WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound ranging

  1. The frequency range of TMJ sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmalm, S E; Williams, W J; Djurdjanovic, D; McKay, D C

    2003-04-01

    There are conflicting opinions about the frequency range of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds. Some authors claim that the upper limit is about 650 Hz. The aim was to test the hypothesis that TMJ sounds may contain frequencies well above 650 Hz but that significant amounts of their energy are lost if the vibrations are recorded using contact sensors and/or travel far through the head tissues. Time-frequency distributions of 172 TMJ clickings (three subjects) were compared between recordings with one microphone in the ear canal and a skin contact transducer above the clicking joint and between recordings from two microphones, one in each ear canal. The energy peaks of the clickings recorded with a microphone in the ear canal on the clicking side were often well above 650 Hz and always in a significantly higher area (range 117-1922 Hz, P 375 Hz) or in microphone recordings from the opposite ear canal (range 141-703 Hz). Future studies are required to establish normative frequency range values of TMJ sounds but need methods also capable of recording the high frequency vibrations.

  2. 76 FR 20715 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... continuing sounding rocket operations at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... information about NASA's Sounding Rocket Program (SRP) and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks' PFRR may be...

  3. Halifax Sound Range Trials (DE0301, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiated sound measurements of vessels are important for monitoring the noise characteristics of fishing and research vessels. A vessel's radiated noise can have...

  4. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the PFRR...

  5. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  6. A Hybrid Finite Element/Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Integral Model for Shooting Range Sound Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    National legislation enforces a limit on the Sound Levels of outdoor military shooting ranges observed in nearby residential areas. These restrictions directly influence the number of shots that may be fired at a specific shooting range, which may conflict with the required/ scheduled training

  7. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 - 4 μm spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, Oleg A.; Sadovnikov, Sergey A.; Kharchenko, Olga V.; Yakovlev, Semen V.

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  8. Sound velocity of tantalum under shock compression in the 18–142 GPa range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng, E-mail: xifeng@caep.cn; Jin, Ke; Cai, Lingcang, E-mail: cai-lingcang@aliyun.com; Geng, Huayun; Tan, Ye; Li, Jun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Waves and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102 Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Dynamic compression experiments of tantalum (Ta) within a shock pressure range from 18–142 GPa were conducted driven by explosive, a two-stage light gas gun, and a powder gun, respectively. The time-resolved Ta/LiF (lithium fluoride) interface velocity profiles were recorded with a displacement interferometer system for any reflector. Sound velocities of Ta were obtained from the peak state time duration measurements with the step-sample technique and the direct-reverse impact technique. The uncertainty of measured sound velocities were analyzed carefully, which suggests that the symmetrical impact method with step-samples is more accurate for sound velocity measurement, and the most important parameter in this type experiment is the accurate sample/window particle velocity profile, especially the accurate peak state time duration. From these carefully analyzed sound velocity data, no evidence of a phase transition was found up to the shock melting pressure of Ta.

  9. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  10. Long Range Sound Propagation over Sea: Application to Wind Turbine Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boue, Matieu

    2007-12-13

    The classical theory of spherical wave propagation is not valid at large distances from a sound source due to the influence of wind and temperature gradients that refract, i.e., bend the sound waves. This will in the downwind direction lead to a cylindrical type of wave spreading for large distances (> 1 km). Cylindrical spreading will give a smaller damping with distance as compared to spherical spreading (3 dB/distance doubling instead of 6 dB). But over areas with soft ground, i.e., grass land, the effect of ground reflections will increase the damping so that, if the effect of atmospheric damping is removed, a behavior close to a free field spherical spreading often is observed. This is the standard assumption used in most national recommendations for predicting outdoor sound propagation, e.g., noise from wind turbines. Over areas with hard surfaces, e.g., desserts or the sea, the effect of ground damping is small and therefore cylindrical propagation could be expected in the downwind direction. This observation backed by a limited number of measurements is the background for the Swedish recommendation, which suggests that cylindrical wave spreading should be assumed for distances larger than 200 m for sea based wind turbines. The purpose of this work was to develop measurement procedures for long range sound transmission and to apply this to investigate the occurrence of cylindrical wave spreading in the Baltic Sea. This work has been successfully finished and is described in this report. Another ambition was to develop models for long range sound transmission based on the parabolic equation. Here the work is not finished but must be continued in another project. Long term measurements were performed in the Kalmar strait, Sweden, located between the mainland and Oeland, during 2005 and 2006. Two different directive sound sources placed on a lighthouse in the middle of the strait produced low frequency tones at 80, 200 and 400 Hz. At the reception point on

  11. On the theory of SODAR measurement techniques[SOund Detection And Ranging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniou, I.; Joergensen, H.E. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Ormel, F. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Bradley, S.; Huenerbein, S. von [University of Salford (United Kingdom); Emeis, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Warmbier, G. [GWU-Umwelttechnik Gmbh (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The need for alternative means to measure the wind speed for wind energy purposes has increased with the increase of the size of wind turbines. The cost and the technical difficulties for performing wind speed measurements has also increased with the size of the wind turbines, since it is demanded that the wind speed has to be measured at the rotor centre of the turbine and the size of both the rotor and the hub height have grown following the increase in the size of the wind turbines. The SODAR (SOund Detection And Ranging) is an alternative to the use of cup anemometers and offers the possibility of measuring both the wind speed distribution with height and the wind direction. At the same time the SODAR presents a number of serious drawbacks such as the low number of measurements per time period, the dependence of the ability to measure on the atmospheric conditions and the difficulty of measuring at higher wind speeds due to either background noise or the neutral condition of the atmosphere. Within the WISE project (EU project number NNE5-2001-297), a number of work packages have been defined in order to deal with the SODAR. The present report is the result of the work package 1. Within this package the objective has been to present and achieve the following: 1) An accurate theoretic model that describes all the relevant aspects of the interaction of the sound beam with the atmosphere in the level of detail needed for wind energy applications. 2) Understanding of dependence of SODAR performance on hard- and software configuration. 3) Quantification of principal difference between SODAR wind measurement and wind speed measurements with cup anemometers with regard to power performance measurements.

  12. Sound Propagation Around Off-Shore Wind Turbines. Long-Range Parabolic Equation Calculations for Baltic Sea Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lisa

    2003-07-01

    Low-frequency, long-range sound propagation over a sea surface has been calculated using a wide-angel Cranck-Nicholson Parabolic Equation method. The model is developed to investigate noise from off-shore wind turbines. The calculations are made using normal meteorological conditions of the Baltic Sea. Special consideration has been made to a wind phenomenon called low level jet with strong winds on rather low altitude. The effects of water waves on sound propagation have been incorporated in the ground boundary condition using a boss model. This way of including roughness in sound propagation models is valid for water wave heights that are small compared to the wave length of the sound. Nevertheless, since only low frequency sound is considered, waves up to the mean wave height of the Baltic Sea can be included in this manner. The calculation model has been tested against benchmark cases and agrees well with measurements. The calculations show that channelling of sound occurs at downwind conditions and that the sound propagation tends towards cylindrical spreading. The effects of the water waves are found to be fairly small.

  13. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  14. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 – 4 μm spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanovskii Oleg A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  15. Fast negative feedback enables mammalian auditory nerve fibers to encode a wide dynamic range of sound intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ospeck

    Full Text Available Mammalian auditory nerve fibers (ANF are remarkable for being able to encode a 40 dB, or hundred fold, range of sound pressure levels into their firing rate. Most of the fibers are very sensitive and raise their quiescent spike rate by a small amount for a faint sound at auditory threshold. Then as the sound intensity is increased, they slowly increase their spike rate, with some fibers going up as high as ∼300 Hz. In this way mammals are able to combine sensitivity and wide dynamic range. They are also able to discern sounds embedded within background noise. ANF receive efferent feedback, which suggests that the fibers are readjusted according to the background noise in order to maximize the information content of their auditory spike trains. Inner hair cells activate currents in the unmyelinated distal dendrites of ANF where sound intensity is rate-coded into action potentials. We model this spike generator compartment as an attenuator that employs fast negative feedback. Input current induces rapid and proportional leak currents. This way ANF are able to have a linear frequency to input current (f-I curve that has a wide dynamic range. The ANF spike generator remains very sensitive to threshold currents, but efferent feedback is able to lower its gain in response to noise.

  16. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  17. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  18. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems. PMID:28401960

  19. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-04-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.

  20. Direct Observation of Long-Range Transport Using Continuously Sounding Balloons and Near-Real-Time Trajectory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons have been used in several recent studies to measure long-range transport over periods as long as 30 hours and distances up to 1000 kilometers. By repeatedly performing shallow soundings as they drift, CMET balloons can quantify evolving atmospheric structure, mixing events, shear advection, and dispersion during transport. In addition, the quasi-Lagrangian wind profiles can be used to drive a multi-layer trajectory model in which the advected air parcels follow the underlying terrain, or are constrained by altitude, potential temperature, or tracer concentration. Data from a coordinated balloon-aircraft study of long range transport over Texas (SETTS 2005) show that the reconstructed trajectories accurately track residual-layer urban outflow (and at times even its fine-scale structure) over distances of many hundreds of kilometers. The reconstructed trajectories and evolving profile visualizations are increasingly being made available in near-real time during balloon flights, supporting data-driven flight planning and sophisticated process studies relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Multilayer trajectories (black grids) derived from CMET balloon flight paths (grey lines) for a transport event across Texas in 2005.

  1. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  2. A Sound Therapy-Based Intervention to Expand the Auditory Dynamic Range for Loudness among Persons with Sensorineural Hearing Losses: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Hawley, Monica L.; Sherlock, LaGuinn P.; Gold, Susan; Payne, JoAnne; Brooks, Rebecca; Parton, Jason M.; Juneau, Roger; Desporte, Edward J.; Siegle, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the validity, efficacy, and generalization of principles underlying a sound therapy–based treatment for promoting expansion of the auditory dynamic range (DR) for loudness. The basic sound therapy principles, originally devised for treatment of hyperacusis among patients with tinnitus, were evaluated in this study in a target sample of unsuccessfully fit and/or problematic prospective hearing aid users with diminished DRs (owing to their elevated audiometric thresholds and reduced sound tolerance). Secondary aims included: (1) delineation of the treatment contributions from the counseling and sound therapy components to the full-treatment protocol and, in turn, the isolated treatment effects from each of these individual components to intervention success; and (2) characterization of the respective dynamics for full, partial, and control treatments. Thirty-six participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing losses and reduced DRs, which affected their actual or perceived ability to use hearing aids, were enrolled in and completed a placebo-controlled (for sound therapy) randomized clinical trial. The 2 × 2 factorial trial design was implemented with or without various assignments of counseling and sound therapy. Specifically, participants were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (nine participants per group), including: (1) group 1—full treatment achieved with scripted counseling plus sound therapy implemented with binaural sound generators; (2) group 2—partial treatment achieved with counseling and placebo sound generators (PSGs); (3) group 3—partial treatment achieved with binaural sound generators alone; and (4) group 4—a neutral control treatment implemented with the PSGs alone. Repeated measurements of categorical loudness judgments served as the primary outcome measure. The full-treatment categorical-loudness judgments for group 1, measured at treatment termination, were

  3. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  4. P--V--T and sound velocity data for fluid n-D2 in the range 75-300 K and 2-20 kbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    Simultaneous static measurements of pressure, volume, temperature, and sound velocity are reported in deuterium fluid in the range 75 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 300K and 2 less than or equal to P less than or equal to 20 kbar [0.2 to 2.0 GPa]. The 1340 sets of data points along the 33 different isotherms are presented so that they may be available for use in equation-of-state development

  5. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  6. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  7. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 1983-11-29 to 1984-08-01 (NODC Accession 8800119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from November 29, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  9. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  10. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  12. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  13. Sound transmission at ground level in a short-grass prairie habitat and its implications for long-range communication in the swift fox Vulpes velox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi K; Pedersen, Simon B; Larsen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    The acoustic environment of swift foxes Vulpes velox vocalizing close to the ground and the effect of propagation on individual identity information in vocalizations were quantified in a transmission experiment in prairie habitat. Sounds were propagated (0.45 m above the ground) at distances up t...

  14. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  15. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  16. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  17. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  18. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  19. Radio-Wave Tomography of Inhomogeneities in Biological Media with Multi-Frequency Sounding in the Range 2-8 GHZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipilov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for detecting and mapping inhomogeneities in biological tissues using the radio-wave tomosynthesis method is presented. The proposed method of radio-wave tomosynthesis allows us to calculate the three-dimensional distribution of the permittivity of the space under study and, thereby, to detect tissue inhomogeneities and to determine their location and size. Due to their harmlessness for humans, these methods are suitable for dynamic observation of changes in the size of formation, in contrast to x-ray methods, for which regular doses of ionizing radiation are contraindicated. Therefore, the development of non-invasive methods for the search for inhomogeneities in biological media based on radio-wave sounding, which makes it possible to identify pathological formations, is now very relevant.

  20. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  1. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  2. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  3. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  4. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  5. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  6. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  7. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  8. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  9. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity

  10. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  11. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  12. Sound propagation in water containing large tethered spherical encapsulated gas bubbles with resonance frequencies in the 50 Hz to 100 Hz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M; Hinojosa, Kevin T; Wochner, Mark S; Argo, Theodore F; Wilson, Preston S; Mercier, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    The efficacy of large tethered encapsulated gas bubbles for the mitigation of low frequency underwater noise was investigated with an acoustic resonator technique. Tethered latex balloons were used as the bubbles, which had radii of approximately 5 cm. Phase speeds were inferred from the resonances of a water and balloon-filled waveguide approximately 1.8 m in length. The Commander and Prosperetti effective-medium model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 732-746 (1989)] quantitatively described the observed dispersion from well below to just below the individual bubble resonance frequency, and it qualitatively predicted the frequency range of high attenuation for void fractions between 2% and 5% for collections of stationary balloons within the waveguide. A finite-element model was used to investigate the sensitivity of the waveguide resonance frequencies, and hence the inferred phase speeds, to changes in individual bubble size and position. The results indicate that large tethered encapsulated bubbles could be used mitigate low frequency underwater noise and that the Commander and Prosperetti model would be useful in the design of such a system.

  13. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  14. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  15. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  16. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  17. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  18. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  19. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm 2 and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [de

  20. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  1. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  2. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  3. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  4. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  5. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  6. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The availability and flexibility of audio services on various digital platforms have created a high demand for a large range of sound systems. The fundamental components of sound systems such as docking stations, sound bars and wireless mobile speakers consists of a power supply, amplifiers and transducers. Due to historical reasons the design of each of these components are commonly handled separately which are indeed limiting the full performance potential of such systems. To state some exa...

  7. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic...

  8. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  9. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  10. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  11. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  12. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  13. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  14. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  15. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  16. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  17. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  18. Non-Wovens as Sound Reducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakova, D.; Seile, A.; Kukle, S.; Plamus, T.

