WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound quality issue

  1. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A.; Monahan, R.; Stacey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development

  2. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  3. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  4. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  5. Assessment and improvement of sound quality in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiam, Nicole T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) have successfully provided speech perception to individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Recent research has focused on more challenging acoustic stimuli such as music and voice emotion. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and describe sound quality in CI users with the purposes of summarizing novel findings and crucial information about how CI users experience complex sounds. Here we review the existing literature on PubMed and Scopus to present what is known about perceptual sound quality in CI users, discuss existing measures of sound quality, explore how sound quality may be effectively studied, and examine potential strategies of improving sound quality in the CI population. Sound quality, defined here as the perceived richness of an auditory stimulus, is an attribute of implant-mediated listening that remains poorly studied. Sound quality is distinct from appraisal, which is generally defined as the subjective likability or pleasantness of a sound. Existing studies suggest that sound quality perception in the CI population is limited by a range of factors, most notably pitch distortion and dynamic range compression. Although there are currently very few objective measures of sound quality, the CI-MUSHRA has been used as a means of evaluating sound quality. There exist a number of promising strategies to improve sound quality perception in the CI population including apical cochlear stimulation, pitch tuning, and noise reduction processing strategies. In the published literature, sound quality perception is severely limited among CI users. Future research should focus on developing systematic, objective, and quantitative sound quality metrics and designing therapies to mitigate poor sound quality perception in CI users. NA.

  6. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  7. The Process of Optimizing Mechanical Sound Quality in Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Holst, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The research field concerning optimizing product sound quality is a relatively unexplored area, and may become difficult for designers to operate in. To some degree, sound is a highly subjective parameter, which is normally targeted sound specialists. This paper describes the theoretical...... and practical background for managing a process of optimizing the mechanical sound quality in a product design by using simple tools and workshops systematically. The procedure is illustrated by a case study of a computer navigation tool (computer mouse or mouse). The process is divided into 4 phases, which...... clarify the importance of product sound, defining perceptive demands identified by users, and, finally, how to suggest mechanical principles for modification of an existing sound design. The optimized mechanical sound design is followed by tests on users of the product in its use context. The result...

  8. The relationship between target quality and interference in sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, Khan; Coleman, Phillip; Mason, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Sound zone systems aim to control sound fields in such a way that multiple listeners can enjoy different audio programs within the same room with minimal acoustic interference. Often, there is a trade-off between the acoustic contrast achieved between the zones and the fidelity of the reproduced...... audio program in the target zone. A listening test was conducted to obtain subjective measures of distraction, target quality, and overall quality of listening experience for ecologically valid programs within a sound zoning system. Sound zones were reproduced using acoustic contrast control, planarity...

  9. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  10. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  11. The relationship between sound insulation and acoustic quality in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  12. From acoustic descriptors to evoked quality of car door sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezat, Marie-Céline; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Roussarie, Vincent; Ystad, Sølvi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first part of a study aiming at adapting the mechanical car door construction to the drivers' expectancies in terms of perceived quality of cars deduced from car door sounds. A perceptual cartography of car door sounds is obtained from various listening tests aiming at revealing both ecological and analytical properties linked to evoked car quality. In the first test naive listeners performed absolute evaluations of five ecological properties (i.e., solidity, quality, weight, closure energy, and success of closure). Then experts in the area of automobile doors categorized the sounds according to organic constituents (lock, joints, door panel), in particular whether or not the lock mechanism could be perceived. Further, a sensory panel of naive listeners identified sensory descriptors such as classical descriptors or onomatopoeia that characterize the sounds, hereby providing an analytic description of the sounds. Finally, acoustic descriptors were calculated after decomposition of the signal into a lock and a closure component by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. A statistical relationship between the acoustic descriptors and the perceptual evaluations of the car door sounds could then be obtained through linear regression analysis.

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most impor...

