 370-374...... not have the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g., in chloroplasts or mitochondria. We here argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS...

  10. Cognitive Bias for Learning Speech Sounds From a Continuous Signal Space Seems Nonlinguistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine van der Ham

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When learning language, humans have a tendency to produce more extreme distributions of speech sounds than those observed most frequently: In rapid, casual speech, vowel sounds are centralized, yet cross-linguistically, peripheral vowels occur almost universally. We investigate whether adults’ generalization behavior reveals selective pressure for communication when they learn skewed distributions of speech-like sounds from a continuous signal space. The domain-specific hypothesis predicts that the emergence of sound categories is driven by a cognitive bias to make these categories maximally distinct, resulting in more skewed distributions in participants’ reproductions. However, our participants showed more centered distributions, which goes against this hypothesis, indicating that there are no strong innate linguistic biases that affect learning these speech-like sounds. The centralization behavior can be explained by a lack of communicative pressure to maintain categories.

  11. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  12. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  13. Constructions complying with tightened Danish sound insulation requirements for new housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan

    New sound insulation requirements in Denmark in 2008 New Danish Building Regulations with tightened sound insulation requirements were introduced in 2008 (and in 2010 with unchanged acoustic requirements). Compared to the Building Regulations from 1995, the airborne sound insulation requirements...... were 2 –3 dB stricter and the impact sound insulation requirements 5 dB stricter. The limit values are given using the descriptors R’w and L’n,w as before. For the first time, acoustic requirements for dwellings are not found as figures in the Building Regulations. Instead, it is stated......), Denmark. [2] "Lydisolering mellem boliger – Nybyggeri" (Sound insulation between dwellings – Newbuild)". Publication expected in April 2011. The guideline is a part of a series of seven new SBi acoustic guidelines. Project leader Birgit Rasmussen. The series shall replace the existing guidelines 1984...

  14. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  15. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  16. Sound insulation of dwellings - Legal requirements in Europe and subjective evaluation of acoustical comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    Acoustical comfort is a concept that can be characterised by absence of unwanted sound and by opportunities for acoustic activities without annoying other people. In order to achieve acoustical comfort in dwellings certain requirements have to be fulfilled concerning the airborne sound insulation, the impact sound insulation and the noise level from traffic and building services.For road traffic noise it is well established that an outdoor noise level LAeq, 24 h below 55 dB in a housing area ...

  17. Root phonotropism: Early signalling events following sound perception in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Bazihizina, Nadia; Azzarello, Elisa; Masi, Elisa; Tran, Daniel; Bouteau, François; Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Sound is a fundamental form of energy and it has been suggested that plants can make use of acoustic cues to obtain information regarding their environments and alter and fine-tune their growth and development. Despite an increasing body of evidence indicating that it can influence plant growth and physiology, many questions concerning the effect of sound waves on plant growth and the underlying signalling mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, exposure to sound waves (200Hz) for 2 weeks induced positive phonotropism in roots, which grew towards to sound source. We found that sound waves triggered very quickly (within  minutes) an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ , possibly mediated by an influx through plasma membrane and a release from internal stock. Sound waves likewise elicited rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and K + efflux. Taken together these results suggest that changes in ion fluxes (Ca 2+ and K + ) and an increase in superoxide production are involved in sound perception in plants, as previously established in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sound insulation of dwellings - Legal requirements in Europe and subjective evaluation of acoustical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    Acoustical comfort is a concept that can be characterised by absence of unwanted sound and by opportunities for acoustic activities without annoying other people. In order to achieve acoustical comfort in dwellings certain requirements have to be fulfilled concerning the airborne sound insulation...... requirement for sound insulation. The findings can also be used as a guide to specify acoustic requirements for dwellings in the future......., the impact sound insulation and the noise level from traffic and building services. For road traffic noise it is well established that an outdoor noise level LAeq, 24 h below 55 dB in a housing area means that approximately 15-20% of the occupants are annoyed by the noise. However, for sound insulation...

  19. Neural processing of auditory signals and modular neural control for sound tropism of walking machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Pasemann, Frank; Fischer, Joern

    2005-01-01

    and a neural preprocessing system together with a modular neural controller are used to generate a sound tropism of a four-legged walking machine. The neural preprocessing network is acting as a low-pass filter and it is followed by a network which discerns between signals coming from the left or the right....... The parameters of these networks are optimized by an evolutionary algorithm. In addition, a simple modular neural controller then generates the desired different walking patterns such that the machine walks straight, then turns towards a switched-on sound source, and then stops near to it....

  20. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  1. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions

  2. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M [Signal and Imaging Processing and Tele-Medicine Technology Research Group, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2006-04-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  3. Stochastic Signal Processing for Sound Environment System with Decibel Evaluation and Energy Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real sound environment system, a specific signal shows various types of probability distribution, and the observation data are usually contaminated by external noise (e.g., background noise of non-Gaussian distribution type. Furthermore, there potentially exist various nonlinear correlations in addition to the linear correlation between input and output time series. Consequently, often the system input and output relationship in the real phenomenon cannot be represented by a simple model using only the linear correlation and lower order statistics. In this study, complex sound environment systems difficult to analyze by using usual structural method are considered. By introducing an estimation method of the system parameters reflecting correlation information for conditional probability distribution under existence of the external noise, a prediction method of output response probability for sound environment systems is theoretically proposed in a suitable form for the additive property of energy variable and the evaluation in decibel scale. The effectiveness of the proposed stochastic signal processing method is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data in sound environment systems.

  4. Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, like hypertension, is one of the top killers of human life and early detection of cardiovascular disease is of great importance. However, traditional medical devices are often bulky and expensive, and unsuitable for home healthcare. In this paper, we proposed an easy and inexpensive technique to estimate continuous blood pressure from the heart sound signals acquired by the microphone of a smartphone. A cold-pressor experiment was performed in 32 healthy subjects, with a smartphone to acquire heart sound signals and with a commercial device to measure continuous blood pressure. The Fourier spectrum of the second heart sound and the blood pressure were regressed using a support vector machine, and the accuracy of the regression was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Statistical analysis showed that the mean correlation coefficients between the predicted values from the regression model and the measured values from the commercial device were 0.707, 0.712, and 0.748 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively, and that the mean errors were less than 5 mmHg, with standard deviations less than 8 mmHg. These results suggest that this technique is of potential use for cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring and it has promising application in home healthcare services.

  5. Time-frequency peak filtering for random noise attenuation of magnetic resonance sounding signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Yang; Yi, Xiaofeng; Fan, Tiehu; Wan, Ling

    2018-05-01

    When measuring in a geomagnetic field, the method of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is often limited because of the notably low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Most current studies focus on discarding spiky noise and power-line harmonic noise cancellation. However, the effects of random noise should not be underestimated. The common method for random noise attenuation is stacking, but collecting multiple recordings merely to suppress random noise is time-consuming. Moreover, stacking is insufficient to suppress high-level random noise. Here, we propose the use of time-frequency peak filtering for random noise attenuation, which is performed after the traditional de-spiking and power-line harmonic removal method. By encoding the noisy signal with frequency modulation and estimating the instantaneous frequency using the peak of the time-frequency representation of the encoded signal, the desired MRS signal can be acquired from only one stack. The performance of the proposed method is tested on synthetic envelope signals and field data from different surveys. Good estimations of the signal parameters are obtained at different SNRs. Moreover, an attempt to use the proposed method to handle a single recording provides better results compared to 16 stacks. Our results suggest that the number of stacks can be appropriately reduced to shorten the measurement time and improve the measurement efficiency.

  6. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest rate, credit, liquidity, price, foreign exchange, transaction, compliance, strategic, and... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. 1.5 Section 1.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  7. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the ways used for minimizing the cost of maintenance and repairs of rotating industrial equipment is condition monitoring using acoustic analysis. One of the most important problems which always have been under consideration in industrial equipment application is confidence possibility. Each dynamic, electrical, hydraulic or thermal system has certain characteristics which show the normal condition of the machine during function. Any changes of the characteristics can be a signal of a problem in the machine. The aim of condition monitoring is system condition determination using measurements of the signals of characteristics and using this information for system impairment prognostication. There are a lot of ways for condition monitoring of different systems, but sound analysis is accepted and used extensively as a method for condition investigation of rotating machines. The aim of this research is the design and construction of considered gearbox and using of obtaining data in frequency and time spectrum in order to analyze the sound and diagnosis. Materials and Methods This research was conducted at the department of mechanical biosystem workshop at Aboureihan College at Tehran University in February 15th.2015. In this research, in order to investigate the trend of diagnosis and gearbox condition, a system was designed and then constructed. The sound of correct and damaged gearbox was investigated by audiometer and stored in computer for data analysis. Sound measurement was done in three pinions speed of 749, 1050 and 1496 rpm and for correct gearboxes, damage of the fracture of a tooth and a tooth wear. Gearbox design and construction: In order to conduct the research, a gearbox with simple gearwheels was designed according to current needs. Then mentioned gearbox and its accessories were modeled in CATIA V5-R20 software and then the system was constructed. Gearbox is a machine that is used for mechanical power transition

  8. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOUND INSULATION OF APARTMENTS’ ENCLOSING STRUCTURES TO MEET NOISE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: an important task in the design of internal enclosing structures of apartments is the establishment of their required soundproofing ability. At present, there is no reliable method for determining the required sound insulation and in this regard internal enclosures are designed without proper justification for noise protection. Research objectives: development of a technique for determining the required sound insulation of apartment’s internal enclosures to ensure an acceptable noise regime in the apartments’ rooms under the action of intra-apartment noise sources. Materials and methods: the methodology was developed on the basis of a statistical method for noise calculation in the apartments, treated as systems of acoustically coupled proportionate rooms, and with the help of a computer program that implements this method. Results: the technique makes it possible to generate, with the use of computer technologies, a targeted selection of internal enclosures of the apartment to meet their soundproofing requirements. Conclusions: the technique proposed in the article can be used at the design stage of apartments when determining the required soundproofing of partitions and doors. Using this technique, it is possible to harmonize the sound insulation ratio of individual elements among themselves and thereby guarantee a selection of internal structures for their acoustic and economic efficiency.

  9. Sound insulation between dwellings in multi-storey housing in Greenland - Need and feasibility of increased requirements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Thysell, Erik

    2014-01-01

    goals, one of them being check of fulfilment of the current regulatory sound insulation requirements, the other one being an evaluation of the possibilities to strengthen the requirements in the next building regulations. Sound insulation measurements between dwellings were made in three newly...

  10. Assessing signal-driven mechanism in neonates: brain responses to temporally and spectrally different sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo eMinagawa-Kawai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have found that in adults that acoustic properties of sound signals (such as fast vs. slow temporal features differentially activate the left and right hemispheres, and some have hypothesized that left-lateralization for speech processing may follow from left-lateralization to rapidly changing signals. Here, we tested whether newborns’ brains show some evidence of signal-specific lateralization responses using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and auditory stimuli that elicits lateralized responses in adults, composed of segments that vary in duration and spectral diversity. We found significantly greater bilateral responses of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb in the temporal areas for stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 21 ms, than stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 667 ms. However, we found no evidence for hemispheric asymmetries dependent on the stimulus characteristics. We hypothesize that acoustic-based functional brain asymmetries may develop throughout early infancy, and discuss their possible relationship with brain asymmetries for language.

  11. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a novel multichannel loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) is introduced. The VAE aims at providing a versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room...... reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution...... the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  12. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  13. Design of Meter-Scale Antenna and Signal Detection System for Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding in Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Tiehu; Tian, Baofeng; Jiang, Chuandong

    2018-03-13

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines. Focusing on the special requirements of underground MRS (UMRS) detection, this study proposes the use of an antenna with different turn numbers, which employs a separated transmitter and receiver. We designed a stationary coil with stable performance parameters and with a side length of 2 m, a matching circuit based on a Q-switch and a multi-stage broad/narrowband mixed filter that can cancel out most electromagnetic noise. In addition, noises in the pass-band are further eliminated by adopting statistical criteria and harmonic modeling and stacking, all of which together allow weak UMRS signals to be reliably detected. Finally, we conducted a field case study of the UMRS measurement in the Wujiagou Mine in Shanxi Province, China, with known water bodies. Our results show that the method proposed in this study can be used to obtain UMRS signals in narrow mine environments, and the inverted hydrological information generally agrees with the actual situation. Thus, we conclude that the UMRS method proposed in this study can be used for predicting hazardous water bodies at a distance of 7-9 m in front of the wall for underground mining projects.

  14. Design of Meter-Scale Antenna and Signal Detection System for Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding in Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines. Focusing on the special requirements of underground MRS (UMRS detection, this study proposes the use of an antenna with different turn numbers, which employs a separated transmitter and receiver. We designed a stationary coil with stable performance parameters and with a side length of 2 m, a matching circuit based on a Q-switch and a multi-stage broad/narrowband mixed filter that can cancel out most electromagnetic noise. In addition, noises in the pass-band are further eliminated by adopting statistical criteria and harmonic modeling and stacking, all of which together allow weak UMRS signals to be reliably detected. Finally, we conducted a field case study of the UMRS measurement in the Wujiagou Mine in Shanxi Province, China, with known water bodies. Our results show that the method proposed in this study can be used to obtain UMRS signals in narrow mine environments, and the inverted hydrological information generally agrees with the actual situation. Thus, we conclude that the UMRS method proposed in this study can be used for predicting hazardous water bodies at a distance of 7–9 m in front of the wall for underground mining projects.

  15. Contralateral routing of signals disrupts monaural level and spectral cues to sound localisation on the horizontal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Adam J; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    2017-09-01

    Contra-lateral routing of signals (CROS) devices re-route sound between the deaf and hearing ears of unilaterally-deaf individuals. This rerouting would be expected to disrupt access to monaural level cues that can support monaural localisation in the horizontal plane. However, such a detrimental effect has not been confirmed by clinical studies of CROS use. The present study aimed to exercise strict experimental control over the availability of monaural cues to localisation in the horizontal plane and the fitting of the CROS device to assess whether signal routing can impair the ability to locate sources of sound and, if so, whether CROS selectively disrupts monaural level or spectral cues to horizontal location, or both. Unilateral deafness and CROS device use were simulated in twelve normal hearing participants. Monaural recordings of broadband white noise presented from three spatial locations (-60°, 0°, and +60°) were made in the ear canal of a model listener using a probe microphone with and without a CROS device. The recordings were presented to participants via an insert earphone placed in their right ear. The recordings were processed to disrupt either monaural level or spectral cues to horizontal sound location by roving presentation level or the energy across adjacent frequency bands, respectively. Localisation ability was assessed using a three-alternative forced-choice spatial discrimination task. Participants localised above chance levels in all conditions. Spatial discrimination accuracy was poorer when participants only had access to monaural spectral cues compared to when monaural level cues were available. CROS use impaired localisation significantly regardless of whether level or spectral cues were available. For both cues, signal re-routing had a detrimental effect on the ability to localise sounds originating from the side of the deaf ear (-60°). CROS use also impaired the ability to use level cues to localise sounds originating from

  16. [Mechanism of the constant representation of the position of a sound signal source by the cricket cercal system neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, G I; Polishcuk, N A

    1976-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that some abdominal giant neurones of the cricket have constant preffered directions of sound stimulation in relation not to the cerci (the organs bearing sound receptors) but to the insect body (fig. 1) [1]. Now it is found that the independence of directional sensitivity of giant neurones on the cerci position disappears after cutting all structures connecting the cerci to the body (except cercal nerves) (fig 2). Therefore the constancy of directional sensitivity of the giant nerones is provided by proprioceptive signals about cerci position.

  17. The effect of frequency-specific sound signals on the germination of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-07-25

    The effects of sound treatments on the germination of maize seeds were determined. White noise and bass sounds (300 Hz) had a positive effect on the germination rate. Only 3 h treatment produced an increase of about 8%, and 5 h increased germination in about 10%. Fast-green staining shows that at least part of the effects of sound are due to a physical alteration in the integrity of the pericarp, increasing the porosity of the pericarp and facilitating oxygen availability and water and oxygen uptake. Accordingly, by removing the pericarp from the seeds the positive effect of the sound on the germination disappeared.

  18. On the Perception of Speech Sounds as Biologically Significant Signals1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the major evidence and arguments currently available to support the view that human speech perception may require the use of specialized neural mechanisms for perceptual analysis. Experiments using synthetically produced speech signals with adults are briefly summarized and extensions of these results to infants and other organisms are reviewed with an emphasis towards detailing those aspects of speech perception that may require some need for specialized species-specific processors. Finally, some comments on the role of early experience in perceptual development are provided as an attempt to identify promising areas of new research in speech perception. PMID:399200

  19. Potyviruses differ in their requirement for TOR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouibrahim, Laurence; Rubio, Ana Giner; Moretti, André; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Menand, Benoît; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Caranta, Carole

    2015-09-01

    Potyviruses are important plant pathogens that rely on many plant cellular processes for successful infection. TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling is a key eukaryotic energy-signalling pathway controlling many cellular processes such as translation and autophagy. The dependence of potyviruses on active TOR signalling was examined. Arabidopsis lines downregulated for TOR by RNAi were challenged with the potyviruses watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). WMV accumulation was found to be severely altered while TuMV accumulation was only slightly delayed. In another approach, using AZD-8055, an active site inhibitor of the TOR kinase, WMV infection was found to be strongly affected. Moreover, AZD-8055 application can cure WMV infection. In contrast, TuMV infection was not affected by AZD-8055. This suggests that potyviruses have different cellular requirements for active plant TOR signalling.

  20. Estimating the seismotelluric current required for observable electromagnetic ground signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bortnik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We use a relatively simple model of an underground current source co-located with the earthquake hypocenter to estimate the magnitude of the seismotelluric current required to produce observable ground signatures. The Alum Rock earthquake of 31 October 2007, is used as an archetype of a typical California earthquake, and the effects of varying the ground conductivity and length of the current element are examined. Results show that for an observed 30 nT pulse at 1 Hz, the expected seismotelluric current magnitudes fall in the range ~10–100 kA. By setting the detectability threshold to 1 pT, we show that even when large values of ground conductivity are assumed, magnetic signals are readily detectable within a range of 30 km from the epicenter. When typical values of ground conductivity are assumed, the minimum current required to produce an observable signal within a 30 km range was found to be ~1 kA, which is a surprisingly low value. Furthermore, we show that deep nulls in the signal power develop in the non-cardinal directions relative to the orientation of the source current, indicating that a magnetometer station located in those regions may not observe a signal even though it is well within the detectable range. This result underscores the importance of using a network of magnetometers when searching for preseismic electromagnetic signals.

  1. Vibrotactile Identification of Signal-Processed Sounds from Environmental Events Presented by a Portable Vibrator: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different signal-processing algorithms for tactile identification of environmental sounds in a monitoring aid for the deafblind. Two men and three women, sensorineurally deaf or profoundly hearing impaired with experience of vibratory experiments, age 22-36 years. Methods: A closed set of 45 representative environmental sounds were processed using two transposing (TRHA, TR1/3 and three modulating algorithms (AM, AMFM, AMMC and presented as tactile stimuli using a portable vibrator in three experiments. The algorithms TRHA, TR1/3, AMFM and AMMC had two alternatives (with and without adaption to vibratory thresholds. In Exp. 1, the sounds were preprocessed and directly fed to the vibrator. In Exp. 2 and 3, the sounds were presented in an acoustic test room, without or with background noise (SNR=+5 dB, and processed in real time. Results: In Exp. 1, Algorithm AMFM and AMFM(A consistently had the lowest identification scores, and were thus excluded in Exp. 2 and 3. TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed comparable identification scores (30%-42% and the addition of noise did not deteriorate the performance. Discussion: Algorithm TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed good performance in all three experiments and were robust in noise they can therefore be used in further testing in real environments.

  2. Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

  3. Identification of Mobile Phone and Analysis of Original Version of Videos through a Delay Time Analysis of Sound Signals from Mobile Phone Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Min Gu; Har, Dong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics. Furthermore, the sound input signals for mobile phone videos used as legal evidence were analyzed to ascertain whether they have the unique characteristics of the original version. The objective of this study was to find a method for validating the use of mobile phone videos as legal evidence using mobile phones through differences in the delay times of sound input signals. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1720 - Policy Guidance; Minimum Safety and Soundness Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS Pt. 1720, App. A... effectively and to model the effect of differing interest rate scenarios on the Enterprise's financial... are implemented effectively, and that the Enterprise's organization structure and assignment of...

  5. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  6. Different Types of Sounds and Their Relationship With the Electrocardiographic Signals and the Cardiovascular System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio H. Idrobo-Ávila

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: For some time now, the effects of sound, noise, and music on the human body have been studied. However, despite research done through time, it is still not completely clear what influence, interaction, and effects sounds have on human body. That is why it is necessary to conduct new research on this topic. Thus, in this paper, a systematic review is undertaken in order to integrate research related to several types of sound, both pleasant and unpleasant, specifically noise and music. In addition, it includes as much research as possible to give stakeholders a more general vision about relevant elements regarding methodologies, study subjects, stimulus, analysis, and experimental designs in general. This study has been conducted in order to make a genuine contribution to this area and to perhaps to raise the quality of future research about sound and its effects over ECG signals.Methods: This review was carried out by independent researchers, through three search equations, in four different databases, including: engineering, medicine, and psychology. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and studies published between 1999 and 2017 were considered. The selected documents were read and analyzed independently by each group of researchers and subsequently conclusions were established between all of them.Results: Despite the differences between the outcomes of selected studies, some common factors were found among them. Thus, in noise studies where both BP and HR increased or tended to increase, it was noted that HRV (HF and LF/HF changes with both sound and noise stimuli, whereas GSR changes with sound and musical stimuli. Furthermore, LF also showed changes with exposure to noise.Conclusion: In many cases, samples displayed a limitation in experimental design, and in diverse studies, there was a lack of a control group. There was a lot of variability in the presented stimuli providing a wide overview of the effects they could

  7. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  8. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. What Types of Policies Are Required for a Constitutionally Sound, Efficient Educational System of Common Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Brecque, Richard

    This paper clarifies core concepts in a Kentucky judge's decision that the State General Assembly has failed to provide an efficient system of common schools. Connecting "efficiency" of educational systems to "equality of educational opportunity," the paper argues that the realization of a constitutionally sound, efficient…

  10. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... for such products. These inconsistent interpretations of the definitions may inadvertently result in... amplification products (PSAPs), as well as the regulatory controls that apply to each. This draft guidance is... of clarity regarding how the Agency defines a hearing aid versus a personal sound amplification...

  11. Signal Processing Implementation and Comparison of Automotive Spatial Sound Rendering Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai MingsianR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and implementation strategies of spatial sound rendering are investigated in this paper for automotive scenarios. Six design methods are implemented for various rendering modes with different number of passengers. Specifically, the downmixing algorithms aimed at balancing the front and back reproductions are developed for the 5.1-channel input. Other five algorithms based on inverse filtering are implemented in two approaches. The first approach utilizes binaural (Head-Related Transfer Functions HRTFs measured in the car interior, whereas the second approach named the point-receiver model targets a point receiver positioned at the center of the passenger's head. The proposed processing algorithms were compared via objective and subjective experiments under various listening conditions. Test data were processed by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA method and the least significant difference (Fisher's LSD method as a post hoc test to justify the statistical significance of the experimental data. The results indicate that inverse filtering algorithms are preferred for the single passenger mode. For the multipassenger mode, however, downmixing algorithms generally outperformed the other processing techniques.

  12. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  13. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  14. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic... car, (b) When points of a switch are not closed in proper position, (c) When an independently operated...

  15. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah smokers’ actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances (‘toxicants’ by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc. provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.. In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the ‘waterpipe’ antismoking literature since 2002 is based.

  16. WNT Signaling Is Required for Peritoneal Membrane Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwal, Manreet Kaur; Cheng, Genyang; Liu, Limin; Boivin, Felix J; Gangji, Azim; Brimble, Kenneth Scott; Bridgewater, Darren; Margetts, Peter J

    2018-01-24

    The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. In a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) mediated animal model of peritoneal fibrosis, we evaluated regulation of the WNT pathway and the effect of WNT inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis. WNT1 and WNT2 gene expression were positively correlated with peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. In the mouse peritoneum, TGFΒ-induced peritoneal fibrosis was associated with increased expression of WNT2 and WNT4. Peritoneal b-catenin protein was significantly upregulated after infection with AdTGFB along with elements of the WNT signaling pathway. Treatment with a b-catenin inhibitor (ICG-001) in mice with AdTGFB-induced peritoneal fibrosis resulted in attenuation of peritoneal angiogenesis and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor. Similar results were also observed with the WNT antagonist Dickkopf related protein (DKK) 1. In addition to this, DKK-1 blocked epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. We provide evidence that WNT signaling is active in the setting of experimental peritoneal fibrosis and WNT1 correlates with patient peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. Intervention in this pathway is a possible therapy for peritoneal membrane injury.

  17. The influence of signal parameters on the sound source localization ability of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Haan, D.de; Verboom, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear how well harbor porpoises can locate sound sources, and thus can locate acoustic alarms on gillnets. Therefore the ability of a porpoise to determine the location of a sound source was determined. The animal was trained to indicate the active one of 16 transducers in a 16-m -diam

  18. Meaning From Environmental Sounds: Types of Signal-Referent Relations and Their Effect on Recognizing Auditory Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Stevens, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which…

  19. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  20. Do Sound Public Finances Require Fiscal Rules Or Is Market Pressure Enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael; Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard

    This paper discusses the balance between market pressure and fiscal rules in order to keep public finances on a sustainable path. We provide empirical evidence on market assessments of sovereign default risk to economic news, announcements of national austerity programs, EU programs designed...... to support government finances, and banking fragility emanating from several countries in the euro area affected by the European sovereign debt crisis. We find that, in general, the quality of market signals is an insufficient indicator alone to accurately guide the conduct of fiscal policy, particularly...

  1. Vibrotactile Detection, Identification and Directional Perception of signal-Processed Sounds from Environmental Events: A Pilot Field Evaluation in Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Conducting field tests of a vibrotactile aid for deaf/deafblind persons for detection, identification and directional perception of environmental sounds. Methods: Five deaf (3F/2M, 22–36 years individuals tested the aid separately in a home environment (kitchen and in a traffic environment. Their eyes were blindfolded and they wore a headband and holding a vibrator for sound identification. In the headband, three microphones were mounted and two vibrators for signalling direction of the sound source. The sounds originated from events typical for the home environment and traffic. The subjects were inexperienced (events unknown and experienced (events known. They identified the events in a home and traffic environment, but perceived sound source direction only in traffic. Results: The detection scores were higher than 98% both in the home and in the traffic environment. In the home environment, identification scores varied between 25%-58% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 33%-83% when they were experienced. In traffic, identification scores varied between 20%-40% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 22%-56% when they were experienced. The directional perception scores varied between 30%-60% when inexperienced and between 61%-83% when experienced. Discussion: The vibratory aid consistently improved all participants’ detection, identification and directional perception ability.

  2. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  3. Two models of the sound-signal frequency dependence on the animal body size as exemplified by the ground squirrels of Eurasia (mammalia, rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skii, A A

    2017-11-01

    Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R 2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R 2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample). Thus, the problem of correlation between animal body size and the frequency of their vocal signals does not have a unique solution.

  4. Trkb signaling in pericytes is required for cardiac microvessel stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Anastasia

    Full Text Available Pericyte and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC recruitment to the developing vasculature is an important step in blood vessel maturation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, expressed by endothelial cells, activates the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB to stabilize the cardiac microvasculature in the perinatal period. However, the effects of the BDNF/TrkB signaling on pericytes/SMCs and the mechanisms downstream of TrkB that promote vessel maturation are unknown. To confirm the involvement of TrkB in vessel maturation, we evaluated TrkB deficient (trkb (-/- embryos and observed severe cardiac vascular abnormalities leading to lethality in late gestation to early prenatal life. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that trkb(-/- embryos exhibit defects in endothelial cell integrity and perivascular edema. As TrkB is selectively expressed by pericytes and SMCs in the developing cardiac vasculature, we generated mice deficient in TrkB in these cells. Mice with TrkB deficiency in perivascular cells exhibit reduced pericyte/SMC coverage of the cardiac microvasculature, abnormal endothelial cell ultrastructure, and increased vascular permeability. To dissect biological actions and the signaling pathways downstream of TrkB in pericytes/SMCs, human umbilical SMCs were treated with BDNF. This induced membranous protrusions and cell migration, events dependent on myosin light chain phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of Rho GTPase and the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK prevented membrane protrusion and myosin light chain phosphorylation in response to BDNF. These results suggest an important role for BDNF in regulating migration of TrkB-expressing pericytes/SMCs to promote cardiac blood vessel ensheathment and functional integrity during development.

  5. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  6. Neurotrophin Signaling Is Required for Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Jessica; Borden, Philip; Ceasrine, Alexis; Minichiello, Liliana; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2016-11-07

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic islet β cells is critical for glucose homeostasis, and a blunted β cell secretory response is an early deficit in type 2 diabetes. Here, we uncover a regulatory mechanism by which glucose recruits vascular-derived neurotrophins to control insulin secretion. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a classical trophic factor for nerve cells, is expressed in pancreatic vasculature while its TrkA receptor is localized to islet β cells. High glucose rapidly enhances NGF secretion and increases TrkA phosphorylation in mouse and human islets. Tissue-specific deletion of NGF or TrkA, or acute disruption of TrkA signaling, impairs glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in mice. We show that internalized TrkA receptors promote insulin granule exocytosis via F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, NGF treatment augments glucose-induced insulin secretion in human islets. These findings reveal a non-neuronal role for neurotrophins and identify a new regulatory pathway in insulin secretion that can be targeted to ameliorate β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  8. Noise Reduction in Breath Sound Files Using Wavelet Transform Based Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Situmeang, S. I. G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of science and technology in the field of healthcare increasingly provides convenience in diagnosing respiratory system problem. Recording the breath sounds is one example of these developments. Breath sounds are recorded using a digital stethoscope, and then stored in a file with sound format. This breath sounds will be analyzed by health practitioners to diagnose the symptoms of disease or illness. However, the breath sounds is not free from interference signals. Therefore, noise filter or signal interference reduction system is required so that breath sounds component which contains information signal can be clarified. In this study, we designed a filter called a wavelet transform based filter. The filter that is designed in this study is using Daubechies wavelet with four wavelet transform coefficients. Based on the testing of the ten types of breath sounds data, the data is obtained in the largest SNRdB bronchial for 74.3685 decibels.