    2018-04-01

    Within the present study, the effect of hemp (40 wt%) and polyactide (60 wt%), non-woven surface density, thickness and number of fibre web layers on the sound absorption coefficient and the sound transmission loss in the frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz is analysed. The sound insulation properties of the experimental samples have been determined, compared to the ones in practical use, and the possible use of material has been defined. Non-woven materials are ideally suited for use in acoustic insulation products because the arrangement of fibres produces a porous material structure, which leads to a greater interaction between sound waves and fibre structure. Of all the tested samples (A, B and D), the non-woven variant B exceeded the surface density of sample A by 1.22 times and 1.15 times that of sample D. By placing non-wovens one above the other in 2 layers, it is possible to increase the absorption coefficient of the material, which depending on the frequency corresponds to C, D, and E sound absorption classes. Sample A demonstrates the best sound absorption of all the three samples in the frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz. In the test frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz, the sound transmission loss varies from 0.76 (Sample D at 63 Hz) to 3.90 (Sample B at 5000 Hz).

  19. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  20. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  1. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  2. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  4. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  5. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  6. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  7. Assessment and improvement of sound quality in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiam, Nicole T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) have successfully provided speech perception to individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Recent research has focused on more challenging acoustic stimuli such as music and voice emotion. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and describe sound quality in CI users with the purposes of summarizing novel findings and crucial information about how CI users experience complex sounds. Here we review the existing literature on PubMed and Scopus to present what is known about perceptual sound quality in CI users, discuss existing measures of sound quality, explore how sound quality may be effectively studied, and examine potential strategies of improving sound quality in the CI population. Sound quality, defined here as the perceived richness of an auditory stimulus, is an attribute of implant-mediated listening that remains poorly studied. Sound quality is distinct from appraisal, which is generally defined as the subjective likability or pleasantness of a sound. Existing studies suggest that sound quality perception in the CI population is limited by a range of factors, most notably pitch distortion and dynamic range compression. Although there are currently very few objective measures of sound quality, the CI-MUSHRA has been used as a means of evaluating sound quality. There exist a number of promising strategies to improve sound quality perception in the CI population including apical cochlear stimulation, pitch tuning, and noise reduction processing strategies. In the published literature, sound quality perception is severely limited among CI users. Future research should focus on developing systematic, objective, and quantitative sound quality metrics and designing therapies to mitigate poor sound quality perception in CI users. NA.

  8. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  9. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  10. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  11. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  12. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  13. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  14. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  15. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  16. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  17. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  18. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  19. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  20. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  1. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  2. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  3. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  4. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  5. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  6. 33 CFR 67.20-10 - Sound signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.20-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âAâ Requirements § 67.20-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “A” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated range...

  7. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  8. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  9. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  10. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  11. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  12. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  13. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  14. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  15. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  16. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  17. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  18. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  19. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  20. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  1. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  2. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  3. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  4. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  5. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  6. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  7. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  8. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  9. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  10. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  11. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  12. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  13. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  14. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  15. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  16. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  17. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  18. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  19. Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Resources for Educators, Students, the Public, and Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigness-Raposa, Kathleen J; Scowcroft, Gail; Miller, James H; Ketten, Darlene R; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of underwater sound on marine life. However, the science of sound is challenging. The Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web site ( http://www.dosits.org ) was designed to provide comprehensive scientific information on underwater sound for the public and educational and media professionals. It covers the physical science of underwater sound and its use by people and marine animals for a range of tasks. Celebrating 10 years of online resources, DOSITS continues to develop new material and improvements, providing the best resource for the most up-to-date information on underwater sound and its potential effects.

  20. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  1. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  2. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  3. A system for heart sounds classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    Full Text Available The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability.

  4. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  5. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  6. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  7. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  8. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  9. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  10. Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J.C.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

  11. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  12. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  13. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  14. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  15. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  16. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  17. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  18. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  19. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  20. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  1. Determining the speed of sound in the air by sound wave interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Abel A.

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical waves propagate through material media. Sound is an example of a mechanical wave. In fluids like air, sound waves propagate through successive longitudinal perturbations of compression and decompression. Audible sound frequencies for human ears range from 20 to 20 000 Hz. In this study, the speed of sound v in the air is determined using the identification of maxima of interference from two synchronous waves at frequency f. The values of v were correct to 0 °C. The experimental average value of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp =336 +/- 4 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1 was found. It is 1.5% larger than the reference value. The standard deviation of 4 m s-1 (1.2% of {\\bar{ν }}\\exp ) is an improved value by the use of the concept of the central limit theorem. The proposed procedure to determine the speed of sound in the air aims to be an academic activity for physics classes of scientific and technological courses in college.

  2. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  3. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  4. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  5. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  6. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  7. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  8. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  9. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  10. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  11. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  12. Control of Sound Transmission with Active-Passive Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andre L.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous applications of active sound transmission control require lightweight partitions with high transmission loss over a broad frequency range and simple control strategies. In this work an active-passive sound transmission control approach is investigated that potentially addresses these requirements. The approach involves the use of lightweight stiff panels, or tiles, attached to a radiating base structure through active-passive soft mounts and covering the structure surface. ...

  13. Sound field reconstruction based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer; furthermore, it can be exploited to characterize an arbitrary sound field using tomographic techniques. This paper briefly reviews the fundamental principles governing the acousto-optic effect in air, and presents an investigation of the tomographic reconstruction...... within the audible frequency range by means of simulations and experimental results. The good agreement observed between simulations and measurements is further confirmed with representations of the sound field obtained with traditional microphone array measurements....

  14. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  15. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  16. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...

  17. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  18. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  19. Steerable sound transport in a 3D acoustic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bai-Zhan; Jiao, Jun-Rui; Dai, Hong-Qing; Yin, Sheng-Wen; Zheng, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ning; Yu, De-Jie

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-lossless and asymmetric sound transports, which are exceedingly desirable in various modern physical systems, are almost always based on nonlinear or angular momentum biasing effects with extremely high power levels and complex modulation schemes. A practical route for the steerable sound transport along any arbitrary acoustic pathway, especially in a three-dimensional (3D) acoustic network, can revolutionize the sound power propagation and the sound communication. Here, we design an acoustic device containing a regular-tetrahedral cavity with four cylindrical waveguides. A smaller regular-tetrahedral solid in this cavity is eccentrically emplaced to break spatial symmetry of the acoustic device. The numerical and experimental results show that the sound power flow can unimpededly transport between two waveguides away from the eccentric solid within a wide frequency range. Based on the quasi-lossless and asymmetric transport characteristic of the single acoustic device, we construct a 3D acoustic network, in which the sound power flow can flexibly propagate along arbitrary sound pathways defined by our acoustic devices with eccentrically emplaced regular-tetrahedral solids.

  20. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  1. A framework for automatic heart sound analysis without segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungpimolrut Kanokvate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new framework for heart sound analysis is proposed. One of the most difficult processes in heart sound analysis is segmentation, due to interference form murmurs. Method Equal number of cardiac cycles were extracted from heart sounds with different heart rates using information from envelopes of autocorrelation functions without the need to label individual fundamental heart sounds (FHS. The complete method consists of envelope detection, calculation of cardiac cycle lengths using auto-correlation of envelope signals, features extraction using discrete wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and classification using neural network bagging predictors. Result The proposed method was tested on a set of heart sounds obtained from several on-line databases and recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Geometric mean was used as performance index. Average classification performance using ten-fold cross-validation was 0.92 for noise free case, 0.90 under white noise with 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and 0.90 under impulse noise up to 0.3 s duration. Conclusion The proposed method showed promising results and high noise robustness to a wide range of heart sounds. However, more tests are needed to address any bias that may have been introduced by different sources of heart sounds in the current training set, and to concretely validate the method. Further work include building a new training set recorded from actual patients, then further evaluate the method based on this new training set.

  2. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  3. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  4. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  5. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  6. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  7. The isolation of low frequency impact sounds in hotel construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVerde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2002-11-01

    One of the design challenges in the acoustical design of hotels is reducing low frequency sounds from footfalls occurring on both carpeted and hard-surfaced floors. Research on low frequency impact noise [W. Blazier and R. DuPree, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1521-1532 (1994)] resulted in a conclusion that in wood construction low frequency impact sounds were clearly audible and that feasible control methods were not available. The results of numerous FIIC (Field Impact Insulation Class) measurements performed in accordance with ASTM E1007 indicate the lack of correlation between FIIC ratings and the reaction of occupants in the room below. The measurements presented include FIIC ratings and sound pressure level measurements below the ASTM E1007 low frequency limit of 100 Hertz, and reveal that excessive sound levels in the frequency range of 63 to 100 Hertz correlate with occupant complaints. Based upon this history, a tentative criterion for maximum impact sound level in the low frequency range is presented. The results presented of modifying existing constructions to reduce the transmission of impact sounds at low frequencies indicate that there may be practical solutions to this longstanding problem.

  8. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  9. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of shortwave transverse sound in pure superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Various mechanisms are analyzed which lead to nonlinear phenomena (e.g., the dependence of the absorption coefficient and of the velocity of sound on its intensity) in the propagation of transverse shortwave sound in pure superconductors (the wavelength of the sound being much less than the mean free path of the quasiparticles). It is shown that the basic mechanism, over a wide range of superconductor parameters and of the sound intensity, is the so-called momentum nonlinearity. The latter is due to the distortion (induced by the sound wave) of the quasimomentum distribution of resonant electrons interacting with the wave. The dependences of the absorption coefficient and of the sound velocity on its intensity and on the temperature are analyzed in the vicinity of the superconducting transition point. The feasibility of an experimental study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the case of transverse sound is considered

  10. Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lyubchyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay, and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay. All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.

  11. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  12. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  13. Cortical processing of dynamic sound envelope transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-12-08

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20 Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of nonmonotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Nonmonotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise.

  14. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  15. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  16. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  17. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    be used for realistic environmental sound. Natural unstructured environment sounds contain a large variety of sounds, which are in fact noise-like and are not effectively modeled by Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) or other commonly-used audio features, e.g. energy, zero-crossing, etc. Due to the lack of appropriate features that is suitable for environmental audio and to achieve a more effective representation, I proposed a specialized feature extraction algorithm for environmental sounds that utilizes the matching pursuit (MP) algorithm to learn the inherent structure of each type of sounds, which we called MP-features. MP-features have shown to capture and represent sounds from different sources and different ranges, where frequency domain features (e.g., MFCCs) fail and can be advantageous when combining with MFCCs to improve the overall performance. The third component leads to our investigation on modeling and detecting the background audio. One of the goals of this research is to characterize an environment. Since many events would blend into the background, I wanted to look for a way to achieve a general model for any particular environment. Once we have an idea of the background, it will enable us to identify foreground events even if we havent seen these events before. Therefore, the next step is to investigate into learning the audio background model for each environment type, despite the occurrences of different foreground events. In this work, I presented a framework for robust audio background modeling, which includes learning the models for prediction, data knowledge and persistent characteristics of the environment. This approach has the ability to model the background and detect foreground events as well as the ability to verify whether the predicted background is indeed the background or a foreground event that protracts for a longer period of time. In this work, I also investigated the use of a semi-supervised learning technique to

  18. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds Database: A validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eParsons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalisations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocaliser mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and Study 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive. While the adult vocalisations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalisations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalisations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of the each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.

  19. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  20. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds.

  1. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  2. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  4. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  5. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  6. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    Sound is the most efficient radiation in the ocean. Sounds of seismic and biological origin contain information regarding the underlying processes that created them. A single hydrophone records summary time-frequency information from the volume within acoustic range. Beamforming using a hydrophone array additionally produces azimuthal estimates of sound sources. A two-dimensional array and acoustic focusing produce an unambiguous two-dimensional `image' of sources. This dissertation describes the application of these techniques in three cases. The first utilizes hydrophone arrays to investigate T-phases (water-borne seismic waves) in the Philippine Sea. Ninety T-phases were recorded over a 12-day period, implying a greater number of seismic events occur than are detected by terrestrial seismic monitoring in the region. Observation of an azimuthally migrating T-phase suggests that reverberation of such sounds from bathymetric features can occur over megameter scales. In the second case, single hydrophone recordings from coral reefs in the Line Islands archipelago reveal that local ambient reef sound is spectrally similar to sounds produced by small, hard-shelled benthic invertebrates in captivity. Time-lapse photography of the reef reveals an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at sundown, consistent with an increase in sound level. The dominant acoustic phenomenon on these reefs may thus originate from the interaction between a large number of small invertebrates and the substrate. Such sounds could be used to take census of hard-shelled benthic invertebrates that are otherwise extremely difficult to survey. A two-dimensional `map' of sound production over a coral reef in the Hawaiian Islands was obtained using two-dimensional hydrophone array in the third case. Heterogeneously distributed bio-acoustic sources were generally co-located with rocky reef areas. Acoustically dominant snapping shrimp were largely restricted to one location within the area surveyed

  7. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  8. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  9. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  10. Expansion of a nitrogen discharge by sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinyan, M.A.; Galechyan, G.A.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    When the background pressure and the discharge current in a gas discharge are raised the plasma column is tightened up into a filament. Then the discharge occupies a region of the discharge tube whose transverse dimensions are substantially less than those of the tube. This contraction phenomenon in discharges restricts the range of parameters used in various devices to the range of relatively low discharge currents and low gas pressures. This contraction interferes with creating high-power gas lasers, since it acts destructively on the lasing process. In order to suppress filamentation of discharges the working gas has been pumped through the system at high speed, with considerable success. The turbulent mixing in the stream plays an important role in creating an uncontracted discharge at high pressures. The purpose of the present work is to study the possibility of undoing the contraction of a nitrogen discharge, which is one of the main components in the operation of a CO 2 laser, by introducing an intense sound wave in the discharge tube. Discharge contraction and the effect of a sound wave propagating along the plasma column have been investigated experimentally in nitrogen by studying the current-voltage characteristics of a contracted discharge. 6 refs., 3 figs

  11. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  12. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  13. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  14. Perception of acoustic scale and size in musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D

    2006-10-01

    There is size information in natural sounds. For example, as humans grow in height, their vocal tracts increase in length, producing a predictable decrease in the formant frequencies of speech sounds. Recent studies have shown that listeners can make fine discriminations about which of two speakers has the longer vocal tract, supporting the view that the auditory system discriminates changes on the acoustic-scale dimension. Listeners can also recognize vowels scaled well beyond the range of vocal tracts normally experienced, indicating that perception is robust to changes in acoustic scale. This paper reports two perceptual experiments designed to extend research on acoustic scale and size perception to the domain of musical sounds: The first study shows that listeners can discriminate the scale of musical instrument sounds reliably, although not quite as well as for voices. The second experiment shows that listeners can recognize the family of an instrument sound which has been modified in pitch and scale beyond the range of normal experience. We conclude that processing of acoustic scale in music perception is very similar to processing of acoustic scale in speech perception.