  14. Sound insulation quality in Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the EAA symposium on Building acoustic quality, an overview is given of the current situation in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The topics considered are the current common building techniques, the legal minimum requirements, the desirable acoustic quality and the building

  15. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  16. A Neural Network Model for Prediction of Sound Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen,, Lars Bramsløw

    An artificial neural network structure has been specified, implemented and optimized for the purpose of predicting the perceived sound quality for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. The network was implemented by means of commercially available software and optimized to predict results...... obtained in subjective sound quality rating experiments based on input data from an auditory model. Various types of input data and data representations from the auditory model were used as input data for the chosen network structure, which was a three-layer perceptron. This network was trained by means...... the physical signal parameters and the subjectively perceived sound quality. No simple objective-subjective relationship was evident from this analysis....

  17. Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2007-04-01

    Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view.

  18. 40 CFR 81.32 - Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.32 Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Washington) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. Quality assurance issues and PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    Quality assessment and assurance is a growing concern in all areas of health care. The concern is fueled by a body of evidence that indicates that quality of care is not optimal, and in many instances, is unacceptably low. Although different standards for quality have been proposed, health outcome

  20. Sound quality prediction for engine-radiated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhang, Junhong; Guo, Peng; Bi, Fengrong; Yu, Hanzhengnan; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-05-01

    Diesel engine-radiated noise quality prediction is an important topic because engine noise has a significant impact on the overall vehicle noise. Sound quality prediction is based on subjective and objective evaluation of engine noise. The integrated satisfaction index (ISI) is proposed as a criterion for differentiate noise quality in the subjective evaluation, and five psychoacoustic parameters are selected for characterizing and analyzing the noise quality of the diesel engine objectively. The combination of support vector machines (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed in order to establish a model for predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality for all operation conditions. The performance of the GA-SVM model is compared with the BP neural network model, and the results show that the mean relative error of the GA-SVM model is smaller than the BP neural network model. The importance rank of the sound quality metrics to the ISI is indicated by the non-parametric correlation analysis. This study suggests that the GA-SVM model is very useful for accurately predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality.

  1. Evaluation of Sound Quality, Boominess and Boxiness in Small Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Adam; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    ratings. The classical bass ratio definitions showed poor correlation with all subjective ratings. The overall sound quality ratings gave different results for speech and music. For speech the preferred mean RT should be as low as possible, whereas for music there was found a preferred range between 0......The acoustics of small rooms has been studied with emphasis on sound quality, boominess and boxiness when the rooms are used for speech or music. Seven rooms with very different characteristics have been used for the study. Subjective listening tests were made using binaural recordings...... of reproduced speech and music. The test results were compared with a large number of objective acoustic parameters based on the frequency-dependent reverberation times measured in the rooms. This has led to the proposal of three new acoustic parameters, which have shown high correlation with the subjective...

  2. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  3. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  4. Issues ignored in laboratory quality surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jing; Li Xingyuan; Zhang Tingsheng

    2008-01-01

    According to the work requirement of the related laboratory quality surveillance in ISO17025, this paper analyzed and discussed the issued ignored in the laboratory quality surveillance. In order to solve the present problem, it is required to understand the work responsibility in the quality surveillance correctly, to establish the effective working routine in the quality surveillance, and to conduct, the quality surveillance work. The object in the quality surveillance shall be 'the operator' who engaged in the examination/calibration directly in the laboratory, especially the personnel in training (who is engaged in the examination/calibration). The quality supervisors shall be fully authorized, so that they can correctly understand the work responsibility in quality surveillance, and are with the rights for 'full supervision'. The laboratory also shall arrange necessary training to the quality supervisor, so that they can obtain sufficient guide in time and are with required qualification or occupation prerequisites. (authors)

  5. Multiple target sound quality balance for hybrid electric powertrain noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Sánchez, J. A.; Sarrazin, M.; Janssens, K.; de Oliveira, L. P. R.; Desmet, W.