  9. Stromal Indian hedgehog signaling is required for intestinal adenoma formation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Nikè V J A; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; Metcalfe, Ciara; Heijmans, Jarom; Van Dop, Willemijn A.; Fessler, Evelyn; Jansen, Marnix; Ahn, Christina; Vermeulen, Jacqueline L M; Westendorp, B. Florien; Robanus-Maandag, Els C.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Medema, Jan Paul; D'Haens, Geert R A M; Wildenberg, Manon E.; De Sauvage, Frederic J.; Muncan, Vanesa; Van Den Brink, Gijs R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indian hedgehog (IHH) is an epithelial-derived signal in the intestinal stroma, inducing factors that restrict epithelial proliferation and suppress activation of the immune system. In addition to these rapid effects of IHH signaling, IHH is required to maintain a stromal

  10. Stromal Indian hedgehog signaling is required for intestinal adenoma formation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; Metcalfe, Ciara; Heijmans, Jarom; van Dop, Willemijn A.; Fessler, Evelyn; Jansen, Marnix; Ahn, Christina; Vermeulen, Jacqueline L. M.; Westendorp, B. Florien; Robanus-Maandag, Els C.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Medema, Jan Paul; D'Haens, Geert R. A. M.; Wildenberg, Manon E.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2015-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (IHH) is an epithelial-derived signal in the intestinal stroma, inducing factors that restrict epithelial proliferation and suppress activation of the immune system. In addition to these rapid effects of IHH signaling, IHH is required to maintain a stromal phenotype in which

  11. Wnt signaling requires retromer-dependent recycling of MIG-14/Wntless in Wnt-producing cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.T.; Lorenowicz, M.J.; Silhankova, M.; Coudreuse, D.Y.M.; Betist, M.C.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt proteins are secreted signaling molecules that play a central role in development and adult tissue homeostasis. We have previously shown that Wnt signaling requires retromer function in Wnt-producing cells. The retromer is a multiprotein complex that mediates endosome-to-Golgi transport of

  12. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  13. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the ...

  14. Requirement of Dopamine Signaling in the Amygdala and Striatum for Learning and Maintenance of a Conditioned Avoidance Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, Martin; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-way active avoidance (2WAA) involves learning Pavlovian (association of a sound cue with a foot shock) and instrumental (shock avoidance) contingencies. To identify regions where dopamine (DA) is involved in mediating 2WAA, we restored DA signaling in specific brain areas of dopamine-deficient (DD) mice by local reactivation of conditionally…

  15. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  16. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  17. Studies on sound signal scattering from varying seabed sediments of the western continental shelf of India: Cochin to Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    A study on the interaction effect of the acoustic signal with three different sediment type seabottoms off the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore of the west coast of India is performed. Analyses by means of Probability Density Function (PDF...

  18. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct requirements for signal peptidase processing and function in the stable signal peptide subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H.

    2007-01-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GP-C) retains a cleaved and stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit of the mature complex. This 58-amino-acid residue peptide serves as a signal sequence and is additionally required to enable transit of the assembled GP-C complex to the Golgi, and for pH-dependent membrane fusion activity. We have investigated the C-terminal region of the Junin virus SSP to study the role of the cellular signal peptidase (SPase) in generating SSP. Site-directed mutagenesis at the cleavage site (positions - 1 and - 3) reveals a pattern of side-chain preferences consistent with those of SPase. Although position - 2 is degenerate for SPase cleavage, this residue in the arenavirus SSP is invariably a cysteine. In the Junin virus, this cysteine is not involved in disulfide bonding. We show that replacement with alanine or serine is tolerated for SPase cleavage but prevents the mutant SSP from associating with GP-C and enabling transport to the cell surface. Conversely, an arginine mutation at position - 1 that prevents SPase cleavage is fully compatible with GP-C-mediated membrane fusion activity when the mutant SSP is provided in trans. These results point to distinct roles of SSP sequences in SPase cleavage and GP-C biogenesis. Further studies of the unique structural organization of the GP-C complex will be important in identifying novel opportunities for antiviral intervention against arenaviral hemorrhagic disease

  20. Requirement for nuclear calcium signaling in Drosophila long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Bengtson, C Peter; Müller, Michaela K; Hörtzsch, Jan N; Bujard, Martina; Schuster, Christoph M; Bading, Hilmar

    2013-05-07

    Calcium is used throughout evolution as an intracellular signal transducer. In the mammalian central nervous system, calcium mediates the dialogue between the synapse and the nucleus that is required for transcription-dependent persistent neuronal adaptations. A role for nuclear calcium signaling in similar processes in the invertebrate brain has yet to be investigated. Here, we show by in vivo calcium imaging of adult brain neurons of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, that electrical foot shocks used in olfactory avoidance conditioning evoked transient increases in cytosolic and nuclear calcium concentrations in neurons. These calcium signals were detected in Kenyon cells of the flies' mushroom bodies, which are sites of learning and memory related to smell. Acute blockade of nuclear calcium signaling during conditioning selectively and reversibly abolished the formation of long-term olfactory avoidance memory, whereas short-term, middle-term, or anesthesia-resistant olfactory memory remained unaffected. Thus, nuclear calcium signaling is required in flies for the progression of memories from labile to transcription-dependent long-lasting forms. These results identify nuclear calcium as an evolutionarily conserved signal needed in both invertebrate and vertebrate brains for transcription-dependent memory consolidation.

  1. Vectorial signalling mechanism required for cell-cell communication during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Veronica; Schujman, Gustavo E; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; de Mendoza, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis takes place in a sporangium consisting of two chambers, the forespore and the mother cell, which are linked by pathways of cell-cell communication. One pathway, which couples the proteolytic activation of the mother cell transcription factor σ(E) to the action of a forespore synthesized signal molecule, SpoIIR, has remained enigmatic. Signalling by SpoIIR requires the protein to be exported to the intermembrane space between forespore and mother cell, where it will interact with and activate the integral membrane protease SpoIIGA. Here we show that SpoIIR signal activity as well as the cleavage of its N-terminal extension is strictly dependent on the prespore fatty acid biosynthetic machinery. We also report that a conserved threonine residue (T27) in SpoIIR is required for processing, suggesting that signalling of SpoIIR is dependent on fatty acid synthesis probably because of acylation of T27. In addition, SpoIIR localization in the forespore septal membrane depends on the presence of SpoIIGA. The orchestration of σ(E) activation in the intercellular space by an acylated signal protein provides a new paradigm to ensure local transmission of a weak signal across the bilayer to control cell-cell communication during development. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  3. Statistical Signal Processing by Using the Higher-Order Correlation between Sound and Vibration and Its Application to Fault Detection of Rotational Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Masuike

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a stochastic diagnosis method based on the changing information of not only a linear correlation but also a higher-order nonlinear correlation is proposed in a form suitable for online signal processing in time domain by using a personal computer, especially in order to find minutely the mutual relationship between sound and vibration emitted from rotational machines. More specifically, a conditional probability hierarchically reflecting various types of correlation information is theoretically derived by introducing an expression on the multidimensional probability distribution in orthogonal expansion series form. The effectiveness of the proposed theory is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data emitted from a rotational machine driven by an electric motor.

  4. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    1993-01-01

    measures were calculated from changes of the amplitude functions (i.e., envelopes) of the degraded songs using a new technique which allowed a compensation for the contribution of the background noise to the amplitude values. Representative songs were broadcast in a deciduous forest without leaves......The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  6. Efficient visual search from synchronized auditory signals requires transient audiovisual events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Burg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A prevailing view is that audiovisual integration requires temporally coincident signals. However, a recent study failed to find any evidence for audiovisual integration in visual search even when using synchronized audiovisual events. An important question is what information is critical to observe audiovisual integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that temporal coincidence (i.e., synchrony of auditory and visual components can trigger audiovisual interaction in cluttered displays and consequently produce very fast and efficient target identification. In visual search experiments, subjects found a modulating visual target vastly more efficiently when it was paired with a synchronous auditory signal. By manipulating the kind of temporal modulation (sine wave vs. square wave vs. difference wave; harmonic sine-wave synthesis; gradient of onset/offset ramps we show that abrupt visual events are required for this search efficiency to occur, and that sinusoidal audiovisual modulations do not support efficient search. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, audiovisual temporal alignment will only lead to benefits in visual search if the changes in the component signals are both synchronized and transient. We propose that transient signals are necessary in synchrony-driven binding to avoid spurious interactions with unrelated signals when these occur close together in time.

  7. Layer specific and general requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in the developing neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Larsen, Rylan S; Bjorklund, George Reed; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaohong; Philpot, Benjamin D; Snider, William D; Newbern, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK (ERK/MAPK) pathway causes pathology in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders known as 'RASopathies' and is implicated in autism pathogenesis. Here, we have determined the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in developing neocortical excitatory neurons. Our data reveal a critical requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling in the morphological development and survival of large Ctip2+ neurons in layer 5. Loss of Map2k1/2 (Mek1/2) led to deficits in corticospinal tract formation and subsequent corticospinal neuron apoptosis. ERK/MAPK hyperactivation also led to reduced corticospinal axon elongation, but was associated with enhanced arborization. ERK/MAPK signaling was dispensable for axonal outgrowth of layer 2/3 callosal neurons. However, Map2k1/2 deletion led to reduced expression of Arc and enhanced intrinsic excitability in both layers 2/3 and 5, in addition to imbalanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. These data demonstrate selective requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in layer 5 circuit development and general effects on cortical pyramidal neuron excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11123.001 PMID:26848828

  8. SNMP is a signaling component required for pheromone sensitivity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Ha, Tal Soo; Smith, Dean P

    2008-08-05

    The only known volatile pheromone in Drosophila, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), mediates a variety of behaviors including aggregation, mate recognition, and sexual behavior. cVA is detected by a small set of olfactory neurons located in T1 trichoid sensilla on the antennae of males and females. Two components known to be required for cVA reception are the odorant receptor Or67d and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein LUSH. Using a genetic screen for cVA-insensitive mutants, we have identified a third component required for cVA reception: sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP). SNMP is a homolog of CD36, a scavenger receptor important for lipoprotein binding and uptake of cholesterol and lipids in vertebrates. In humans, loss of CD36 is linked to a wide range of disorders including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, but how CD36 functions in lipid transport and signal transduction is poorly understood. We show that SNMP is required in pheromone-sensitive neurons for cVA sensitivity but is not required for sensitivity to general odorants. Using antiserum to SNMP infused directly into the sensillum lymph, we show that SNMP function is required on the dendrites of cVA-sensitive neurons; this finding is consistent with a direct role in cVA signal transduction. Therefore, pheromone perception in Drosophila should serve as an excellent model to elucidate the role of CD36 members in transmembrane signaling.

  9. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE, which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia 12. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1 for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1. Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to

  11. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  12. Sound response of superheated drop bubble detectors to neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Size; Chen Zhe; Liu Chao; Ni Bangfa; Zhang Guiying; Zhao Changfa; Xiao Caijin; Liu Cunxiong; Nie Peng; Guan Yongjing

    2012-01-01

    The sound response of the bubble detectors to neutrons by using 252 Cf neutron source was described. Sound signals were filtered by sound card and PC. The short-time signal energy. FFT spectrum, power spectrum, and decay time constant were got to determine the authenticity of sound signal for bubbles. (authors)

  13. Extraocular muscle regeneration in zebrafish requires late signals from Insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Louie, Ke'ale W; Sha, Cuilee; Kelly, Ryan M; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration. Zebrafish EOMs regeneration depends on myocyte dedifferentiation, which is driven by early epigenetic reprogramming and requires autophagy activation and cell cycle reentry. Inhibition of Igf signaling had no effect on either autophagy activation or cell proliferation, indicating that Igf signaling was not involved in the early reprogramming steps of regeneration. Instead, blocking Igf signaling produced hypercellularity of regenerating EOMs and diminished myosin expression, resulting in lack of mature differentiated muscle fibers even many days after injury, indicating that Igf was involved in late re-differentiation steps. Although it is considered the main mediator of myogenic Igf actions, Akt activation decreased in regenerating EOMs, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways mediate Igf activity in muscle regeneration. In conclusion, Igf signaling is critical for re-differentiation of reprogrammed myoblasts during late steps of zebrafish EOM regeneration, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for determining regenerated muscle size and timing of differentiation, and a potential target for regenerative therapy.

  14. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly ...

  15. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  16. ER Alpha Rapid Signaling Is Required for Estrogen Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    Full Text Available Estrogen promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs, which likely underlies its ability to accelerate re-endothelialization and reduce adverse remodeling after vascular injury. In previous studies, we have shown that the protective effects of E2 (the active endogenous form of estrogen in vascular injury require the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. ERα transduces the effects of estrogen via a classical DNA binding, "genomic" signaling pathway and via a more recently-described "rapid" signaling pathway that is mediated by a subset of ERα localized to the cell membrane. However, which of these pathways mediates the effects of estrogen on endothelial cells is poorly understood. Here we identify a triple point mutant version of ERα (KRR ERα that is specifically defective in rapid signaling, but is competent to regulate transcription through the "genomic" pathway. We find that in ECs expressing wild type ERα, E2 regulates many genes involved in cell migration and proliferation, promotes EC migration and proliferation, and also blocks the adhesion of monocytes to ECs. ECs expressing KRR mutant ERα, however, lack all of these responses. These observations establish KRR ERα as a novel tool that could greatly facilitate future studies into the vascular and non-vascular functions of ERα rapid signaling. Further, they support that rapid signaling through ERα is essential for many of the transcriptional and physiological responses of ECs to E2, and that ERα rapid signaling in ECs, in vivo, may be critical for the vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen.

  17. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  18. Refining Lane-Based Traffic Signal Settings to Satisfy Spatial Lane Length Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional lane-based signal optimization models, lane markings guiding road users in making turns are optimized with traffic signal settings in a unified framework to maximize the overall intersection capacity or minimize the total delay. The spatial queue requirements of road lanes should be considered to avoid overdesigns of green durations. Point queue system adopted in the conventional lane-based framework causes overflow in practice. Based on the optimization results from the original lane-based designs, a refinement is proposed to enhance the lane-based settings to ensure that spatial holding limits of the approaching traffic lanes are not exceeded. A solution heuristic is developed to modify the green start times, green durations, and cycle length by considering the vehicle queuing patterns and physical holding capacities along the approaching traffic lanes. To show the effectiveness of this traffic signal refinement, a case study of one of the busiest and most complicated intersections in Hong Kong is given for demonstration. A site survey was conducted to collect existing traffic demand patterns and existing traffic signal settings in peak periods. Results show that the proposed refinement method is effective to ensure that all vehicle queue lengths satisfy spatial lane capacity limits, including short lanes, for daily operation.

  19. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  20. Inverting Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) touchdown signals to measure the elastic modulus of comet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.

    2014-07-01

    carried out on the concrete floor of the LAMA to determine the stiffness of the landing gear based on the deceleration data measured with the accelerometer. Landings on fine-grained quartz sand and on a Mars soil simulant (brand names WF34 and MSS-D, respectively) allow quantifying the changes of the deceleration data due to interaction with the soil. The elastic moduli of the soils that were inverted from the accelerometer data agree well with data obtained by ultrasonic time-of-flight measurements, provided an effective contact area is used. To this end, the lander structure was viewed in a simplified way as a mass-spring-damper system coupled to the soil by a contact spring, whose stiffness is determined by elastic moduli of the soil and the contact radius. Analytical expressions allow a rapid inversion of the deceleration data to obtain elastic data. It is expected that the same procedure can be applied to the signal measured when landing on comet 67P.

  1. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  2. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  3. Notch signaling activation in human embryonic stem cells is required for embryonic but not trophoblastic lineage commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaobing; Zou, Jizhong; Ye, Zhaohui; Hammond, Holly; Chen, Guibin; Tokunaga, Akinori; Mali, Prashant; Li, Yue-Ming; Civin, Curt; Gaiano, Nicholas; Cheng, Linzhao

    2008-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in cell fate determination during embryonic development and adult life. In this study, we focus on the role of Notch signaling in governing cell fate choices in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we achieved both blockade and conditional activation of Notch signaling in several hES cell lines. We report here that activation of Notch signaling is required for undifferentiated hES cells to form the pr...

  4. Filamin and phospholipase C-ε are required for calcium signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Kovacevic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a myoepithelial tube that stores sperm and undergoes cycles of stretching and constriction as oocytes enter, are fertilized, and exit into the uterus. FLN-1/filamin, a stretch-sensitive structural and signaling scaffold, and PLC-1/phospholipase C-ε, an enzyme that generates the second messenger IP3, are required for embryos to exit normally after fertilization. Using GCaMP, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that entry of an oocyte into the spermatheca initiates a distinctive series of IP3-dependent calcium oscillations that propagate across the tissue via gap junctions and lead to constriction of the spermatheca. PLC-1 is required for the calcium release mechanism triggered by oocyte entry, and FLN-1 is required for timely initiation of the calcium oscillations. INX-12, a gap junction subunit, coordinates propagation of the calcium transients across the spermatheca. Gain-of-function mutations in ITR-1/IP3R, an IP3-dependent calcium channel, and loss-of-function mutations in LFE-2, a negative regulator of IP3 signaling, increase calcium release and suppress the exit defect in filamin-deficient animals. We further demonstrate that a regulatory cassette consisting of MEL-11/myosin phosphatase and NMY-1/non-muscle myosin is required for coordinated contraction of the spermatheca. In summary, this study answers long-standing questions concerning calcium signaling dynamics in the C. elegans spermatheca and suggests FLN-1 is needed in response to oocyte entry to trigger calcium release and coordinated contraction of the spermathecal tissue.

  5. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  6. Domain requirements for the Dock adapter protein in growth- cone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y; Zipursky, S L

    1998-03-03

    Tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in growth-cone guidance through genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological studies. Adapter proteins containing src homology 2 (SH2) domains and src homology 3 (SH3) domains provide a means of linking guidance signaling through phosphotyrosine to downstream effectors regulating growth-cone motility. The Drosophila adapter, Dreadlocks (Dock), the homolog of mammalian Nck containing three N-terminal SH3 domains and a single SH2 domain, is highly specialized for growth-cone guidance. In this paper, we demonstrate that Dock can couple signals in either an SH2-dependent or an SH2-independent fashion in photoreceptor (R cell) growth cones, and that Dock displays different domain requirements in different neurons.

  7. A cell-cell signaling sensor is required for virulence and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Wistrom, Christina; Lindow, Steven E

    2008-02-19

    Cell-cell signaling in Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, mediated by a fatty acid Diffusible Signaling Factor (DSF), is required to colonize insect vectors and to suppress virulence to grape. Here, we show that a hybrid two-component regulatory protein RpfC is involved in negative regulation of DSF synthesis by RpfF in X. fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa rpfC mutants hyperexpress rpfF and overproduce DSF and are deficient in virulence and movement in the xylem vessels of grape. The expression of the genes encoding the adhesins FimA, HxfA, and HxfB is much higher in rpfC mutants, which also exhibit a hyperattachment phenotype in culture that is associated with their inability to migrate in xylem vessels and cause disease. rpfF mutants deficient in DSF production have the opposite phenotypes for all of these traits. RpfC is also involved in the regulation of other signaling components including rpfG, rpfB, a GGDEF domain protein that may be involved in intracellular signaling by modulating the levels of cyclic-di-GMP, and the virulence factors tolC and pglA required for disease. rpfC mutants are able to colonize the mouthparts of insect vectors and wild-type strains but are not transmitted as efficiently to new host plants, apparently because of their high levels of adhesiveness. Because of the conflicting contributions of adhesiveness and other traits to movement within plants and vectoring to new host plants, X. fastidiosa apparently coordinates these traits in a population-size-dependent fashion involving accumulation of DSF.

  8. Dll1- and Dll4-mediated Notch signaling is required for homeostasis of intestinal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinet, Luca; Rodilla, Veronica; Liu, Zhenyi; Chen, Shuang; Koch, Ute; Espinosa, Lluis; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Kopan, Raphael; Lewis, Julian; Radtke, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Ablation of Notch signaling within the intestinal epithelium results in loss of proliferating crypt progenitors, due to their conversion into post-mitotic secretory cells. We aimed to confirm that Notch was active in stem cells (SC), investigate consequences of loss of Notch signaling within the intestinal SC compartment, and identify the physiological ligands of Notch in mouse intestine. Furthermore, we investigated whether the induction of goblet cell differentiation that results from loss of Notch requires the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). Methods Trasgenic mice that carried a reporter of Notch1 activation were used for lineage tracing experiments. The in vivo functions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 (Jag1), Delta-like1 (Dll1), Delta-like4 (Dll4), and the transcription factor Klf4 were assessed in mice with inducible, gut-specific gene targeting (Vil-Cre-ERT2). Results Notch1 signaling was found to be activated in intestinal SC. Although deletion of Jag1 or Dll4 did not perturb the intestinal epithelium, inactivation of Dll1 resulted in a moderate increase in number of goblet cells without noticeable effects of progenitor proliferation. However, simultaneous inactivation of Dll1 and Dll4 resulted in the complete conversion of proliferating progenitors into post-mitotic goblet cells, concomitant with loss of SC (Olfm4+, Lgr5+ and Ascl2+). Klf4 inactivation did not interfere with goblet cell differentiation in adult wild-type or in Notch pathway-deficient gut. Conclusions Notch signaling in SC and progenitors is activated by Dll1 and Dll4 ligands and is required for maintenance of intestinal progenitor and SC. Klf4 is dispensable for goblet cell differentiation in intestines of adult Notch-deficient mice. PMID:21238454

  9. Dll1- and dll4-mediated notch signaling are required for homeostasis of intestinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinet, Luca; Rodilla, Veronica; Liu, Zhenyi; Chen, Shuang; Koch, Ute; Espinosa, Lluis; Kaestner, Klaus H; Kopan, Raphael; Lewis, Julian; Radtke, Freddy

    2011-04-01

    Ablation of Notch signaling within the intestinal epithelium results in loss of proliferating crypt progenitors due to their conversion into postmitotic secretory cells. We aimed to confirm that Notch was active in stem cells (SCs), investigate consequences of loss of Notch signaling within the intestinal SC compartment, and identify the physiologic ligands of Notch in mouse intestine. Furthermore, we investigated whether the induction of goblet cell differentiation that results from loss of Notch requires the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). Transgenic mice that carried a reporter of Notch1 activation were used for lineage tracing experiments. The in vivo functions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 (Jag1), Delta-like1 (Dll1), Delta-like4 (Dll4), and the transcription factor Klf4 were assessed in mice with inducible, gut-specific gene targeting (Vil-Cre-ER(T2)). Notch1 signaling was found to be activated in intestinal SCs. Although deletion of Jag1 or Dll4 did not perturb the intestinal epithelium, inactivation of Dll1 resulted in a moderate increase in number of goblet cells without noticeable effects of progenitor proliferation. However, simultaneous inactivation of Dll1 and Dll4 resulted in the complete conversion of proliferating progenitors into postmitotic goblet cells, concomitant with loss of SCs (Olfm4(+), Lgr5(+), and Ascl2(+)). Klf4 inactivation did not interfere with goblet cell differentiation in adult wild-type or in Notch pathway-deficient gut. Notch signaling in SCs and progenitors is activated by Dll1 and Dll4 ligands and is required for maintenance of intestinal progenitor and SCs. Klf4 is dispensable for goblet cell differentiation in intestines of adult Notch-deficient mice. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fanxin; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke; McMahon, Jill; Kronenberg, Henry M; McMahon, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is indispensable for development of the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton. In order to determine whether Ihh is directly required for osteoblast differentiation, we have genetically manipulated smoothened (Smo), which encodes a transmembrane protein that is essential for transducing all Hedgehog (Hh) signals. Removal of Smo from perichondrial cells by the Cre-LoxP approach prevents formation of a normal bone collar and also abolishes development of the primary spongiosa. Analysis of chimeric embryos composed of wild-type and Smo(n/n) cells indicates that Smo(n/n) cells fail to contribute to osteoblasts in either the bone collar or the primary spongiosa but generate ectopic chondrocytes. In order to assess whether Ihh is sufficient to induce bone formation in vivo, we have analyzed the bone collar in the long bones of embryos in which Ihh was artificially expressed in all chondrocytes by the UAS-GAL4 bigenic system. Although ectopic Ihh does not induce overt ossification along the entire cartilage anlage, it promotes progression of the bone collar toward the epiphysis, suggesting a synergistic effect between ectopic Ihh and endogenous factors such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In keeping with this model, Hh signaling is further found to be required in BMP-induced osteogenesis in cultures of a limb-bud cell line. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the developing long bones and that Ihh functions in conjunction with other factors such as BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation. We suggest that Ihh acts in vivo on a potential progenitor cell to promote osteoblast and prevent chondrocyte differentiation.

  11. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  14. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  15. Sox11 is required to maintain proper levels of Hedgehog signaling during vertebrate ocular morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Pillai-Kastoori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine. We further demonstrate that the elevated Hedgehog signaling in Sox11-deficient zebrafish was caused by a large increase in shha transcription; indeed, suppressing Shha expression rescued the ocular phenotypes of sox11 morphants. Conversely, over-expression of sox11 induced cyclopia, a phenotype consistent with reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog. We screened DNA samples from 79 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC and identified two novel heterozygous SOX11 variants in individuals with coloboma. In contrast to wild type human SOX11 mRNA, mRNA containing either variant failed to rescue the lens and coloboma phenotypes of Sox11-deficient zebrafish, and both exhibited significantly reduced transactivation ability in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, decreased gene dosage from a segmental deletion encompassing the SOX11 locus resulted in microphthalmia and related ocular phenotypes. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role for Sox11 in controlling Hedgehog signaling, and suggests that SOX11 variants contribute to pediatric eye disorders.

  16. Insulin signaling is acutely required for long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Daniel B; Androschuk, Alaura; Rosenfelt, Cory; Langer, Steven; Harding, Mark; Bolduc, Francois V

    2015-01-01

    Memory formation has been shown recently to be dependent on energy status in Drosophila. A well-established energy sensor is the insulin signaling (InS) pathway. Previous studies in various animal models including human have revealed the role of insulin levels in short-term memory but its role in long-term memory remains less clear. We therefore investigated genetically the spatial and temporal role of InS using the olfactory learning and long-term memory model in Drosophila. We found that InS is involved in both learning and memory. InS in the mushroom body is required for learning and long-term memory whereas long-term memory specifically is impaired after InS signaling disruption in the ellipsoid body, where it regulates the level of p70s6k, a downstream target of InS and a marker of protein synthesis. Finally, we show also that InS is acutely required for long-term memory formation in adult flies.

  17. Curcumin Requires Tumor Necrosis Factor α Signaling to Alleviate Cognitive Impairment Elicited by Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Kawamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A decline in cognitive ability is a typical feature of the normal aging process, and of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Although their etiologies differ, all of these disorders involve local activation of innate immune pathways and associated inflammatory cytokines. However, clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents in neurodegenerative disorders have been disappointing, and it is therefore necessary to better understand the complex roles of the inflammatory process in neurological dysfunction. The dietary phytochemical curcumin can exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. Here we provide evidence that curcumin ameliorates cognitive deficits associated with activation of the innate immune response by mechanisms requiring functional tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 (TNFR2 signaling. In vivo, the ability of curcumin to counteract hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, to stimulate neuroprotective mechanisms such as upregulation of BDNF, to decrease glutaminase levels, and to modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor levels was absent in mice lacking functional TNFRs. Curcumin treatment protected cultured neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by a mechanism requiring TNFR2 activation. Our results suggest the possibility that therapeutic approaches against cognitive decline designed to selectively enhance TNFR2 signaling are likely to be more beneficial than the use of anti-inflammatory drugs per se.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  19. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  20. Drosophila Nociceptive Sensitization Requires BMP Signaling via the Canonical SMAD Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Taylor L; Gjelsvik, Kayla J; Brann, Courtney L; McParland, Aidan L; Longhurst, Colin A; Galko, Michael J; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2017-08-30

    Nociceptive sensitization is a common feature in chronic pain, but its basic cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The present study used the Drosophila melanogaster model system and a candidate gene approach to identify novel components required for modulation of an injury-induced nociceptive sensitization pathway presumably downstream of Hedgehog. This study demonstrates that RNAi silencing of a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), specifically in the Class IV multidendritic nociceptive neuron, significantly attenuated ultraviolet injury-induced sensitization. Furthermore, overexpression of Dpp in Class IV neurons was sufficient to induce thermal hypersensitivity in the absence of injury. The requirement of various BMP receptors and members of the SMAD signal transduction pathway in nociceptive sensitization was also demonstrated. The effects of BMP signaling were shown to be largely specific to the sensitization pathway and not associated with changes in nociception in the absence of injury or with changes in dendritic morphology. Thus, the results demonstrate that Dpp and its pathway play a crucial and novel role in nociceptive sensitization. Because the BMP family is so strongly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, it seems likely that the components analyzed in this study represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pain in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report provides a genetic analysis of primary nociceptive neuron mechanisms that promote sensitization in response to injury. Drosophila melanogaster larvae whose primary nociceptive neurons were reduced in levels of specific components of the BMP signaling pathway, were injured and then tested for nocifensive responses to a normally subnoxious stimulus. Results suggest that nociceptive neurons use the BMP2/4 ligand, along with identified receptors and intracellular transducers to transition to a

  1. Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Sato

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility.