  15. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  16. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  18. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  19. Sound perception, performance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Musical Performance covers many aspects like Musical Acoustics, Music Psychology, or motor and prosodic actions. It deals with basic concepts of the origin or music and its evolution, ranges over neurocognitive foundations, and covers computational, technological, or simulation solutions. This volume gives an overview about current research in the foundation of musical performance studies on all these levels. Recent concepts of synchronized systems, evolutionary concepts, basic understanding of performance as Gestalt patterns, theories of chill as performance goals or historical aspects are covered. The neurocognitive basis of motor action in terms of music, musical syntax, as well as therapeutic aspects are discussed. State-of-the-art applications in performance realizations, like virtual room acoustics, virtual musicians, new concepts of real-time physical modeling using complex performance data as input or sensor and gesture studies with soft- and hardware solutions are presented. So although the field is ...

  20. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  1. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  2. Semiconductor-based electret sensors for sound and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet; Sprenkels, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The theory and experimental results for integrated electret-based silicon sensors for the detection of sound and pressure are presented. A silicon electret microphone for use in hearing-aids is described. It has an experimentally determined sensitivity of 19 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 50 Hz to

  3. Video and Sound Production: Flip out! Game on!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    The author started teaching TV and sound production in a career and technical education (CTE) setting six years ago. The first couple months of teaching provided a steep learning curve for him. He is highly experienced in his industry, but teaching the content presented a new set of obstacles. His students had a broad range of abilities,…

  4. Cavitating Orifice: Flow regime transitions and low frequency sound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testud, P.; Moussou, P.; Hirschberg, A.; Aurégan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Detailed data are provided for the broadband noise in a cavitating pipe flow through a circular orifice in water. Experiments are performed under industrial conditions, i.e., with a pressure drop varying from 3 to 30 bars and a cavitation number in the range 0.10 = s = 0.77. The speed of sound

  5. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    . Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating...

  6. Development of sound absorption measuring system with acoustic chamber; Kogata kyuon koka sokutei sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, M.; Noba, M. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In order to measure sound absorption performance necessary to develop sound absorption materials, development was made on a device consisting of a small sound box capable of measurement inexpensively and easily, as a measure against the reverberation chamber method. In order to obtain stabilized diffusion sound internally, the sound box has a shape of asymmetric seven-side body in which sides do not face squarely with each other. The box was so sized that a large number of resonant vibration postures can be constituted at the targeted frequency simultaneously in the box. The box has a commercially available cone speaker with good acoustic output characteristics in frequency range of higher than 500 Hz installed on an inner side of the box. The sound source uses a method to derive sound absorption rate from difference of sound pressure levels. In order to eliminate need of averaging treatment by using a multi-point measurement inside the box, a discussion was given to provide an opening on part of the box to place the sound receiving point outside the opening. A square test piece is placed on the floor 0.5 meter or more away from the speaker in the box. As a result of the experiment, it was verified that the sound absorption rate obtained by this device corresponds well with that by the reverberation chamber method. The size of the test piece was also found adequate. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Research on fiber Bragg grating heart sound sensing and wavelength demodulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chang-Yun; Gao, Hua; Gan, Jing-Meng; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Heart sound includes a lot of physiological and pathological information of heart and blood vessel. Heart sound detecting is an important method to gain the heart status, and has important significance to early diagnoses of cardiopathy. In order to improve sensitivity and reduce noise, a heart sound measurement method based on fiber Bragg grating was researched. By the vibration principle of plane round diaphragm, a heart sound sensor structure of fiber Bragg grating was designed and a heart sound sensing mathematical model was established. A formula of heart sound sensitivity was deduced and the theoretical sensitivity of the designed sensor is 957.11pm/KPa. Based on matched grating method, the experiment system was built, by which the excursion of reflected wavelength of the sensing grating was detected and the information of heart sound was obtained. Experiments show that the designed sensor can detect the heart sound and the reflected wavelength variety range is about 70pm. When the sampling frequency is 1 KHz, the extracted heart sound waveform by using the db4 wavelet has the same characteristics with a standard heart sound sensor.

  8. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  9. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  10. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  11. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  12. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  13. Intercepting a sound without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals’ performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions. PMID:28481939

  14. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  15. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  16. Sound absorption effects in a rectangular enclosure with the foamed aluminum sheet absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Eung; Chung, Jin Tai; Kim, Sang Hun; Chung, Kyung Ryul

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of finding out the optimal thickness of sound absorber and the sound absorption effects due to the selected thickness at an interested frequency range, the analytical study identifies the interior and exterior sound field characteristics of a rectangular enclosure with foamed aluminum lining and the experimental verification is performed with random noise input. By using a two-microphone impedance tube, we measure experimentally the absorption coefficient and the impedance of simple sound absorbing materials. Measured acoustical parameters of the test samples are applied to the theoretical analysis to predict sound pressure field in the cavity. The sound absorption effects from measurements are compared to predicted ones in both cases with and without foamed aluminum lining in the cavity of the rectangular enclosure

  17. An intelligent artificial throat with sound-sensing ability based on laser induced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Tian, He; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Yan, Jun-Chao; Deng, Ning-Qin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Traditional sound sources and sound detectors are usually independent and discrete in the human hearing range. To minimize the device size and integrate it with wearable electronics, there is an urgent requirement of realizing the functional integration of generating and detecting sound in a single device. Here we show an intelligent laser-induced graphene artificial throat, which can not only generate sound but also detect sound in a single device. More importantly, the intelligent artificial throat will significantly assist for the disabled, because the simple throat vibrations such as hum, cough and scream with different intensity or frequency from a mute person can be detected and converted into controllable sounds. Furthermore, the laser-induced graphene artificial throat has the advantage of one-step fabrication, high efficiency, excellent flexibility and low cost, and it will open practical applications in voice control, wearable electronics and many other areas.

  18. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes; Schallstrahlungskontrast in MR-Phasenbildern. Methode zur Darstellung von Elastizitaets-, Schalldaempfungs- und Schallimpedanzaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-12-18

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm{sup 2} and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [German] Die in dieser Arbeit praesentierte Methode kombiniert Ultraschalltechniken mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Eine Ultraschallwelle ruft in absorbierenden Medien eine statische Kraft in Schallausbreitungsrichtung hervor. Die Kraft fuehrt bei Schallintensitaeten von einigen W/cm{sup 2} und einer Schallfrequenz im niederen MHz-Bereich zu einer Gewebeverschiebung im Mikrometerbereich. Diese Gewebeverschiebung haengt ab von der Schallleistung, der Schallfrequenz, der Schallabsorption und den elastischen Eigenschaften des Gewebes. Es wurde eine MRT-Sequenz der Siemens Healthcare AG modifiziert, so dass sie (indirekt) die Gewebeverschiebung misst, als Grauwerte kodiert und als 2D-Bild darstellt. Anhand der Grauwerte kann der Schallstrahlverlauf in dem Gewebe visualisiert werden, und so koennen zusaetzlich Schallhindernisse (Aenderungen der Schallkennimpedanz) aufgespuert werden. Mit den

  19. Comparison of RASS temperature profiles with other tropospheric soundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, G.; Lombardini, P.P.; Trivero, P.

    1980-01-01

    The vertical temperature profile of the lower troposphere can be measured with a radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS). A comparison of the thermal profiles measured with the RASS and with traditional methods shows a) RASS ability to produce vertical thermal profiles at an altitude range of 170 to 1000 m with temperature accuracy and height discrimination comparable with conventional soundings, b) advantages of remote sensing as offered by new sounder, c) applicability of RASS both in assessing evolution of thermodynamic conditions in PBL and in sensing conditions conducive to high concentrations of air pollutants at the ground level. (author)

  20. Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Romero-García, V.; Picó, R.

    2014-01-01

    . Experimental measurements show that strong all-angle sound absorption with almost zero reflectance takes place for a frequency range exceeding two octaves. We demonstrate that lowering the crystal filling fraction increases the wave interaction time and is responsible for the enhancement of intrinsic material......We present the design of a structured material supporting complete absorption of sound with a broadband response and functional for any direction of incident radiation. The structure which is fabricated out of porous lamellas is arranged into a low-density crystal and backed by a reflecting support...

  1. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  2. Seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John R.; O'Dell, Matthew B.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Straley, Janice M.; Dickson, Danielle M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, are a conspicuous predator in the Prince William Sound ecosystem, yet there has been little effort directed towards monitoring this species since the 1980s, prior to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We used vessel-based surveys to examine the seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in the waters of Prince William Sound during eight years from 2007 to 2015. Over the course of 168 days and 15,653 km of survey effort, 921 Dall's porpoise were encountered in 210 groups. We estimate an encounter rate of 0.061 porpoise/km traveled or 1 porpoise encountered for every 16.5 km traveled. Dall's porpoise were found throughout the year in Prince William Sound, and used a wide range of habitats, including those not considered typical of the species, such as bays, shallow water, and nearshore waters. Dall's porpoise seasonally shifted their center of distribution from the western passages in fall to the bays of the eastern Sound in winter and spring. Dall's porpoises were widely dispersed throughout the Sound in summer. We identified potential Dall's porpoise habitat (depth, slope, and distance from shore) within Prince William Sound using generalized additive models (GAM). Dall's porpoise were found in deeper water during summer and in shallowest water during spring. We propose that their use of novel habitats is a function of reduced predation risk associated with the decline of their main predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca), following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the presence of overwintering and spawning Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). While the size of the Dall's porpoise population within Prince William Sound remains unknown, our encounter rates were lower than those reported in the 1970s. Their high metabolic rate and ubiquitous presence makes them one of the more important, yet understudied, forage fish predators in the region.

  3. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  4. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  5. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  6. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  7. Good vibrations: Controlling light with sound (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Choudhary, Amol

    2016-10-01

    One of the surprises of nonlinear optics, is that light may interact strongly with sound. Intense laser light literally "shakes" the glass in optical fibres, exciting acoustic waves (sound) in the fibre. Under the right conditions, it leads to a positive feedback loop between light and sound termed "Stimulated Brillouin Scattering," or simply SBS. This nonlinear interaction can amplify or filter light waves with extreme precision in frequency which makes it uniquely suited to solve key problems in the fields of defence, biomedicine, wireless communications, spectroscopy and imaging. We have achieved the first demonstration of SBS in compact chip-scale structures, carefully designed so that the optical fields and the acoustic fields are simultaneously confined and guided. This new platform has opened a range of new functionalities that are being applied in communications and defence with breathtaking performance and compactness. My talk will introduce this new field and review our progress and achievements, including silicon based optical phononic processor.

  8. Spatial filtering of audible sound with acoustic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Tao, Jiancheng; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces manipulate waves with specially designed structures and achieve properties that natural materials cannot offer. Similar surfaces work in audio frequency range as well and lead to marvelous acoustic phenomena that can be perceived by human ears. Being intrigued by the famous Maoshan Bugle phenomenon, we investigate large scale metasurfaces consisting of periodic steps of sizes comparable to the wavelength of audio frequency in both time and space domains. We propose a theoretical method to calculate the scattered sound field and find that periodic corrugated surfaces work as spatial filters and the frequency selective character can only be observed at the same side as the incident wave. The Maoshan Bugle phenomenon can be well explained with the method. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to design acoustical landscapes, which transform impulsive sound into famous trumpet solos or other melodious sound.

  9. Second sound velocities in superfluid 3He-4He solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikina, L.S.; Kotenev, G.Ya.; Rudavskij, Eh.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The velocities of the second sound in the superfluid He 3 -He 4 solutions were measured by the pulse method in the range of temperatures from 1.3 K to Tsub(lambda) and for He 3 concentrations up to 13%.The results obtained supplemented by those available before give the complete description of the concentration and temperature dependences of the second sound velocity in superfluid He 3 -He 4 solutions. The comprehensive comparison of the experimental data on the velocity of the second sound with the theoretical calculations for the superfluid solutions with arbitrary content of He 3 is performed. The good agreement is found between experiment and the theory. The experimental data obtained are used for determination of the potential, which determines the properties of the superfluid solutions

  10. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984

  11. Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound attenuation with conventional acoustic materials is subject to the mass law and requires massive and bulky structures at low frequencies. A possible alternative solution is provided by the use of metamaterials, which are artificial materials properly engineered to obtain properties and characteristics that it is not possible to find in natural materials. Theory and applications of metamaterials, already consolidated in electromagnetism, can be extended to acoustics; in particular, they can be applied to improve the properties of acoustical panels. The design of acoustic metasurfaces that could effectively control transmitted sound in unconventional ways appears a significant subject to be investigated, given its wide-ranging possible applications. In this contribution, we investigate the application of a metasurface-inspired technique to achieve the acoustical insulation of an environment. The designed surface has subwavelength thickness and structuring and could be realized with cheap, lightweight and sustainable materials. We present a few examples of such structures and analyze their acoustical behavior by means of full-wave simulations.

  12. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  13. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  14. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  15. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  16. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  17. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly ...

  18. Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero

  19. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  20. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  1. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  2. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  3. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  4. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  5. The Sound of Being There

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    The concept “presence”—often defined as the sensation of “being there”—has received increasing attention in the last decades. Out of the many domains of application, presence is particularly relevant in relation to Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR). Despite the growing attention in the concept pres...... to illustrating how sound production and perception relate to the four constituents of the framework: immersion, illusions of place, illusions of plausibility, and virtual body ownership....

  6. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    prestigious institute. I am privileged to express my sincere thanks to JRF’s Roshin Sir, Bajish Sir, for training me both practically and theoretically about various techniques, without which my work would not have reached its completion. I am equally... wrote his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which included the first mathematical treatment of sound. The modern study of underwater acoustics can be considered to have started in early 19 th century. In 1826, on Lake Geneva, the speed...

  7. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.T.; Artiss, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author)

  8. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  9. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B K; Bradley, M T; Artiss, W G [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, NB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author) 3 refs.

  10. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  11. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  12. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  13. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  14. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  15. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  16. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  17. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  18. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  19. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  20. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  1. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  2. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  3. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  4. Analysis of the acoustic sound in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Kusakari, Jun; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Ase, Yuji

    1999-04-01

    The noise level and power spectra of the acoustic sound exposed during the examination of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using a MRI scanner (Philips Gyroscan 1.5 T) were measured at the position of the human auricle. The overall noise levels on T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images with Spin Echo were 105 dB and 98 dB, respectively. The overall noise level on T2-weighted images with Turbo Spin Echo was 110 dB. Fourier analysis revealed energy peaks ranging from 225 to 325 Hz and a steep high frequency cutoff for each pulse sequence. The MRI noise was not likely to cause permanent threshold shift. However, because of the inter-subject variation in susceptibility to acoustic trauma and to exclude the anxiety in patients, ear protectors were recommended for all patients during MRI testing. (author)

  5. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  6. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  7. Sound-proof Sandwich Panel Design via Metamaterial Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ni

    investigating the coupling effects between HRs. The theoretical results can be verified by numerical simulations through finite element method. The absorption bandwidth can be tuned by incorporating more HRs in each unit cell. Both sound-proof sandwich panel designs possess extraordinary acoustic performance for noise reduction at low frequency range with sub-wavelength structures. The sound absorber panel design can also achieve broadband sound attenuation at low frequencies.