    2018-01-01

    The integration of the electric motor to the powertrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) presents acoustic stimuli that elicit new perceptions. The large number of spectral components, as well as the wider bandwidth of this sort of noises, pose new challenges to current noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) approaches. This paper presents a framework for enhancing the sound quality (SQ) of the hybrid electric powertrain noise perceived inside the passenger compartment. Compared with current active sound quality control (ASQC) schemes, where the SQ improvement is just an effect of the control actions, the proposed technique features an optimization stage, which enables the NVH specialist to actively implement the amplitude balance of the tones that better fits into the auditory expectations. Since Loudness, Roughness, Sharpness and Tonality are the most relevant SQ metrics for interior HEV noise, they are used as performance metrics in the concurrent optimization analysis, which, eventually, drives the control design method. Thus, multichannel active sound profiling systems that feature cross-channel compensation schemes are guided by the multi-objective optimization stage, by means of optimal sets of amplitude gain factors that can be implemented at each single sensor location, while minimizing cross-channel effects that can either degrade the original SQ condition, or even hinder the implementation of independent SQ targets. The proposed framework is verified experimentally, with realistic stationary hybrid electric powertrain noise, showing SQ enhancement for multiple locations within a scaled vehicle mock-up. The results show total success rates in excess of 90%, which indicate that the proposed method is promising, not only for the improvement of the SQ of HEV noise, but also for a variety of periodic disturbances with similar features.

  6. Quality issues in the management of web information

    CERN Document Server

    Bordogna, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This research volume presents a sample of recent contributions related to the issue of quality-assessment for Web Based information in the context of information access, retrieval, and filtering systems. The advent of the Web and the uncontrolled process of documents' generation have raised the problem of declining quality assessment to information on the Web, by considering both the nature of documents (texts, images, video, sounds, and so on), the genre of documents ( news, geographic information, ontologies, medical records, products records, and so on), the reputation of information sources and sites, and, last but not least the actions performed on documents (content indexing, retrieval and ranking, collaborative filtering, and so on). The volume constitutes a compendium of both heterogeneous approaches and sample applications focusing specific aspects of the quality assessment for Web-based information for researchers, PhD students and practitioners carrying out their research activity in the field of W...

  7. Objective Scaling of Sound Quality for Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    ) Subjective sound quality ratings of clean and distorted speech and music signals, by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, to provide reference data, 2) An auditory model of the ear, including the effects of hearing loss, based on existing psychoacoustic knowledge, coupled to 3) An artificial neural......A new method for the objective estimation of sound quality for both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners has been presented: OSSQAR (Objective Scaling of Sound Quality and Reproduction). OSSQAR is based on three main parts, which have been carried out and documented separately: 1...... network, which was trained to predict the sound quality ratings. OSSQAR predicts the perceived sound quality on two independent perceptual rating scales: Clearness and Sharpness. These two scales were shown to be the most relevant for assessment of sound quality, and they were interpreted the same way...

  8. Water quality monitoring and data collection in the Mississippi sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runner, Michael S.; Creswell, R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources are collecting data on the quality of the water in the Mississippi Sound of the Gulf of Mexico, and streamflow data for its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting continuous water-level data, continuous and discrete water-temperature data, continuous and discrete specific-conductance data, as well as chloride and salinity samples at two locations in the Mississippi Sound and three Corps of Engineers tidal gages. Continuous-discharge data are also being collected at two additional stations on tributaries. The Mississippi Department of Marine Resources collects water samples at 169 locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Between 1800 and 2000 samples are collected annually which are analyzed for turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria. The continuous data are made available real-time through the internet and are being used in conjunction with streamflow data, weather data, and sampling data for the monitoring and management of the oyster reefs, the shrimp fishery and other marine species and their habitats.