  2. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    scientists with that of numerical mathematicians studying sonification, psychologists, linguists, bioacousticians, and musicians to illuminate the structure of sound from different angles. Each of these disciplines deals with the use of sound to carry a different sort of information, under different requirements and constraints. By combining their insights, we can learn to understand of the structure of sound in general.

  3. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  4. Functional requirements for inhibitory signal transmission by the immunomodulatory receptor CD300a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E; Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Mariano, John L; Borrego, Francisco

    2012-04-26

    Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes. We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity. These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.

  5. Leptin signaling in GABA neurons, but not glutamate neurons, is required for reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, Wieteke A; Roberts, Amy L; Quennell, Janette H; Anderson, Greg M

    2013-11-06

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to modulate the central driver of fertility: the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. This effect is indirect, as GnRH neurons do not express leptin receptors (LEPRs). Here we test whether GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons provide the intermediate pathway between the site of leptin action and the GnRH neurons. Leptin receptors were deleted from GABA and glutamate neurons using Cre-Lox transgenics, and the downstream effects on puberty onset and reproduction were examined. Both mouse lines displayed the expected increase in body weight and region-specific loss of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. The GABA neuron-specific LEPR knock-out females and males showed significantly delayed puberty onset. Adult fertility observations revealed that these knock-out animals have decreased fecundity. In contrast, glutamate neuron-specific LEPR knock-out mice displayed normal fertility. Assessment of the estrogenic hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation in females showed that leptin action on GABA neurons is not necessary for estradiol-mediated suppression of tonic luteinizing hormone secretion (an indirect measure of GnRH neuron activity) but is required for regulation of a full preovulatory-like luteinizing hormone surge. In conclusion, leptin signaling in GABAergic (but not glutamatergic neurons) plays a critical role in the timing of puberty onset and is involved in fertility regulation throughout adulthood in both sexes. These results form an important step in explaining the role of central leptin signaling in the reproductive system. Limiting the leptin-to-GnRH mediators to GABAergic cells will enable future research to focus on a few specific types of neurons.

  6. CD25 and CD69 induction by α4β1 outside-in signalling requires TCR early signalling complex proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimo, Ann-Marie; Ahmed, Zamal; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Ladbury, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Distinct signalling pathways producing diverse cellular outcomes can utilize similar subsets of proteins. For example, proteins from the TCR (T-cell receptor) ESC (early signalling complex) are also involved in interferon-α receptor signalling. Defining the mechanism for how these proteins function within a given pathway is important in understanding the integration and communication of signalling networks with one another. We investigated the contributions of the TCR ESC proteins Lck (lymphocyte-specific kinase), ZAP-70 (ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa), Vav1, SLP-76 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa] and LAT (linker for activation of T-cells) to integrin outside-in signalling in human T-cells. Lck, ZAP-70, SLP-76, Vav1 and LAT were activated by α4β1 outside-in signalling, but in a manner different from TCR signalling. TCR stimulation recruits ESC proteins to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase). α4β1 outside-in-mediated ERK activation did not require TCR ESC proteins. However, α4β1 outside-in signalling induced CD25 and co-stimulated CD69 and this was dependent on TCR ESC proteins. TCR and α4β1 outside-in signalling are integrated through the common use of TCR ESC proteins; however, these proteins display functionally distinct roles in these pathways. These novel insights into the cross-talk between integrin outside-in and TCR signalling pathways are highly relevant to the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome disease associated with T-cell deregulation. PMID:23758320

  7. Different requirements for GFRα2-signaling in three populations of cutaneous sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, Jussi; Airaksinen, Matti S

    2014-01-01

    Many primary sensory neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) express one or several GFRα's, the ligand-binding receptors of the GDNF family, and their common signaling receptor Ret. GFRα2, the principal receptor for neurturin, is expressed in most of the small nonpeptidergic DRG neurons, but also in some large DRG neurons that start to express Ret earlier. Previously, GFRα2 has been shown to be crucial for the soma size of small nonpeptidergic nociceptors and for their target innervation of glabrous epidermis. However, little is known about this receptor in other Ret-expressing DRG neuron populations. Here we have investigated two populations of Ret-positive low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate different types of hair follicles on mouse back skin: the small C-LTMRs and the large Aβ-LTMRs. Using GFRα2-KO mice and immunohistochemistry we found that, similar to the nonpeptidergic nociceptors, GFRα2 controls the cell size but not the survival of both C-LTMRs and Aβ-LTMRs. In contrast to the nonpeptidergic neurons, GFRα2 is not required for the target innervation of C-LTMRs and Aβ-LTMRs in the back skin. These results suggest that different factors drive target innervation in these three populations of neurons. In addition, the observation that the large Ret-positive DRG neurons lack GFRα2 immunoreactivity in mature animals suggests that these neurons switch their GFRα signaling pathways during postnatal development.

  8. Tyrosine 769 of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor is required for receptor signaling but not endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceridono, Mara; Belleudi, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Simona; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on epithelial cells which belongs to the family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Following ligand binding, KGFR is rapidly autophosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain, recruits substrate proteins, and is rapidly internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The role of different autophosphorylation sites in FGFRs, and in particular the role of the tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, first identified as PLCγ binding site, has been extensively studied. We analyzed here the possible role of the tyrosine 769 in KGFR, corresponding to tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, in the regulation of KGFR signal transduction and MAPK activation as well as in the control of the endocytic process of KGFR. A mutant KGFR in which tyrosine 769 was substituted by phenylalanine was generated and transfected in NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Our results indicate that tyrosine 769 is required for the binding to KGFR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ as well as for the full activation of MAPKs and for cell proliferation through the regulation of FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that this residue represents a key regulator of KGFR signal transduction. Our data also show that tyrosine 769 is not involved in the regulation of the endocytic process of KGFR

  9. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  10. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Induction of functional Fc receptors in P388 leukemia cells. Requirement for multiple differentiation signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Stotelmyer, N L; Kaplan, A M

    1985-04-01

    The development of functional Fc receptors (FcR) during induced differentiation with the tumor promoter, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), was studied in the murine tumor cell line, P388. PMA induced the appearance of FcR on the membranes of P388 cells as indicated by the binding of IgG-coated sheep red blood cells (IgG-SRBC). Concentrations of PMA as low as 1 ng/ml were sufficient to induce the expression of FcR as well as to inhibit cellular division and to induce adherence in the P388 tumor cell line; however, optimal FcR induction occurred at PMA concentrations of 10-100 ng/ml. Immunofluorescent analysis with heat-aggregated myeloma proteins indicated that PMA induced FcR which were capable of binding IgG2a and IgG2b immunoglobulins, but not IgG1. Adherence to a substratum was determined to be a second required signal for expression of FcR, since PMA induction of P388 tumor cells in teflon dishes failed to fully develop FcR and adherence of P388 cells to poly-L-lysine-coated culture dishes in the absence of PMA was insufficient for FcR expression. FcR which appeared after PMA induction were non-functional in the sense that membrane-bound IgG-SRBC were not ingested to any significant extent by the tumor cells. However, if FcR induction occurred in the presence conA-induced rat spleen cell culture supernatants, phagocytosis of membrane-bound erythrocytes occurred. These findings suggest that for the expression of FcR which are capable of particle internalization, at least three identifiable membrane-transmitted signals are required during differentiation.

  12. Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.

  13. Recognition of secretory proteins in Escherichia coli requires signals in addition to the signal sequence and slow folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flower Ann M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sec-dependent protein export apparatus of Escherichia coli is very efficient at correctly identifying proteins to be exported from the cytoplasm. Even bacterial strains that carry prl mutations, which allow export of signal sequence-defective precursors, accurately differentiate between cytoplasmic and mutant secretory proteins. It was proposed previously that the basis for this precise discrimination is the slow folding rate of secretory proteins, resulting in binding by the secretory chaperone, SecB, and subsequent targeting to translocase. Based on this proposal, we hypothesized that a cytoplasmic protein containing a mutation that slows its rate of folding would be recognized by SecB and therefore targeted to the Sec pathway. In a Prl suppressor strain the mutant protein would be exported to the periplasm due to loss of ability to reject non-secretory proteins from the pathway. Results In the current work, we tested this hypothesis using a mutant form of λ repressor that folds slowly. No export of the mutant protein was observed, even in a prl strain. We then examined binding of the mutant λ repressor to SecB. We did not observe interaction by either of two assays, indicating that slow folding is not sufficient for SecB binding and targeting to translocase. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that to be targeted to the export pathway, secretory proteins contain signals in addition to the canonical signal sequence and the rate of folding.

  14. Efficient Maturation and Cytokine Production of Neonatal DCs Requires Combined Proinflammatory Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Krumbiegel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs have been suspected as being responsible for the impaired specific immune responses observed in human neonates. To analyze stimulatory requirements for the critical transition from immature, antigen-processing DCs to mature, antigen-presenting DCs, we investigated the effect of different proinflammatory mediators and antigens on phenotype and cytokine secretion of human neonatal DCs derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs. Whereas single proinflammatory mediators were unable to induce the maturation of neonatal DCs, various combinations of IFNγ, CD40L, TNFα, LPS and antigens, induced the maturation of neonatal DCs documented by up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD83 and CD86. Combinations of proinflammatory mediators also increased cytokine secretion by neonatal DCs. Especially combined stimulation with LPS and IFNγ proved to be very efficient in inducing maturation and cytokine synthesis of neonatal DCs. In conclusion, neonatal DCs can be stimulated to express maturation as well as costimulatory surface molecules. However, induction of maturation requires combined stimulation with multiple proinflammatory signals.

  15. Use of the Kalman filter in signal processing to reduce beam requirements for alpha-particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques proposed for diagnosing the velocity distribution of fast alpha-particles in a burning plasma require the injection of a beam of fast neutral atoms as probes. The author discusses how improving signal detection techniques is a high leverage factor in reducing the cost of the diagnostic beam. Optimal estimation theory provides a computational algorithm, the Kalman filter, that can optimally estimate the amplitude of a signal with arbitrary (but known) time dependence in the presence of noise. In one example presented, based on a square-wave signal and assumed noise levels, the Kalman filter achieves an enhancement of signal detection efficiency of about a factor of 10 (as compared with the straightforward observation of the signal superimposed on noise) with an observation time of 100 signal periods

  16. Analysis of the computational requirements of a pulse-doppler radar signal processor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find an optimal processing architecture for radar signal processing applications, the different algorithms that are typically used in a pulse-Doppler radar signal processor are investigated. Radar algorithms are broken down...

  17. Primate auditory recognition memory performance varies with sound type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy

    2009-10-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g., social status, kinship, environment), have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition and/or memory. The present study employs a delayed matching-to-sample task with auditory stimuli to examine auditory memory performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Rhesus macaques seem to have relatively poor short-term memory with auditory stimuli, and we examine if particular sound types are more favorable for memory performance. Experiment 1 suggests memory performance with vocalization sound types (particularly monkey), are significantly better than when using non-vocalization sound types, and male monkeys outperform female monkeys overall. Experiment 2, controlling for number of sound exemplars and presentation pairings across types, replicates Experiment 1, demonstrating better performance or decreased response latencies, depending on trial type, to species-specific monkey vocalizations. The findings cannot be explained by acoustic differences between monkey vocalizations and the other sound types, suggesting the biological, and/or ethological meaning of these sounds are more effective for auditory memory. 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  19. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  20. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  1. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  2. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Christianson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed behavioral immunization. Recent data implicate neuroplasticity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and one week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL or infralimbic (IL mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent plasticity within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance.

  3. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  4. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  5. A requirement for FGF signalling in the formation of primitive streak-like intermediates from primitive ectoderm in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.

  6. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  7. Second sound scattering in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosgen, T.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing cavities are used to study the scattering of second sound in liquid helium II. The special geometries reduce wall interference effects and allow measurements in very small test volumes. In a first experiment, a double elliptical cavity is used to focus a second sound wave onto a small wire target. A thin film bolometer measures the side scattered wave component. The agreement with a theoretical estimate is reasonable, although some problems arise from the small measurement volume and associated alignment requirements. A second cavity is based on confocal parabolas, thus enabling the use of large planar sensors. A cylindrical heater produces again a focused second sound wave. Three sensors monitor the transmitted wave component as well as the side scatter in two different directions. The side looking sensors have very high sensitivities due to their large size and resistance. Specially developed cryogenic amplifers are used to match them to the signal cables. In one case, a second auxiliary heater is used to set up a strong counterflow in the focal region. The second sound wave then scatters from the induced fluid disturbances

  8. CTD and sound speed profile data acquired in support of hydrographic multibeam surveys to meet NOAA/NOS, Office of Coast Survey charting requirements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple sensors are used to acquire sound speed profiles in the survey areas assigned to the ships and navigation response teams. Some vessels have CTDs and acquire...

  9. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  10. Research and Implementation of Heart Sound Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yutai; Wang, Yanxiang

    Heart sound is one of the most important signals. However, the process of getting heart sound signal can be interfered with many factors outside. Heart sound is weak electric signal and even weak external noise may lead to the misjudgment of pathological and physiological information in this signal, thus causing the misjudgment of disease diagnosis. As a result, it is a key to remove the noise which is mixed with heart sound. In this paper, a more systematic research and analysis which is involved in heart sound denoising based on matlab has been made. The study of heart sound denoising based on matlab firstly use the powerful image processing function of matlab to transform heart sound signals with noise into the wavelet domain through wavelet transform and decomposition these signals in muli-level. Then for the detail coefficient, soft thresholding is made using wavelet transform thresholding to eliminate noise, so that a signal denoising is significantly improved. The reconstructed signals are gained with stepwise coefficient reconstruction for the processed detail coefficient. Lastly, 50HZ power frequency and 35 Hz mechanical and electrical interference signals are eliminated using a notch filter.

  11. Volatile-Mediated within-Plant Signaling in Hybrid Aspen: Required for Systemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals. An experiment tracing dye through the vasculature of saplings revealed no downward movement of the dye from upper to lower branches, suggesting a lack of vascular connectivity among branches. However, we found under both field and laboratory conditions that herbivore feeding on upper branches elicited volatile emissions by undamaged lower branches. Greenhouse experiments manipulating air contact between damaged and undamaged branches showed that systemic induction of volatiles was almost eliminated when air contact was interrupted. Our findings clearly demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles overcome vascular constraints and mediate within-plant signaling. Further, we found that volatile signaling led to induction of different classes of volatiles under field and environment controlled conditions, with a weaker response observed in the field. This difference not only reflects the dose- and time-dependent nature of volatile signaling, but also points out that future studies should focus more on field observations to better understand the ecological role of volatile-mediated within-plant signaling.

  12. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Center for Silver-Bio Industrialization, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun mi [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young Sim [Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21), Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chak Han [Eco-Friendliness Research Department, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Jinju 660-360 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Young Byung [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Rim, Yeong Gil [Systems and Synthetic Agrobiotech Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bahk, Jeong Dong, E-mail: jdbahk@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21), Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jae Bok, E-mail: jbheo72@dau.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Center for Silver-Bio Industrialization, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  13. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  14. Continuous signaling of CD79b and CD19 is required for the fitness of Burkitt lymphoma B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Kläsener, Kathrin; Iype, Joseena M; Becker, Martin; Maity, Palash C; Cavallari, Marco; Nielsen, Peter J; Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2018-04-18

    Expression of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential not only for the development but also for the maintenance of mature B cells. Similarly, many B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), require continuous BCR signaling for their tumor growth. This growth is driven by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas9 to delete BCR and B-cell co-receptor genes in the human BL cell line Ramos. We find that Ramos B cells require the expression of the BCR signaling component Igβ (CD79b), and the co-receptor CD19, for their fitness and competitive growth in culture. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of any other BCR component, Igβ can be expressed on the B-cell surface, where it is found in close proximity to CD19 and signals in an ITAM-dependent manner. These data suggest that Igβ and CD19 are part of an alternative B-cell signaling module that use continuous ITAM/PI3K signaling to promote the survival of B lymphoma and normal B cells. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Indian hedgehog signaling from endothelial cells is required for sclera and retinal pigment epithelium development in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakubo, Gabriel D; Mazerolle, Chantal; Furimsky, Marosh; Yu, Chuan; St-Jacques, Benoit; McMahon, Andrew P; Wallace, Valerie A

    2008-08-01

    The development of extraocular orbital structures, in particular the choroid and sclera, is regulated by a complex series of interactions between neuroectoderm, neural crest and mesoderm derivatives, although in many instances the signals that mediate these interactions are not known. In this study we have investigated the function of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in the developing mammalian eye. We show that Ihh is expressed in a population of non-pigmented cells located in the developing choroid adjacent to the RPE. The analysis of Hh mutant mice demonstrates that the RPE and developing scleral mesenchyme are direct targets of Ihh signaling and that Ihh is required for the normal pigmentation pattern of the RPE and the condensation of mesenchymal cells to form the sclera. Our findings also indicate that Ihh signals indirectly to promote proliferation and photoreceptor specification in the neural retina. This study identifies Ihh as a novel choroid-derived signal that regulates RPE, sclera and neural retina development.

  16. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  17. Increased signaling entropy in cancer requires the scale-free property of protein interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Severini, Simone; Kuehn, Reimer; Sollich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the key characteristics of cancer cells is an increased phenotypic plasticity, driven by underlying genetic and epigenetic perturbations. However, at a systems-level it is unclear how these perturbations give rise to the observed increased plasticity. Elucidating such systems-level principles is key for an improved understanding of cancer. Recently, it has been shown that signaling entropy, an overall measure of signaling pathway promiscuity, and computable from integrating a sample's gene expression profile with a protein interaction network, correlates with phenotypic plasticity and is increased in cancer compared to normal tissue. Here we develop a computational framework for studying the effects of network perturbations on signaling entropy. We demonstrate that the increased signaling entropy of cancer is driven by two factors: (i) the scale-free (or near scale-free) topology of the interaction network, and (ii) a subtle positive correlation between differential gene expression and node connectivity. Indeed, we show that if protein interaction networks were random graphs, described by Poisson degree distributions, that cancer would generally not exhibit an increased signaling entropy. In summary, this work exposes a deep connection between cancer, signaling entropy and interaction network topology. PMID:25919796

  18. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  19. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  20. The impact of architectural design upon the environmental sound and light exposure of neonates who require intensive care: an evaluation of the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D C; Akram Khan, M; Munson, D P; Reid, E J; Helseth, C C; Buggy, J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in environmental sound, illumination and physiological parameters in the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (BNICU), which was designed to comply with current recommendations and standards, as compared with a conventional neonatal intensive care unit (CNICU). Prospectively designed observational study. Median sound levels in the unoccupied BNICU (37.6 dBA) were lower than the CNICU (42.1 dBA, P<0.001). Median levels of minimum (6.4 vs 48.4 lux, P<0.05) and maximum illumination (357 vs 402 lux, P<0.05) were lower in the BNICU. A group of six neonates delivered at 32 weeks gestation showed significantly less periodic breathing (14 vs 21%) and awake time (17.6 vs 29.3%) in the BNICU as compared to the CNICU. Light and sound were both significantly reduced in the BNICU. Care in the BNICU was associated with improved physiological parameters.

  1. Exploring the perceived harshness of cello sounds by morphing and synthesis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Jocelyn; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2017-03-01

    Cello bowing requires a very fine control of the musicians' gestures to ensure the quality of the perceived sound. When the interaction between the bow hair and the string is optimal, the sound is perceived as broad and round. On the other hand, when the gestural control becomes more approximate, the sound quality deteriorates and often becomes harsh, shrill, and quavering. In this study, such a timbre degradation, often described by French cellists as harshness (décharnement), is investigated from both signal and perceptual perspectives. Harsh sounds were obtained from experienced cellists subjected to a postural constraint. A signal approach based on Gabor masks enabled us to capture the main dissimilarities between round and harsh sounds. Two complementary methods perceptually validated these signal features: First, a predictive regression model of the perceived harshness was built from sound continua obtained by a morphing technique. Next, the signal structures identified by the model were validated within a perceptual timbre space, obtained by multidimensional scaling analysis on pairs of synthesized stimuli controlled in harshness. The results revealed that the perceived harshness was due to a combination between a more chaotic harmonic behavior, a formantic emergence, and a weaker attack slope.

  2. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  3. Constraints on decay of environmental sound memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masashi

    2006-11-27

    When adult rats are pretreated with a 48-h-long 'repetitive nonreinforced sound exposure', performance in two-sound discriminative operant conditioning transiently improves. We have already proven that this 'sound exposure-enhanced discrimination' is dependent upon enhancement of the perceptual capacity of the auditory cortex. This study investigated principles governing decay of sound exposure-enhanced discrimination decay. Sound exposure-enhanced discrimination disappeared within approximately 72 h if animals were deprived of environmental sounds after sound exposure, and that shortened to less than approximately 60 h if they were exposed to environmental sounds in the animal room. Sound-deprivation itself exerted no clear effects. These findings suggest that the memory of a passively exposed behaviorally irrelevant sound signal does not merely pass along the intrinsic lifetime but also gets deteriorated by other incoming signals.

  4. Lens regeneration from the cornea requires suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul W; Sun, Yu; Henry, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    The frog, Xenopus laevis, possesses a high capacity to regenerate various larval tissues, including the lens, which is capable of complete regeneration from the cornea epithelium. However, the molecular signaling mechanisms of cornea-lens regeneration are not fully understood. Previous work has implicated the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway, but molecular studies have been very limited. Iris-derived lens regeneration in the newt (Wolffian lens regeneration) has shown a necessity for active Wnt signaling in order to regenerate a new lens. Here we provide evidence that the Wnt signaling pathway plays a different role in the context of cornea-lens regeneration in Xenopus. We examined the expression of frizzled receptors and wnt ligands in the frog cornea epithelium. Numerous frizzled receptors (fzd1, fzd2, fzd3, fzd4, fzd6, fzd7, fzd8, and fzd10) and wnt ligands (wnt2b.a, wnt3a, wnt4, wnt5a, wnt5b, wnt6, wnt7b, wnt10a, wnt11, and wnt11b) are expressed in the cornea epithelium, demonstrating that this tissue is transcribing many of the ligands and receptors of the Wnt signaling pathway. When compared to flank epithelium, which is lens regeneration incompetent, only wnt11 and wnt11b are different (present only in the cornea epithelium), identifying them as potential regulators of cornea-lens regeneration. To detect changes in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurring within the cornea epithelium, axin2 expression was measured over the course of regeneration. axin2 is a well-established reporter of active Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and its expression shows a significant decrease at 24 h post-lentectomy. This decrease recovers to normal endogenous levels by 48 h. To test whether this signaling decrease was necessary for lens regeneration to occur, regenerating eyes were treated with either 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) or 1-azakenpaullone - both activators of Wnt signaling - resulting in a significant reduction in the percentage of cases with successful

  5. Vacuole Integrity Maintained by DUF300 Proteins Is Required for Brassinosteroid Signaling Regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Q.; Vain, T.; Viotti, C.; Doyle, S. M.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Zipfel, C.; Sitbon, F.; Robert, S.; Hofius, D.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2018), s. 553-567 ISSN 1674-2052 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * brassinosteroid signaling * DUF300 proteins * tonoplast * vacuole integrity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 8.827, year: 2016

  6. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interfere with other visual messages. (e) Analog class D non-commercial educational FM stations as defined in § 73.506 of this chapter, digital class D non-commercial educational FM stations, analog Low Power... Message (EOM) codes using the EAS Protocol. The Attention Signal must precede any emergency audio message...

  7. β-Adrenergic signaling is required for the induction of a labile state during memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ick; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Jaehyun; Jang, Eun Hae; Oh, Jihae; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2018-04-20

    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory. Interestingly, this increase in membrane excitability diminished after treatment with propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), an NMDA receptor antagonist, and a PKA inhibitor. In addition, we found that administration of propranolol prior to, but not after, the retrieval of fear memory ameliorated the memory impairment caused by anisomycin, indicating that inhibition of β-adrenergic signaling blocks the destabilization of contextual fear memory. Taken together, these results indicate that β-adrenergic signaling via NMDA receptors and PKA signaling pathway induces a labile state of long-term memory through increased neuronal membrane excitability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epsin is required for Dishevelled stability and Wnt signalling activation in colon cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baojun; Tessneer, Kandice L; McManus, John; Liu, Xiaolei; Hahn, Scott; Pasula, Satish; Wu, Hao; Song, Hoogeun; Chen, Yiyuan; Cai, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yunzhou; Brophy, Megan L; Rahman, Ruby; Ma, Jian-Xing; Xia, Lijun; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-16

    Uncontrolled canonical Wnt signalling supports colon epithelial tumour expansion and malignant transformation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of and will provide new therapeutic targets for colon cancer. Epsins are ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins upregulated in several human cancers; however, the involvement of epsins in colon cancer is unknown. Here we show that loss of intestinal epithelial epsins protects against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signalling effector, dishevelled (Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signalling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer. Mechanistically, epsin binds Dvl2 via its epsin N-terminal homology domain and ubiquitin-interacting motifs and prohibits Dvl2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal an unconventional role for epsins in stabilizing Dvl2 and potentiating Wnt signalling in colon cancer cells to ensure robust colon cancer progression. The pro-carcinogenic role of Epsins suggests that they are potential therapeutic targets to combat colon cancer.

  9. A Requirement for ZAK Kinase Activity in Canonical TGF-β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Nyati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase ZAK (AZK, MLT, MLK7, is a MAPK-kinase kinase (MKKK. Like most MAPKKKs which are known to activate the c-Jun. amino-terminal kinase (JNK pathway, ZAK has been shown to participate in the transduction of Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β-mediated non-canonical signaling. A role for ZAK in SMAD-dependent, canonical TGF-β signaling has not been previously appreciated. Using a combination of functional genomics and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ZAK regulates canonical TGFβRI/II signaling in lung and breast cancer cell lines and may serve as a key node in the regulation of TGFBR kinase activity. Remarkably, we demonstrate that siRNA mediated depletion of ZAK strongly inhibited TGF-β dependent SMAD2/3 activation and subsequent promoter activation (SMAD binding element driven luciferase expression; SBE4-Luc. A ZAK specific inhibitor (DHP-2, dose-dependently activated the bioluminescent TGFBR-kinase activity reporter (BTR, blocked TGF-β induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and SBE4-Luc activation and cancer cell-invasion. In aggregate, these findings identify a novel role for the ZAK kinase in canonical TGF-β signaling and an invasive cancer cell phenotype thus providing a novel target for TGF-β inhibition.

  10. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for distraction osteogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Luo, En; Bi, Ruiye; Ye, Bin; Hu, Jing; Zou, Shujuan

    2018-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays crucial roles in embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone regeneration. However, mechanisms of Wnt signaling functioning in distraction osteogenesis (DO) haven't been well characterized. We established a DO model using Sprague-Dawley rat tibia. And a Wnt signaling blocking agent, recombinant rat Dickkopf-related protein 1 (rrDkk1), was locally applied in the distracted gap to study the role of Wnt signaling during DO process. Animals in the experimental group received rrDkk1 injections (dose = 25 μg/kg) once daily during distraction period and every third day during consolidation stage (n = 48). Animals in the control group received saline under the same injection strategy (n = 48). Animals at different time points during DO process (1, 3, 6, 12 days after distraction, 10 days and 6 weeks after consolidation) were killed and tissues in the distraction region were harvested for radiography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histological analyses. Most Wnt ligands, cofactors, receptors, and antagonists were widely expressed in the distraction callus and were significantly upregulated during DO process. After rrDkk1 administration, the majority of these factors were downregulated at the mRNA level, except sFRP and GSK-3β. At the protein level, both β-catenin and Lef-1 were also suppressed by rrDkk1. In the long term, restricted bone healing was observed in the distracted callus in the rrDkk1 injection group. These findings were confirmed by histological and micro-CT analyses. Our findings suggest that Wnt signaling participates in the process of DO, and clinical therapeutic approaches of DO may do well to avoid Wnt pathway suppression.

  11. Focal Adhesion Kinase Is Required for Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis Downstream of Wnt/c-Myc Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Gabrielle H.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin; Phesse, Toby J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Marsh, Victoria; Wilkins, Julie A.; Athineos, Dimitris; Muncan, Vanesa; Kemp, Richard; Neufeld, Kristi; Clevers, Hans; Brunton, Valerie; Winton, Douglas J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sears, Rosalie C.; Clarke, Alan R.; Frame, Margaret C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal epithelium has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and DNA damage. Here, we show that the integrin effector protein Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is dispensable for normal intestinal homeostasis and DNA damage signaling, but is essential for intestinal regeneration following DNA damage. Given Wnt/c-Myc signaling is activated following intestinal regeneration, we investigated the functional importance of FAK following deletion of the Apc tumor suppressor protein within the intestinal epithelium. Following Apc loss, FAK expression increased in a c-Myc-dependent manner. Codeletion of Apc and Fak strongly reduced proliferation normally induced following Apc loss, and this was associated with reduced levels of phospho-Akt and suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc heterozygous mice. Thus, FAK is required downstream of Wnt Signaling, for Akt/mTOR activation, intestinal regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Importantly, this work suggests that FAK inhibitors may suppress tumorigenesis in patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:20708588

  12. SDCCAG8 Interacts with RAB Effector Proteins RABEP2 and ERC1 and Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airik, Rannar; Schueler, Markus; Airik, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the SDCCAG8 gene cause a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-like features in humans. Our previous characterization of the orthologous Sdccag8gt/gt mouse model recapitulated the retinal-renal disease phenotypes and identified impaired DNA damage...... response signaling as an underlying disease mechanism in the kidney. However, several other phenotypic and mechanistic features of Sdccag8gt/gt mice remained unexplored. Here we show that Sdccag8gt/gt mice exhibit developmental and structural abnormalities of the skeleton and limbs, suggesting impaired...... Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Indeed, cell culture studies demonstrate the requirement of SDCCAG8 for ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Using an affinity proteomics approach, we demonstrate that SDCCAG8 interacts with proteins of the centriolar satellites (OFD1, AZI1), of the endosomal sorting complex (RABEP2, ERC...