  8. Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng

    1995-01-01

    Reynolds number of 104. The far-field noise is computed using Curle's extension to the Lighthill analogy (Curle 1955). An effective method for separating the physical noise source from spurious boundary contributions is developed. This allows an accurate evaluation of the Reynolds stress volume quadrupoles, in addition to the more readily computable surface dipoles due to the unsteady lift and drag. The effect of noncompact source distribution on the far-field sound is assessed using an efficient integration scheme for the Curle integral, with full account of retarded-time variations. The numerical results confirm in quantitative terms that the far-field sound is dominated by the surface pressure dipoles at low Mach number. The techniques developed are applicable to a wide range of flows, including jets and mixing layers, where the Reynolds stress quadrupoles play a prominent or even dominant role in the overall sound generation.

  9. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  10. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  11. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  12. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  13. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    First part of this work examines the concept of musical parameter theory and discusses its methodical use. Second part is an annotated catalogue of 33 different students' compositions, presented in their totality with English translations, created between 1985 and 2006 as part of the subject...... Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  14. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...

  15. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  16. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhao-Hui; Zhang Ling-Shan

    2016-01-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. (special topic)

  17. Determination of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a Straw Bale Partition Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslík, Jiří; Fabian, Radek; Hrubá, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a scientific project focused on determining of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a peripheral non-load bearing wall made of straw bales expressed by Weighted Sound Reduction Index. Weighted Sound Reduction Index was determined by measuring in the certified acoustic laboratory at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Brno University of Technology. The measured structure of the straw wall was modified in combinations with various materials, so the results include a wide range of possible compositions of the wall. The key modification was application of plaster on both sides of the straw bale wall. This construction as is frequently done in actual straw houses. The additional measurements were performed on the straw wall with several variants of additional wall of slab materials. The airborne sound insulation value has been also measured in separate stages of the construction. Thus it is possible to compare and determinate the effect of the single layers on the airborne sound insulation.

  18. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    for the highest frequencies are less than the sound insulation of the same window measured in the laboratory. The aim of this paper is through simulations in the geometric acoustic simulation software ODEON, to investigate the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of the Supply Air Window......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  19. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  20. Sound insulation and energy harvesting based on acoustic metamaterial plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of artificially designed sub-wavelength acoustic materials, denoted acoustic metamaterials (AMM), has significantly broadened the range of materials responses found in nature. These engineered materials can indeed manipulate sound/vibration in surprising ways, which include vibration/sound insulation, focusing, cloaking, acoustic energy harvesting …. In this work, we report both on the analysis of the airborne sound transmission loss (STL) through a thin metamaterial plate and on the possibility of acoustic energy harvesting. We first provide a theoretical study of the airborne STL and confronted them to the structure-borne dispersion of a metamaterial plate. Second, we propose to investigate the acoustic energy harvesting capability of the plate-type AMM. We have developed semi-analytical and numerical methods to investigate the STL performances of a plate-type AMM with an airborne sound excitation having different incident angles. The AMM is made of silicone rubber stubs squarely arranged in a thin aluminum plate, and the STL is calculated at low-frequency range [100Hz to 3kHz] for an incoming incident sound pressure wave. The obtained analytical and numerical STL present a very good agreement confirming the reliability of developed approaches. A comparison between computed STL and the band structure of the considered AMM shows an excellent agreement and gives a physical understanding of the observed behavior. On another hand, the acoustic energy confinement in AMM with created defects with suitable geometry was investigated. The first results give a general view for assessing the acoustic energy harvesting performances making use of AMM.

  1. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  2. L-type calcium channels refine the neural population code of sound level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Calum Alex; Green, David Brian

    2016-01-01

    The coding of sound level by ensembles of neurons improves the accuracy with which listeners identify how loud a sound is. In the auditory system, the rate at which neurons fire in response to changes in sound level is shaped by local networks. Voltage-gated conductances alter local output by regulating neuronal firing, but their role in modulating responses to sound level is unclear. We tested the effects of L-type calcium channels (CaL: CaV1.1–1.4) on sound-level coding in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the auditory midbrain. We characterized the contribution of CaL to the total calcium current in brain slices and then examined its effects on rate-level functions (RLFs) in vivo using single-unit recordings in awake mice. CaL is a high-threshold current and comprises ∼50% of the total calcium current in ICC neurons. In vivo, CaL activates at sound levels that evoke high firing rates. In RLFs that increase monotonically with sound level, CaL boosts spike rates at high sound levels and increases the maximum firing rate achieved. In different populations of RLFs that change nonmonotonically with sound level, CaL either suppresses or enhances firing at sound levels that evoke maximum firing. CaL multiplies the gain of monotonic RLFs with dynamic range and divides the gain of nonmonotonic RLFs with the width of the RLF. These results suggest that a single broad class of calcium channels activates enhancing and suppressing local circuits to regulate the sensitivity of neuronal populations to sound level. PMID:27605536

  3. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2013-01-01

    Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a role in driving

  4. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee Lillis

    Full Text Available Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica. Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a

  5. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  6. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  7. Sound branding – a systemisation and characterisation of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bonde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that far more extensive literature on sound branding exists than hitherto acknowledged. The topic has been approached from various angles with differing emphases, and the article provides insight into the variation and range of the literature. Specifically, the article aims to establish an academic foundation for future sound-branding studies by researchers and students alike, who will no longer need to postulate a general lack of literature and research in the field. The article is based on systematically performed literature searches and presents an inductively developed categorisation of five different types of contribution. In this light, the article highlights that although it is now possible to determine that the literature is relatively extensive, a number of knowledge lacunae still exist because a range of questions and activities are ignored or only dealt with in passing.

  8. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  9. Cortical representations of communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.

  10. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  11. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  12. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  13. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  14. Horizontal sound localization in cochlear implant users with a contralateral hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Hendrikse, Maartje M E; van Wanrooij, Marc M; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Chalupper, Josef; Mens, Lucas H M; Snik, Ad F M; John van Opstal, A

    2016-06-01

    Interaural differences in sound arrival time (ITD) and in level (ILD) enable us to localize sounds in the horizontal plane, and can support source segregation and speech understanding in noisy environments. It is uncertain whether these cues are also available to hearing-impaired listeners who are bimodally fitted, i.e. with a cochlear implant (CI) and a contralateral hearing aid (HA). Here, we assessed sound localization behavior of fourteen bimodal listeners, all using the same Phonak HA and an Advanced Bionics CI processor, matched with respect to loudness growth. We aimed to determine the availability and contribution of binaural (ILDs, temporal fine structure and envelope ITDs) and monaural (loudness, spectral) cues to horizontal sound localization in bimodal listeners, by systematically varying the frequency band, level and envelope of the stimuli. The sound bandwidth had a strong effect on the localization bias of bimodal listeners, although localization performance was typically poor for all conditions. Responses could be systematically changed by adjusting the frequency range of the stimulus, or by simply switching the HA and CI on and off. Localization responses were largely biased to one side, typically the CI side for broadband and high-pass filtered sounds, and occasionally to the HA side for low-pass filtered sounds. HA-aided thresholds better than 45 dB HL in the frequency range of the stimulus appeared to be a prerequisite, but not a guarantee, for the ability to indicate sound source direction. We argue that bimodal sound localization is likely based on ILD cues, even at frequencies below 1500 Hz for which the natural ILDs are small. These cues are typically perturbed in bimodal listeners, leading to a biased localization percept of sounds. The high accuracy of some listeners could result from a combination of sufficient spectral overlap and loudness balance in bimodal hearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  16. Broadband omnidirectional invisibility for sound in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Weiwei; Liang, Bin; Li, Ruiqi; Jiang, Xue; Zou, Xin-ye; Yin, Lei-lei; Cheng, Jianchun

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloaks that make object undetectable to sound waves have potential applications in a variety of scenarios and have received increasing interests recently. However, the experimental realization of a three-dimensional (3D) acoustic cloak that works within broad ranges of operating frequency and incident angle still remains a challenge despite the paramount importance for the practical application of cloaking devices. Here we report the design and experimental demonstration of the first...

  17. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  18. First and second sound in He films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.G.; Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Isihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In consideration of a collision integral in the Boltzmann equation and with use of kinetic and hydrodynamical equations, the velocities of the first and second sound in liquid 4 He films are evaluated as functions of temperature, and the attenuation coefficients are obtained. The second sound is 2/sup -1/2/ times the first-sound velocity in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit

  19. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  20. Low complexity lossless compression of underwater sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Partan, Jim; Hurst, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous listening devices are increasingly used to study vocal aquatic animals, and there is a constant need to record longer or with greater bandwidth, requiring efficient use of memory and battery power. Real-time compression of sound has the potential to extend recording durations and bandwidths at the expense of increased processing operations and therefore power consumption. Whereas lossy methods such as MP3 introduce undesirable artifacts, lossless compression algorithms (e.g., flac) guarantee exact data recovery. But these algorithms are relatively complex due to the wide variety of signals they are designed to compress. A simpler lossless algorithm is shown here to provide compression factors of three or more for underwater sound recordings over a range of noise environments. The compressor was evaluated using samples from drifting and animal-borne sound recorders with sampling rates of 16-240 kHz. It achieves >87% of the compression of more-complex methods but requires about 1/10 of the processing operations resulting in less than 1 mW power consumption at a sampling rate of 192 kHz on a low-power microprocessor. The potential to triple recording duration with a minor increase in power consumption and no loss in sound quality may be especially valuable for battery-limited tags and robotic vehicles.

  1. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  2. Acoustic performance of dual-electrode electrostatic sound generators based on CVD graphene on polyimide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Jang, Sung Hwan; Jung, Inhwa

    2018-08-10

    We investigated the acoustic performance of electrostatic sound-generating devices consisting of bi-layer graphene on polyimide film. The total sound pressure level (SPL) of the sound generated from the devices was measured as a function of source frequency by sweeping, and frequency spectra were measured at 1/3 octave band frequencies. The relationship between various operation conditions and total SPL was determined. In addition, the effects of changing voltage level, adding a DC offset, and using two pairs of electrodes were evaluated. It should be noted that two pairs of electrode operations improved sound generation by about 10 dB over all frequency ranges compared with conventional operation. As for the sound-generating capability, total SPL was 70 dBA at 4 kHz when an AC voltage of 100 V pp was applied with a DC offset of 100 V. Acoustic characteristics differed from other types of graphene-based sound generators, such as graphene thermoacoustic devices and graphene polyvinylidene fluoride devices. The effects of diameter and distance between electrodes were also studied, and we found that diameter greatly influenced the frequency response. We anticipate that the design information provided in this paper, in addition to describing key parameters of electrostatic sound-generating devices, will facilitate the commercial development of electrostatic sound-generating systems.

  3. Teaching letter sounds to kindergarten English language learners using incremental rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Meredith; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Wilson, Jennifer; Rahn, Naomi L; Egan, Andrea; McComas, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Proficiency in letter-sound correspondence is important for decoding connected text. This study examined the effects of an evidence-based intervention, incremental rehearsal (IR), on the letter-sound expression of three kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) performing below the district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Participants were native speakers of Hmong, Spanish, and Polish. A multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effects of IR on letter-sound expression. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in level and trend when IR was introduced in each phase. Percentage of all non-overlapping data (PAND) ranged from 95% to 100%. All participants exceeded expected growth and reached the spring district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Results suggest that IR is a promising intervention for increasing letter-sound expression for ELLs who evidence delays in acquiring letter sounds. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  5. Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Comprehensive Range Plan (CRP), Melrose Air Force Range (AFR), New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    intensity, frequency, and duration. Sound is created by acoustic energy, which produces minute pressure waves that travel through a medium (like air...concave plains associated with playa lake basins. Slope ranges from zero to 1 percent. Olton Loams – Consist of very deep, well-drained, moderately slow...gently sloping plains and upper side slopes of playas and draws. Slopes range from zero to 5 percent. 3.5.2.2 Water Resources Surface Water – The most

  6. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  7. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  8. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  9. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  10. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  11. Sound Art and Spatial Practices: Situating Sound Installation Art Since 1958

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounian, Gascia

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the emergence and development ofsound installation art, an under-recognized tradition that hasdeveloped between music, architecture, and media art practicessince the late 1950s. Unlike many musical works, which are concernedwith organizing sounds in time, sound installations organize sounds inspace; they thus necessitate new theoretical and analytical modelsthat take into consideration the spatial situated-ness of sound. Existingdiscourses on “spatial sound” privile...

  12. Otolith research for Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Reisenbichler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Otoliths are hard structures located in the brain cavity of fish. These structures are formed by a buildup of calcium carbonate within a gelatinous matrix that produces light and dark bands similar to the growth rings in trees. The width of the bands corresponds to environmental factors such as temperature and food availability. As juvenile salmon encounter different environments in their migration to sea, they produce growth increments of varying widths and visible 'checks' corresponding to times of stress or change. The resulting pattern of band variations and check marks leave a record of fish growth and residence time in each habitat type. This information helps Puget Sound restoration by determining the importance of different habitats for the optimal health and management of different salmon populations. The USGS Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) provides otolith research findings directly to resource managers who put this information to work.

  13. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  14. Classification of Normal Subjects and Pulmonary Function Disease Patients using Tracheal Respiratory Sound Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Joong; Yi, Young Ju; Jeon, Young Ju [Chonbuk National University (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    A new auscultation system for the detection of breath sound from trachea was developed in house. Small size microphone(panasonic pin microphone) was encapsuled in a housing for resonant effect, and hardware for the sound detection was fabricated. Pulmonary function test results were compared with the parameters extracted from frequency spectrum of breath sound obtained from the developed system. Results showed that the peak frequency and relative ratio of integral values between low(80-400Hz) and high(400-800Hz) frequency ranges revealed the significant differences. Developed system could be used for distinguishing normal subject and the patients who have pulmonary disease. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  16. Speed of sound as a function of temperature for ultrasonic propagation in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used for characterization of liquid in several productive sectors and research. This work presents the studied about the behavior of the speed of sound in soybean oil with increasing temperature. The pulse echo technique allowed observing that the speed of sound decreases linearly with increasing temperature in the range 20 to 50 °C at 1 MHz. As result, a characteristic function capable to reproduce the speed of sound behavior in soybean oil, as a function of temperature was established, with the respective measurement uncertainty.

  17. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  18. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  19. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  20. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  1. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  5. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  6. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  8. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  9. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  10. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  11. Detecting change in stochastic sound sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Skerritt-Davis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to parse our acoustic environment relies on the brain's capacity to extract statistical regularities from surrounding sounds. Previous work in regularity extraction has predominantly focused on the brain's sensitivity to predictable patterns in sound sequences. However, natural sound environments are rarely completely predictable, often containing some level of randomness, yet the brain is able to effectively interpret its surroundings by extracting useful information from stochastic sounds. It has been previously shown that the brain is sensitive to the marginal lower-order statistics of sound sequences (i.e., mean and variance. In this work, we investigate the brain's sensitivity to higher-order statistics describing temporal dependencies between sound events through a series of change detection experiments, where listeners are asked to detect changes in randomness in the pitch of tone sequences. Behavioral data indicate listeners collect statistical estimates to process incoming sounds, and a perceptual model based on Bayesian inference shows a capacity in the brain to track higher-order statistics. Further analysis of individual subjects' behavior indicates an important role of perceptual constraints in listeners' ability to track these sensory statistics with high fidelity. In addition, the inference model facilitates analysis of neural electroencephalography (EEG responses, anchoring the analysis relative to the statistics of each stochastic stimulus. This reveals both a deviance response and a change-related disruption in phase of the stimulus-locked response that follow the higher-order statistics. These results shed light on the brain's ability to process stochastic sound sequences.

  12. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  13. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  14. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  16. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  17. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  18. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  19. Characterization of sound emitted by wind machines used for frost control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambino, V.; Gambino, T. [Aercoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fraser, H.W. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Vineland, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wind machines are used in Niagara-on-the-Lake to protect cold-sensitive crops against cold injury during winter's extreme cold temperatures,spring's late frosts and autumn's early frosts. The number of wind machines in Ontario has about doubled annually from only a few in the late 1990's, to more than 425 in 2006. They are not used for generating power. Noise complaints have multiplied as the number of wind machines has increased. The objective of this study was to characterize the sound produced by wind machines; learn why residents are annoyed by wind machine noise; and suggest ways to possibly reduce sound emissions. One part of the study explored acoustic emission characteristics, the sonic differences of units made by different manufacturers, sound propagation properties under typical use atmospheric conditions and low frequency noise impact potential. Tests were conducted with a calibrated Larson Davis 2900B portable spectrum analyzer. Sound was measured with a microphone whose frequency response covered the range 4 Hz to 20 kHz. The study examined and found several unique acoustic properties that are characteristic of wind machines. It was determined that noise from wind machines is due to both aerodynamic and mechanical effects, but aerodynamic sounds were found to be the most significant. It was concluded that full range or broadband sounds manifest themselves as noise components that extend throughout the audible frequency range from the bladepass frequency to upwards of 1000 Hz. The sound spectrum of a wind machine is full natural tones and impulses that give it a readily identifiable acoustic character. Atmospheric conditions including temperature, lapse rate, relative humidity, mild winds, gradients and atmospheric turbulence all play a significant role in the long range outdoor propagation of sound from wind machines. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, H J; Sterk, P J; Vanderschoot, J; van Klink, H C; van Vollenhoven, E; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in normal and emphysematous subjects in relation to airflow. METHODS: Eight normal men (45-63 years, FEV1 79-126% predicted) and nine men with severe emphysema (50-70 years, FEV1 14-63% predicted) participated in the study. Emphysema was diagnosed according to pulmonary history, results of lung function tests, and radiographic criteria. All subjects underwent phonopneumography during standardised breathing manoeuvres between 0.5 and 2 1 below total lung capacity with inspiratory and expiratory target airflows of 2 and 1 l/s respectively during 50 seconds. The synchronous measurements included airflow at the mouth and lung volume changes, and lung sounds at four locations on the right chest wall. For each microphone airflow dependent power spectra were computed by using fast Fourier transformation. Lung sound intensity was expressed as log power (in dB) at 200 Hz at inspiratory flow rates of 1 and 2 l/s and at an expiratory flow rate of 1 l/s. RESULTS: Lung sound intensity was well repeatable on two separate days, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 between the four microphones. The intensity was strongly influenced by microphone location and airflow. There was, however, no significant difference in lung sound intensity at any flow rate between the normal and the emphysema group. CONCLUSION: Airflow standardised lung sound intensity does not differ between normal and emphysematous subjects. This suggests that the auscultatory finding of diminished breath sounds during the regular physical examination in patients with emphysema is due predominantly to airflow limitation. Images PMID:1440459

  1. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  2. Assessment of sound quality perception in cochlear implant users during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Limb, Charles J

    2012-04-01

    reduced sound quality. Although the effects of bass frequency removal were studied here, we advocate CI-MUSHRA as a user-friendly and versatile research tool to measure the effects of a wide range of acoustic manipulations on sound quality perception in CI users.

  3. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  4. THE SOUND OF CINEMA: TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a means of creating any product. However, in the onscreen art, it is one of the elements creating the art space of film. Considering the main stages of the development of cinematography, this article explores the influence of technology of sound recording on the creating a special artistic and physical space of film (the beginning of the use a sound in movies; the mastering the artistic means of an audiovisual work; the expansion of the spatial characteristics for the screen sound; and the sound in a modern cinema. Today, thanks to new technologies, the sound in a cinema forms a specific quasirealistic landscape, greatly enhancing the impact on the viewer of the virtual screen images.

  5. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  6. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  7. Sound synthesis and evaluation of interactive footsteps and environmental sounds rendering for virtual reality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-09-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based on physical models. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the ability of subjects to recognize the surface they were exposed to was assessed. In the second experiment, the sound synthesis engine was enhanced with environmental sounds. Results show that, in some conditions, adding a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment.

  8. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck Sound...

  9. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort... Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence event in the Santa Rosa Sound, Fort... during the Sound of Independence. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in...

  10. Evaluation of Sound Quality, Boominess and Boxiness in Small Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Adam; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    ratings. The classical bass ratio definitions showed poor correlation with all subjective ratings. The overall sound quality ratings gave different results for speech and music. For speech the preferred mean RT should be as low as possible, whereas for music there was found a preferred range between 0......The acoustics of small rooms has been studied with emphasis on sound quality, boominess and boxiness when the rooms are used for speech or music. Seven rooms with very different characteristics have been used for the study. Subjective listening tests were made using binaural recordings...... of reproduced speech and music. The test results were compared with a large number of objective acoustic parameters based on the frequency-dependent reverberation times measured in the rooms. This has led to the proposal of three new acoustic parameters, which have shown high correlation with the subjective...

  11. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  12. Seafloor environments in the Long Island Sound estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.; Signell, R.P.; Rendigs, R. R.; Poppe, L.J.; List, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Four categories of modern seafloor sedimentary environments have been identified and mapped across the large, glaciated, topographically complex Long Island Sound estuary by means of an extensive regional set of sidescan sonographs, bottom samples, and video-camera observations and supplemental marine-geologic and modeled physical-oceanographic data. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition contain sediments which range from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands and appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated reflections (caused by outcrops of glacial drift and bedrock) or as patterns of strong backscatter (caused by coarse lag deposits). Areas of erosion or nondeposition were found across the rugged seafloor at the eastern entrance of the Sound and atop bathymetric highs and within constricted depressions in other parts of the basin. (2) Environments of bedload transport contain mostly coarse-to-fine sand with only small amounts of mud and are depicted by sonograph patterns of sand ribbons and sand waves. Areas of bedload transport were found primarily in the eastern Sound where bottom currents have sculptured the surface of a Holocene marine delta and are moving these sediments toward the WSW into the estuary. (3) Environments of sediment sorting and reworking comprise variable amounts of fine sand and mud and are characterized either by patterns of moderate backscatter or by patterns with patches of moderate-to-weak backscatter that reflect a combination of erosion and deposition. Areas of sediment sorting and reworking were found around the periphery of the zone of bedload transport in the eastern Sound and along the southern nearshore margin. They also are located atop low knolls, on the flanks of shoal complexes, and within segments of the axial depression in the western Sound. (4) Environments of deposition are blanketed by muds and muddy fine sands that produce patterns of uniformly weak backscatter. Depositional areas occupy

  13. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  14. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  15. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  16. Sound waves in hadronic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    We argue that recent high energy CERN LHC experiments on transverse momenta distributions of produced particles provide us new, so far unnoticed and not fully appreciated, information on the underlying production processes. To this end we concentrate on the small (but persistent) log-periodic oscillations decorating the observed pT spectra and visible in the measured ratios R = σdata(pT) / σfit (pT). Because such spectra are described by quasi-power-like formulas characterised by two parameters: the power index n and scale parameter T (usually identified with temperature T), the observed logperiodic behaviour of the ratios R can originate either from suitable modifications of n or T (or both, but such a possibility is not discussed). In the first case n becomes a complex number and this can be related to scale invariance in the system, in the second the scale parameter T exhibits itself log-periodic oscillations which can be interpreted as the presence of some kind of sound waves forming in the collision system during the collision process, the wave number of which has a so-called self similar solution of the second kind. Because the first case was already widely discussed we concentrate on the second one and on its possible experimental consequences.

  17. Not all carp are created equal: Impacts of broadband sound on common carp swimming behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchy, Kelsie; Vetter, Brooke J.; Brey, Marybeth; Amberg, Jon J.; Gaikowski, Mark; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2016-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (H. molitrix) (hereafter: bigheaded carps), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are invasive fish causing negative impacts throughout their North American range. To control their movements, non-physical barriers are being developed. Broadband sound (0.06 to 10 kHz) has shown potential as an acoustic deterrent for bigheaded carps, but the response of common carp to broadband sound has not been evaluated. Since common carp are ostariophysians, possessing Weberian ossicles similar to bigheaded carps, it is possible that sound can be used as an acoustical deterrent for all three species. Behavioral responses to a broadband sound were evaluated for common carp in an outdoor concrete pond. Common carp responded a median of 3.0 (1st Q: 1.0, 3rd Q: 6.0) consecutive times to the broadband sound which was lower than silver carp and bighead carp to the same stimulus. The current study shows that common carp demonstrate an inconsistent negative phonotaxis response to a broadband sound, and seem to habituate to the sound quickly.

  18. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  19. Effect of a sound wave on the stability of an argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Karapetyan, D.M.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a sound wave on the stability of the positive column of an argon discharge has been studied experimentally in the range of pressures from 40 to 180 torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA in a tube with an interior diameter of 9.8 cm. It is shown that, depending on the intensity of the sound wave and the discharge parameters, sound can cause the positive column either to contract or to leave the contracted state. The electric field strength has been measured as a function of the sound intensity. An analogy between the effect of sound and that of longitudinal pumping of the gas on the argon discharge parameters has been established. The radial temperature of the gas has been studied in an argon discharge as a function of the sound intensity for different gas pressures. A direct relationship has been established between the sign of the detector effect produced by a sound wave in a discharge and the processes of contraction and filamentation of a discharge. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  1. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  2. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  3. Serial recall of rhythms and verbal sequences: Impacts of concurrent tasks and irrelevant sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Debbora; Gathercole, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Rhythmic grouping enhances verbal serial recall, yet very little is known about memory for rhythmic patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive processes supporting memory for rhythmic and verbal sequences using a range of concurrent tasks and irrelevant sounds. In Experiment 1, both concurrent articulation and paced finger tapping during presentation and during a retention interval impaired rhythm recall, while letter recall was only impaired by concurrent articulation. In Experiments 2 and 3, irrelevant sound consisted of irrelevant speech or tones, changing-state or steady-state sound, and syncopated or paced sound during presentation and during a retention interval. Irrelevant speech was more damaging to rhythm and letter recall than was irrelevant tone sound, but there was no effect of changing state on rhythm recall, while letter recall accuracy was disrupted by changing-state sound. Pacing of sound did not consistently affect either rhythm or letter recall. There are similarities in the way speech and rhythms are processed that appear to extend beyond reliance on temporal coding mechanisms involved in serial-order recall.

  4. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  5. Research and Implementation of Heart Sound Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yutai; Wang, Yanxiang

    Heart sound is one of the most important signals. However, the process of getting heart sound signal can be interfered with many factors outside. Heart sound is weak electric signal and even weak external noise may lead to the misjudgment of pathological and physiological information in this signal, thus causing the misjudgment of disease diagnosis. As a result, it is a key to remove the noise which is mixed with heart sound. In this paper, a more systematic research and analysis which is involved in heart sound denoising based on matlab has been made. The study of heart sound denoising based on matlab firstly use the powerful image processing function of matlab to transform heart sound signals with noise into the wavelet domain through wavelet transform and decomposition these signals in muli-level. Then for the detail coefficient, soft thresholding is made using wavelet transform thresholding to eliminate noise, so that a signal denoising is significantly improved. The reconstructed signals are gained with stepwise coefficient reconstruction for the processed detail coefficient. Lastly, 50HZ power frequency and 35 Hz mechanical and electrical interference signals are eliminated using a notch filter.

  6. Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.

  7. Hoeren unter Wasser: Absolute Reizschwellen und Richtungswahrnehnumg (Underwater Hearing: Absolute Thresholds and Sound Localization),

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article deals first with the theoretical foundations of underwater hearing, and the effects of the acoustical characteristics of water on hearing...lead to the conclusion that, in water , man can locate the direction of sound at low and at very high tonal frequencies of the audio range, but this ability is probably vanishing in the middle range of frequencies. (Author)

  8. Combined multibeam and LIDAR bathymetry data from eastern Long Island Sound and westernmost Block Island Sound-A regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Parker, Castle E.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Long Island Sound are of great interest to the Connecticut and New York research and management communities because of this estuary's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. The completed, geologically interpreted digital terrain models (DTMs), ranging in area from 12 to 293 square kilometers, provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 12 multibeam and 2 LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) contiguous bathymetric DTMs, produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations, into one dataset that covers much of eastern Long Island Sound and extends into westernmost Block Island Sound. The new dataset is adjusted to mean lower low water, is gridded to 4-meter resolution, and is provided in UTM Zone 18 NAD83 and geographic WGS84 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea floor-feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the grid include exposed bedrock outcrops, boulder lag deposits of submerged moraines, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of the oscillating and asymmetric tidal currents. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic artifacts visible in the bathymetric data include a dredged channel, shipwrecks, dredge spoils, mooring anchors, prop-scour depressions, buried cables, and bridge footings. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental

  9. A level switch with a sound tube

    OpenAIRE

    赤池, 誠規

    2017-01-01

    Level switches are sensor with an electrical contact output at a specific liquid, powder or bulk level. Most of traditional level switches are not suitable for harsh environments. The level switch in this study connects a loudspeaker on top end of the sound tube. When liquid, powder or bulk closes bottom end of the sound tube, the level switch turns on. The level switch is suitable for harsh environments and easy to install. The aim of this study is to propose a level switch with a sound tube...