  13. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  14. Polyclonal activation of rat B cells. I. A single mitogenic signal can stimulate proliferation, but three signals are required for differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stunz, L.L.; Feldbush, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    A water-soluble, proteinaceous preparation derived from the cell walls of Salmonella typhimurium Re mutants has recently been tested in this laboratory for its ability to act as a mitogen for rat lymphocytes. This preparation (STM) has been found to be a potent simulator of B lymphocyte proliferation, as measured both by 3 H-TdR incorporation and by cell cycle analysis performed with flow cytofluorometry. STM stimulates approximately 50% of rat B cells to enter cycle. Previous investigations by others have shown that at least two sets of signals are required for B cell differentiation; (a) proliferation signals that may consist of both a stimulator of B cell conversion from G 0 to G 1 and growth factors, and (b) differentiation signals that probably include at least two B cell differentiation factors (BCDF). When STM was tested in a differentiation system it did not drive purified B cells to differentiate to PFC, either alone or when supplemented with a supernatant from concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells (CAS). However, when both CAS and dextran sulfate (DXS) were supplied to the STM-stimulated cells, a large number of PFC resulted. DXT does not act by stimulating an additional, CAS-responsive B cell subset, since it has only a marginal effect upon 3 H-TdR uptake and does not increase the number of B cells in cycle when used together with STM. The authors that the two agents may be acting sequentially: STM stimulates the B cells to proliferate, and DXS drives the proliferating cells to become responsive to CAS. This suggests that the signals for B cell differentiation must consist of at least three activities: a trigger to stimulate the cells to proliferate, a factor to drive the cells to a BCDF-responsive state, and a BCDF that can drive the cells to secrete antibody

  15. Domain requirements for the Dock adapter protein in growth- cone signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Yong; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in growth-cone guidance through genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological studies. Adapter proteins containing src homology 2 (SH2) domains and src homology 3 (SH3) domains provide a means of linking guidance signaling through phosphotyrosine to downstream effectors regulating growth-cone motility. The Drosophila adapter, Dreadlocks (Dock), the homolog of mammalian Nck containing three N-terminal SH3 domains and a single SH2 domain, is highly speci...

  16. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  17. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-12-31

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  18. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Mellor, N.; Pound, M. P.; Help, H.; Lucas, M.; Chopard, J.; Byrne, H. M.; Godin, C.; Hodgman, T. C.; King, J. R.; Pridmore, T. P.; Helariutta, Y.; Bennett, M. J.; Bishopp, A.

    2013-01-01

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  19. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  20. Hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the notochord sheath and patterning of nuclei pulposi within the intervertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Suk; Harfe, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrae notochord is a transient rod-like structure that produces secreted factors that are responsible for patterning surrounding tissues. During later mouse embryogenesis, the notochord gives rise to the middle part of the intervertebral disc, called the nucleus pulposus. Currently, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for forming the intervertebral discs. Here we demonstrate that hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the intervertebral discs. Remo...

  1. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  2. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  3. The Wnt Signaling Antagonist Kremen1 is Required for Development of Thymic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Osada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling has been reported to regulate thymocyte proliferation and selection at several stages during T cell ontogeny, as well as the expression of FoxN1 in thymic epithelial cells (TECs. Kremen1 (Krm1 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and functions together with the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf (Dkk by competing for the lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-6 co-receptor for Wnts. Here krm1 knockout mice were used to examine krm1 expression in the thymus and its function in thymocyte and TEC development. krm1 expression was detected in both cortical and medullary TEC subsets, as well as in immature thymocyte subsets, beginning at the CD25+CD44+ (DN2 stage and continuing until the CD4+CD8+(DP stage. Neonatal mice show elevated expression of krm1 in all TEC subsets. krm1− / − mice exhibit a severe defect in thymic cortical architecture, including large epithelial free regions. Much of the epithelial component remains at an immature Keratin 5+ (K5 Keratin 8+(K8 stage, with a loss of defined cortical and medullary regions. A TOPFlash assay revealed a 2-fold increase in canonical Wnt signaling in TEC lines derived from krm1− / − mice, when compared with krm1+ / + derived TEC lines. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis of dissociated thymus revealed a reduced frequency of both cortical (BP1+EpCAM+ and medullary (UEA-1+ EpCAMhi epithelial subsets, within the krm1− / − thymus. Surprisingly, no change in thymus size, total thymocyte number or the frequency of thymocyte subsets was detected in krm1− / − mice. However, our data suggest that a loss of Krm1 leads to a severe defect in thymic architecture. Taken together, this study revealed a new role for Krm1 in proper development of thymic epithelium.

  4. S1PR3 Signaling Drives Bacterial Killing and Is Required for Survival in Bacterial Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, JinChao; Chen, QiXing; Wu, XiaoLiang; Zhao, DongYan; Reuveni, Hadas; Licht, Tamar; Xu, MengLong; Hu, Hu; Hoeft, Andreas; Ben-Sasson, Shmuel A; Shu, Qiang; Fang, XiangMing

    2017-12-15

    Efficient elimination of pathogenic bacteria is a critical determinant in the outcome of sepsis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) mediates multiple aspects of the inflammatory response during sepsis, but whether S1PR3 signaling is necessary for eliminating the invading pathogens remains unknown. To investigate the role of S1PR3 in antibacterial immunity during sepsis. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments were performed using cell and murine models. S1PR3 levels were determined in patients with sepsis and healthy volunteers. S1PR3 protein levels were up-regulated in macrophages upon bacterial stimulation. S1pr3 -/- mice showed increased mortality and increased bacterial burden in multiple models of sepsis. The transfer of wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages rescued S1pr3 -/- mice from lethal sepsis. S1PR3-overexpressing macrophages further ameliorated the mortality rate of sepsis. Loss of S1PR3 led to markedly decreased bacterial killing in macrophages. Enhancing endogenous S1PR3 activity using a peptide agonist potentiated the macrophage bactericidal function and improved survival rates in multiple models of sepsis. Mechanically, the reactive oxygen species levels were decreased and phagosome maturation was delayed in S1pr3 -/- macrophages due to impaired recruitment of vacuolar protein-sorting 34 to the phagosomes. In addition, S1RP3 expression levels were elevated in monocytes from patients with sepsis. Higher levels of monocytic S1PR3 were associated with efficient intracellular bactericidal activity, better immune status, and preferable outcomes. S1PR3 signaling drives bacterial killing and is essential for survival in bacterial sepsis. Interventions targeting S1PR3 signaling could have translational implications for manipulating the innate immune response to combat pathogens.

  5. Fibronectin-integrin signaling is required for L-glutamine's protection against gut injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Niederlechner

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM stabilization and fibronectin (FN-Integrin signaling can mediate cellular protection. L-glutamine (GLN is known to prevent apoptosis after injury. However, it is currently unknown if ECM stabilization and FN-Integrin osmosensing pathways are related to GLN's cell protective mechanism in the intestine.IEC-6 cells were treated with GLN with or without FN siRNA, integrin inhibitor GRGDSP, control peptide GRGESP or ERK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and UO126 under basal and stressed conditions. Cell survival measured via MTS assay. Phosphorylated and/or total levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, heat shock proteins (HSPs, ERK1/2 and transcription factor HSF-1 assessed via Western blotting. Cell size and F-actin morphology quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and intracellular GLN concentration by LC-MS/MS.GLN's prevention of FN degradation after hyperthermia attenuated apoptosis. Additionally, inhibition of FN-Integrin interaction by GRGDSP and ERK1/2 kinase inhibition by PD98059 inhibited GLN's protective effect. GRGDSP attenuated GLN-mediated increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSF-1 levels. PD98059 and GRGDSP also decreased HSP levels after GLN treatment. Finally, GRGDSP attenuated GLN-mediated increases in cell area size and disrupted F-actin assembly, but had no effect on intracellular GLN concentrations.Taken together, this data suggests that prevention of FN degradation and the FN-Integrin signaling play a key role in GLN-mediated cellular protection. GLN's signaling via the FN-Integrin pathway is associated with HSP induction via ERK1/2 and HSF-1 activation leading to reduced apoptosis after gut injury.

  6. Sound localization with head movement: implications for 3-d audio displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ian McAnally

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of sound localization is improved if listeners are allowed to move their heads during signal presentation. This study describes the function relating localization accuracy to the extent of head movement in azimuth. Sounds that are difficult to localize were presented in the free field from sources at a wide range of azimuths and elevations. Sounds remained active until the participants’ heads had rotated through windows ranging in width of 2°, 4°, 8°, 16°, 32°, or 64° of azimuth. Error in determining sound-source elevation and the rate of front/back confusion were found to decrease with increases in azimuth window width. Error in determining sound-source lateral angle was not found to vary with azimuth window width. Implications for 3-d audio displays: The utility of a 3-d audio display for imparting spatial information is likely to be improved if operators are able to move their heads during signal presentation. Head movement may compensate in part for a paucity of spectral cues to sound-source location resulting from limitations in either the audio signals presented or the directional filters (i.e., head-related transfer functions used to generate a display. However, head movements of a moderate size (i.e., through around 32° of azimuth may be required to ensure that spatial information is conveyed with high accuracy.

  7. Long noncoding RNA LISPR1 is required for S1P signaling and endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipovic, Ivana; Pflüger, Beatrice; Fork, Christian; Vasconez, Andrea E; Oo, James A; Hitzel, Juliane; Seredinski, Sandra; Gamen, Elisabetta; Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer Zu; Chen, Wei; Looso, Mario; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Brandes, Ralf P; Leisegang, Matthias S

    2018-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a potent signaling lipid. The effects of S1P are mediated by the five S1P receptors (S1PR). In the endothelium S1PR1 is the predominant receptor and thus S1PR1 abundance limits S1P signaling. Recently, lncRNAs were identified as a novel class of molecules regulating gene expression. Interestingly, the lncRNA NONHSAT004848 (LISPR1, Long intergenic noncoding RNA antisense to S1PR1), is closely positioned to the S1P1 receptors gene and in part shares its promoter region. We hypothesize that LISPR1 controls endothelial S1PR1 expression and thus S1P-induced signaling in endothelial cells. In vitro transcription and translation as well as coding potential assessment showed that LISPR1 is indeed noncoding. LISPR1 was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus and harbored a PolyA tail at the 3'end. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as human lung tissue, qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq revealed high expression of LISPR1. S1PR1 and LISPR1 were downregulated in human pulmonary diseases such as COPD. LISPR1 but also S1PR1 were induced by inflammation, shear stress and statins. Knockdown of LISPR1 attenuated endothelial S1P-induced migration and spheroid outgrowth of endothelial cells. LISPR1 knockdown decreased S1PR1 expression, which was paralleled by an increase of the binding of the transcriptional repressor ZNF354C to the S1PR1 promoter and a reduction of the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II to the S1PR1 5'end. This resulted in attenuated S1PR1 expression and attenuated S1P downstream signaling. Collectively, the disease relevant lncRNA LISPR1 acts as a novel regulatory unit important for S1PR1 expression and endothelial cell function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length.

  9. CCN2 is required for the TGF-β induced activation of Smad1-Erk1/2 signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashidhar S Nakerakanti

    Full Text Available Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 is a multifunctional matricellular protein, which is frequently overexpressed during organ fibrosis. CCN2 is a mediator of the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β in cultured cells, but the specific function of CCN2 in the fibrotic process has not been elucidated. In this study we characterized the CCN2-dependent signaling pathways that are required for the TGF-β induced fibrogenic response. By depleting endogenous CCN2 we show that CCN2 is indispensable for the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad1 and Erk1/2, but it is unnecessary for the activation of Smad3. TGF-β stimulation triggered formation of the CCN2/β(3 integrin protein complexes and activation of Src signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that signaling through the α(vβ(3 integrin receptor and Src was required for the TGF-β induced Smad1 phosphorylation. Recombinant CCN2 activated Src and Erk1/2 signaling, and induced phosphorylation of Fli1, but was unable to stimulate Smad1 or Smad3 phosphorylation. Additional experiments were performed to investigate the role of CCN2 in collagen production. Consistent with the previous studies, blockade of CCN2 abrogated TGF-β-induced collagen mRNA and protein levels. Recombinant CCN2 potently stimulated collagen mRNA levels and upregulated activity of the COL1A2 promoter, however CCN2 was a weak inducer of collagen protein levels. CCN2 stimulation of collagen was dose-dependent with the lower doses (<50 ng/ml having a stimulatory effect and higher doses having an inhibitory effect on collagen gene expression. In conclusion, our study defines a novel CCN2/α(vβ(3 integrin/Src/Smad1 axis that contributes to the pro-fibrotic TGF-β signaling and suggests that blockade of this pathway may be beneficial for the treatment of fibrosis.

  10. Wnt9a signaling is required for joint integrity and regulation of Ihh during chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Später, Daniela; Hill, Theo P; O'sullivan, Roderick J; Gruber, Michaela; Conner, David A; Hartmann, Christine

    2006-08-01

    Joints, which separate skeleton elements, serve as important signaling centers that regulate the growth of adjacent cartilage elements by controlling proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes. Accurate chondrocyte maturation is crucial for endochondral ossification and for the ultimate size of skeletal elements, as premature or delayed maturation results predominantly in shortened elements. Wnt9a has previously been implicated as being a player in joint induction, based on gain-of function experiments in chicken and mouse. We show that loss of Wnt9a does not affect joint induction, but results to synovial chondroid metaplasia in some joints. This phenotype can be enhanced by removal of an additional Wnt gene, Wnt4, suggesting that Wnts are playing a crucial role in directing bi-potential chondro-synovioprogenitors to become synovial connective tissue, by actively suppressing their chondrogenic potential. Furthermore, we show that Wnt9a is a temporal and spatial regulator of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a central player of skeletogenesis. Loss of Wnt9a activity results in transient downregulation of Ihh and reduced Ihh-signaling activity at E12.5-E13.5. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway probably mediates regulation of Ihh expression in prehypertrophic chondrocytes by Wnt9a, because embryos double-heterozygous for Wnt9a and beta-catenin show reduced Ihh expression, and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates a direct interaction between the beta-catenin/Lef1 complex and the Ihh promoter.

  11. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo, E-mail: hjkwon@pnu.edu.sa [Biology Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX77843-3258 (United States); Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-12

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  12. Astrocytic Ca2+ signals are required for the functional integrity of tripartite synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the expression of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate absorbent, “IP3 sponge”, attenuates astrocytic Ca2+ signaling. Results Attenuated Ca2+ activity correlated with reduced astrocytic coverage of asymmetric synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region in these animals. The decreased astrocytic ‘protection’ of the synapses facilitated glutamate ‘spillover’, which was reflected by prolonged glutamate transporter currents in stratum radiatum astrocytes and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to burst stimulation. These mice also exhibited behavioral impairments in spatial reference memory and remote contextual fear memory, in which hippocampal circuits are involved. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IP3-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling correlates with the formation of functional tripartite synapses in the hippocampus.

  13. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Michelle L.; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A.; Schnell, Santiago; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2013-06-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns.

  14. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell–cell contact and local microenvironmental signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, Michelle L; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A; Kulesa, Paul M; Schnell, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell–cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns. (paper)

  15. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  16. cAMP-Signalling Regulates Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte Deformability Required for Malaria Parasite Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Ramdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blocking Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination. Transmission is ensured by gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE that sequester in the bone marrow and at maturation are released into peripheral blood from where they are taken up during a mosquito blood meal. Release into the blood circulation is accompanied by an increase in GIE deformability that allows them to pass through the spleen. Here, we used a microsphere matrix to mimic splenic filtration and investigated the role of cAMP-signalling in regulating GIE deformability. We demonstrated that mature GIE deformability is dependent on reduced cAMP-signalling and on increased phosphodiesterase expression in stage V gametocytes, and that parasite cAMP-dependent kinase activity contributes to the stiffness of immature gametocytes. Importantly, pharmacological agents that raise cAMP levels in transmissible stage V gametocytes render them less deformable and hence less likely to circulate through the spleen. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors that raise cAMP levels in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, such as sildenafil, represent new candidate drugs to block transmission of malaria parasites.

  17. Xbp1-Independent Ire1 Signaling Is Required for Photoreceptor Differentiation and Rhabdomere Morphogenesis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina S. Coelho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR is composed by homeostatic signaling pathways that are activated by excessive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ire1 signaling is an important mediator of the UPR, leading to the activation of the transcription factor Xbp1. Here, we show that Drosophila Ire1 mutant photoreceptors have defects in the delivery of rhodopsin-1 to the rhabdomere and in the secretion of Spacemaker/Eyes Shut into the interrhabdomeral space. However, these defects are not observed in Xbp1 mutant photoreceptors. Ire1 mutant retinas have higher mRNA levels for targets of regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD, including for the fatty acid transport protein (fatp. Importantly, the downregulation of fatp by RNAi rescues the rhodopsin-1 delivery defects observed in Ire1 mutant photoreceptors. Our results show that the role of Ire1 during photoreceptor differentiation is independent of Xbp1 function and demonstrate the physiological relevance of the RIDD mechanism in this specific paradigm.

  18. Development of full sweet, umami, and bitter taste responsiveness requires Regulator of G protein Signaling-21 (RGS21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Adam B; Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Wix, Kim; Siderovski, David P; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Setola, Vincent

    2018-04-26

    The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity. However, the role of RGS21 in organismal responses to GPCR-mediated tastants was not established. Here, we characterized mice lacking the Rgs21 fifth exon. Eliminating Rgs21 expression had no effect on body mass accumulation (a measure of alimentation), fungiform papillae number and morphology, circumvallate papillae morphology, and taste bud number. Two-bottle preference tests, however, revealed that Rgs21-null mice have blunted aversion to quinine and denatonium, and blunted preference for monosodium glutamate, the sweeteners sucrose and SC45647, and (surprisingly) NaCl. Observed reductions in GPCR-mediated tastant responses upon Rgs21 loss are opposite to original expectations, given that loss of RGS21 -- a GPCR signaling negative regulator -- should lead to increased responsiveness to tastant-mediated GPCR signaling (all else being equal). Yet, reduced organismal tastant responses are consistent with observations of reduced chorda tympani nerve recordings in Rgs21-null mice. Reduced tastant-mediated responses and behaviors exhibited by adult mice lacking Rgs21 expression since birth have thus revealed an underappreciated requirement for a GPCR GAP to establish the full character of tastant signaling.

  19. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  20. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  1. Neurotransmitter signaling pathways required for normal development in Xenopus laevis embryos: a pharmacological survey screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly G; Levin, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Neurotransmitters are not only involved in brain function but are also important signaling molecules for many diverse cell types. Neurotransmitters are widely conserved, from evolutionarily ancient organisms lacking nervous systems through man. Here, results are reported from a loss- and gain-of-function survey, using pharmacological modulators of several neurotransmitter pathways to examine possible roles for these pathways in normal embryogenesis. Applying reagents targeting the glutamatergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic pathways to embryos of Xenopus laevis from gastrulation to organogenesis stages, we observed and quantified numerous malformations, including craniofacial defects, hyperpigmentation, muscle mispatterning and miscoiling of the gut. These data implicate several key neurotransmitters in new embryonic patterning roles, reveal novel earlier stages for processes involved in eye development, suggest new targets for subsequent molecular-genetic investigation, and highlight the necessity for in-depth toxicology studies of psychoactive compounds to which human embryos might be exposed during pregnancy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. Perlecan is required for FGF-2 signaling in the neural stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelien Kerever

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the adult subventricular zone (neurogenic niche, neural stem cells double-positive for two markers of subsets of neural stem cells in the adult central nervous system, glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD133, lie in proximity to fractones and to blood vessel basement membranes, which contain the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. Here, we demonstrate that perlecan deficiency reduces the number of both GFAP/CD133-positive neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and new neurons integrating into the olfactory bulb. We also show that FGF-2 treatment induces the expression of cyclin D2 through the activation of the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways and promotes neurosphere formation in vitro. However, in the absence of perlecan, FGF-2 fails to promote neurosphere formation. These results suggest that perlecan is a component of the neurogenic niche that regulates FGF-2 signaling and acts by promoting neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

  3. Astrocyte reactivity to unconjugated bilirubin requires TNF-α and IL-1β receptor signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Adelaide; Barateiro, Andreia; Falcão, Ana Sofia; Silva, Sandra Leit-Ao; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brito, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Rui Fernando Marques; Brites, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Jaundice and sepsis are common neonatal conditions that can lead to neurodevelopment sequelae, namely if present at the same time. We have reported that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β are produced by cultured neurons and mainly by glial cells exposed to unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). The effects of these cytokines are mediated by cell surface receptors through a nuclear factor (NF)-κB-dependent pathway that we have showed to be activated by UCB. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of TNF-α and IL-1β signaling on astrocyte reactivity to UCB in rat cortical astrocytes. Exposure of astrocytes to UCB increased the expression of both TNF-α receptor (TNFR)1 and IL-1β receptor (IL-1R)1, but not TNFR2, as well as their activation, observed by augmented binding of receptors' molecular adaptors, TRAF2 and TRAF6, respectively. Silencing of TNFR1, using siRNA technology, or blockade of IL-1β cascade, using its endogenous antagonist, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), prevented UCB-induced cytokine release and NF-κB activation. Interestingly, lack of TNF-α signal transduction reduced UCB-induced cell death for short periods of incubation, although an increase was observed after extended exposure; in contrast, inhibition of IL-1β cascade produced a sustained blockade of astrocyte injury by UCB. Together, our data show that inflammatory pathways are activated during in vitro exposure of rat cortical astrocytes to UCB and that this activation is prolonged in time. This supports the concept that inflammatory pathways play a role in brain damage by UCB, and that they may represent important pharmacological targets. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Neural Crest-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Require Wnt Signaling for Their Development and Drive Invagination of the Telencephalic Midline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Youngshik; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells contribute to the development of the craniofacial mesenchyme, forebrain meninges and perivascular cells. In this study, we investigated the function of ß-catenin signaling in neural crest cells abutting the dorsal forebrain during development. In the absence of ß-catenin signaling, neural crest cells failed to expand in the interhemispheric region and produced ectopic smooth muscle cells instead of generating dermal and calvarial mesenchyme. In contrast, constitutive expression of stabilized ß-catenin in neural crest cells increased the number of mesenchymal lineage precursors suggesting that ß-catenin signaling is necessary for the expansion of neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, the loss of neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to failure of telencephalic midline invagination and causes ventricular system defects. This study shows that ß-catenin signaling is required for the switch of neural crest cells to MSCs and mediates the expansion of MSCs to drive the formation of mesenchymal structures of the head. Furthermore, loss of these structures causes striking defects in forebrain morphogenesis. PMID:24516524

  5. Neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells require Wnt signaling for their development and drive invagination of the telencephalic midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshik Choe

    Full Text Available Embryonic neural crest cells contribute to the development of the craniofacial mesenchyme, forebrain meninges and perivascular cells. In this study, we investigated the function of ß-catenin signaling in neural crest cells abutting the dorsal forebrain during development. In the absence of ß-catenin signaling, neural crest cells failed to expand in the interhemispheric region and produced ectopic smooth muscle cells instead of generating dermal and calvarial mesenchyme. In contrast, constitutive expression of stabilized ß-catenin in neural crest cells increased the number of mesenchymal lineage precursors suggesting that ß-catenin signaling is necessary for the expansion of neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, the loss of neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs leads to failure of telencephalic midline invagination and causes ventricular system defects. This study shows that ß-catenin signaling is required for the switch of neural crest cells to MSCs and mediates the expansion of MSCs to drive the formation of mesenchymal structures of the head. Furthermore, loss of these structures causes striking defects in forebrain morphogenesis.

  6. Hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the notochord sheath and patterning of nuclei pulposi within the intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Suk; Harfe, Brian D

    2011-06-07

    The vertebrae notochord is a transient rod-like structure that produces secreted factors that are responsible for patterning surrounding tissues. During later mouse embryogenesis, the notochord gives rise to the middle part of the intervertebral disc, called the nucleus pulposus. Currently, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for forming the intervertebral discs. Here we demonstrate that hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the intervertebral discs. Removal of hedgehog signaling in the notochord and nearby floorplate resulted in the formation of an aberrant notochord sheath that normally surrounds this structure. In the absence of the notochord sheath, small nuclei pulposi were formed, with most notochord cells dispersed throughout the vertebral bodies during embryogenesis. Our data suggest that the formation of the notochord sheath requires hedgehog signaling and that the sheath is essential for maintaining the rod-like structure of the notochord during early embryonic development. As notochord cells form nuclei pulposi, we propose that the notochord sheath functions as a "wrapper" around the notochord to constrain these cells along the vertebral column.

  7. Nonmuscle Myosin II Is Required for Internalization of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Modulation of Downstream Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Wang, Aibing; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-induced internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important process for regulating signal transduction, cellular dynamics, and cell-cell communication. Here, we demonstrate that nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is required for the internalization of the EGFR and to trigger the EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. The EGFR was identified as a protein that interacts with NM II by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis. This interaction requires both the regulatory light chain 20 (RLC20) of NM II and the kinase domain of the EGFR. Two paralogs of NM II, NM II-A, and NM II-B can act to internalize the EGFR, depending on the cell type and paralog content of the cell line. Loss (siRNA) or inhibition (25 μm blebbistatin) of NM II attenuates the internalization of the EGFR and impairs EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. Both internalization of the EGFR and downstream signaling to ERK and AKT can be partially restored in siRNA-treated cells by introduction of wild type (WT) GFP-NM II, but cannot be restored by motor mutant NM II. Taken together, these results suggest that NM II plays a role in the internalization of the EGFR and EGFR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:22718763

  8. Neural induction in Xenopus: requirement for ectodermal and endomesodermal signals via Chordin, Noggin, beta-Catenin, and Cerberus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kuroda

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the signals that induce the differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS is a long-standing question in vertebrate embryology. Here we show that Xenopus neural induction starts earlier than previously thought, at the blastula stage, and requires the combined activity of two distinct signaling centers. One is the well-known Nieuwkoop center, located in dorsal-vegetal cells, which expresses Nodal-related endomesodermal inducers. The other is a blastula Chordin- and Noggin-expressing (BCNE center located in dorsal animal cells that contains both prospective neuroectoderm and Spemann organizer precursor cells. Both centers are downstream of the early beta-Catenin signal. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the BCNE center was distinct from the Nieuwkoop center, and that the Nieuwkoop center expressed the secreted protein Cerberus (Cer. We found that explanted blastula dorsal animal cap cells that have not yet contacted a mesodermal substratum can, when cultured in saline solution, express definitive neural markers and differentiate histologically into CNS tissue. Transplantation experiments showed that the BCNE region was required for brain formation, even though it lacked CNS-inducing activity when transplanted ventrally. Cell-lineage studies demonstrated that BCNE cells give rise to a large part of the brain and retina and, in more posterior regions of the embryo, to floor plate and notochord. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense morpholino oligos (MO showed that the CNS that forms in mesoderm-less Xenopus embryos (generated by injection with Cerberus-Short [CerS] mRNA required Chordin (Chd, Noggin (Nog, and their upstream regulator beta-Catenin. When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd. By injecting Chd morpholino oligos (Chd-MO into prospective neuroectoderm and Cerberus

  9. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  10. Oxytocin signaling in the medial amygdala is required for sex discrimination of social cues

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Shenqin; Bergan, Joseph; Lanjuin, Anne; Dulac, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncove...

  11. Oxytocin Signaling in the Medial Amygdala is required for Sex Discrimination of Social Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Bergan, Joseph; Yao, Shenqin; Lanjuin, Anne; Dulac, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single unit recording in the MeA uncove...

  12. ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling, but is not required for bacterial lipoprotein-induced tolerance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Liu, Jinghua

    2010-05-15

    Activation of TLR signaling is critical for host innate immunity against bacterial infection. Previous studies reported that the ST2 receptor, a member of the Toll\\/IL-1 receptor superfamily, functions as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling and maintains LPS tolerance. However, it is undetermined whether ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling and furthermore, whether a TLR2 agonist, bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance is dependent on ST2. In this study, we show that BLP stimulation-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and immunocomplex formation of TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) were significantly enhanced in ST2-deficient macrophages compared with those in wild-type controls. Furthermore, overexpression of ST2 dose-dependently attenuated BLP-induced NF-kappaB activation, suggesting a negative regulatory role of ST2 in TLR2 signaling. A moderate but significantly attenuated production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on a second BLP stimulation was observed in BLP-pretreated, ST2-deficient macrophages, which is associated with substantially reduced IRAK-1 protein expression and downregulated TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex formation. ST2-deficient mice, when pretreated with a nonlethal dose of BLP, benefitted from an improved survival against a subsequent lethal BLP challenge, indicating BLP tolerance develops in the absence of the ST2 receptor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ST2 acts as a negative regulator of TLR2 signaling, but is not required for BLP-induced tolerance.