  10. Urban Noise and Strategies of Sound Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    project from the Copenhagen Munincipelity initiated in 2006, as a starting point to discuss the politics of urban sound. It points out an important challenge for the methodology of urban sonic environments: namely that sound as a senso-motoric register may be poorly evaluated through concepts of noise...... practices as a kind of social interaction – a method that may supplement the engineer’s quantitative sound measurements and the landscape architect’s qualitative descriptors this article outlines a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality and suggests alternative ways of mapping, analyzing...

  11. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first......While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved...

  12. Sound Performance – Experience and Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    . The present paper draws on examples from my ongoing PhD-project, which is connected to Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde, Denmark, where I curate a sub-programme at ACTS 2014 – a festival for performative arts. The aim is to investigate, how sound performance can be presented and represented - in real....... In itself – and as an artistic material – sound is always already process. It involves the listener in a situation that is both filled with elusive presence and one that evokes rooted memory. At the same time sound is bodily, social and historical. It propagates between individuals and objects, it creates...

  13. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  14. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  16. On the sound insulation of acoustic metasurface using a sub-structuring approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using an acoustic metasurface (AMS) with acoustic stop-band property to realize sound insulation with ventilation function is investigated. An efficient numerical approach is proposed to evaluate its sound insulation performance. The AMS is excited by a reverberant sound source and the standardized sound reduction index (SRI) is numerically investigated. To facilitate the modeling, the coupling between the AMS and the adjacent acoustic fields is formulated using a sub-structuring approach. A modal based formulation is applied to both the source and receiving room, enabling an efficient calculation in the frequency range from 125 Hz to 2000 Hz. The sound pressures and the velocities at the interface are matched by using a transfer function relation based on ;patches;. For illustration purposes, numerical examples are investigated using the proposed approach. The unit cell constituting the AMS is constructed in the shape of a thin acoustic chamber with tailored inner structures, whose stop-band property is numerically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The AMS is shown to provide effective sound insulation of over 30 dB in the stop-band frequencies from 600 to 1600 Hz. It is also shown that the proposed approach has the potential to be applied to a broad range of AMS studies and optimization problems.

  17. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  18. Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Rademacher, Holger; Huesgen, Silke; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.

  19. Sound localization with head movement: implications for 3-d audio displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ian McAnally

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of sound localization is improved if listeners are allowed to move their heads during signal presentation. This study describes the function relating localization accuracy to the extent of head movement in azimuth. Sounds that are difficult to localize were presented in the free field from sources at a wide range of azimuths and elevations. Sounds remained active until the participants’ heads had rotated through windows ranging in width of 2°, 4°, 8°, 16°, 32°, or 64° of azimuth. Error in determining sound-source elevation and the rate of front/back confusion were found to decrease with increases in azimuth window width. Error in determining sound-source lateral angle was not found to vary with azimuth window width. Implications for 3-d audio displays: The utility of a 3-d audio display for imparting spatial information is likely to be improved if operators are able to move their heads during signal presentation. Head movement may compensate in part for a paucity of spectral cues to sound-source location resulting from limitations in either the audio signals presented or the directional filters (i.e., head-related transfer functions used to generate a display. However, head movements of a moderate size (i.e., through around 32° of azimuth may be required to ensure that spatial information is conveyed with high accuracy.

  20. Assessing the Health of Puget Sound's Pelagic Food Web at Multiple Trophic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L. D.; Greene, C. M.; Rice, C. A.; Hall, J. E.; Baxter, A. E.; Naman, S. M.; Chamberlin, J.

    2012-12-01

    Puget Sound is an estuarine fjord in the northwestern United State surrounded by variable upland uses, ranging from industrial and urban to agricultural to forested lands. The quality of Puget Sound's ecosystem is under scrutiny because of the biological resources that depend on its function. In 2011, we undertook a study of the Sound's pelagic food web that measured water quality, microbial parameters, and abundance of higher trophic levels including gelatinous zooplankton, forage fish, and salmon. More than 75 sites spanning the latitudinal expanse of Puget Sound and the range of developed and agricultural land uses were sampled monthly from April to October. Strong relationships between water quality and microbial parameters suggest that microbes may modulate water quality indicators, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and pH, and that land use may be an influential factor. Basins within Puget Sound exhibit distinct biological profiles at the microbial and macrobiotic levels, emphasizing that Puget Sound is not a homogenous water body and suggesting that informative food web indicators may vary across the basins.

  1. Influence of computerized sounding out on spelling performance for children who do and do not rely on AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Hogan, Tiffany P; Beukelman, David R; Schwarz, Ilsa E

    2015-05-01

    Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. We investigated how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudowords for children with complex communication needs who did and did not use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Results indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words by participants, suggesting that computerized sounding out might assist in more accurate spelling for children who use AAC. Future research is needed to determine how language and reading abilities influence the use of computerized sounding out with children who have a range of speech intelligibility abilities and do and do not use AAC.

  2. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Deng, Z Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels and natural underwater sound sources in static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines on the Mississippi River, where sounds created by flowing water are part of all measurements, both natural ambient and anthropogenic sources. Vessel sizes ranged from a small fishing boat with 60 hp outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, which were, on average, 40 dB greater than the sound created by an operating hydrokinetic turbine. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed sound attenuation.

  3. Nonlinear effects during sound propagation in n-InSb at 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilisavskij, Yu.V.; Chiplis, D.

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of transverse sound and the influence of longitudinal electric and magnetic fields thereon were studied in n-InSb at 4.2 0 K over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. The electron absorption of sound was found to depend strongly on input intensity due to the heating of electrons by the sound wave. It was discovered that the observed non-linearity was suppressed by the electric field. On the basis of comparison of the experimental results with the existing theories it is concluded that during the heating of electrons by sound, apart from changes in mobility, the carrier concentration in the conductivity band is also substantially changed. The measurements in the magnetic field agree qualitatively with the two-band conductivity model. (author)

  4. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  5. Active control of radiated sound power from a baffled, rectangular panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    with an array of eleven microphones in front of the panel, is very close to minimising the actual radiated sound power. Practical experiments where such an array estimate has been minimised using the filtered X LMS algorithm have shown that substantial reductions of radiated sound power can be obtained over......Active control of radiated sound power from a rectangular baffled panel by minimisation of an accurate power estimate, using piezoceramic actuators, has been investigated. Computer simulations have shown that minimising a power estimate obtained by discretised integration of the far field intensity...... a broad frequency range using few piezoceramic actuators, provided that an accurate estimate of the sound power is available for minimisation....

  6. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwaleed, A K; Nikabdullah, N; Nor, M J M; Tahir, M F M; Zulkifli, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  7. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  8. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  9. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  10. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  11. Experimental study on the sound absorption characteristics of continuously graded phononic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel three-dimensional (3D continuously graded phononic crystals (CGPCs have been designed, and fabricated by 3D printing. Each of the CGPCs is an entity instead of a combination of several other samples, and the porosity distribution of the CGPC along the incident direction is nearly linear. The sound absorption characteristics of CGPCs were experimentally investigated and compared with those of uniform phononic crystals (UPCs and discretely stepped phononic crystals (DSPCs. Experimental results show that CGPCs demonstrate excellent sound absorption performance because of their continuously graded structures. CGPCs have higher sound absorption coefficients in the large frequency range and more sound absorption coefficient peaks in a specific frequency range than UPCs and DSPCs. In particular, the sound absorption coefficients of the CGPC with a porosity of 0.6 and thickness of 30 mm are higher than 0.56 when the frequency is 1350–6300 Hz and are all higher than 0.2 in the studied frequency range (1000–6300 Hz. CGPCs are expected to have potential application in noise control, especially in the broad frequency and low-frequency ranges.

  12. Plant acoustics: in the search of a sound mechanism for sound signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Ghosh, Ritesh; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-08-01

    Being sessile, plants continuously deal with their dynamic and complex surroundings, identifying important cues and reacting with appropriate responses. Consequently, the sensitivity of plants has evolved to perceive a myriad of external stimuli, which ultimately ensures their successful survival. Research over past centuries has established that plants respond to environmental factors such as light, temperature, moisture, and mechanical perturbations (e.g. wind, rain, touch, etc.) by suitably modulating their growth and development. However, sound vibrations (SVs) as a stimulus have only started receiving attention relatively recently. SVs have been shown to increase the yields of several crops and strengthen plant immunity against pathogens. These vibrations can also prime the plants so as to make them more tolerant to impending drought. Plants can recognize the chewing sounds of insect larvae and the buzz of a pollinating bee, and respond accordingly. It is thus plausible that SVs may serve as a long-range stimulus that evokes ecologically relevant signaling mechanisms in plants. Studies have suggested that SVs increase the transcription of certain genes, soluble protein content, and support enhanced growth and development in plants. At the cellular level, SVs can change the secondary structure of plasma membrane proteins, affect microfilament rearrangements, produce Ca(2+) signatures, cause increases in protein kinases, protective enzymes, peroxidases, antioxidant enzymes, amylase, H(+)-ATPase / K(+) channel activities, and enhance levels of polyamines, soluble sugars and auxin. In this paper, we propose a signaling model to account for the molecular episodes that SVs induce within the cell, and in so doing we uncover a number of interesting questions that need to be addressed by future research in plant acoustics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  13. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  14. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  15. Sound transit climate risk reduction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  16. Boundary effects on sound propagation in superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.H.; Smith, H.; Woelfle, P.

    1983-01-01

    The attenuation of fourth sound propagating in a superfluid confined within a channel is determined on a microscopic basis, taking into account the scatter of the quasiparticles from the walls. The Q value of a fourth-sound resonance is shown to be inversely proportional to the stationary flow of thermal excitations through the channel due to an external force. Our theoretical estimates of Q are compared with experimentally observed values for 3 He. The transition between first and fourth sound is studied in detail on the basis of two-fluid hydrodynamics, including the slip of the normal component at the walls. The slip is shown to have a strong influence on the velocity and attenuation in the transition region between first and fourth sound, offering a means to examine the interaction of quasiparticles with a solid surface

  17. Dissipation in vibrating superleak second sound transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, N.

    1985-01-01

    We have performed an experimental study of the generation and detection of second sound in 4 He using vibrating superleak second sound transducers. At temperatures well below T/sub lambda/ and for low driving amplitudes, the magnitude of the generated second sound wave is proportional to the drive amplitude. However, near T/sub lambda/ and for high drive amplitudes this is no longer the case--instead, the second sound amplitude saturates. In this regime we also find that overtones of the drive frequency are generated. Our results suggest that this behavior is due to critical velocity effects in the pores of the superleak in the generator transducer. This type of measurement may prove to be a useful way in which to study critical velocity effects in confined geometries

  18. Heart sounds: are you listening? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kent, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    All nurses should have an understanding of heart sounds and be proficient in cardiac auscultation. Unfortunately, this skill is not part of many nursing school curricula, nor is it necessarily a required skillfor employment. Yet, being able to listen and accurately describe heart sounds has tangible benefits to the patient, as it is an integral part of a complete cardiac assessment. In this two-part article, I will review the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation, how cardiac anatomy and physiology relate to heart sounds, and describe the various heart sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned nurse, it is never too early or too late to add this important diagnostic skill to your assessment tool kit.

  19. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    . The third chapter examines how listeners understand and make sense of phonographic space. In the form of a critique of Pierre Schaeffer and Roger Scruton’s notion of the acousmatic situation, I argue that our experience of recorded music has a twofold focus: the sound-in-itself and the sound’s causality...... the use of metaphors and image schemas in the experience and conceptualisation of phonographic space. With reference to descriptions of recordings by sound engineers, I argue that metaphors are central to our understanding of recorded music. This work is grounded in the tradition of cognitive linguistics......This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...

  20. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  1. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  2. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  3. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  4. Evolutionary Sound Synthesis Controlled by Gestural Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fornari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the interdisciplinary research involving Computer Music and Generative Visual Art. We describe the implementation of two interactive artistic systems based on principles of Gestural Data (WILSON, 2002 retrieval and self-organization (MORONI, 2003, to control an Evolutionary Sound Synthesis method (ESSynth. The first implementation uses, as gestural data, image mapping of handmade drawings. The second one uses gestural data from dynamic body movements of dance. The resulting computer output is generated by an interactive system implemented in Pure Data (PD. This system uses principles of Evolutionary Computation (EC, which yields the generation of a synthetic adaptive population of sound objects. Considering that music could be seen as “organized sound” the contribution of our study is to develop a system that aims to generate "self-organized sound" – a method that uses evolutionary computation to bridge between gesture, sound and music.

  5. US market. Sound below the line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2012-07-01

    The American Wind Energy Association AWEA is publishing warnings almost daily. The lack of political support is endangering jobs. The year 2011 broke no records, but there was a sound plus in expansion figures. (orig.)

  6. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  7. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  9. Game Sound from Behind the Sofa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The central concern of this thesis is upon the processes by which human beings perceive sound and experience emotions within a computer video gameplay context. The potential of quantitative sound parameters to evoke and modulate emotional experience is explored, working towards the development...... that provide additional support of the hypothetical frameworks: an ecological process of fear, a fear-related model of virtual and real acoustic ecologies, and an embodied virtual acoustic ecology framework. It is intended that this thesis will clearly support more effective and efficient sound design...... practices and also improve awareness of the capacity of sound to generate significant emotional experiences during computer video gameplay. It is further hoped that this thesis will elucidate the potential of biometrics/psychophysiology to allow game designers to better understand the player and to move...

  10. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  11. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  12. ``Hiss, clicks and pops'' - The enigmatic sounds of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The improbability of sounds heard simultaneously with meteors allows the phenomenon to remain on the margins of scientific interest and research. This is unjustified, since these audibly perceived electric field effects indicate complex, inconsistent and still unresolved electric-magnetic coupling and charge dynamics; interacting between the meteor; the ionosphere and mesosphere; stratosphere; troposphere and the surface of the earth. This paper reviews meteor acoustic effects, presents illustrating reports and hypotheses and includes a summary of similar and additional phenomena observed during the 2013 February 15 asteroid fragment disintegration above the Russian district of Chelyabinsk. An augmenting theory involving near ground, non uniform electric field production of Ozone, as a stimulated geo-physical phenomenon to explain some hissing `meteor sounds' is suggested in section 2.2. Unlike previous theories, electric-magnetic field fluctuation rates are not required to occur in the audio frequency range for this process to acoustically emit hissing and intermittent impulsive sounds; removing the requirements of direct conversion, passive human transduction or excited, localised acoustic `emitters'. Links to the Armagh Observatory All-sky meteor cameras, electrophonic meteor research and full construction plans for an extremely low frequency (ELF) receiver are also included.

  13. Acoustically sticky topographic metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunki; Jung, Myungki; Kim, Minsoo; Shin, Ryung; Kang, Shinill; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-03-01

    A class of metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption, based on a design principle that maximizes thermoviscous loss, is presented. When a sound meets a solid surface, it leaves a footprint in the form of thermoviscous boundary layers in which energy loss takes place. Considered to be a nuisance, this acoustic to vorticity/entropy mode conversion and the subsequent loss are often ignored in the existing designs of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. The metasurface created is made of a series of topographic meta-atoms, i.e., intaglios and reliefs engraved directly on the solid object to be concealed. The metasurface is acoustically sticky in that it rather facilitates the conversion of the incident sound to vorticity and entropy modes, hence the thermoviscous loss, leading to the desired anechoic property. A prototype metasurface machined on a brass object is tested for its anechoicity, and shows a multitude of absorption peaks as large as unity in the 2-5 MHz range. Computations also indicate that a topographic metasurface is robust to hydrostatic pressure variation, a quality much sought-after in underwater applications.

  14. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa. We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop. The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  15. Behavioural Response Thresholds in New Zealand Crab Megalopae to Ambient Underwater Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A.; Radford, Craig A.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential range over which this acoustic cue may operate, is not known. The current study determined the behavioural response thresholds of four species of New Zealand brachyuran crab megalopae by exposing them to different intensity levels of broadcast reef sound recorded from their preferred settlement habitat and from an unfavourable settlement habitat. Megalopae of the rocky-reef crab, Leptograpsus variegatus, exhibited the lowest behavioural response threshold (highest sensitivity), with a significant reduction in time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to underwater reef sound with an intensity of 90 dB re 1 µPa and greater (100, 126 and 135 dB re 1 µPa). Megalopae of the mud crab, Austrohelice crassa, which settle in soft sediment habitats, exhibited no response to any of the underwater reef sound levels. All reef associated species exposed to sound levels from an unfavourable settlement habitat showed no significant change in TTM, even at intensities that were similar to their preferred reef sound for which reductions in TTM were observed. These results indicated that megalopae were able to discern and respond selectively to habitat-specific acoustic cues. The settlement and metamorphosis behavioural response thresholds to levels of underwater reef sound determined in the current study of four species of crabs, enables preliminary estimation of the spatial range at which an acoustic settlement cue may be operating, from 5 m to 40 km depending on the species. Overall, these results indicate that underwater sound is likely to play a major role in influencing the spatial patterns of settlement of coastal crab

  16. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  17. Inverse problem of radiofrequency sounding of ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, E. N.; Yu. Grishentsev, A.; Korobeynikov, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem of vertical ionosphere sounding and a mathematical model of noise filtering are presented. An automated system for processing and analysis of spectrograms of vertical ionosphere sounding based on our algorithm is described. It is shown that the algorithm we suggest has a rather high efficiency. This is supported by the data obtained at the ionospheric stations of the so-called “AIS-M” type.

  18. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E.

    2018-02-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a simple method for visualizing angular dependence in sound fields, made possible via the confluence of sensors available via a new smartphone app that the authors have developed.

  19. Sonic drifting: sound, city and psychogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Budhaditya Chattopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Studying and perceiving an emerging city by listening to its sounds might be phenomenologically reductive in approach, but it can lead to a framework for understanding the fabric of the urban environment through artistic practice. This paper describes a sound work, Elegy for Bangalore, and examines its artistic processes in order to shed light on the methodologies for listening to an expanding city by engaging with multilayered urban contexts and, subsequently, evoking the psychogeography of ...

  20. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  1. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  2. Radio thermal sounding of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Martin; Lomukhin, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    At the moment, methods of sounding a status of soil, plant, forest and aquatic environments using radiometry and radar methods are intensively used. The main source of information using radar sounding is the back reflection ratio. The radiometric method is used for detection of the brightness temperature. In this paper, a communication between the back reflection ratio and the brightness temperature is described. This communication is proportional.

  3. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  4. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  5. Heart Sound Localization and Reduction in Tracheal Sounds by Gabor Time-Frequency Masking

    OpenAIRE

    SAATCI, Esra; Akan, Aydın

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Respiratorysounds, i.e. tracheal and lung sounds, have been of great interest due to theirdiagnostic values as well as the potential of their use in the estimation ofthe respiratory dynamics (mainly airflow). Thus the aim of the study is topresent a new method to filter the heart sound interference from the trachealsounds. Materials and methods: Trachealsounds and airflow signals were collected by using an accelerometer from 10 healthysubjects. Tracheal sounds were then pr...

  6. Sound Surfing Network (SSN): Mobile Phone-based Sound Spatialization with Audience Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saebyul; Ban, Seonghoon; Hong, Dae Ryong; Yeo, Woon Seung

    2013-01-01

    SSN (Sound Surfing Network) is a performance system that provides a new musicalexperience by incorporating mobile phone-based spatial sound control tocollaborative music performance. SSN enables both the performer and theaudience to manipulate the spatial distribution of sound using the smartphonesof the audience as distributed speaker system. Proposing a new perspective tothe social aspect music appreciation, SSN will provide a new possibility tomobile music performances in the context of in...

  7. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin; Mattys, Sven L

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound specificity effects. In Experiment 1 , we examined two conditions where integrality is high. Namely, the classic voice-specificity effect (Exp. 1a) was compared with a condition in which the intensity envelope of a background sound was modulated along the intensity envelope of the accompanying spoken word (Exp. 1b). Results revealed a robust voice-specificity effect and, critically, a comparable sound-specificity effect: A change in the paired sound from exposure to test led to a decrease in word-recognition performance. In the second experiment, we sought to disentangle the contribution of integrality from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect. Rather, it is conditioned by the extent to which words and sounds are perceived as integral as opposed to distinct auditory objects.

  8. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  9. Electromagnetic Sampo soundings at Olkiluoto in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2007-11-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out a Sampo Gefinex 400S frequency domain electromagnetic (EM) survey in the central part of the eastern Olkiluoto island. The survey comprised a total of 408 soundings; 134 of these were measurements of EM noise. The goal of the survey was to supplement previously performed soundings. The measurements of EM noise were used to analyse the influence of power lines on the soundings. A statistically significant correlation was found between EM noise and the distance between the receiver and the high-voltage power line located northeast of the research area. The high-voltage power line exerted a considerable influence on the soundings. Numerical modelling was used to evaluate the effect of a dipping layer on the interpretation of Sampo soundings, which is based on the 1-D layered earth model. The results indicate that Sampo interpretation is robust even in the case of a dipping layer, assuming that the dip of the layer is not steep, and both the transmitter and receiver are located above the layer. The interpretations of the soundings indicate three conducting layers. There appear to be two layers of significant conductivity above the depth of 600 m. These layers may be indications of sulphide and/or graphite rich layers. Furthermore, a deeper conducting layer below the depth of 600 m was also indicated by the interpretations. This layer may indicate deep saline groundwater. (orig.)

  10. Permafrost at Lupin. Interpretation of SAMPO electromagnetic soundings at Lupin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Ruskeeniemi, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Permafrost Project at the Lupin Mine in northern Canada is an international project, aiming to improve the understanding of behaviour and processes of crystalline bedrock under permafrost conditions. As a part of this project, the Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic SAMPO soundings in the vicinity of the mine between 11th and 23rd of June 2002 in order to give additional information on the permafrost depth, the location and electrical characteristics of fracture zones and possible talik structures. The total number of sounding points was 214, forming 17 separate survey lines. Used coil separation was 100 - 800 m. According to the temperature data from Lupin Mine, the base of the permafrost is at the depth of 540 m. However, there is no information about the depth distribution outside the mine. The starting point of this survey was the possible existence of a saline water horizon below the permafrost, resulting from repeated segregation and enrichment of salts in front of advancing freezing front. The main result of the survey was a deep conductor, observed at numerous sounding points irrespectively of the measurement configuration. These sounding anomalies form a subhorizontal layer at the depths between 400 and 700 m, in contrast to the vertical orientation of the geological units in the area. According to the results, the conductor gets weaker or deeper close to the Lake Contwoyto and seems to be absent below the lake. There also seems to be a lithological control, since the conducting layer is not observed in granodiorite. It is assumed that the conducting layer represents saline or brackish waters at the base of the permafrost; their calculated TDS-values are in a realistic range for such waters (5000-30 000 mg/l). The subvertical fracture zone VI, previously interpreted from the seismic survey, could be observed as a slight decrease in resistivity in 3 survey profiles using a coil separation of 100 m. (orig.)

  11. Permafrost at Lupin. Interpretation of SAMPO electromagnetic soundings at Lupin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M.; Ruskeeniemi, T

    2003-07-01

    The Permafrost Project at the Lupin Mine in northern Canada is an international project, aiming to improve the understanding of behaviour and processes of crystalline bedrock under permafrost conditions. As a part of this project, the Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic SAMPO soundings in the vicinity of the mine between 11th and 23rd of June 2002 in order to give additional information on the permafrost depth, the location and electrical characteristics of fracture zones and possible talik structures. The total number of sounding points was 214, forming 17 separate survey lines. Used coil separation was 100 - 800 m. According to the temperature data from Lupin Mine, the base of the permafrost is at the depth of 540 m. However, there is no information about the depth distribution outside the mine. The starting point of this survey was the possible existence of a saline water horizon below the permafrost, resulting from repeated segregation and enrichment of salts in front of advancing freezing front. The main result of the survey was a deep conductor, observed at numerous sounding points irrespectively of the measurement configuration. These sounding anomalies form a subhorizontal layer at the depths between 400 and 700 m, in contrast to the vertical orientation of the geological units in the area. According to the results, the conductor gets weaker or deeper close to the Lake Contwoyto and seems to be absent below the lake. There also seems to be a lithological control, since the conducting layer is not observed in granodiorite. It is assumed that the conducting layer represents saline or brackish waters at the base of the permafrost; their calculated TDS-values are in a realistic range for such waters (5000-30 000 mg/l). The subvertical fracture zone VI, previously interpreted from the seismic survey, could be observed as a slight decrease in resistivity in 3 survey profiles using a coil separation of 100 m. (orig.)

  12. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  13. Beneath sci-fi sound: primer, science fiction sound design, and American independent cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    Primer is a very low budget science-fiction film that deals with the subject of time travel; however, it looks and sounds quite distinctively different from other films associated with the genre. While Hollywood blockbuster sci-fi relies on “sound spectacle” as a key attraction, in contrast Primer sounds “lo-fi” and screen-centred, mixed to two channel stereo rather than the now industry-standard 5.1 surround sound. Although this is partly a consequence of the economics of its production, the...

  14. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  15. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  16. Effects of stratification and fluctuations on sound propagation in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that even in a homogeneous ocean, the effects of non-thermal noise and sound absorption limit the maximum effective range of detection of acoustic signals from particle cascades to distances of 2 to 10 kilometers, depending on the surface conditions prevailing and the directional characteristics of the detector. In the present paper, the effects of stratification and fluctuations in the sound velocity profile in the deep ocean over distances of this order are examined. Attention is given to two effects of potential significance, refraction and scintillation. It is found that neither effect has any significant consequences at ranges of less than 10 km

  17. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  18. Sound field reconstruction using acousto-optic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    When sound propagates through a medium, it results in pressure fluctuations that change the instantaneous density of the medium. Under such circumstances, the refractive index that characterizes the propagation of light is not constant, but influenced by the acoustic field. This kind of interaction...... the acousto-optic effect in air, and demonstrates that it can be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer in the audible frequency range. The tomographic reconstruction is tested by means of computer simulations and measurements. The main features observed in the simulations are also recognized...

  19. Sound Equipment Fabrication and Values in Nigerian Theatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main points of this paper is to discover ways of fabricating sound and sound effects equipment for theatrical productions in Nigeria have become of essence since most educational theatres cannot afford western sound and sound effects equipment. Even when available, they are old fashioned, compared to the ...

  20. Sound response of superheated drop bubble detectors to neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Size; Chen Zhe; Liu Chao; Ni Bangfa; Zhang Guiying; Zhao Changfa; Xiao Caijin; Liu Cunxiong; Nie Peng; Guan Yongjing

    2012-01-01

    The sound response of the bubble detectors to neutrons by using 252 Cf neutron source was described. Sound signals were filtered by sound card and PC. The short-time signal energy. FFT spectrum, power spectrum, and decay time constant were got to determine the authenticity of sound signal for bubbles. (authors)

  1. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation...

  3. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  4. Cognitive Control of Involuntary Distraction by Deviant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Hebrero, Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that a task-irrelevant sound (deviant sound) departing from an otherwise repetitive sequence of sounds (standard sounds) elicits an involuntary capture of attention and orienting response toward the deviant stimulus, resulting in the lengthening of response times in an ongoing task. Some have argued that this type of…

  5. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  6. Tinnitus (Phantom Sound: Risk coming for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'tinnitus' comes from the Latin word tinnire, meaning “to ring” or “a ringing.” Tinnitus is the cognition of sound in the absence of any corresponding external sound. Tinnitus can take the form of continuous buzzing, hissing, or ringing, or a combination of these or other characteristics. Tinnitus affects 10% to 25% of the adult population. Tinnitus is classified as objective and subjective categories. Subjective tinnitus is meaningless sounds that are not associated with a physical sound and only the person who has the tinnitus can hear it. Objective tinnitus is the result of a sound that can be heard by the physician. Tinnitus is not a disease in itself but a common symptom, and because it involves the perception of sound or sounds, it is commonly associated with the hearing system. In fact, various parts of the hearing system, including the inner ear, are often responsible for this symptom. Tinnitus patients, which can lead to sleep disturbances, concentration problems, fatigue, depression, anxiety disorders, and sometimes even to suicide. The evaluation of tinnitus always begins with a thorough history and physical examination, with further testing performed when indicated. Diagnostic testing should include audiography, speech discrimination testing, computed tomography angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography should be performed. All patients with tinnitus can benefit from patient education and preventive measures, and oftentimes the physician's reassurance and assistance with the psychologic aftereffects of tinnitus can be the therapy most valuable to the patient. There are no specific medications for the treatment of tinnitus. Sedatives and some other medications may prove helpful in the early stages. The ultimate goal of neuro-imaging is to identify subtypes of tinnitus in order to better inform treatment strategies.

  7. Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Selfridge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time physically-derived sound synthesis model is presented that replicates the sounds generated as an object swings through the air. Equations obtained from fluid dynamics are used to determine the sounds generated while exposing practical parameters for a user or game engine to vary. Listening tests reveal that for the majority of objects modelled, participants rated the sounds from our model as plausible as actual recordings. The sword sound effect performed worse than others, and it is speculated that one cause may be linked to the difference between expectations of a sound and the actual sound for a given object.