  13. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  14. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  15. Heart Sound Localization and Reduction in Tracheal Sounds by Gabor Time-Frequency Masking

    OpenAIRE

    SAATCI, Esra; Akan, Aydın

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Respiratorysounds, i.e. tracheal and lung sounds, have been of great interest due to theirdiagnostic values as well as the potential of their use in the estimation ofthe respiratory dynamics (mainly airflow). Thus the aim of the study is topresent a new method to filter the heart sound interference from the trachealsounds. Materials and methods: Trachealsounds and airflow signals were collected by using an accelerometer from 10 healthysubjects. Tracheal sounds were then pr...

  16. Model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) for real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth signal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2013-05-01

    While conducting a cutting-edge research in a specific domain, we realize that (1) requirements clarity and correctness are crucial to our success [1], (2) hardware is hard to change, most work is in software requirements development, coding and testing [2], (3) requirements are constantly changing, so that configurability, reusability, scalability, adaptability, modularity and testability are important non-functional attributes [3], (4) cross-domain knowledge is necessary for complex systems [4], and (5) if our research is successful, the results could be applied to other domains with similar problems. In this paper, we propose to use model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) to model and guide our requirements/development, since models are easy to understand, execute, and modify. The domain for our research is Electronic Warfare (EW) real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth (IBW1) signal simulation. The proposed four MDRE models are (1) Switch-and-Filter architecture, (2) multiple parallel data bit streams alignment, (3) post-ADC and pre-DAC bits re-mapping, and (4) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) filter bank. This research is unique since the instantaneous bandwidth we are dealing with is in gigahertz range instead of conventional megahertz.

  17. EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu-Zergeroglu, Asuman; Candemir, Gulsife; Turhanlar, Ebru; Sagir, Fatma; Ayvali, Nurettin

    2016-12-01

    The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormonal Signaling Cascade during an Early-Adult Critical Period Required for Courtship Memory Retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Ding, Yike; Karapetians, Natalie; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando Gabriel; Adams, Michael E

    2017-09-25

    Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene. JH-deficit-induced memory impairment involves rapid decay rather than failure of memory acquisition. A critical period governs memory performance during the first 3 days of adulthood. Using sex-peptide-expressing "pseudo-mated" trainers, we find that robust courtship memory elicited in the absence of aversive chemical mating cues also is dependent on ETH-JH signaling. Finally, we find that JH acts through dopaminergic neurons and conclude that an ETH-JH-dopamine signaling cascade is required during a critical period for promotion of social-context-dependent memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius is Required for Food Intake Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Mergler, Blake D; Zimmer, Derek J; Turner, Christopher A; Reiner, David J; Schmidt, Heath D; Grill, Harvey J; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Alhough the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system is critical to energy balance control and is a target for obesity pharmacotherapies, the receptor-population-mediating effects of endogenous GLP-1 signaling are not fully understood. To address this, we developed a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV-GLP-1R) that utilizes short hairpin RNA to chronically knock down GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in rats. As pharmacological studies highlight the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) as a brain region important for GLP-1R-mediated effects on energy balance, AAV-GLP-1R was injected into the NTS to examine the role of endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control. Chow intake and meal size were significantly increased following chronic NTS GLP-1R knockdown. In addition, NTS GLP-1R knockdown significantly increased self-administration of palatable food under both fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Collectively, these data demonstrate that endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling is required for the control of food intake and motivation to feed, and provide a new strategy to investigate the importance of distinct GLP-1R populations in the control of a variety of functions.

  20. SDCCAG8 Interacts with RAB Effector Proteins RABEP2 and ERC1 and Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannar Airik

    Full Text Available Recessive mutations in the SDCCAG8 gene cause a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-like features in humans. Our previous characterization of the orthologous Sdccag8gt/gt mouse model recapitulated the retinal-renal disease phenotypes and identified impaired DNA damage response signaling as an underlying disease mechanism in the kidney. However, several other phenotypic and mechanistic features of Sdccag8gt/gt mice remained unexplored. Here we show that Sdccag8gt/gt mice exhibit developmental and structural abnormalities of the skeleton and limbs, suggesting impaired Hedgehog (Hh signaling. Indeed, cell culture studies demonstrate the requirement of SDCCAG8 for ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Using an affinity proteomics approach, we demonstrate that SDCCAG8 interacts with proteins of the centriolar satellites (OFD1, AZI1, of the endosomal sorting complex (RABEP2, ERC1, and with non-muscle myosin motor proteins (MYH9, MYH10, MYH14 at the centrosome. Furthermore, we show that RABEP2 localization at the centrosome is regulated by SDCCAG8. siRNA mediated RABEP2 knockdown in hTERT-RPE1 cells leads to defective ciliogenesis, indicating a critical role for RABEP2 in this process. Together, this study identifies several centrosome-associated proteins as novel SDCCAG8 interaction partners, and provides new insights into the function of SDCCAG8 at this structure.

  1. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  2. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  3. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  4. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  5. Low complexity lossless compression of underwater sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Partan, Jim; Hurst, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous listening devices are increasingly used to study vocal aquatic animals, and there is a constant need to record longer or with greater bandwidth, requiring efficient use of memory and battery power. Real-time compression of sound has the potential to extend recording durations and bandwidths at the expense of increased processing operations and therefore power consumption. Whereas lossy methods such as MP3 introduce undesirable artifacts, lossless compression algorithms (e.g., flac) guarantee exact data recovery. But these algorithms are relatively complex due to the wide variety of signals they are designed to compress. A simpler lossless algorithm is shown here to provide compression factors of three or more for underwater sound recordings over a range of noise environments. The compressor was evaluated using samples from drifting and animal-borne sound recorders with sampling rates of 16-240 kHz. It achieves >87% of the compression of more-complex methods but requires about 1/10 of the processing operations resulting in less than 1 mW power consumption at a sampling rate of 192 kHz on a low-power microprocessor. The potential to triple recording duration with a minor increase in power consumption and no loss in sound quality may be especially valuable for battery-limited tags and robotic vehicles.

  6. Differentiation of the lateral compartment of the cochlea requires a temporally restricted FGF20 signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Huh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of age-related hearing loss is caused by loss or damage to outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The organ of Corti is the mechanosensory transducing apparatus in the inner ear and is composed of inner hair cells, outer hair cells, and highly specialized supporting cells. The mechanisms that regulate differentiation of inner and outer hair cells are not known. Here we report that fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20 is required for differentiation of cells in the lateral cochlear compartment (outer hair and supporting cells within the organ of Corti during a specific developmental time. In the absence of FGF20, mice are deaf and lateral compartment cells remain undifferentiated, postmitotic, and unresponsive to Notch-dependent lateral inhibition. These studies identify developmentally distinct medial (inner hair and supporting cells and lateral compartments in the developing organ of Corti. The viability and hearing loss in Fgf20 knockout mice suggest that FGF20 may also be a deafness-associated gene in humans.

  7. Slit2 signaling through Robo1 and Robo2 is required for retinal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Nicolas; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; Chárthaigh, Róisín-Ana Ní; Genet, Gael; Cristofaro, Brunella; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Ma, Le; Eichmann, Anne; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascular diseases are a leading cause of blindness. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade improves vision, but not all individuals respond to anti-VEGF treatment, making additional means to prevent neovascularization necessary. Slit-family proteins (Slits) are ligands of Roundabout (Robo) receptors that repel developing axons in the nervous system. Robo1 expression is altered in ocular neovascular diseases, and previous in vitro studies have reported both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects of Slits. However, genetic evidence supporting a role for Slits in ocular neovascularization is lacking. Here we generated conditional knockout mice deficient in various Slit and Robo proteins and found that Slit2 potently and selectively promoted angiogenesis via Robo1 and Robo2 in mouse postnatal retina and in a model of ocular neovascular disease. Mechanistically, Slit2 acting through Robo1 and Robo2 promoted the migration of endothelial cells. These receptors are required for both Slit2- and VEGF-induced Rac1 activation and lamellipodia formation. Thus, Slit2 blockade could potentially be used therapeutically to inhibit angiogenesis in individuals with ocular neovascular disease. PMID:25894826

  8. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2017-05-11

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.

  9. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  10. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of κB kinase complex-ε (IKKε), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-κB activity or p-IκBα induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-κB signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  11. Combinatorial Modulation of Signaling Pathways Reveals Cell-Type-Specific Requirements for Highly Efficient and Synchronous iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E. Vidal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated state of somatic cells provides barriers for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. To address why some cell types reprogram more readily than others, we studied the effect of combined modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Surprisingly, inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β together with activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of ascorbic acid allows >80% of murine fibroblasts to acquire pluripotency after 1 week of reprogramming factor expression. In contrast, hepatic and blood progenitors predominantly required only TGF-β inhibition or canonical Wnt activation, respectively, to reprogram at efficiencies approaching 100%. Strikingly, blood progenitors reactivated endogenous pluripotency loci in a highly synchronous manner, and we demonstrate that expression of specific chromatin-modifying enzymes and reduced TGF-β/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase activity are intrinsic properties associated with the unique reprogramming response of these cells. Our observations define cell-type-specific requirements for the rapid and synchronous reprogramming of somatic cells.

  12. Euglycemia Restoration by Central Leptin in Type 1 Diabetes Requires STAT3 Signaling but Not Fast-Acting Neurotransmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Chang, Jeffrey T; Myers, Martin G; Xu, Yong; Tong, Qingchun

    2016-04-01

    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted leptin-phosphorylated STAT3 signaling to test the effect of central leptin on euglycemia restoration. These mice developed streptozocin-induced T1D, which was surprisingly not associated with hyperglucagonemia, a typical manifestation in T1D. Further, leptin action on euglycemia restoration was abrogated in these mice, which was associated with refractory hypercorticosteronemia. To examine the role of fast-acting neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two major neurotransmitters in the brain, from leptin receptor (LepR) neurons, we used mice with disrupted release of glutamate, GABA, or both from LepR neurons. Surprisingly, all mice responded normally to leptin-mediated euglycemia restoration, which was associated with expected correction from hyperglucagonemia and hyperphagia. In contrast, mice with loss of glutamate and GABA appeared to develop an additive obesity effect over those with loss of single neurotransmitter release. Thus, our study reveals that STAT3 signaling, but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release, is required for leptin action on euglycemia restoration and that hyperglucagonemia is not required for T1D. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  14. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  15. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  16. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  17. The vitamin D receptor is required for activation of cWnt and hedgehog signaling in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Saini, Vaibhav; Zhao, Hengguang; Luderer, Hilary F; Gori, Francesca; Demay, Marie B

    2014-10-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice is due to absence of ligand-independent actions of the VDR that are required for initiation of postmorphogenic hair cycles. Investigations were undertaken to determine whether the VDR is required for the induction of signaling pathways that play an important role in this process. The induction of cWnt and hedgehog target genes that characterizes early anagen was found to be dramatically attenuated in VDR(-/-) mice, relative to wild-type (WT) mice. To determine whether this reflects impaired responsiveness to cWnt ligands, in vitro studies were performed in primary keratinocytes. These studies demonstrated impaired induction of cWnt target genes in response to Wnt3a in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes, relative to wild-type keratinocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that the VDR was recruited to the regulatory regions of cWnt and hedgehog target genes in WT keratinocytes but not in VDR(-/-) or Lef1(-/-) keratinocytes. Lef1 was enriched on these same regulatory regions in WT keratinocytes but not in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes. In vivo studies were performed to determine whether activation of the hedgehog pathway could bypass the defect in cWnt signaling observed in the absence of the unliganded VDR. In WT, but not VDR(-/-), mice, hedgehog agonist treatment resulted in an induction of cWnt and hedgehog target genes and the generation of mature anagen hair follicles. Thus, these studies demonstrate that the unliganded VDR interacts with regulatory regions in the cWnt and hedgehog target genes and is required for the induction of these pathways during the postnatal hair cycle.

  18. Tyrosine phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of Notch are required for non-canonical Notch/Abl signaling in Drosophila axon guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Cox, Eric; Wang, Lei; Kuzina, Irina; Gu, Qun; Giniger, Edward

    2018-01-17

    Notch signaling is required for the development and physiology of nearly every tissue in metazoans. Much of Notch signaling is mediated by transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes, but Notch controls axon patterning in Drosophila by local modulation of Abl tyrosine kinase signaling, via direct interactions with the Abl co-factors Disabled and Trio. Here, we show that Notch-Abl axonal signaling requires both of the proteolytic cleavage events that initiate canonical Notch signaling. We further show that some Notch protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in Drosophila , that this form of the protein is selectively associated with Disabled and Trio, and that relevant tyrosines are essential for Notch-dependent axon patterning but not for canonical Notch-dependent regulation of cell fate. Based on these data, we propose a model for the molecular mechanism by which Notch controls Abl signaling in Drosophila axons. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Pdlim7 is required for maintenance of the mesenchymal/epidermal Fgf signaling feedback loop during zebrafish pectoral fin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosowiak Julian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate limb development involves a reciprocal feedback loop between limb mesenchyme and the overlying apical ectodermal ridge (AER. Several gene pathways participate in this feedback loop, including Fgf signaling. In the forelimb lateral plate mesenchyme, Tbx5 activates Fgf10 expression, which in turn initiates and maintains the mesenchyme/AER Fgf signaling loop. Recent findings have revealed that Tbx5 transcriptional activity is regulated by dynamic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and interaction with Pdlim7, a PDZ-LIM protein family member, along actin filaments. This Tbx5 regulation is critical in heart formation, but the coexpression of both proteins in other developing tissues suggests a broader functional role. Results Knock-down of Pdlim7 function leads to decreased pectoral fin cell proliferation resulting in a severely stunted fin phenotype. While early gene induction and patterning in the presumptive fin field appear normal, the pectoral fin precursor cells display compaction and migration defects between 18 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf. During fin growth fgf24 is sequentially expressed in the mesenchyme and then in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER. However, in pdlim7 antisense morpholino-treated embryos this switch of expression is prevented and fgf24 remains ectopically active in the mesenchymal cells. Along with the lack of fgf24 in the AER, other critical factors including fgf8 are reduced, suggesting signaling problems to the underlying mesenchyme. As a consequence of perturbed AER function in the absence of Pdlim7, pathway components in the fin mesenchyme are misregulated or absent, indicating a breakdown of the Fgf signaling feedback loop, which is ultimately responsible for the loss of fin outgrowth. Conclusion This work provides the first evidence for the involvement of Pdlim7 in pectoral fin development. Proper fin outgrowth requires fgf24 downregulation in the fin mesenchyme with subsequent

  20. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  1. An Elk transcription factor is required for Runx-dependent survival signaling in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Coffman, James A; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2016-08-01

    Elk proteins are Ets family transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in response to ERK (extracellular-signal regulated kinase)-mediated phosphorylation. Here we report the embryonic expression and function of Sp-Elk, the single Elk gene of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Sp-Elk is zygotically expressed throughout the embryo beginning at late cleavage stage, with peak expression occurring at blastula stage. Morpholino antisense-mediated knockdown of Sp-Elk causes blastula-stage developmental arrest and embryo disintegration due to apoptosis, a phenotype that is rescued by wild-type Elk mRNA. Development is also rescued by Elk mRNA encoding a serine to aspartic acid substitution (S402D) that mimics ERK-mediated phosphorylation of a conserved site that enhances DNA binding, but not by Elk mRNA encoding an alanine substitution at the same site (S402A). This demonstrates both that the apoptotic phenotype of the morphants is specifically caused by Elk depletion, and that phosphorylation of serine 402 of Sp-Elk is critical for its anti-apoptotic function. Knockdown of Sp-Elk results in under-expression of several regulatory genes involved in cell fate specification, cell cycle control, and survival signaling, including the transcriptional regulator Sp-Runt-1 and its target Sp-PKC1, both of which were shown previously to be required for cell survival during embryogenesis. Both Sp-Runt-1 and Sp-PKC1 have sequences upstream of their transcription start sites that specifically bind Sp-Elk. These results indicate that Sp-Elk is the signal-dependent activator of a feed-forward gene regulatory circuit, consisting also of Sp-Runt-1 and Sp-PKC1, which actively suppresses apoptosis in the early embryo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Requirement of the Mre11 complex and exonuclease 1 for activation of the Mec1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Daisuke; Hirano, Yukinori; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2004-11-01

    The large protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3-related (ATR), orchestrate DNA damage checkpoint pathways. In budding yeast, ATM and ATR homologs are encoded by TEL1 and MEC1, respectively. The Mre11 complex consists of two highly related proteins, Mre11 and Rad50, and a third protein, Xrs2 in budding yeast or Nbs1 in mammals. The Mre11 complex controls the ATM/Tel1 signaling pathway in response to double-strand break (DSB) induction. We show here that the Mre11 complex functions together with exonuclease 1 (Exo1) in activation of the Mec1 signaling pathway after DNA damage and replication block. Mec1 controls the checkpoint responses following UV irradiation as well as DSB induction. Correspondingly, the Mre11 complex and Exo1 play an overlapping role in activation of DSB- and UV-induced checkpoints. The Mre11 complex and Exo1 collaborate in producing long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails at DSB ends and promote Mec1 association with the DSBs. The Ddc1-Mec3-Rad17 complex associates with sites of DNA damage and modulates the Mec1 signaling pathway. However, Ddc1 association with DSBs does not require the function of the Mre11 complex and Exo1. Mec1 controls checkpoint responses to stalled DNA replication as well. Accordingly, the Mre11 complex and Exo1 contribute to activation of the replication checkpoint pathway. Our results provide a model in which the Mre11 complex and Exo1 cooperate in generating long ssDNA tracts and thereby facilitate Mec1 association with sites of DNA damage or replication block.

  3. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  4. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  5. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  6. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  7. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  8. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  9. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  10. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  11. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  12. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  13. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  14. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  15. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  16. Hyaluronan signaling during ozone-induced lung injury requires TLR4, MyD88, and TIRAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Li

    Full Text Available Ozone exposure is associated with exacerbation of reactive airways disease. We have previously reported that the damage-associated molecular pattern, hyaluronan, is required for the complete biological response to ambient ozone and that hyaluronan fragments signal through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. In this study, we further investigated the role of TLR4 adaptors in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and the direct response to hyaluronan fragments (HA. Using a murine model of AHR, C57BL/6J, TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, and TIRAP-/- mice were characterized for AHR after exposure to either ozone (1 ppm × 3 h or HA fragments. Animals were characterized for AHR with methacholine challenge, cellular inflammation, lung injury, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ozone-exposed C57BL/6J mice developed cellular inflammation, lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and AHR, while mice deficient in TLR4, MyD88 or TIRAP demonstrated both reduced AHR and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6 and KC. The level of hyaluronan was increased after inhalation of ozone in each strain of mice. Direct challenge of mice to hyaluronan resulted in AHR in C57BL/6J mice, but not in TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, or TIRAP-/- mice. HA-induced cytokine production in wild-type mice was significantly reduced in TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, or TIRAP-/- mice. In conclusion, our findings support that ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is dependent on the HA-TLR4-MyD88-TIRAP signaling pathway.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  18. Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Using Sound Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Johnson, M. A.

    2002-05-01

    The monthly and annual means from three Arctic ocean - sea ice climate model simulations are compared for the period 1979-1997. Sound speed is used to integrate model outputs of temperature and salinity along a section between Barrow and Franz Josef Land. A statistical approach is used to test for differences among the three models for two basic data subsets. We integrated and then analyzed an upper layer between 2 m - 50 m, and also a deep layer from 500 m to the bottom. The deep layer is characterized by low time-variability. No high-frequency signals appear in the deep layer having been filtered out in the upper layer. There is no seasonal signal in the deep layer and the monthly means insignificantly oscillate about the long-period mean. For the deep ocean the long-period mean can be considered quasi-constant, at least within the 19 year period of our analysis. Thus we assumed that the deep ocean would be the best choice for comparing the means of the model outputs. The upper (mixed) layer was chosen to contrast the deep layer dynamics. There are distinct seasonal and interannual signals in the sound speed time series in this layer. The mixed layer is a major link in the ocean - air interaction mechanism. Thus, different mean states of the upper layer in the models might cause different responses in other components of the Arctic climate system. The upper layer also strongly reflects any differences in atmosphere forcing. To compare data from the three models we have used a one-way t-test for the population mean, the Wilcoxon one-sample signed-rank test (when the requirement of normality of tested data is violated), and one-way ANOVA method and F-test to verify our hypothesis that the model outputs have the same mean sound speed. The different statistical approaches have shown that all models have different mean characteristics of the deep and upper layers of the Arctic Ocean.

  19. A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Parent, C A; Insall, R; Firtel, R A

    1999-09-01

    We have identified a novel Ras-interacting protein from Dictyostelium, RIP3, whose function is required for both chemotaxis and the synthesis and relay of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemoattractant signal. rip3 null cells are unable to aggregate and lack receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase but are able, in response to cAMP, to induce aggregation-stage, postaggregative, and cell-type-specific gene expression in suspension culture. In addition, rip3 null cells are unable to properly polarize in a cAMP gradient and chemotaxis is highly impaired. We demonstrate that cAMP stimulation of guanylyl cyclase, which is required for chemotaxis, is reduced approximately 60% in rip3 null cells. This reduced activation of guanylyl cyclase may account, in part, for the defect in chemotaxis. When cells are pulsed with cAMP for 5 h to mimic the endogenous cAMP oscillations that occur in wild-type strains, the cells will form aggregates, most of which, however, arrest at the mound stage. Unlike the response seen in wild-type strains, the rip3 null cell aggregates that form under these experimental conditions are very small, which is probably due to the rip3 null cell chemotaxis defect. Many of the phenotypes of the rip3 null cell, including the inability to activate adenylyl cyclase in response to cAMP and defects in chemotaxis, are very similar to those of strains carrying a disruption of the gene encoding the putative Ras exchange factor AleA. We demonstrate that aleA null cells also exhibit a defect in cAMP-mediated activation of guanylyl cyclase similar to that of rip3 null cells. A double-knockout mutant (rip3/aleA null cells) exhibits a further reduction in receptor activation of guanylyl cyclase, and these cells display almost no cell polarization or movement in cAMP gradients. As RIP3 preferentially interacts with an activated form of the Dictyostelium Ras protein RasG, which itself is important for cell movement, we propose that RIP3 and AleA are components of a Ras

  20. Toward Inverse Control of Physics-Based Sound Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfalz, A.; Berdahl, E.

    2017-05-01

    Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs) can be trained to realize inverse control of physics-based sound synthesizers. Physics-based sound synthesizers simulate the laws of physics to produce output sound according to input gesture signals. When a user's gestures are measured in real time, she or he can use them to control physics-based sound synthesizers, thereby creating simulated virtual instruments. An intriguing question is how to program a computer to learn to play such physics-based models. This work demonstrates that LSTMs can be trained to accomplish this inverse control task with four physics-based sound synthesizers.

  1. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  2. Oryza sativa Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle 43 (OscpSRP43 Is Required for Chloroplast Development and Photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-guang Lv

    Full Text Available A rice chlorophyll-deficient mutant w67 was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS-induced IR64 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica mutant bank. The mutant exhibited a distinct yellow-green leaf phenotype in the whole plant growth duration with significantly reduced levels of chlorophyll and carotenoid, impaired chloroplast development and lowered capacity of photosynthesis compared with the wild-type IR64. Expression of a number of genes associated with chlorophyll metabolism, chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis was significantly altered in the mutant. Genetic analysis indicated that the yellow-green phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene located on the short arm of chromosome 3. Using map-based strategy, the mutation was isolated and predicted to encode a chloroplast signal recognition particle 43 KD protein (cpSRP43 with 388 amino acid residuals. A single base substitution from A to T at position 160 resulted in a premature stop codon. OscpSRP43 was constitutively expressed in various organs with the highest level in the leaf. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype and subcellular localization showed that the cpSRP43:GFP fusion protein was targeted to the chloroplast. The data suggested that Oryza sativa cpSRP43 (OscpSRP43 was required for the normal development of chloroplasts and photosynthesis in rice.

  3. Short- and long-term memory in Drosophila require cAMP signaling in distinct neuron types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Allison L; Li, Wanhe; Cressy, Mike; Dubnau, Josh

    2009-08-25

    A common feature of memory and its underlying synaptic plasticity is that each can be dissected into short-lived forms involving modification or trafficking of existing proteins and long-term forms that require new gene expression. An underlying assumption of this cellular view of memory consolidation is that these different mechanisms occur within a single neuron. At the neuroanatomical level, however, different temporal stages of memory can engage distinct neural circuits, a notion that has not been conceptually integrated with the cellular view. Here, we investigated this issue in the context of aversive Pavlovian olfactory memory in Drosophila. Previous studies have demonstrated a central role for cAMP signaling in the mushroom body (MB). The Ca(2+)-responsive adenylyl cyclase RUTABAGA is believed to be a coincidence detector in gamma neurons, one of the three principle classes of MB Kenyon cells. We were able to separately restore short-term or long-term memory to a rutabaga mutant with expression of rutabaga in different subsets of MB neurons. Our findings suggest a model in which the learning experience initiates two parallel associations: a short-lived trace in MB gamma neurons, and a long-lived trace in alpha/beta neurons.

  4. JAK/STAT-1 Signaling Is Required for Reserve Intestinal Stem Cell Activation during Intestinal Regeneration Following Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla A. Richmond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium serves as an essential barrier to the outside world and is maintained by functionally distinct populations of rapidly cycling intestinal stem cells (CBC ISCs and slowly cycling, reserve ISCs (r-ISCs. Because disruptions in the epithelial barrier can result from pathological activation of the immune system, we sought to investigate the impact of inflammation on ISC behavior during the regenerative response. In a murine model of αCD3 antibody-induced small-intestinal inflammation, r-ISCs proved highly resistant to injury, while CBC ISCs underwent apoptosis. Moreover, r-ISCs were induced to proliferate and functionally contribute to intestinal regeneration. Further analysis revealed that the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha led to r-ISC activation in enteroid culture, which could be blocked by the JAK/STAT inhibitor, tofacitinib. These results highlight an important role for r-ISCs in response to acute intestinal inflammation and show that JAK/STAT-1 signaling is required for the r-ISC regenerative response.

  5. Detecting the temporal structure of sound sequences in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Háden, G.P.; Honing, H.; Török, M.; Winkler, I.

    2015-01-01

    Most high-level auditory functions require one to detect the onset and offset of sound sequences as well as registering the rate at which sounds are presented within the sound trains. By recording event-related brain potentials to onsets and offsets of tone trains as well as to changes in the

  6. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  7. A late requirement for Wnt and FGF signalling during activin-induced formation of foregut endoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Mattias; Petersen, Dorthe Rønn; Peterslund, Janny M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here we examine how BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling modulate activin-induced mesendodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells grown under defined conditions in adherent monoculture. We monitor ES cells containing reporter genes for markers of primitive streak (PS) and its progeny and extend previous...... is found at the lowest activin concentration. The expression of Gsc and other anterior markers induced by activin is prevented by treatment with BMP4, which induces T expression and subsequent mesodermal development. We show that canonical Wnt signaling is required only during late stages of activin....... Notably, activin induction of Gsc-GFP(+) cells appears refractory to inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling but shows a dependence on early as well as late FGF signaling. Additionally, we find a late dependence on FGF signaling during induction of Sox17(+) cells by activin while BMP4-induced T expression...

  8. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  9. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured and interpola......In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...... and moving sound sources. A criterion was found that predicts the experimental results. This criterion was used to estimate the directional resolution required in binaural synthesis for all directions on the sphere around the head....

  10. Vespertilionid bats control the width of their biosonar sound beam dynamically during prey pursuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Animals using sound for communication emit directional signals, focusing most acoustic energy in one direction. Echolocating bats are listening for soft echoes from insects. Therefore, a directional biosonar sound beam greatly increases detection probability in the forward direction and decreases...

  11. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    OpenAIRE

    G. Heinemann; P. Preusse; R. Spang; S. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI) mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tr...

  12. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is required for TGF-β/Smad2/3 signalling during myofibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Cui, Wen-Hui; Zhou, Wen-Cheng; Li, De-Lin; Li, Liu-Cheng; Zhao, Ping; Mo, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Zhihui; Gao, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Fibrosis in animal models and human diseases is associated with aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Despite extensive research efforts, effective therapies are still not available. Myofibroblasts are major effectors, responsible for extracellular matrix deposition. Inhibiting the proliferation of the myofibroblast is crucial for treatment of fibrosis. Proliferation of myofibroblasts can have many triggering effects that result in fibrosis. In recent years, the Wnt pathway has been studied as an underlying factor as a primary contributor to fibrotic diseases. These efforts notwithstanding, the specific mechanisms by which Wnt-mediated promotes fibrosis reaction remain obscure. The central role of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and myofibroblast activity in the pathogenesis of fibrosis has become generally accepted. The details of interaction between these two processes are not obvious. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the level of sustained expression of fibrosis iconic proteins (vimentin, α-SMA and collagen I) and the TGF-β signalling pathway that include smad2/3 and its phosphorylated form p-smad2/3. Detailed analysis of the possible molecular mechanisms mediated by β-catenin revealed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and additionally demonstrated transitions of fibroblasts to myofibroblast cell forms, along with increased activity of β-catenin in regulation of the signalling network, which acts to counteract autocrine TGF-β/smad2/3 signalling. A major outcome of this study is improved insight into the mechanisms by which epithelial and mesenchymal cells activated by TGFβ1-smad2/3 signalling through Wnt/β-catenin contribute to lung fibrosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  14. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  15. Mechanical stimuli activation of calpain is required for myoblast differentiation and occurs via an ERK/MAP kinase signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2006-01-01

    a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have shown that mechanical signals transmitted through the C2C12 cells interaction with laminin cause an increase in cellular differentiation. This signaling results in an increase in the number of myotubes formed in the cultures...

  16. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  17. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  18. Leptin Signaling Is Required for Adaptive Changes in Food Intake, but Not Energy Expenditure, in Response to Different Thermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Morton, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25756181

  19. Astrocyte IKKβ/NF-κB signaling is required for diet-induced obesity and hypothalamic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Douglass

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD consumption in rodents is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis. While neuronal inflammation promotes HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction, the role of astrocyte activation in susceptibility to hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced obesity (DIO remains uncertain. Methods: Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were performed on HFD-fed mice with a tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IKKβ (GfapCreERIkbkbfl/fl, IKKβ-AKO, an essential cofactor of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Results: IKKβ-AKO mice with tamoxifen-induced IKKβ deletion prior to HFD exposure showed equivalent HFD-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance as Ikbkbfl/fl littermate controls. In GfapCreERTdTomato marker mice treated using the same protocol, minimal Cre-mediated recombination was observed in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH. By contrast, mice pretreated with 6 weeks of HFD exposure prior to tamoxifen administration showed substantially increased recombination throughout the MBH. Remarkably, this treatment approach protected IKKβ-AKO mice from further weight gain through an immediate reduction of food intake and increase of energy expenditure. Astrocyte IKKβ deletion after HFD exposure—but not before—also reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, likely as a consequence of lower adiposity. Finally, both hypothalamic inflammation and astrocytosis were reduced in HFD-fed IKKβ-AKO mice. Conclusions: These data support a requirement for astrocytic inflammatory signaling in HFD-induced hyperphagia and DIO susceptibility that may provide a novel target for obesity therapeutics. Keywords: Obesity, Astrocytes, Inflammation, Metabolism, Hypothalamus, Energy homeostasis

  20. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  1. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  2. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  3. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  4. Measuring the speed of sound in air using smartphone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, A.

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a revised version of an old experiment available in many textbooks for measuring the speed of sound in air. A signal-generator application in a smartphone is used to produce the desired sound frequency. Nodes of sound waves in a glass pipe, of which one end is immersed in water, are more easily detected, so results can be obtained more quickly than from traditional acoustic experiments using tuning forks.

  5. Neuromimetic Sound Representation for Percept Detection and Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Taishih

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic wave received at the ears is processed by the human auditory system to separate different sounds along the intensity, pitch, and timbre dimensions. Conventional Fourier-based signal processing, while endowed with fast algorithms, is unable to easily represent a signal along these attributes. In this paper, we discuss the creation of maximally separable sounds in auditory user interfaces and use a recently proposed cortical sound representation, which performs a biomimetic decomposition of an acoustic signal, to represent and manipulate sound for this purpose. We briefly overview algorithms for obtaining, manipulating, and inverting a cortical representation of a sound and describe algorithms for manipulating signal pitch and timbre separately. The algorithms are also used to create sound of an instrument between a "guitar" and a "trumpet." Excellent sound quality can be achieved if processing time is not a concern, and intelligible signals can be reconstructed in reasonable processing time (about ten seconds of computational time for a one-second signal sampled at . Work on bringing the algorithms into the real-time processing domain is ongoing.

  6. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  7. Acoustic cardiac signals analysis: a Kalman filter–based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh SH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheik Hussain Salleh,1 Hadrina Sheik Hussain,2 Tan Tian Swee,2 Chee-Ming Ting,2 Alias Mohd Noor,2 Surasak Pipatsart,3 Jalil Ali,4 Preecha P Yupapin31Department of Biomedical Instrumentation and Signal Processing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia; 2Centre for Biomedical Engineering Transportation Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: Auscultation of the heart is accompanied by both electrical activity and sound. Heart auscultation provides clues to diagnose many cardiac abnormalities. Unfortunately, detection of relevant symptoms and diagnosis based on heart sound through a stethoscope is difficult. The reason GPs find this difficult is that the heart sounds are of short duration and separated from one another by less than 30 ms. In addition, the cost of false positives constitutes wasted time and emotional anxiety for both patient and GP. Many heart diseases cause changes in heart sound, waveform, and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Heart-sound auscultation is the primary test conducted by GPs. These sounds are generated primarily by turbulent flow of blood in the heart. Analysis of heart sounds requires a quiet environment with minimum ambient noise. In order to address such issues, the technique of denoising and estimating the biomedical heart signal is proposed in this investigation. Normally, the performance of the filter naturally depends on prior information related to the statistical properties of the signal and the background noise. This paper proposes Kalman filtering for denoising statistical heart sound. The cycles of heart sounds are certain to follow first-order Gauss–Markov process. These cycles are observed with additional noise

  8. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-08-18

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR-VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome-lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR-VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. © 2015 Authors.

  9. Racl Signaling Is Required for Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Is Dysregulated in Insulin-Resistant Murine and Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, L.; Jensen, T. E.; Kleinert, M.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase Racl is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured muscle cells. However, involvement of Racl and its downstream signaling in glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mature skeletal muscle has not previously been i...

  10. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  11. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  12. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  13. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  14. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  15. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  16. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  17. Adaptive RD Optimized Hybrid Sound Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, N.H. van; Bensa, J.; Christensen, M.G.; Colomes, C.; Edler, B.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.; Kleijn, W.B.; Kot, V.; Kövesi, B.; Lindblom, J.; Massaloux, D.; Niamut, O.A.; Nordén, F.; Plasberg, J.H.; Vafin, R.; Virette, D.; Wübbolt, O.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, sound codecs have been developed with a particular application in mind, their performance being optimized for specific types of input signals, such as speech or audio (music), and application constraints, such as low bit rate, high quality, or low delay. There is, however, an

  18. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  19. Applying cybernetic technology to diagnose human pulmonary sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Chou, Cheng-Han

    2014-06-01

    Chest auscultation is a crucial and efficient method for diagnosing lung disease; however, it is a subjective process that relies on physician experience and the ability to differentiate between various sound patterns. Because the physiological signals composed of heart sounds and pulmonary sounds (PSs) are greater than 120 Hz and the human ear is not sensitive to low frequencies, successfully making diagnostic classifications is difficult. To solve this problem, we constructed various PS recognition systems for classifying six PS classes: vesicular breath sounds, bronchial breath sounds, tracheal breath sounds, crackles, wheezes, and stridor sounds. First, we used a piezoelectric microphone and data acquisition card to acquire PS signals and perform signal preprocessing. A wavelet transform was used for feature extraction, and the PS signals were decomposed into frequency subbands. Using a statistical method, we extracted 17 features that were used as the input vectors of a neural network. We proposed a 2-stage classifier combined with a back-propagation (BP) neural network and learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, which improves classification accuracy by using a haploid neural network. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve verifies the high performance level of the neural network. To expand traditional auscultation methods, we constructed various PS diagnostic systems that can correctly classify the six common PSs. The proposed device overcomes the lack of human sensitivity to low-frequency sounds and various PS waves, characteristic values, and a spectral analysis charts are provided to elucidate the design of the human-machine interface.

  20. Portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiev, Rustam; Glazova, Anna; Olyinik, Valery; Makarenkova, Anastasiia; Makarenkov, Anatolii; Rakhimov, Abdulvosid; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    A portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis has been developed, including the original electronic stethoscope coupled with mobile devices and special algorithms for the automated analysis of pulmonary sound signals. It's planned that the developed system will be used for monitoring of health status of patients with various pulmonary diseases.

  1. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Julie; Lam, Geanette; Ortiz, José A; Losson, Régine; Thummel, Carl S

    2004-01-01

    Pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone trigger the major developmental transitions in Drosophila, including molting and puparium formation. The ecdysone signal is transduced by the EcR/USP nuclear receptor heterodimer that binds to specific response elements in the genome and directly regulates target gene transcription. We describe a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein encoded by rigor mortis (rig) that is required for ecdysone responses during larval development. rig mutants display defects in molting, delayed larval development, larval lethality, duplicated mouth parts, and defects in puparium formation--phenotypes that resemble those seen in EcR, usp, E75A and betaFTZ-F1 mutants. Although the expression of these nuclear receptor genes is essentially normal in rig mutant larvae, the ecdysone-triggered switch in E74 isoform expression is defective. rig encodes a protein with multiple WD-40 repeats and an LXXLL motif, sequences that act as specific protein-protein interaction domains. Consistent with the presence of these elements and the lethal phenotypes of rig mutants, Rig protein interacts with several Drosophila nuclear receptors in GST pull-down experiments, including EcR, USP, DHR3, SVP and betaFTZ-F1. The ligand binding domain of betaFTZ-F1 is sufficient for this interaction, which can occur in an AF-2-independent manner. Antibody stains reveal that Rig protein is present in the brain and imaginal discs of second and third instar larvae, where it is restricted to the cytoplasm. In larval salivary gland and midgut cells, however, Rig shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, at times that correlate with the major lethal phase of rig mutants and major switches in ecdysone-regulated gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that rig exerts essential functions during larval development through gene-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated transcription, most likely as a cofactor for one or more

  2. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  3. Non-Canonical Hedgehog Signaling Is a Positive Regulator of the WNT Pathway and Is Required for the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Regan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-positive CSCs. Canonical GLI-dependent Hedgehog signaling is a negative regulator of WNT signaling in normal intestine and intestinal tumors. Here, we show that Hedgehog signaling in colon CSCs is autocrine SHH-dependent, non-canonical PTCH1 dependent, and GLI independent. In addition, using small-molecule inhibitors and RNAi against SHH-palmitoylating Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT, we demonstrate that non-canonical Hedgehog signaling is a positive regulator of WNT signaling and required for colon CSC survival. : Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation(s of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs. Regan et al. use 3D culture models to demonstrate that CSC survival is regulated by non-canonical, SHH-dependent, PTCH1-dependent Hedgehog signaling, which acts as a positive regulator of WNT signaling to block CSC differentiation. Keywords: WNT pathway, non-canonical Hedgehog signaling, cancer stem cell, colon cancer, cancer organoid, PTCH1, HHAT, SHH

  4. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E.

    2018-02-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a simple method for visualizing angular dependence in sound fields, made possible via the confluence of sensors available via a new smartphone app that the authors have developed.

  5. TRPP2-dependent Ca2+ signaling in dorso-lateral mesoderm is required for kidney field establishment in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futel, Mélinée; Leclerc, Catherine; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Buisson, Isabelle; Néant, Isabelle; Umbhauer, Muriel; Moreau, Marc; Riou, Jean-François

    2015-03-01

    In Xenopus laevis embryos, kidney field specification is dependent on retinoic acid (RA) and coincides with a dramatic increase of Ca(2+) transients, but the role of Ca(2+) signaling in the kidney field is unknown. Here, we identify TRPP2, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of channel proteins encoded by the pkd2 gene, as a central component of Ca(2+) signaling in the kidney field. TRPP2 is strongly expressed at the plasma membrane where it might regulate extracellular Ca(2+) entry. Knockdown of pkd2 in the kidney field results in the downregulation of pax8, but not of other kidney field genes (lhx1, osr1 and osr2). We further show that inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling with an inducible Ca(2+) chelator also causes downregulation of pax8, and that pkd2 knockdown results in a severe inhibition of Ca(2+) transients in kidney field explants. Finally, we show that disruption of RA results both in an inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and of TRPP2 incorporation into the plasma membrane of kidney field cells. We propose that TRPP2-dependent Ca(2+) signaling is a key component of pax8 regulation in the kidney field downstream of RA-mediated non-transcriptional control of TRPP2. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  7. Retinoic acid signalling is required for the pathogenicity of effector CD4+ T cells during the development of intestinal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Pool, Lieneke; Frising, Ulrika

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) seems to be a double-edge sword in CD4+ T cell biology, sustaining the development of foxp3+ Treg cells, but also being essential for the stability of the Th1 lineage. Here we explored the role of RA signalling in CD4+ T cells during the development...... of intestinal inflammation in the T cell transfer colitis model. RA signalling-deficient CD4+ T cells are less potent at inducing intestinal inflammation compared to their RA signalling-proficient counterparts and exhibit a differentiation skewing towards more IL-17+ and foxp3+ cells, while their capacity......-deficient and –proficient Tregs are equally competent to inhibit colitis development. Together our results indicate that RA, through its receptor RARα, negatively regulates the early expansion of CD4+ T cells during colitis and is necessary for the generation of colitogenic Th1/Th17 cells, while it is dispensable...

  8. Notch signaling is required for maintaining stem-cell features of neuroprogenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyung-Min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have provided important findings about the roles of Notch signaling in neural development. Unfortunately, however, most of these studies have investigated the neural stem cells (NSCs of mice or other laboratory animals rather than humans, mainly owing to the difficulties associated with obtaining human brain samples. It prompted us to focus on neuroectodermal spheres (NESs which are derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC and densely inhabited by NSCs. We here investigated the role of Notch signaling with the hESC-derived NESs. Results From hESCs, we derived NESs, the in-vitro version of brain-derived neurospheres. NES formation was confirmed by increased levels of various NSC marker genes and the emergence of rosette structures in which neuroprogenitors are known to reside. We found that Notch signaling, which maintains stem cell characteristics of in-vivo-derived neuroprogenitors, is active in these hESC-derived NESs, similar to their in-vivo counterpart. Expression levels of Notch signaling molecules such as NICD, DLLs, JAG1, HES1 and HES5 were increased in the NESs. Inhibition of the Notch signaling by a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced rosette structures, expression levels of NSC marker genes and proliferation potential in the NESs, and, if combined with withdrawal of growth factors, triggered differentiation toward neurons. Conclusion Our results indicate that the hESC-derived NESs, which share biochemical features with brain-derived neurospheres, maintain stem cell characteristics mainly through Notch signaling, which suggests that the hESC-derived NESs could be an in-vitro model for in-vivo neurogenesis.

  9. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  10. Artificial neural networks for breathing and snoring episode detection in sleep sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Abeyratne, Udantha R; Chen, Yongjian; Kawata, Ikuji

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious disorder characterized by intermittent events of upper airway collapse during sleep. Snoring is the most common nocturnal symptom of OSA. Almost all OSA patients snore, but not all snorers have the disease. Recently, researchers have attempted to develop automated snore analysis technology for the purpose of OSA diagnosis. These technologies commonly require, as the first step, the automated identification of snore/breathing episodes (SBE) in sleep sound recordings. Snore intensity may occupy a wide dynamic range (>95 dB) spanning from the barely audible to loud sounds. Low-intensity SBE sounds are sometimes seen buried within the background noise floor, even in high-fidelity sound recordings made within a sleep laboratory. The complexity of SBE sounds makes it a challenging task to develop automated snore segmentation algorithms, especially in the presence of background noise. In this paper, we propose a fundamentally novel approach based on artificial neural network (ANN) technology to detect SBEs. Working on clinical data, we show that the proposed method can detect SBE at a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 0.892 and 0.874 respectively, even when the signal is completely buried in background noise (SNR <0 dB). We compare the performance of the proposed technology with those of the existing methods (short-term energy, zero-crossing rates) and illustrate that the proposed method vastly outperforms conventional techniques. (paper)

  11. The Extent to Which Methyl Salicylate Is Required for Signaling Systemic Acquired Resistance Is Dependent on Exposure to Light after Infection1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Pu; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a state of heightened defense to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is activated throughout a plant following local infection. Development of SAR requires the translocation of one or more mobile signals from the site of infection through the vascular system to distal (systemic) tissues. The first such signal identified was methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Subsequent studies demonstrated that MeSA also serves as a SAR signal in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). By contrast, another study suggested that MeSA is not required for SAR in Arabidopsis and raised questions regarding its signaling role in tobacco. Differences in experimental design, including the developmental age of the plants, the light intensity, and/or the strain of bacterial pathogen, were proposed to explain these conflicting results. Here, we demonstrate that the length of light exposure that plants receive after the primary infection determines the extent to which MeSA is required for SAR signaling. When the primary infection occurred late in the day and as a result infected plants received very little light exposure before entering the night/dark period, MeSA and its metabolizing enzymes were essential for SAR development. In contrast, when infection was done in the morning followed by 3.5 h or more of exposure to light, SAR developed in the absence of MeSA. However, MeSA was generally required for optimal SAR development. In addition to resolving the conflicting results concerning MeSA and SAR, this study underscores the importance of environmental factors on the plant’s response to infection. PMID:22021417

  12. The extent to which methyl salicylate is required for signaling systemic acquired resistance is dependent on exposure to light after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Pu; von Dahl, Caroline C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2011-12-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a state of heightened defense to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is activated throughout a plant following local infection. Development of SAR requires the translocation of one or more mobile signals from the site of infection through the vascular system to distal (systemic) tissues. The first such signal identified was methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Subsequent studies demonstrated that MeSA also serves as a SAR signal in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). By contrast, another study suggested that MeSA is not required for SAR in Arabidopsis and raised questions regarding its signaling role in tobacco. Differences in experimental design, including the developmental age of the plants, the light intensity, and/or the strain of bacterial pathogen, were proposed to explain these conflicting results. Here, we demonstrate that the length of light exposure that plants receive after the primary infection determines the extent to which MeSA is required for SAR signaling. When the primary infection occurred late in the day and as a result infected plants received very little light exposure before entering the night/dark period, MeSA and its metabolizing enzymes were essential for SAR development. In contrast, when infection was done in the morning followed by 3.5 h or more of exposure to light, SAR developed in the absence of MeSA. However, MeSA was generally required for optimal SAR development. In addition to resolving the conflicting results concerning MeSA and SAR, this study underscores the importance of environmental factors on the plant's response to infection.

  13. Ultrasound sounding in air by fast-moving receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D.; Erzakova, N.

    2018-05-01

    A method of ultrasound imaging in the air for a fast receiver. The case, when the speed of movement of the receiver can not be neglected with respect to the speed of sound. In this case, the Doppler effect is significant, making it difficult for matched filtering of the backscattered signal. The proposed method does not use a continuous repetitive noise-sounding signal. generalized approach applies spatial matched filtering in the time domain to recover the ultrasonic tomographic images.

  14. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  15. Focal adhesion kinase is required for intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis downstream of Wnt/c-Myc signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Gabrielle H.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin; Phesse, Toby J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Marsh, Victoria; Wilkins, Julie A.; Athineos, Dimitris; Muncan, Vanesa; Kemp, Richard; Neufeld, Kristi; Clevers, Hans; Brunton, Valerie; Winton, Douglas J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sears, Rosalie C.; Clarke, Alan R.; Frame, Margaret C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and DNA damage. Here, we show that the integrin effector protein Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is dispensable for normal intestinal homeostasis and DNA damage signaling, but is essential for intestinal regeneration

  16. Requirement for aspartate-cleaved bid in apoptosis signaling by DNA-damaging anti-cancer regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Arlette B.; Tait, Stephen W. G.; de Vries, Evert; Eldering, Eric; Borst, Jannie

    2004-01-01

    Lymphoid malignancies can escape from DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs and gamma-radiation by blocking apoptosis-signaling pathways. How these regimens induce apoptosis is incompletely defined, especially in cells with nonfunctional p53. We report here that the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid is

  17. Mutational analysis of the vacuolar sorting signal of procarboxypeptidase Y in yeast shows a low requirement for sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Voorst, F; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The core of the vacuolar targeting signal of yeast carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is recognized by the receptor Vps10p and consists of four contiguous amino acid residues, Gln24-Arg-Pro-Leu27, near the amino terminus of the propeptide (Valls, L.A., Winther, J. R., and Stevens, T. H. (1990) J. Cell Biol...

  18. Formation of the sacrum requires down-regulation of sonic hedgehog signaling in the sacral intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavita, Raffaella; Vincent, Kathleen; Pinelli, Robert; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2018-05-21

    In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling. We have previously shown that SHH signaling is essential for the normal postnatal growth and differentiation of intervertebral discs elsewhere in the spine, and that loss of SHH signaling leads to pathological disc degeneration, a very common disorder of aging. Thus, loss of SHH is pathological in one region of the spine but part of normal development in another. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  20. Calpain 3 and CaMKIIβ signaling are required to induce HSP70 necessary for adaptive muscle growth after atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerova, Irina; Torres, Jorge A; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F; Spencer, Melissa J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKIIβ signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise. These data suggest a role for CAPN3 and CaMKIIβ in gene regulation that takes place during adaptation to endurance exercise. To assess whether CAPN3- CaMKIIβ signaling influences skeletal muscle remodeling in other contexts, we subjected C3KO and wild type mice to hindlimb unloading and reloading and assessed CaMKIIβ signaling and gene expression by RNA-sequencing. After induced atrophy followed by 4 days of reloading, both CaMKIIβ activation and expression of inflammatory and cellular stress genes were increased. C3KO muscles failed to activate CaMKIIβ signaling, did not activate the same pattern of gene expression and demonstrated impaired growth at 4 days of reloading. Moreover, C3KO muscles failed to activate inducible HSP70, which was previously shown to be indispensible for the inflammatory response needed to promote muscle recovery. Likewise, C3KO showed diminished immune cell infiltration and decreased expression of pro-myogenic genes. These data support a role for CaMKIIβ signaling in induction of HSP70 and promotion of the inflammatory response during muscle growth and remodeling that occurs after atrophy, suggesting that CaMKIIβ regulates remodeling in multiple contexts: endurance exercise and growth after atrophy. PMID:29528394

  1. Semi-continuous ultrasonic sounding and changes of ultrasonic signal characteristics as a sensitive tool for the evaluation of ongoing microstructural changes of experimental mortar bars tested for their ASR potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kuchařová, A.; Petružálek, Matěj; Šachlová, Š.; Svitek, Tomáš; Přikryl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, September (2016), s. 40-50 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkali-silica reaction * accelerated test * thermal heating * mortar bar * ultrasonic sounding Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  2. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  3. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  4. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  5. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  6. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  7. Heart sounds: are you listening? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kent, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    All nurses should have an understanding of heart sounds and be proficient in cardiac auscultation. Unfortunately, this skill is not part of many nursing school curricula, nor is it necessarily a required skillfor employment. Yet, being able to listen and accurately describe heart sounds has tangible benefits to the patient, as it is an integral part of a complete cardiac assessment. In this two-part article, I will review the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation, how cardiac anatomy and physiology relate to heart sounds, and describe the various heart sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned nurse, it is never too early or too late to add this important diagnostic skill to your assessment tool kit.

  8. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  9. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  10. Hear where we are sound, ecology, and sense of place

    CERN Document Server

    Stocker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, hearing and sound perception have been typically framed in the context of how sound conveys information and how that information influences the listener. Hear Where We Are inverts this premise and examines how humans and other hearing animals use sound to establish acoustical relationships with their surroundings. This simple inversion reveals a panoply of possibilities by which we can re-evaluate how hearing animals use, produce, and perceive sound. Nuance in vocalizations become signals of enticement or boundary setting; silence becomes a field ripe in auditory possibilities; predator/prey relationships are infused with acoustic deception, and sounds that have been considered territorial cues become the fabric of cooperative acoustical communities. This inversion also expands the context of sound perception into a larger perspective that centers on biological adaptation within acoustic habitats. Here, the rapid synchronized flight patterns of flocking birds and the tight maneuvering of s...

  11. TIF-IA-dependent regulation of ribosome synthesis in drosophila muscle is required to maintain systemic insulin signaling and larval growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conserved TOR kinase signaling network links nutrient availability to cell, tissue and body growth in animals. One important growth-regulatory target of TOR signaling is ribosome biogenesis. Studies in yeast and mammalian cell culture have described how TOR controls rRNA synthesis-a limiting step in ribosome biogenesis-via the RNA Polymerase I transcription factor TIF-IA. However, the contribution of TOR-dependent ribosome synthesis to tissue and body growth in animals is less clear. Here we show in Drosophila larvae that ribosome synthesis in muscle is required non-autonomously to maintain normal body growth and development. We find that amino acid starvation and TOR inhibition lead to reduced levels of TIF-IA, and decreased rRNA synthesis in larval muscle. When we mimic this decrease in muscle ribosome synthesis using RNAi-mediated knockdown of TIF-IA, we observe delayed larval development and reduced body growth. This reduction in growth is caused by lowered systemic insulin signaling via two endocrine responses: reduced expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILPs from the brain and increased expression of Imp-L2-a secreted factor that binds and inhibits dILP activity-from muscle. We also observed that maintaining TIF-IA levels in muscle could partially reverse the starvation-mediated suppression of systemic insulin signaling. Finally, we show that activation of TOR specifically in muscle can increase overall body size and this effect requires TIF-IA function. These data suggest that muscle ribosome synthesis functions as a nutrient-dependent checkpoint for overall body growth: in nutrient rich conditions, TOR is required to maintain levels of TIF-IA and ribosome synthesis to promote high levels of systemic insulin, but under conditions of starvation stress, reduced muscle ribosome synthesis triggers an endocrine response that limits systemic insulin signaling to restrict growth and maintain homeostasis.

  12. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Activation of Notch Signaling is Required for Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Development During Xenopus Laevis Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenta; Kajita, Mitsuko; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2017-04-01

    In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We show that they are up-regulated during both natural and TH-induced metamorphosis in a tissue-specific manner. Particularly, Hairy1 is specifically expressed in the AE cells. Moreover, up-regulation of Hairy1 and Hairy2b by TH was prevented by treating tadpoles with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits Notch signaling. More importantly, TH-induced up-regulation of LGR5, an adult intestinal stem cell marker, was suppressed by GSI treatment. Our results suggest that Notch signaling plays a role in stem cell development by regulating the expression of Hairy genes during intestinal remodeling. Furthermore, we show with organ culture experiments that prolonged exposure of tadpole intestine to TH plus GSI leads to hyperplasia of secretory cells and reduction of absorptive cells. Our findings here thus provide evidence for evolutionarily conserved role of Notch signaling in intestinal cell fate determination but more importantly reveal, for the first time, an important role of Notch pathway in the formation of adult intestinal stem cells during vertebrate development. Stem Cells 2017;35:1028-1039. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  13. Emilin3 is required for notochord sheath integrity and interacts with Scube2 to regulate notochord-derived Hedgehog signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Diana; Schiavinato, Alvise; Trapani, Valeria; Moro, Enrico; Argenton, Francesco; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The notochord is a transient and essential structure that provides both mechanical and signaling cues to the developing vertebrate embryo. In teleosts, the notochord is composed of a core of large vacuolated cells and an outer layer of cells that secrete the notochord sheath. In this work, we have identified the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Emilin3 as a novel essential component of the zebrafish notochord sheath. The development of the notochord sheath is impaired in Emilin3 knockdown embryos. The patterning activity of the notochord is also affected by Emilin3, as revealed by the increase of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in Emilin3-depleted embryos and the decreased Hh signaling in embryos overexpressing Emilin3 in the notochord. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that Emilin3 modulates the availability of Hh ligands by interacting with the permissive factor Scube2 in the notochord sheath. Overall, this study reveals a new role for an EMILIN protein and reinforces the concept that structure and function of the notochord are strictly linked.

  14. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  15. Transiently Active Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Is Not Required but Must Be Silenced for Stem Cell Function during Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malea M. Murphy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult muscle’s exceptional capacity for regeneration is mediated by muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. As with many stem cells, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed to be critical in satellite cells during regeneration. Using new genetic reagents, we explicitly test in vivo whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary and sufficient within satellite cells and their derivatives for regeneration. We find that signaling is transiently active in transit-amplifying myoblasts, but is not required for regeneration or satellite cell self-renewal. Instead, downregulation of transiently activated β-catenin is important to limit the regenerative response, as continuous regeneration is deleterious. Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult satellite cells may simply be a vestige of their developmental lineage, in which β-catenin signaling is critical for fetal myogenesis. In the adult, surprisingly, we show that it is not activation but rather silencing of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is important for muscle regeneration.

  16. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Lina, E-mail: linasui@vub.ac.be [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mfopou, Josue K. [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen [Department of Embryology and Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Bouwens, Luc [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  17. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Lina; Mfopou, Josué K.; Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen; Bouwens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. ► DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. ► A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. ► The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  18. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: METSAT A1 Signal Processor (P/N: 1331670-2, S/N: F04)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, D.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a description of the tests performed, and the test data, for the A1 METSAT Signal Processor Assembly PN: 1331679-2, S/N F04. The assembly was tested in accordance with AE-26754, "METSAT Signal Processor Scan Drive Test and Integration Procedure." The objective is to demonstrate functionality of the signal processor prior to instrument integration.

  19. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  20. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  1. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: umaboofa@cc.umanitoba.ca; Moussavi, Zahra [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: mousavi@ee.umanitoba.ca

    2009-01-30

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  2. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  3. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  4. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: Are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2006-01-01

    that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations......In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar...... to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations...

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation is required for consolidation and reconsolidation of memory at an early stage of ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languille, Solène; Davis, Sabrina; Richer, Paulette; Alcacer, Cristina; Laroche, Serge; Hars, Bernard

    2009-11-01

    The ability to form long-term memories exists very early during ontogeny; however, the properties of early memory processes, brain structures involved and underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we examine the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling cascade, which is crucial for adult memory, in the consolidation and reconsolidation of an early memory using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm in 3-day-old rat pups. We show that intraperitoneal injection of SL327, the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, impairs both consolidation and reconsolidation of early memory, leaving short-term memory after acquisition and after reactivation intact. The amnesic effect of SL327 diminishes with increasing delays after acquisition and reactivation. Biochemical analyses revealed ERK hyperphosphorylation in the amygdala but not the hippocampus following acquisition, suggesting functional activation of the amygdala as early as post-natal day 3, although there was no clear evidence for amygdalar ERK activation after reactivation. These results indicate that, despite an immature brain, the basic properties of memory and at least some of the molecular mechanisms and brain structures implicated in aversion memory share a number of similarities with the adult and emerge very early during ontogeny.