  8. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  9. Constraints on decay of environmental sound memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masashi

    2006-11-27

    When adult rats are pretreated with a 48-h-long 'repetitive nonreinforced sound exposure', performance in two-sound discriminative operant conditioning transiently improves. We have already proven that this 'sound exposure-enhanced discrimination' is dependent upon enhancement of the perceptual capacity of the auditory cortex. This study investigated principles governing decay of sound exposure-enhanced discrimination decay. Sound exposure-enhanced discrimination disappeared within approximately 72 h if animals were deprived of environmental sounds after sound exposure, and that shortened to less than approximately 60 h if they were exposed to environmental sounds in the animal room. Sound-deprivation itself exerted no clear effects. These findings suggest that the memory of a passively exposed behaviorally irrelevant sound signal does not merely pass along the intrinsic lifetime but also gets deteriorated by other incoming signals.

  10. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common sound levels (Wen B, Wang GI, Dean I, Delgutte B. J Neurosci 29: 13797–13808, 2009). We investigated the time course of dynamic range adaptation by recording from AN fibers with a stimulus in which the sound levels periodically switch from one nonuniform level distribution to another (Dean I, Robinson BL, Harper NS, McAlpine D. J Neurosci 28: 6430–6438, 2008). Dynamic range adaptation occurred rapidly, but its exact time course was difficult to determine directly from the data because of the concomitant firing rate adaptation. To characterize the time course of dynamic range adaptation without the confound of firing rate adaptation, we developed a phenomenological “dual adaptation” model that accounts for both forms of AN adaptation. When fitted to the data, the model predicts that dynamic range adaptation occurs as rapidly as firing rate adaptation, over 100–400 ms, and the time constants of the two forms of adaptation are correlated. These findings suggest that adaptive processing in the auditory periphery in response to changes in mean sound level occurs rapidly enough to have significant impact on the coding of natural sounds. PMID:22457465

  11. Slow-wave metamaterial open panels for efficient reduction of low-frequency sound transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieun; Lee, Joong Seok; Lee, Hyeong Rae; Kang, Yeon June; Kim, Yoon Young

    2018-02-01

    Sound transmission reduction is typically governed by the mass law, requiring thicker panels to handle lower frequencies. When open holes must be inserted in panels for heat transfer, ventilation, or other purposes, the efficient reduction of sound transmission through holey panels becomes difficult, especially in the low-frequency ranges. Here, we propose slow-wave metamaterial open panels that can dramatically lower the working frequencies of sound transmission loss. Global resonances originating from slow waves realized by multiply inserted, elaborately designed subwavelength rigid partitions between two thin holey plates contribute to sound transmission reductions at lower frequencies. Owing to the dispersive characteristics of the present metamaterial panels, local resonances that trap sound in the partitions also occur at higher frequencies, exhibiting negative effective bulk moduli and zero effective velocities. As a result, low-frequency broadened sound transmission reduction is realized efficiently in the present metamaterial panels. The theoretical model of the proposed metamaterial open panels is derived using an effective medium approach and verified by numerical and experimental investigations.

  12. Fish protection at water intakes using a new signal development process and sound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffelman, P.H.; Klinect, D.A.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    American Electric Power Company, Inc., is exploring the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and sound system to guide aquatic animals with underwater sound. Sounds from animals such as chinook salmon, steelhead trout, striped bass, freshwater drum, largemouth bass, and gizzard shad can be used to synthesize a new signal to stimulate the animal in the most sensitive portion of its hearing range. AEP's field tests during its research demonstrate that adult chinook salmon, steelhead trout and warmwater fish, and steelhead trout and chinook salmon smolts can be repelled with a properly-tuned system. The signal development process and sound system is designed to be transportable and use animals at the site to incorporate site-specific factors known to affect underwater sound, e.g., bottom shape and type, water current, and temperature. This paper reports that, because the overall goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using sound to divert fish, it was essential that the approach use a signal development process which could be customized to animals and site conditions at any hydropower plant site

  13. Detection System of Sound Noise Level (SNL) Based on Condenser Microphone Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Juniastel; Eka Sari, Nurdieni

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the noise level by using the Arduino Uno as data processing input from sensors and called as Sound Noise Level (SNL). The working principle of the instrument is as noise detector with the show notifications the noise level on the LCD indicator and in the audiovisual form. Noise detection using the sensor is a condenser microphone and LM 567 as IC op-amps, which are assembled so that it can detect the noise, which sounds are captured by the sensor will turn the tide of sinusoida voice became sine wave energy electricity (altering sinusoida electric current) that is able to responded to complaints by the Arduino Uno. The tool is equipped with a detector consists of a set indicator LED and sound well as the notification from the text on LCD 16*2. Work setting indicators on the condition that, if the measured noise > 75 dB then sound will beep, the red LED will light up indicating the status of the danger. If the measured value on the LCD is higher than 56 dB, sound indicator will be beep and yellow LED will be on indicating noisy. If the noise measured value <55 dB, sound indicator will be quiet indicating peaceful from noisy. From the result of the research can be explained that the SNL is capable to detecting and displaying noise level with a measuring range 50-100 dB and capable to delivering the notification noise in audiovisual.

  14. Survey of cochlear implant user satisfaction with the Neptune™ waterproof sound processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J. Briaire

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventyeight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options.

  15. How Pleasant Sounds Promote and Annoying Sounds Impede Health : A Cognitive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Lanser, J. Jolie L.

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper addresses the cognitive functions via which quiet and in general pleasurable sounds promote and annoying sounds impede health. The article comprises a literature analysis and an interpretation of how the bidirectional influence of appraising the environment and the feelings of

  16. Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound: A Research Plan in Support of the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    2Puget Sound nearshore ecosystems encompass the bluffs, beaches, tide flats, estuaries, rocky shores, lagoons , salt marshes, and other shoreline features...investigations of intertidal benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca (e.g., Long and others, 1983

  17. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Siewert, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The analysis

  18. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  19. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  20. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  1. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the increasing use of dynamic range compression in music mastering (the loudnesswar) deteriorates sound quality but experimental evidence of perceptual effects is lacking. In this study, normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings in ...

  2. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, I.; Panci, Paolo; Silk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from...

  3. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  4. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  5. Focused sound: oncological therapy for transformed tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, C. E.; Cordova F, T.; Hernandez, A.

    2017-10-01

    The restlessness of the human being involves observing and being critical through their senses, in particular a disturbance in the environment cause vibrations that can be registered by the sense of hearing through the eardrum, if what it produces is in the frequency of the audible sound. The distinction of the sound of the other forms of energy transfer is that the waves of the same quickly involve the progressive return of displacements or vibrations of the molecules in the medium that propagates. In this work a sweep of frequencies was made from infra sound to ultrasound in plants of different types with different thicknesses and two people in order to find the resonance of each of them and compare it with the resonances registered in text, which allowed evaluate the secondary effect of sound focused on the tissue of the leaves and in particular of people. We consider that there is potential for this focused sound modality if it is at the resonance frequency of the transformed tissue as a means of oncological therapy without affecting the neighboring cells. (Author)

  6. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  7. Physics of thermo-acoustic sound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschewski, M.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Harrer, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a generalized analytical model of thermo-acoustic sound generation based on the analysis of thermally induced energy density fluctuations and their propagation into the adjacent matter. The model provides exact analytical prediction of the sound pressure generated in fluids and solids; consequently, it can be applied to arbitrary thermal power sources such as thermophones, plasma firings, laser beams, and chemical reactions. Unlike existing approaches, our description also includes acoustic near-field effects and sound-field attenuation. Analytical results are compared with measurements of sound pressures generated by thermo-acoustic transducers in air for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The tested transducers consist of titanium and indium tin oxide coatings on quartz glass and polycarbonate substrates. The model reveals that thermo-acoustic efficiency increases linearly with the supplied thermal power and quadratically with thermal excitation frequency. Comparison of the efficiency of our thermo-acoustic transducers with those of piezoelectric-based airborne ultrasound transducers using impulse excitation showed comparable sound pressure values. The present results show that thermo-acoustic transducers can be applied as broadband, non-resonant, high-performance ultrasound sources.

  8. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  9. Sound absorption study on acoustic panel from kapok fiber and egg tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Mahir, Nurul Syazwani Mohd; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Ngadiman, Norhayati

    2017-12-01

    Noise also known as a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disruption. The level of noise can be reduced by using sound absorption panel. Currently, the market produces sound absorption panel, which use synthetic fibers that can cause harmful effects to the health of consumers. An awareness of using natural fibers from natural materials gets attention of some parties to use it as a sound absorbing material. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the potential of sound absorption panel using egg trays and kapok fibers. The test involved in this study was impedance tube test which aims to get sound absorption coefficient (SAC). The results showed that there was good sound absorption at low frequency from 0 Hz up to 900 Hz where the maximum absorption coefficient was 0.950 while the maximum absorption at high frequencies was 0.799. Through the noise reduction coefficient (NRC), the material produced NRC of 0.57 indicates that the materials are very absorbing. In addition, the reverberation room test was carried out to get the value of reverberation time (RT) in unit seconds. Overall this panel showed good results at low frequencies between 0 Hz up to 1500 Hz. In that range of frequency, the maximum reverberation time for the panel was 3.784 seconds compared to the maximum reverberation time for an empty room was 5.798 seconds. This study indicated that kapok fiber and egg tray as the material of absorption panel has a potential as environmental and cheap products in absorbing sound at low frequency.

  10. Some consequences of including low frequencies in the evaluation of floor impact sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    A method for including frequencies down to 50 Hz in the evaluation of floor impact sound has become available with the new version of ISO 717-2. In addition to the single number quantity for rating the impact sound insulation, a new spectrum adaptation term has been defined. The method has been...... studied by the Acoustics Group of the Nordic Committee on Building Regulations. The new method has been applied to a large number of recent measuring results from the Nordic countries. It was found that the spectrum adaptation term for the extended frequency range depends on the type of floor construction...... frequency range in future building regulations or in a system for sound classification of dwellings have been considered. However, there are several problems to be solved, among which are a lack of available data for floor constructions at low frequencies, an increased measurement uncertainty, and the fact...

  11. Forced sound transmission through a finite-sized single leaf panel subject to a point source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong

    2018-03-01

    In the case of a point source in front of a panel, the wavefront of the incident wave is spherical. This paper discusses spherical sound waves transmitting through a finite sized panel. The forced sound transmission performance that predominates in the frequency range below the coincidence frequency is the focus. Given the point source located along the centerline of the panel, forced sound transmission coefficient is derived through introducing the sound radiation impedance for spherical incident waves. It is found that in addition to the panel mass, forced sound transmission loss also depends on the distance from the source to the panel as determined by the radiation impedance. Unlike the case of plane incident waves, sound transmission performance of a finite sized panel does not necessarily converge to that of an infinite panel, especially when the source is away from the panel. For practical applications, the normal incidence sound transmission loss expression of plane incident waves can be used if the distance between the source and panel d and the panel surface area S satisfy d/S>0.5. When d/S ≈0.1, the diffuse field sound transmission loss expression may be a good approximation. An empirical expression for d/S=0  is also given.

  12. Sound Localization in Multisource Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A total of 7 paid volunteer listeners (3 males and 4 females, 20-25 years of age ) par- ticipated in the experiment. All had normal hearing (i.e...effects of the loudspeaker frequency responses, and were then sent from an experimental control computer to a Mark of the Unicorn (MOTU 24 I/O) digital-to...after the overall multisource stimulus has been presented (the ’post-cue’ condition). 3.2 Methods 3.2.1 Listeners Eight listeners, ranging in age from

  13. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...... positioned 1.5 m from the centre of the listener’s head, one straight ahead, and two 10 degrees to the right and left, respectively. Six participants matched the loudness of either one, or two simultaneous sounds (narrow-band noises with 1-kHz, and 3.15-kHz centre frequencies) to a 2-kHz, 60-dB SPL narrow......-band noise placed in the frontal loudspeaker. The two sounds were either originating from the central speaker, or from the two offset loudspeakers. It turned out that the subjects perceived the noises to be softer when they were distributed in space. In addition, loudness was calculated from the recordings...

  14. Machine learning analysis of binaural rowing sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johard, Leonard; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition metho...... methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train.......Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition...

  15. Testing Cosmology with Cosmic Sound Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano

    2008-01-01

    WMAP observations have accurately determined the position of the first two peaks and dips in the CMB temperature power spectrum. These encode information on the ratio of the distance to the last scattering surface to the sound horizon at decoupling. However pre-recombination processes can contaminate this distance information. In order to assess the amplitude of these effects we use the WMAP data and evaluate the relative differences of the CMB peaks and dips multipoles. We find that the position of the first peak is largely displaced with the respect to the expected position of the sound horizon scale at decoupling. In contrast the relative spacings of the higher extrema are statistically consistent with those expected from perfect harmonic oscillations. This provides evidence for a scale dependent phase shift of the CMB oscillations which is caused by gravitational driving forces affecting the propagation of sound waves before recombination. By accounting for these effects we have performed a MCMC likelihoo...

  16. Efficient sound barrier calculations with the BEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method has been used for calculating the effect of introducing sound barriers for some decades. The method has also been used for optimizing the shape of the barrier and in some cases the effects of introducing sound absorption. However, numerical calculations are still quite...... time consuming and inconvenient to use, which is limiting their use for many practical problems. Moreover, measurements are mostly taken in one-third or full octave bands opposed to the numerical computations at specific frequencies, which then has to be conducted using a fine density in frequencies....... This paper addresses some of the challenges and possible solutions for developing BEM into a more efficient tool for sound barrier calculations....

  17. Bubbles that Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-11-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."2 In this paper we describe a simple and robust experiment that allows an easy audio and visual demonstration of the same effect (unfortunately without the chocolate) and offers several possibilities for student investigations. In addition to the demonstration of the above effect, the experiments described below provide an excellent opportunity for students to devise and test explanations with simple equipment.

  18. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  19. Sound propagation in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.; Federici, F.; Tosi, M. P.

    2006-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study sound propagation in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature inside a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap, with main attention to the transition from the BCS to the unitary regime. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of a cylindrical geometry and then evaluate numerically the effect of the axial confinement in a configuration in which a hole is present in the gas density at the center of the trap. We find that in a strongly elongated trap the speed of sound in both the BCS and the unitary regime differs by a factor √(3/5) from that in a homogeneous three-dimensional superfluid. The predictions of the theory could be tested by measurements of sound-wave propagation in a setup such as that exploited by Andrews et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997)] for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate

  20. Sound spectrum of a pulsating optical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, G N; Smirnov, A L; Tishchenko, V N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, A K; Miroshnichenko, I B [Novosibirsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-28

    A spectrum of sound of an optical discharge generated by a repetitively pulsed (RP) laser radiation has been investigated. The parameters of laser radiation are determined at which the spectrum of sound may contains either many lines, or the main line at the pulse repetition rate and several weaker overtones, or a single line. The spectrum of sound produced by trains of RP radiation comprises the line (and overtones) at the repetition rate of train sequences and the line at the repetition rate of pulses in trains. A CO{sub 2} laser with the pulse repetition rate of f ≈ 3 – 180 kHz and the average power of up to 2 W was used in the experiments. (optical discharges)