  6. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in cultured rat astrocytes induced by an organophosphorus agent requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Ichiro; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Nagao, Masataka; Iwasa, Mineo; Koyama, Hiroyoshi; Seko-Nakamura, Yoshimi; Monma-Ohtaki, Jun

    2003-01-01

    There are various toxic chemicals that cause cell death. However, in certain cases deleterious agents elicit various cellular responses prior to cell death. To determine the cellular mechanisms by which such cellular responses are induced is important, but sufficient attention has not been paid to this issue to date. In this study, we showed the characteristic effects of an organophosphorus (OP) agent, bis(pinacolyl methyl)phosphonate (BPMP), which we synthesized for the study of OP nerve agents, on cultured rat astrocytes. Morphologically, BPMP induced cytoplasmic vacuolation and stellation in the rat astrocytes. Cytoplasmic vacuolation is a cell pathological change observed, for example, in vacuolar degeneration, and stellation has been reported in astrocytic reactions against various stimuli. By pretreatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, stellation was inhibited, although vacuolation was not. Cell staining with a mitochondrion-selective dye indicated that the vacuolation probably occurs in the mitochondria that are swollen and vacuolatred in the center. Interestingly, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade inhibitor inhibited vacuolation and, to some extent, stellation. These results suggest that the ERK signaling cascade is important for the induction of mitochondrial vacuolation. We expect that a detailed study of these astrocytic reactions will provide us new perspectives regarding the variation and pathological significance of cell morphological changes, such as vacuolar degeneration, and also the mechanisms underlying various neurological disorders

  7. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Central Nervous System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2016-01-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Wnt/B-Catenin Signaling is Required to Rescue Midbrain Dopaminergic Progenitors and Promote Neurorepair in Ageing Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Episcopo, Francesca; Tirolo, Cataldo; Testa, Nunzio; Caniglia, Salvatore; Morale, Maria Concetta; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pluchino, Stefano; Marchetti, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for specification and neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, the pivotal neuronal population that degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a vital role in adult neurogenesis but whether it might engage DA neurogenesis/neurorepair in the affected PD brain is yet unresolved. Recently, the adult midbrain aqueduct periventricular regions (Aq-PVRs) were shown to harbor neural stem/progenitor cells (mNPCs) with DA potential in vitro, but restrictive mechanisms in vivo are believed to limit their DA regenerative capacity. Using in vitro mNPC culture systems we herein demonstrate that aging is one most critical factor restricting mNPC neurogenic potential via dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Cococulture paradigms between young/aged (Y/A) mNPCs and Y/A astrocytes identified glial age and a decline of glial-derived factors including Wnts as key determinants of impaired neurogenic potential, whereas Wnt activation regimens efficiently reversed the diminished proliferative, neuronal and DA differentiation potential of A-mNPCs. Next, in vivo studies in wild (Wt) and transgenic β-catenin reporter mice uncovered Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation and remarkable astrocyte remodeling of Aq-PVR in response to MPTP-induced DA neuron death. Spatio-temporal analyses unveiled β-catenin signaling in predopaminergic (Nurr1+/TH−) and imperiled or rescuing DAT+ neurons during MPTP-induced DA neuron injury and self-repair. Aging inhibited Wnt signaling, whereas β-catenin activation in situ with a specific GSK-3β antagonist promoted a significant degree of DA neurorestoration associated with reversal of motor deficit, with implications for neurorestorative approaches in PD. PMID:24648001

  9. Diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthase RpfF of Xylella fastidiosa is a multifunction protein also required for response to DSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Michael; Baccari, Clelia; Da Silva, Aline Maria; Garcia, Angelica; Yokota, Kenji; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, like related Xanthomonas species, employs an Rpf cell-cell communication system consisting of a diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthase, RpfF, and a DSF sensor, RpfC, to coordinate expression of virulence genes. While phenotypes of a ΔrpfF strain in Xanthomonas campestris could be complemented by its own DSF, the DSF produced by X. fastidiosa (XfDSF) did not restore expression of the XfDSF-dependent genes hxfA and hxfB to a ΔrpfF strain of X. fastidiosa, suggesting that RpfF is involved in XfDSF sensing or XfDSF-dependent signaling. To test this conjecture, rpfC and rpfF of X. campestris were replaced by those of X. fastidiosa, and the contribution of each gene to the induction of a X. campestris DSF-dependent gene was assessed. As in X. fastidiosa, XfDSF-dependent signaling required both X. fastidiosa proteins RpfF and RpfC. RpfF repressed RpfC signaling activity, which in turn was derepressed by XfDSF. A mutated X. fastidiosa RpfF protein with two substitutions of glutamate to alanine in its active site was incapable of XfDSF production yet enabled a response to XfDSF, indicating that XfDSF production and the response to XfDSF are two separate functions in which RpfF is involved. This mutant was also hypervirulent to grape, demonstrating the antivirulence effects of XfDSF itself in X. fastidiosa. The Rpf system of X. fastidiosa is thus a novel example of a quorum-sensing signal synthase that is also involved in the response to the signal molecule that it synthesizes.

  10. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting...... in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal...... of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx...

  11. A system for heart sounds classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    Full Text Available The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability.

  12. Murine macrophage response from peritoneal cavity requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR-2 during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-02-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2) is a cognate receptor for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and recent studies revealed that MCP-1-CCR-2 signaling is involved in several inflammatory diseases characterized by macrophage infiltration. Currently, there is no study on the involvement of CCR-2 in the killing of S. aureus by macrophages of Swiss albino mice, and its substantial role in host defense against S. aureus infection in murine macrophages is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the functional and interactive role of CCR-2 and MCP-1 in regulating peritoneal macrophage responses with respect to acute S. aureus infection. We found that phagocytosis of S. aureus can serve as an important stimulus for MCP-1 production by peritoneal macrophages, which is dependent directly or indirectly on cytokines, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Neutralization of CCR-2 in macrophages leads to increased production of IL-10 and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-6. In CCR-2 blocked macrophages, pretreatment with specific blocker of NF-κB or p38-MAPK causes elevation in MCP-1 level and subsequent downregulation of CCR-2 itself. We speculate that CCR-2 is involved in S. aureus-induced MCP-1 production via NF-κB or p38-MAPK signaling. We also hypothesized that unnaturally high level of MCP-1 that build up upon CCR-2 neutralization might allow promiscuous binding to one or more other chemokine receptors, a situation that would not occur in CCR-2 non-neutralized condition. This may be the plausible explanation for such observed Th-2 response in CCR-2 blocked macrophages infected with S. aureus in the present study.

  13. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  14. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  15. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  16. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  17. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  18. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  19. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  20. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  1. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  2. Understanding Animal Detection of Precursor Earthquake Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Kelley, Michael C

    2017-08-31

    We use recent research to provide an explanation of how animals might detect earthquakes before they occur. While the intrinsic value of such warnings is immense, we show that the complexity of the process may result in inconsistent responses of animals to the possible precursor signal. Using the results of our research, we describe a logical but complex sequence of geophysical events triggered by precursor earthquake crustal movements that ultimately result in a sound signal detectable by animals. The sound heard by animals occurs only when metal or other surfaces (glass) respond to vibrations produced by electric currents induced by distortions of the earth's electric fields caused by the crustal movements. A combination of existing measurement systems combined with more careful monitoring of animal response could nevertheless be of value, particularly in remote locations.

  3. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S; Lord, Graham M; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Noelle, Randolph J; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo . However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo . To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P 1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses.

  4. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S.; Lord, Graham M.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Noelle, Randolph J.; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo. However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo. To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses. PMID:28066447

  5. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  6. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  7. Purinergic signaling is required for fluid shear stress-induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genetos, Damian C., E-mail: dgenetos@ucdavis.edu [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Karin, Norman J. [Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Geist, Derik J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Donahue, Henry J. [Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Duncan, Randall L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Fluid shear stress regulates gene expression in osteoblasts, in part by activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We examined whether this process was under the control of purinoceptor activation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts under static conditions expressed the NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and exhibited cytosolic localization of NF-{kappa}B. Under fluid shear stress, I{kappa}B{alpha} levels decreased, and concomitant nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B was observed. Cells exposed to fluid shear stress in ATP-depleted medium exhibited no significant reduction in I{kappa}B{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B remained within the cytosol. Similar results were found using oxidized ATP or Brilliant Blue G, P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists, indicating that the P2X{sub 7} receptor is responsible for fluid shear-stress-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B. Pharmacologic blockage of the P2Y6 receptor also prevented shear-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation. These phenomena involved neither ERK1/2 signaling nor autocrine activation by P2X{sub 7}-generated lysophosphatidic acid. Our results suggest that fluid shear stress regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through the P2Y{sub 6} and P2X{sub 7} receptor.

  8. Heart sounds analysis using probability assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešinger, Filip; Viščor, Ivo; Halámek, Josef; Jurčo, Juraj; Jurák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2017), s. 1685-1700 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2034; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : heart sounds * FFT * machine learning * signal averaging * probability assessment Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  9. Sound generating flames of a gas turbine burner observed by laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Kreutner, W.; Schenker, S.; Zajadatz, M. [Alstom (Switzerland); Motz, C. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland); Paschereit, C.O. [Alstom (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    We performed 2-D OH LIF measurements to investigate the sound emission of a gas turbine combustor. The measured LIF signal was averaged over pulses at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. A periodic variation in intensity and position of the signal is observed and it is related to the measured sound intensity. (author)

  10. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  11. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  12. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  13. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  14. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  15. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  16. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  17. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  18. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  19. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  20. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  1. Airborne sound insulation of new composite wall structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yonka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection against noise is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Product directive. In buildings, airborne sound insulation is used to define the acoustical quality between rooms. In order to develop wall structures with optimal sound insulation, an understanding of the physical origins of sound transmission is necessary. To develop a kind of knowledge that is applicable to the improvement of real walls and room barriers is the motive behind this study. The purpose of the work is to study the sound insulation of new composite wall structure.

  2. Bacterial subversion of cAMP signalling inhibits cathelicidin expression, which is required for innate resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shashank; Winglee, Kathryn; Gallo, Richard; Bishai, William R

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins are an important component of innate immune defence against inhaled microorganisms and have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with in vitro models. Despite this, little is known about the regulation and expression of cathelicidin during tuberculosis in vivo. We sought to determine whether the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (Cramp) gene, the murine functional homologue of the human cathelicidin gene (CAMP or LL-37), is required for regulating protective immunity during M. tuberculosis infection in vivo. We used Cramp−/− mice in a validated model of pulmonary tuberculosis and conducted cell-based assays with macrophages from these mice. We evaluated the in vivo susceptibility of Cramp−/− mice to infection and further dissected various pro-inflammatory immune responses against M. tuberculosis. We observed increased susceptibility of Cramp−/− mice to M. tuberculosis compared to wild type mice. Macrophages from Cramp−/− mice were unable to control M. tuberculosis growth in an in vitro infection model, were deficient in intracellular calcium influx and were defective in stimulating T-cells. Additionally, CD4 and CD8 T-cells from Cramp−/− mice produced less IFNβ upon stimulation. Furthermore, bacterial-derived cyclic-AMP modulated cathelicidin expression in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cathelicidin is required for innate resistance to M. tuberculosis in a relevant animal model and is a key mediator in regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by calcium and cyclic nucleotides. PMID:28097645

  3. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a…

  4. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  5. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  6. Sound level measurements using smartphone "apps": Useful or inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Nast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many recreational activities are accompanied by loud concurrent sounds and decisions regarding the hearing hazards associated with these activities depend on accurate sound measurements. Sound level meters (SLMs are designed for this purpose, but these are technical instruments that are not typically available in recreational settings and require training to use properly. Mobile technology has made such sound level measurements more feasible for even inexperienced users. Here, we assessed the accuracy of sound level measurements made using five mobile phone applications or "apps" on an Apple iPhone 4S, one of the most widely used mobile phones. Accuracy was assessed by comparing application-based measurements to measurements made using a calibrated SLM. Whereas most apps erred by reporting higher sound levels, one application measured levels within 5 dB of a calibrated SLM across all frequencies tested.

  7. Design and Calibration Tests of an Active Sound Intensity Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kletschkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an active sound intensity probe that can be used for sound source localization in standing wave fields. The probe consists of a sound hard tube that is terminated by a loudspeaker and an integrated pair of microphones. The microphones are used to decompose the standing wave field inside the tube into its incident and reflected part. The latter is cancelled by an adaptive controller that calculates proper driving signals for the loudspeaker. If the open end of the actively controlled tube is placed close to a vibrating surface, the radiated sound intensity can be determined by measuring the cross spectral density between the two microphones. A one-dimensional free field can be realized effectively, as first experiments performed on a simplified test bed have shown. Further tests proved that a prototype of the novel sound intensity probe can be calibrated.

  8. A Generalized Model for Indoor Location Estimation Using Environmental Sound from Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The indoor location of individuals is a key contextual variable for commercial and assisted location-based services and applications. Commercial centers and medical buildings (e.g., hospitals require location information of their users/patients to offer the services that are needed at the correct moment. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. In this paper, we present the development of an indoor location system which relies on the human activity recognition approach, using sound as an information source to infer the indoor location based on the contextual information of the activity that is realized at the moment. In this work, we analyze the sound information to estimate the location using the contextual information of the activity. A feature extraction approach to the sound signal is performed to feed a random forest algorithm in order to generate a model to estimate the location of the user. We evaluate the quality of the resulting model in terms of sensitivity and specificity for each location, and we also perform out-of-bag error estimation. Our experiments were carried out in five representative residential homes. Each home had four individual indoor rooms. Eleven activities (brewing coffee, cooking, eggs, taking a shower, etc. were performed to provide the contextual information. Experimental results show that developing an indoor location system (ILS that uses contextual information from human activities (identified with data provided from the environmental sound can achieve an estimation that is 95% correct.

  9. Brain regions for sound processing and song release in a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical inference of seabed sound-speed structure in the Gulf of Oman Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, Jason D; Knobles, David P

    2014-06-01

    Addressed is the statistical inference of the sound-speed depth profile of a thick soft seabed from broadband sound propagation data recorded in the Gulf of Oman Basin in 1977. The acoustic data are in the form of time series signals recorded on a sparse vertical line array and generated by explosive sources deployed along a 280 km track. The acoustic data offer a unique opportunity to study a deep-water bottom-limited thickly sedimented environment because of the large number of time series measurements, very low seabed attenuation, and auxiliary measurements. A maximum entropy method is employed to obtain a conditional posterior probability distribution (PPD) for the sound-speed ratio and the near-surface sound-speed gradient. The multiple data samples allow for a determination of the average error constraint value required to uniquely specify the PPD for each data sample. Two complicating features of the statistical inference study are addressed: (1) the need to develop an error function that can both utilize the measured multipath arrival structure and mitigate the effects of data errors and (2) the effect of small bathymetric slopes on the structure of the bottom interacting arrivals.

  11. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  12. Sound Stuff? Naïve materialism in middle-school students' conceptions of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Schwartz, Judah L.

    2006-06-01

    Few studies have dealt with students’ preconceptions of sounds. The current research employs Reiner et al. (2000) substance schema to reveal new insights about students’ difficulties in understanding this fundamental topic. It aims not only to detect whether the substance schema is present in middle school students’ thinking, but also examines how students use the schema’s properties. It asks, moreover, whether the substance schema properties are used as islands of local consistency or whether one can identify more global coherent consistencies among the properties that the students use to explain the sound phenomena. In-depth standardized open-ended interviews were conducted with ten middle school students. Consistent with the substance schema, sound was perceived by our participants as being pushable, frictional, containable, or transitional. However, sound was also viewed as a substance different from the ordinary with respect to its stability, corpuscular nature, additive properties, and inertial characteristics. In other words, students’ conceptions of sound do not seem to fit Reiner et al.’s schema in all respects. Our results also indicate that students’ conceptualization of sound lack internal consistency. Analyzing our results with respect to local and global coherence, we found students’ conception of sound is close to diSessa’s “loosely connected, fragmented collection of ideas.” The notion that sound is perceived only as a “sort of a material,” we believe, requires some revision of the substance schema as it applies to sound. The article closes with a discussion concerning the implications of the results for instruction.

  13. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  14. Nuclear pore complex-mediated modulation of TCR signaling is required for naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, Joana; Sakuma, Stephen; Raices, Marcela; Carrette, Florent; Tinoco, Roberto; Bradley, Linda M; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-05-07

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. We report that loss of the tissue-specific NPC component Nup210 causes a severe deficit of naïve CD4 + T cells. Nup210-deficient CD4 + T lymphocytes develop normally but fail to survive in the periphery. The decreased survival results from both an impaired ability to transmit tonic T cell receptor (TCR) signals and increased levels of Fas, which sensitize Nup210 -/- naïve CD4 + T cells to Fas-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, Nup210 regulates these processes by modulating the expression of Cav2 (encoding Caveolin-2) and Jun at the nuclear periphery. Whereas the TCR-dependent and CD4 + T cell-specific upregulation of Cav2 is critical for proximal TCR signaling, cJun expression is required for STAT3-dependent repression of Fas. Our results uncover an unexpected role for Nup210 as a cell-intrinsic regulator of TCR signaling and T cell homeostasis and expose NPCs as key players in the adaptive immune system.

  15. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  16. Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel

  17. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  18. Modification of T cell responses by stem cell mobilization requires direct signaling of the T cell by G-CSF and IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Kelli P.A.; Le Texier, Laetitia; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of allogeneic stem cell transplants are currently undertaken using G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. G-CSF has diverse biological effects on a broad range of cells and IL-10 is a key regulator of many of these effects. Using mixed radiation chimeras in which...... the hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic compartments were wild-type, IL-10(-/-), G-CSFR(-/-), or combinations thereof we demonstrated that the attenuation of alloreactive T cell responses after G-CSF mobilization required direct signaling of the T cell by both G-CSF and IL-10. IL-10 was generated principally by radio......-resistant tissue, and was not required to be produced by T cells. G-CSF mobilization significantly modulated the transcription profile of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, promoted their expansion in the donor and recipient and their depletion significantly increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast...

  19. Targeting of NF-κB to Dendritic Spines Is Required for Synaptic Signaling and Spine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Erica C; Boersma, Matthew C H; Meffert, Mollie K

    2018-04-25

    Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine enrichment (p65ΔSE) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65. Wild-type p65 or p65ΔSE both rescue NF-κB-dependent gene expression in p65-deficient murine hippocampal neurons responding to diffuse (PMA/ionomycin) stimulation. In contrast, neurons lacking spine-enriched NF-κB are selectively impaired in NF-κB-dependent gene expression induced by elevated excitatory synaptic stimulation (bicuculline or glycine). We used the setting of excitatory synaptic activity during development that produces NF-κB-dependent growth of dendritic spines to test physiological function of spine-enriched NF-κB in an activity-dependent response. Expression of wild-type p65, but not p65ΔSE, is capable of rescuing spine density to normal levels in p65-deficient pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that spatial localization in dendritic spines contributes unique capacities to the NF-κB transcription factor in synaptic activity-dependent responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Extensive research has established a model in which the regulation of neuronal gene expression enables enduring forms of plasticity and learning. However, mechanisms imparting stimulus specificity to gene regulation, ensuring biologically appropriate responses, remain incompletely understood. NF-κB is a potent transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved functions in learning and the growth of excitatory synaptic contacts. Neuronal NF-κB is localized in both synapse and

  20. The bifunctional abiotic stress signalling regulator and endogenous RNA silencing suppressor FIERY1 is required for lateral root formation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-09-28

    The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) locus was originally identified as a negative regulator of stress-responsive gene expression and later shown to be required for suppression of RNA silencing. In this study we discovered that the FRY1 locus also regulates lateral root formation. Compared with the wild type, fry1 mutant seedlings generated significantly fewer lateral roots under normal growth conditions and also exhibited a dramatically reduced sensitivity to auxin in inducing lateral root initiation. Using transgenic plants that overexpress a yeast homolog of FRY1 that possesses only the 3\\', 5\\'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity but not the inositol 1-phosphatase activity, we demonstrated that the lateral root phenotypes in fry1 result from loss of the nucleotidase activity. Furthermore, a T-DNA insertion mutant of another RNA silencing suppressor, XRN4 (but not XRN2 or XRN3), which is an exoribonuclease that is inhibited by the substrate of the FRY1 3\\', 5\\'-bisphosphate nucleotidase, exhibits similar lateral root defects. Although fry1 and xrn4 exhibited reduced sensitivity to ethylene, our experiments demonstrated that restoration of ethylene sensitivity in the fry1 mutant is not sufficient to rescue the lateral root phenotypes of fry1. Our results indicate that RNA silencing modulated by FRY1 and XRN4 plays an important role in shaping root architecture. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Sound Quality of Cochlear Implants: Studies With Single-sided Deaf Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Michael F; Natale, Sarah Cook; Butts, Austin M; Zeitler, Daniel M; Carlson, Matthew L

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess the sound quality of a cochlear implant for single-sided deaf (SSD) patients fit with a cochlear implant (CI). One of the fundamental, unanswered questions in CI research is "what does an implant sound like?" Conventional CI patients must use the memory of a clean signal, often decades old, to judge the sound quality of their CIs. In contrast, SSD-CI patients can rate the similarity of a clean signal presented to the CI ear and candidate, CI-like signals presented to the ear with normal hearing. For Experiment 1 four types of stimuli were created for presentation to the normal hearing ear: noise vocoded signals, sine vocoded signals, frequency shifted, sine vocoded signals and band-pass filtered, natural speech signals. Listeners rated the similarity of these signals to unmodified signals sent to the CI on a scale of 0 to 10 with 10 being a complete match to the CI signal. For Experiment 2 multitrack signal mixing was used to create natural speech signals that varied along multiple dimensions. In Experiment 1 for eight adult SSD-CI listeners, the best median similarity rating to the sound of the CI for noise vocoded signals was 1.9; for sine vocoded signals 2.9; for frequency upshifted signals, 1.9; and for band pass filtered signals, 5.5. In Experiment 2 for three young listeners, combinations of band pass filtering and spectral smearing lead to ratings of 10. The sound quality of noise and sine vocoders does not generally correspond to the sound quality of cochlear implants fit to SSD patients. Our preliminary conclusion is that natural speech signals that have been muffled to one degree or another by band pass filtering and/or spectral smearing provide a close, but incomplete, match to CI sound quality for some patients.

  2. Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase but Not of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Lymphocytes Requires Allosteric Activation of SOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jesse E.; Yang, Ming; Chen, Hang; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-01-01

    Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation. Here we employed computational modeling and biochemical experiments with model cell lines and thymocytes to show that TCR-induced ERK activation grows exponentially in thymocytes and that a W729E allosteric pocket mutant, SOS1, can only reconstitute analog ERK signaling. In agreement with RasGRP allosterically priming SOS, exponential ERK activation is severely decreased by pharmacological or genetic perturbation of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-diacylglycerol-RasGRP1 pathway. In contrast, p38 activation is not sharply thresholded and requires high-level TCR signal input. Rac and p38 activation depends on SOS1 expression but not allosteric activation. Based on computational predictions and experiments exploring whether SOS functions as a RacGEF or adaptor in Rac-p38 activation, we established that the presence of SOS1, but not its enzymatic activity, is critical for p38 activation. PMID:23589333

  3. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Chinnici

    Full Text Available Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1 Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2 Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3 Transcriptional factor genes, 4 Autophagy genes, and 5 Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  4. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Jennifer L; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M; Arnold, Jason W; Free, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  5. A framework for automatic heart sound analysis without segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungpimolrut Kanokvate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new framework for heart sound analysis is proposed. One of the most difficult processes in heart sound analysis is segmentation, due to interference form murmurs. Method Equal number of cardiac cycles were extracted from heart sounds with different heart rates using information from envelopes of autocorrelation functions without the need to label individual fundamental heart sounds (FHS. The complete method consists of envelope detection, calculation of cardiac cycle lengths using auto-correlation of envelope signals, features extraction using discrete wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and classification using neural network bagging predictors. Result The proposed method was tested on a set of heart sounds obtained from several on-line databases and recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Geometric mean was used as performance index. Average classification performance using ten-fold cross-validation was 0.92 for noise free case, 0.90 under white noise with 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and 0.90 under impulse noise up to 0.3 s duration. Conclusion The proposed method showed promising results and high noise robustness to a wide range of heart sounds. However, more tests are needed to address any bias that may have been introduced by different sources of heart sounds in the current training set, and to concretely validate the method. Further work include building a new training set recorded from actual patients, then further evaluate the method based on this new training set.

  6. Heart Sound Biometric System Based on Marginal Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhidong; Shen, Qinqin; Ren, Fangqin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis, which is a new feature extraction technique for identification purposes. This heart sound identification system is comprised of signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, training, and identification. Experiments on the selection of the optimal values for the system parameters are conducted. The results indicate that the new spectrum coefficients result in a significant increase in the recognition rate of 94.40% compared with that of the traditional Fourier spectrum (84.32%) based on a database of 280 heart sounds from 40 participants. PMID:23429515

  7. Zero sound and quasiwave: separation in the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, E.V.; Bojchuk, A.V.; Burma, N.G.; Fil', V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the behavior of the longitudinal and transverse electron sound in a weak magnetic field are presented. It is shown theoretically that the effects of the magnetic field on zero sound velocity and ballistic transfer are opposite in sign and have sufficiently different dependences on the sample width, excitation frequency and relaxation time. This permits us to separate experimentally the Fermi-liquid and ballistic contributions in the electron sound signals. For the first time the ballistic transfer of the acoustic excitation by the quasiwave has been observed in zero magnetic field

  8. Metrics for Polyphonic Sound Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Mesaros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses various metrics proposed for evaluation of polyphonic sound event detection systems used in realistic situations where there are typically multiple sound sources active simultaneously. The system output in this case contains overlapping events, marked as multiple sounds detected as being active at the same time. The polyphonic system output requires a suitable procedure for evaluation against a reference. Metrics from neighboring fields such as speech recognition and speaker diarization can be used, but they need to be partially redefined to deal with the overlapping events. We present a review of the most common metrics in the field and the way they are adapted and interpreted in the polyphonic case. We discuss segment-based and event-based definitions of each metric and explain the consequences of instance-based and class-based averaging using a case study. In parallel, we provide a toolbox containing implementations of presented metrics.

  9. Neural dynamics of learning sound-action associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam McNamara

    Full Text Available A motor component is pre-requisite to any communicative act as one must inherently move to communicate. To learn to make a communicative act, the brain must be able to dynamically associate arbitrary percepts to the neural substrate underlying the pre-requisite motor activity. We aimed to investigate whether brain regions involved in complex gestures (ventral pre-motor cortex, Brodmann Area 44 were involved in mediating association between novel abstract auditory stimuli and novel gestural movements. In a functional resonance imaging (fMRI study we asked participants to learn associations between previously unrelated novel sounds and meaningless gestures inside the scanner. We use functional connectivity analysis to eliminate the often present confound of 'strategic covert naming' when dealing with BA44 and to rule out effects of non-specific reductions in signal. Brodmann Area 44, a region incorporating Broca's region showed strong, bilateral, negative correlation of BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent response with learning of sound-action associations during data acquisition. Left-inferior-parietal-lobule (l-IPL and bilateral loci in and around visual area V5, right-orbital-frontal-gyrus, right-hippocampus, left-para-hippocampus, right-head-of-caudate, right-insula and left-lingual-gyrus also showed decreases in BOLD response with learning. Concurrent with these decreases in BOLD response, an increasing connectivity between areas of the imaged network as well as the right-middle-frontal-gyrus with rising learning performance was revealed by a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. The increasing connectivity therefore occurs within an increasingly energy efficient network as learning proceeds. Strongest learning related connectivity between regions was found when analysing BA44 and l-IPL seeds. The results clearly show that BA44 and l-IPL is dynamically involved in linking gesture and sound and therefore provides evidence that one of

  10. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  11. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  12. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  13. A SOUND SOURCE LOCALIZATION TECHNIQUE TO SUPPORT SEARCH AND RESCUE IN LOUD NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    At some sites of earthquakes and other disasters, rescuers search for people buried under rubble by listening for the sounds which they make. Thus developing a technique to localize sound sources amidst loud noise will support such search and rescue operations. In this paper, we discuss an experiment performed to test an array signal processing technique which searches for unperceivable sound in loud noise environments. Two speakers simultaneously played a noise of a generator and a voice decreased by 20 dB (= 1/100 of power) from the generator noise at an outdoor space where cicadas were making noise. The sound signal was received by a horizontally set linear microphone array 1.05 m in length and consisting of 15 microphones. The direction and the distance of the voice were computed and the sound of the voice was extracted and played back as an audible sound by array signal processing.

  14. Epac Signaling Is Required for Cocaine-Induced Change in AMPA Receptor Subunit Composition in the Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Chen, Yao; Tong, Jiaqing; Reynolds, Ashley M; Proudfoot, Sarah C; Qi, Jinshun; Penzes, Peter; Lu, Youming; Liu, Qing-Song

    2016-04-27

    Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) and protein kinase A (PKA) are intracellular receptors for cAMP. Although PKA and its downstream effectors have been studied extensively in the context of drug addiction, whether and how Epac regulates cellular and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse remain essentially unknown. Epac is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking. Previous studies have shown that a single cocaine exposure in vivo leads to an increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that Epac mediates cocaine-induced changes in AMPAR subunit composition in the VTA. We report that a single cocaine injection in vivo in wild-type mice leads to inward rectification of EPSCs and renders EPSCs sensitive to a GluA2-lacking AMPAR blocker in VTA dopamine neurons. The cocaine-induced increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs was absent in Epac2-deficient mice but not in Epac1-deficient mice. In addition, activation of Epac with the selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (8-CPT) recapitulated the cocaine-induced increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs, and the effects of 8-CPT were mediated by Epac2. We also show that conditioned place preference to cocaine was impaired in Epac2-deficient mice and in mice in which Epac2 was knocked down in the VTA but was not significantly altered in Epac1-deficient mice. Together, these results suggest that Epac2 is critically involved in the cocaine-induced change in AMPAR subunit composition and drug-cue associative learning. Addictive drugs, such as cocaine, induce long-lasting adaptions in the reward circuits of the brain. A single intraperitoneal injection of cocaine leads to changes in the composition and property of the AMPAR that carries excitatory inputs to dopamine neurons. Here, we provide evidence that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a cAMP sensor protein, is required for the cocaine-induced changes of the AMPAR. We found that the

  15. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  16. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  17. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  18. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  19. Experiments on the use of sound as a fish deterrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Thatcher, K.P.; Wood, R.; Loeffelman, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a series of experimental studies into the potential use of acoustic stimuli to deter fish from water intakes at thermal and hydroelectric power stations. The aim was to enlarge the range of candidate signals for testing, and to apply these in more rigorous laboratory trials and to a wider range of estuarine and marine fish species than was possible in previous initial preliminary studies. The trials were also required to investigate the degree to which fish might become habituated to the sound signals, consequently reducing their effectiveness. The species of fish which were of interest in this study were the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), sea trout (Salmo trutta), the shads (Alosa fallax, A. alosa), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), herring (Clupea harengus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and cod (Gadus morhua). All of these species are considered to be of conservation and/or commercial importance in Britain today and are potentially vulnerable to capture by nuclear, fossil-fuelled and tidal generating stations. Based on the effectiveness of the signals observed in these trials, a properly developed and sited acoustic fish deterrent system is expected to reduce fish impingement significantly at water intakes. Field trials at an estuarine power station are recommended. (author)

  20. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  1. Noise detection during heart sound recording using periodicity signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Antunes, M

    2011-01-01

    Heart sound is a valuable biosignal for diagnosis of a large set of cardiac diseases. Ambient and physiological noise interference is one of the most usual and highly probable incidents during heart sound acquisition. It tends to change the morphological characteristics of heart sound that may carry important information for heart disease diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new method applicable in real time to detect ambient and internal body noises manifested in heart sound during acquisition. The algorithm is developed on the basis of the periodic nature of heart sounds and physiologically inspired criteria. A small segment of uncontaminated heart sound exhibiting periodicity in time as well as in the time-frequency domain is first detected and applied as a reference signal in discriminating noise from the sound. The proposed technique has been tested with a database of heart sounds collected from 71 subjects with several types of heart disease inducing several noises during recording. The achieved average sensitivity and specificity are 95.88% and 97.56%, respectively

  2. Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine A Biedenweg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals typically show less habituation to biologically meaningful sounds than to novel signals. We might therefore expect that acoustic deterrents should be based on natural sounds. METHODOLOGY: We investigated responses by western grey kangaroos (Macropus fulignosus towards playback of natural sounds (alarm foot stomps and Australian raven (Corvus coronoides calls and artificial sounds (faux snake hiss and bull whip crack. We then increased rate of presentation to examine whether animals would habituate. Finally, we varied frequency of playback to investigate optimal rates of delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine behaviors clustered into five Principal Components. PC factors 1 and 2 (animals alert or looking, or hopping and moving out of area accounted for 36% of variance. PC factor 3 (eating cessation, taking flight, movement out of area accounted for 13% of variance. Factors 4 and 5 (relaxing, grooming and walking; 12 and 11% of variation, respectively discontinued upon playback. The whip crack was most evocative; eating was reduced from 75% of time spent prior to playback to 6% following playback (post alarm stomp: 32%, raven call: 49%, hiss: 75%. Additionally, 24% of individuals took flight and moved out of area (50 m radius in response to the whip crack (foot stomp: 0%, raven call: 8% and 4%, hiss: 6%. Increasing rate of presentation (12x/min ×2 min caused 71% of animals to move out of the area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bull whip crack, an artificial sound, was as effective as the alarm stomp at eliciting aversive behaviors. Kangaroos did not fully habituate despite hearing the signal up to 20x/min. Highest rates of playback did not elicit the greatest responses, suggesting that 'more is not always better'. Ultimately, by utilizing both artificial and biological sounds, predictability may be masked or offset, so that habituation is delayed and more effective deterrents may be produced.

  3. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Miao, Weiguo; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-01-01

    Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR). HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978). A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15) of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminal)by SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server). Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.). Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp) in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  4. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  5. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  6. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  7. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  8. Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan F M Goodman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing is precise in the auditory system and it has been argued that it conveys information about auditory stimuli, in particular about the location of a sound source. However, beyond simple time differences, the way in which neurons might extract this information is unclear and the potential computational advantages are unknown. The computational difficulty of this task for an animal is to locate the source of an unexpected sound from two monaural signals that are highly dependent on the unknown source signal. In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. The model was able to accurately estimate the location of previously unknown sounds in both azimuth and elevation (including front/back discrimination in a known acoustic environment. We found that multiple representations of different acoustic environments could coexist as sets of overlapping neural assemblies which could be associated with spatial locations by Hebbian learning. The model demonstrates the computational relevance of relative spike timing to extract spatial information about sources independently of the source signal.

  9. A loss-of-function mutation in the nucleoporin AtNUP160 indicates that normal auxin signalling is required for a proper ethylene response in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Linda M.; Deslauriers, Stephen D.; Alvarez, Ashley A.; Larsen, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to elucidate mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of ethylene signalling, an Arabidopsis mutant with an enhanced ethylene response was identified. Subsequent characterization of this loss-of-function mutant revealed severe hypocotyl shortening in the presence of saturating ethylene along with increased expression in leaves of a subset of ethylene-responsive genes. It was subsequently determined by map-based cloning that the mutant (sar1-7) represents a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described nucleoporin AtNUP160 (At1g33410, SAR1). In support of previously reported results, the sar1-7 mutant partially restored auxin responsiveness to roots of an rce1 loss-of-function mutant, indicating that AtNUP160/SAR1 is required for proper expression of factors responsible for the repression of auxin signalling. Analysis of arf7-1/sar1-7 and arf19-1/sar1-7 double mutants revealed that mutations affecting either ARF7 or ARF19 function almost fully blocked manifestation of the sar1-7-dependent ethylene hypersensitivity phenotype, suggesting that ARF7- and ARF19-mediated auxin signalling is responsible for regulating the magnitude of and/or competence for the ethylene response in Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls. Consistent with this, addition of auxin to ethylene-treated seedlings resulted in severe hypocotyl shortening, reminiscent of that seen for other eer (enhanced ethylene response) mutants, suggesting that auxin functions in part synergistically with ethylene to control hypocotyl elongation and other ethylene-dependent phenomena. PMID:22238449

  10. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+ T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8+ T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a−/− CD8+ T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a−/− CD8+ T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8+ T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8+ T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8+ T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas. PMID:28344876

  11. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+ T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Kevin; Tan, Sara Y; Kang, Sohyeong; Ford, Mandy L; Harder, Kenneth W; Priatel, John J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8 + T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8 + T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8 + T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8 + T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8 + T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas.

  12. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Wavelet-based ground vehicle recognition using acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Howard C.; Karlsen, Robert E.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Meitzler, Thomas J.

    1996-03-01

    We present, in this paper, a wavelet-based acoustic signal analysis to remotely recognize military vehicles using their sound intercepted by acoustic sensors. Since expedited signal recognition is imperative in many military and industrial situations, we developed an algorithm that provides an automated, fast signal recognition once implemented in a real-time hardware system. This algorithm consists of wavelet preprocessing, feature extraction and compact signal representation, and a simple but effective statistical pattern matching. The current status of the algorithm does not require any training. The training is replaced by human selection of reference signals (e.g., squeak or engine exhaust sound) distinctive to each individual vehicle based on human perception. This allows a fast archiving of any new vehicle type in the database once the signal is collected. The wavelet preprocessing provides time-frequency multiresolution analysis using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Within each resolution level, feature vectors are generated from statistical parameters and energy content of the wavelet coefficients. After applying our algorithm on the intercepted acoustic signals, the resultant feature vectors are compared with the reference vehicle feature vectors in the database using statistical pattern matching to determine the type of vehicle from where the signal originated. Certainly, statistical pattern matching can be replaced by an artificial neural network (ANN); however, the ANN would require training data sets and time to train the net. Unfortunately, this is not always possible for many real world situations, especially collecting data sets from unfriendly ground vehicles to train the ANN. Our methodology using wavelet preprocessing and statistical pattern matching provides robust acoustic signal recognition. We also present an example of vehicle recognition using acoustic signals collected from two different military ground vehicles. In this paper, we will

  14. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  15. Control of Sound Transmission with Active-Passive Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andre L.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous applications of active sound transmission control require lightweight partitions with high transmission loss over a broad frequency range and simple control strategies. In this work an active-passive sound transmission control approach is investigated that potentially addresses these requirements. The approach involves the use of lightweight stiff panels, or tiles, attached to a radiating base structure through active-passive soft mounts and covering the structure surface. ...

  16. Method for measuring violin sound radiation based on bowed glissandi and its application to sound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Carrillo, Alfonso; Bonada, Jordi; Patynen, Jukka; Valimaki, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a method for measuring and computing violin-body directional frequency responses, which are used for violin sound synthesis. The approach is based on a frame-weighted deconvolution of excitation and response signals. The excitation, consisting of bowed glissandi, is measured with piezoelectric transducers built into the bridge. Radiation responses are recorded in an anechoic chamber with multiple microphones placed at different angles around the violin. The proposed deconvolution algorithm computes impulse responses that, when convolved with any source signal (captured with the same transducer), produce a highly realistic violin sound very similar to that of a microphone recording. The use of motion sensors allows for tracking violin movements. Combining this information with the directional responses and using a dynamic convolution algorithm, helps to improve the listening experience by incorporating the violinist motion effect in stereo.

  17. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  18. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  19. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  20. Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme is required for proper segmentation and subsequent formation and growth of digit bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael; Fan, Yi; Lanske, Beate

    2016-02-01

    Digit formation is a process, which requires the proper segmentation, formation and growth of phalangeal bones and is precisely regulated by several important factors. One such factor is Ihh, a gene linked to BDA1 and distal symphalangism in humans. In existing mouse models, mutations in Ihh have been shown to cause multiple synostosis in the digits but lead to perinatal lethality. To better study the exact biological and pathological events which occur in these fused digits, we used a more viable Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) model in which Cre recombinase is expressed during mesenchymal condensation in the earliest limb buds at E9.5 dpc and found that mutant digits continuously fuse postnatally until phalanges are finally replaced by an unsegmented "one-stick bone". Mutant mice displayed osteocalcin-positive mature osteoblasts, but had reduced proliferation and abnormal osteogenesis. Because of the close interaction between Ihh and PTHrP during endochondral ossification, we also examined the digits of Prx1-Cre;PTH1R(fl/fl) mice, where the receptor for PTHrP was conditionally deleted. Surprisingly, we found PTH1R deletion caused symphalangism, demonstrating another novel function of PTH1R signaling in digit formation. We characterized the symphalangism process whereby initial cartilaginous fusion prevented epiphyseal growth plate formation, resulting in resorption and replacement of the remaining cartilage by bony tissue. Chondrocyte differentiation displayed abnormal directionality in both mutants. Lastly, Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl);Jansen Tg mice, in which a constitutively active PTH1R allele was introduced into Ihh mutants, were established to address the possible involvement of PTH1R signaling in Ihh mutant digits. These rescue mice failed to show significantly improved phenotype, suggesting that PTH1R signaling in chondrocytes is not sufficient to restore digit formation. Our results demonstrate that Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme are both essential to regulate

  1. Second Sound for Heat Source Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Vennekate, Hannes; Uhrmacher, Michael; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Defects on the surface of superconducting cavities can limit their accelerating gradient by localized heating. This results in a phase transition to the normal conduction state | a quench. A new application, involving Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) to locate such quench inducing heat spots on the surface of the cavities, has been developed by D. Hartill et al. at Cornell University in 2008. The OSTs enable the detection of heat transfer via second sound in super uid helium. This thesis presents new results on the analysis of their signal. Its behavior has been studied for dierent circumstances at setups at the University of Gottingen and at CERN. New approaches for an automated signal processing have been developed. Furthermore, a rst test setup for a single-cell Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cavity has been prepared. Recommendations of a better signal retrieving for its operation are presented.

  2. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Isnard

    Full Text Available Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs. This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition.

  3. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  4. Perception of stochastically undersampled sound waveforms: A model of auditory deafferentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A Lopez-Poveda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory deafferentation, or permanent loss of auditory nerve afferent terminals, occurs after noise overexposure and aging and may accompany many forms of hearing loss. It could cause significant auditory impairment but is undetected by regular clinical tests and so its effects on perception are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize and test a neural mechanism by which deafferentation could deteriorate perception. The basic idea is that the spike train produced by each auditory afferent resembles a stochastically digitized version of the sound waveform and that the quality of the waveform representation in the whole nerve depends on the number of aggregated spike trains or auditory afferents. We reason that because spikes occur stochastically in time with a higher probability for high- than for low-intensity sounds, more afferents would be required for the nerve to faithfully encode high-frequency or low-intensity waveform features than low-frequency or high-intensity features. Deafferentation would thus degrade the encoding of these features. We further reason that due to the stochastic nature of nerve firing, the degradation would be greater in noise than in quiet. This hypothesis is tested using a vocoder. Sounds were filtered through ten adjacent frequency bands. For the signal in each band, multiple stochastically subsampled copies were obtained to roughly mimic different stochastic representations of that signal conveyed by different auditory afferents innervating a given cochlear region. These copies were then aggregated to obtain an acoustic stimulus. Tone detection and speech identification tests were performed by young, normal-hearing listeners using different numbers of stochastic samplers per frequency band in the vocoder. Results support the hypothesis that stochastic undersampling of the sound waveform, inspired by deafferentation, impairs speech perception in noise more than in quiet, consistent with auditory aging effects.

  5. Perception of stochastically undersampled sound waveforms: a model of auditory deafferentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Barrios, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Auditory deafferentation, or permanent loss of auditory nerve afferent terminals, occurs after noise overexposure and aging and may accompany many forms of hearing loss. It could cause significant auditory impairment but is undetected by regular clinical tests and so its effects on perception are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize and test a neural mechanism by which deafferentation could deteriorate perception. The basic idea is that the spike train produced by each auditory afferent resembles a stochastically digitized version of the sound waveform and that the quality of the waveform representation in the whole nerve depends on the number of aggregated spike trains or auditory afferents. We reason that because spikes occur stochastically in time with a higher probability for high- than for low-intensity sounds, more afferents would be required for the nerve to faithfully encode high-frequency or low-intensity waveform features than low-frequency or high-intensity features. Deafferentation would thus degrade the encoding of these features. We further reason that due to the stochastic nature of nerve firing, the degradation would be greater in noise than in quiet. This hypothesis is tested using a vocoder. Sounds were filtered through ten adjacent frequency bands. For the signal in each band, multiple stochastically subsampled copies were obtained to roughly mimic different stochastic representations of that signal conveyed by different auditory afferents innervating a given cochlear region. These copies were then aggregated to obtain an acoustic stimulus. Tone detection and speech identification tests were performed by young, normal-hearing listeners using different numbers of stochastic samplers per frequency band in the vocoder. Results support the hypothesis that stochastic undersampling of the sound waveform, inspired by deafferentation, impairs speech perception in noise more than in quiet, consistent with auditory aging effects. PMID:23882176

  6. Development of engine sound quality for passenger car with 6 cylinder engine; 6 kito engine joyosha no onshoku kazari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Y; Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, the interior noise has been required not only to reduce the sound pressure level, but also to improve the sound quality, especially during acceleration. This paper describes the development of engine sound quality for the new model `ARISTO (GS300)` with in-line 6 gasoline engine. We used the sound simulator in order to evaluate the engine sound quality during acceleration, and decided the target sound. To attain that sound, the light-weighed Piston and connecting rod, and the improvement of intake system are adopted. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  8. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  9. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (“looming”) or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  10. Concepts for evaluation of sound insulation of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Legal sound insulation requirements have existed more than 50 years in some countries, and single-number quantities for evaluation of sound insulation have existed nearly as long time. However, the concepts have changed considerably over time from simple arithmetic averaging of frequency bands......¬ments and classification schemes revealed significant differences of concepts. The paper summarizes the history of concepts, the disadvantages of the present chaos and the benefits of consensus concerning concepts for airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings and airborne sound insulation of facades...... with a trend towards light-weight constructions are contradictory and challenging. This calls for exchange of data and experience, implying a need for harmonized concepts, including use of spectrum adaptation terms. The paper will provide input for future discussions in EAA TC-RBA WG4: "Sound insulation...

  11. [A focused sound field measurement system by LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhan; Bai, Jingfeng; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, according to the requirement of the focused sound field measurement, a focused sound field measurement system was established based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument platform. The system can automatically search the focus position of the sound field, and adjust the scanning path according to the size of the focal region. Three-dimensional sound field scanning time reduced from 888 hours in uniform step to 9.25 hours in variable step. The efficiency of the focused sound field measurement was improved. There is a certain deviation between measurement results and theoretical calculation results. Focal plane--6 dB width difference rate was 3.691%, the beam axis--6 dB length differences rate was 12.937%.

  12. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  13. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  14. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  15. Girdin/GIV is upregulated by cyclic tension, propagates mechanical signal transduction, and is required for the cellular proliferation and migration of MG-63 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jiang-Tian; Li, Yan; Yu, Bing; Gao, Guo-Jie; Zhou, Ting; Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    To explore how Girdin/GIV is regulated by cyclic tension and propagates downstream signals to affect cell proliferation and migration. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were exposed to cyclic tension force at 4000 μstrain and 0.5 Hz for 6 h, produced by a four-point bending system. Cyclic tension force upregulated Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation in cultured MG-63 cells. Girdin and Akt each promoted the phosphorylation of the other under stimulated tension. In vitro MTT and transwell assays showed that Girdin and Akt are required for cell proliferation and migration during cellular quiescence. Moreover, STAT3 was determined to be essential for Girdin expression under stimulated tension force in the physiological condition, as well as for osteoblast proliferation and migration during quiescence. These findings suggest that the STAT3/Girdin/Akt pathway activates in osteoblasts in response to mechanical stimulation and may play a significant role in triggering osteoblast proliferation and migration during orthodontic treatment. - Highlights: • Tension force upregulates Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation. • Girdin and Akt promotes the phosphorylation of each other under tension stimulation. • Girdin and Akt are required for MG-63 cell proliferation and migration. • STAT3 is essential for Girdin expression after application of the tension forces

  16. Girdin/GIV is upregulated by cyclic tension, propagates mechanical signal transduction, and is required for the cellular proliferation and migration of MG-63 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiang-Tian; Li, Yan; Yu, Bing; Gao, Guo-Jie; Zhou, Ting; Li, Song, E-mail: song_li59@126.com

    2015-08-21

    To explore how Girdin/GIV is regulated by cyclic tension and propagates downstream signals to affect cell proliferation and migration. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were exposed to cyclic tension force at 4000 μstrain and 0.5 Hz for 6 h, produced by a four-point bending system. Cyclic tension force upregulated Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation in cultured MG-63 cells. Girdin and Akt each promoted the phosphorylation of the other under stimulated tension. In vitro MTT and transwell assays showed that Girdin and Akt are required for cell proliferation and migration during cellular quiescence. Moreover, STAT3 was determined to be essential for Girdin expression under stimulated tension force in the physiological condition, as well as for osteoblast proliferation and migration during quiescence. These findings suggest that the STAT3/Girdin/Akt pathway activates in osteoblasts in response to mechanical stimulation and may play a significant role in triggering osteoblast proliferation and migration during orthodontic treatment. - Highlights: • Tension force upregulates Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation. • Girdin and Akt promotes the phosphorylation of each other under tension stimulation. • Girdin and Akt are required for MG-63 cell proliferation and migration. • STAT3 is essential for Girdin expression after application of the tension forces.

  17. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M

    2012-01-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  18. The p21-activated kinase (PAK family member PakD is required for chemorepulsion and proliferation inhibition by autocrine signals in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Phillips

    Full Text Available In Dictyostelium discoideum, the secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as reporters of cell density and regulate cell number by inhibiting proliferation at high cell densities. AprA also functions to disperse groups of cells at high density by acting as a chemorepellent. However, the signal transduction pathways associated with AprA and CfaD are not clear, and little is known about how AprA affects the cytoskeleton to regulate cell movement. We found that the p21-activated kinase (PAK family member PakD is required for both the proliferation-inhibiting activity of AprA and CfaD and the chemorepellent activity of AprA. Similar to cells lacking AprA or CfaD, cells lacking PakD proliferate to a higher cell density than wild-type cells. Recombinant AprA and CfaD inhibit the proliferation of wild-type cells but not cells lacking PakD. Like AprA and CfaD, PakD affects proliferation but does not significantly affect growth (the accumulation of mass on a per-nucleus basis. In contrast to wild-type cells, cells lacking PakD are not repelled from a source of AprA, and colonies of cells lacking PakD expand at a slower rate than wild-type cells, indicating that PakD is required for AprA-mediated chemorepulsion. A PakD-GFP fusion protein localizes to an intracellular punctum that is not the nucleus or centrosome, and PakD-GFP is also occasionally observed at the rear cortex of moving cells. Vegetative cells lacking PakD show excessive actin-based filopodia-like structures, suggesting that PakD affects actin dynamics, consistent with previously characterized roles of PAK proteins in actin regulation. Together, our results implicate PakD in AprA/CfaD signaling and show that a PAK protein is required for proper chemorepulsive cell movement in Dictyostelium.

  19. The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family member PakD is required for chemorepulsion and proliferation inhibition by autocrine signals in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, the secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as reporters of cell density and regulate cell number by inhibiting proliferation at high cell densities. AprA also functions to disperse groups of cells at high density by acting as a chemorepellent. However, the signal transduction pathways associated with AprA and CfaD are not clear, and little is known about how AprA affects the cytoskeleton to regulate cell movement. We found that the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family member PakD is required for both the proliferation-inhibiting activity of AprA and CfaD and the chemorepellent activity of AprA. Similar to cells lacking AprA or CfaD, cells lacking PakD proliferate to a higher cell density than wild-type cells. Recombinant AprA and CfaD inhibit the proliferation of wild-type cells but not cells lacking PakD. Like AprA and CfaD, PakD affects proliferation but does not significantly affect growth (the accumulation of mass) on a per-nucleus basis. In contrast to wild-type cells, cells lacking PakD are not repelled from a source of AprA, and colonies of cells lacking PakD expand at a slower rate than wild-type cells, indicating that PakD is required for AprA-mediated chemorepulsion. A PakD-GFP fusion protein localizes to an intracellular punctum that is not the nucleus or centrosome, and PakD-GFP is also occasionally observed at the rear cortex of moving cells. Vegetative cells lacking PakD show excessive actin-based filopodia-like structures, suggesting that PakD affects actin dynamics, consistent with previously characterized roles of PAK proteins in actin regulation. Together, our results implicate PakD in AprA/CfaD signaling and show that a PAK protein is required for proper chemorepulsive cell movement in Dictyostelium.

  20. Locating and classification of structure-borne sound occurrence using wavelet transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterstein, Martin; Thurnreiter, Martina

    2011-01-01

    For the surveillance of nuclear facilities with respect to detached or loose parts within the pressure boundary structure-borne sound detector systems are used. The impact of loose parts on the wall causes energy transfer to the wall that is measured a so called singular sound event. The run-time differences of sound signals allow a rough locating of the loose part. The authors performed a finite element based simulation of structure-borne sound measurements using real geometries. New knowledge on sound wave propagation, signal analysis and processing, neuronal networks or hidden Markov models were considered. Using the wavelet transformation it is possible to improve the localization of structure-borne sound events.

  1. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  2. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  3. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  4. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  5. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......-free sound signal of the target talker at the HAS via the wireless connection. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which we call MLSSL, to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the target signal given access to the target signal content. Compared with other "informed...

  6. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Peng-Cheng; Pan Guang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. (paper)

  7. Computer soundcard as an AC signal generator and oscilloscope for the physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinlapanuntakul, Jinda; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Jetjamnong, Chanthawut; Chotikaprakhan, Sutharat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop both an AC signal generator and a dual-channel oscilloscope based on standard personal computer equipped with sound card as parts of the laboratory of the fundamental physics and the introduction to electronics classes. The setup turns the computer into the two channel measured device which can provides sample rate, simultaneous sampling, frequency range, filters and others essential capabilities required to perform amplitude, phase and frequency measurements of AC signal. The AC signal also generate from the same computer sound card output simultaneously in any waveform such as sine, square, triangle, saw-toothed pulsed, swept sine and white noise etc. These can convert an inexpensive PC sound card into powerful device, which allows the students to measure physical phenomena with their own PCs either at home or at university attendance. A graphic user interface software was developed for control and analysis, including facilities for data recording, signal processing and real time measurement display. The result is expanded utility of self-learning for the students in the field of electronics both AC and DC circuits, including the sound and vibration experiments.

  8. mTOR Complex Signaling through the SEMA4A-Plexin B2 Axis Is Required for Optimal Activation and Differentiation of CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Nojima, Satoshi; Nishide, Masayuki; Okuno, Tatsusada; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kang, Sujin; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuji; Morimoto, Keiko; Maeda, Yohei; Hosokawa, Takashi; Toyofuku, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Jun; Kamimura, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Murakami, Masaaki; Morii, Eiichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Kumanogoh, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays crucial roles in activation and differentiation of diverse types of immune cells. Although several lines of evidence have demonstrated the importance of mTOR-mediated signals in CD4(+) T cell responses, the involvement of mTOR in CD8(+) T cell responses is not fully understood. In this study, we show that a class IV semaphorin, SEMA4A, regulates CD8(+) T cell activation and differentiation through activation of mTOR complex (mTORC) 1. SEMA4A(-/-) CD8(+) T cells exhibited impairments in production of IFN-γ and TNF-α and induction of the effector molecules granzyme B, perforin, and FAS-L. Upon infection with OVA-expressing Listeria monocytogenes, pathogen-specific effector CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly impaired in SEMA4A(-/-) mice. Furthermore, SEMA4A(-/-) CD8(+) T cells exhibited reduced mTORC1 activity and elevated mTORC2 activity, suggesting that SEMA4A is required for optimal activation of mTORC1 in CD8(+) T cells. IFN-γ production and mTORC1 activity in SEMA4A(-/-) CD8(+) T cells were restored by administration of recombinant Sema4A protein. In addition, we show that plexin B2 is a functional receptor of SEMA4A in CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these results not only demonstrate the role of SEMA4A in CD8(+) T cells, but also reveal a novel link between a semaphorin and mTOR signaling. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Heartland virus NSs protein disrupts host defenses by blocking the TBK1 kinase-IRF3 transcription factor interaction and signaling required for interferon induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Jia; Feng, Kuan; Min, Yuan-Qin; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2017-10-06

    Heartland virus (HRTV) is a pathogenic phlebovirus related to the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), another phlebovirus causing life-threatening disease in humans. Previous findings have suggested that SFTSV can antagonize the host interferon (IFN) system via viral nonstructural protein (NSs)-mediated sequestration of antiviral signaling proteins into NSs-induced inclusion bodies. However, whether and how HRTV counteracts the host innate immunity is unknown. Here, we report that HRTV NSs (HNSs) also antagonizes IFN and cytokine induction and bolsters viral replication, although no noticeable inclusion body formation was observed in HNSs-expressing cells. Furthermore, HNSs inhibited the virus-triggered activation of IFN-β promoter by specifically targeting the IFN-stimulated response element but not the NF-κB response element. Consistently, HNSs blocked the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, an IFN-stimulated response element-activating transcription factor). Reporter gene assays next showed that HNSs blockades the antiviral signaling mediated by RIG-I-like receptors likely at the level of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Indeed, HNSs strongly interacts with TBK1 as indicated by confocal microscopy and pulldown analyses, and we also noted that the scaffold dimerization domain of TBK1 is required for the TBK1-HNSs interaction. Finally, pulldown assays demonstrated that HNSs expression dose-dependently diminishes a TBK1-IRF3 interaction, further explaining the mechanism for HNSs function. Collectively, these data suggest that HNSs, an antagonist of host innate immunity, interacts with TBK1 and thereby hinders the association of TBK1 with its substrate IRF3, thus blocking IRF3 activation and transcriptional induction of the cellular antiviral responses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. An experimental study on the sound and frequency of the Chinese ancient variable bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongsheng; Hu Haining; Xing Lirong; Liu Yongsheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition-spectrum analyser software-and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The configuration is simple and cheap, suitable for demonstration and laboratory exercises

  11. An experimental study on the sound and frequency of the Chinese ancient variable bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongsheng; Hu Haining; Xing Lirong; Liu Yongsheng [Department of Maths and Physics, Shanghai University of Electric Power, 200090 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: cds781@hotmail.com

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition-spectrum analyser software-and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The configuration is simple and cheap, suitable for demonstration and laboratory exercises.

  12. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  13. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  14. Sound, music and gender in mobile games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    resource, they can communicate very specific meanings and carry ideologies. In this paper, using multimodal critical discourse analysis, we analyse the sounds and music in two proto-games that are played on mobile devices: Genie Palace Divine and Dragon Island Race. While visually the two games are highly...... and impersonal and specific kinds of social relations which, we show, is highly gendered. It can also signal priorities, ideas and values, which in both cases, we show, relate to a world where there is simply no time to stop and think. © 2016, equinox publishing....

  15. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  16. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  17. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  18. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  19. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  20. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S G [Physics Department, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D [Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.vonhunerbein@salford.ac.uk

    2008-05-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group.