  9. Assessment of sound quality perception in cochlear implant users during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Limb, Charles J

    2012-04-01

    Although cochlear implant (CI) users frequently report deterioration of sound quality when listening to music, few methods exist to quantify these subjective claims. 1) To design a novel research method for quantifying sound quality perception in CI users during music listening; 2) To validate this method by assessing one attribute of music perception, bass frequency perception, which is hypothesized to be relevant to overall musical sound quality perception. Limitations in bass frequency perception contribute to CI-mediated sound quality deteriorations. The proposed method will quantify this deterioration by measuring CI users' impaired ability to make sound quality discriminations among musical stimuli with variable amounts of bass frequency removal. A method commonly used in the audio industry (multiple stimulus with hidden reference and anchor [MUSHRA]) was adapted for CI users, referred to as CI-MUSHRA. CI users and normal hearing controls were presented with 7 sound quality versions of a musical segment: 5 high pass filter cutoff versions (200-, 400-, 600-, 800-, 1000-Hz) with decreasing amounts of bass information, an unaltered version ("hidden reference"), and a highly altered version (1,000-1,200 Hz band pass filter; "anchor"). Participants provided sound quality ratings between 0 (very poor) and 100 (excellent) for each version; ratings reflected differences in perceived sound quality among stimuli. CI users had greater difficulty making overall sound quality discriminations as a function of bass frequency loss than normal hearing controls, as demonstrated by a significantly weaker correlation between bass frequency content and sound quality ratings. In particular, CI users could not perceive sound quality difference among stimuli missing up to 400 Hz of bass frequency information. Bass frequency impairments contribute to sound quality deteriorations during music listening for CI users. CI-MUSHRA provided a systematic and quantitative assessment of this

  10. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  11. Influence of visual stimuli on the sound quality evaluation of loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to hearing and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order...... to quantify the bias that the image of a loudspeaker has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, loudspeaker sounds of varied degradation are coupled with positively or negatively biasing visual input of actual loudspeakers, and in a separate experiment by pictures of the same loudspeakers....

  12. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  13. Development of engine sound quality for passenger car with 6 cylinder engine; 6 kito engine joyosha no onshoku kazari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Y; Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, the interior noise has been required not only to reduce the sound pressure level, but also to improve the sound quality, especially during acceleration. This paper describes the development of engine sound quality for the new model `ARISTO (GS300)` with in-line 6 gasoline engine. We used the sound simulator in order to evaluate the engine sound quality during acceleration, and decided the target sound. To attain that sound, the light-weighed Piston and connecting rod, and the improvement of intake system are adopted. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Spatial aspects of sound quality - and by multichannel systems subjective assessment of sound reproduced by stereo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain

    the fidelity with which sound reproduction systems can re-create the desired stereo image, a laser pointing technique was developed to accurately collect subjects' responses in a localization task. This method is subsequently applied in an investigation of the effects of loudspeaker directivity...... on the perceived direction of panned sources. The second part of the thesis addresses the identification of auditory attributes which play a role in the perception of sound reproduced by multichannel systems. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to evoke various...

  15. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  16. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  17. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  18. Sound quality measures for speech in noise through a commercial hearing aid implementing digital noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2005-05-01

    This brief report discusses the affect of digital noise reduction (DNR) processing on aided speech recognition and sound quality measures in 14 adults fitted with a commercial hearing aid. Measures of speech recognition and sound quality were obtained in two different speech-in-noise conditions (71 dBA speech, +6 dB SNR and 75 dBA speech, +1 dB SNR). The results revealed that the presence or absence of DNR processing did not impact speech recognition in noise (either positively or negatively). Paired comparisons of sound quality for the same speech in noise signals, however, revealed a strong preference for DNR processing. These data suggest that at least one implementation of DNR processing is capable of providing improved sound quality, for speech in noise, in the absence of improved speech recognition.

  19. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  20. Influence of visual stimuli in the sound quality evaluation of loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    There is currently an increasing demand to evaluate sound quality attributes of products and understand to what extend they influence a user's overall impression, since there is usually more than one modality stimulating this evaluation. The present study uses the loudspeakers as an example...... and evaluates the overall impression in relation to hearing and vision.In order to quantify the bias that the image of a loudspeaker has on the sound quality evaluation done by a naive listening panel, loudspeaker sounds of varied degradation are coupled with positively or negatively biasing visual input...

  1. Power Quality Issues on Wind Power Installations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    offshore wind farms connected at transmission level. In this perspective, the power quality issues are divided into local issues particularly related to the voltage quality in the distribution systems and global issues related to the power system control and stability. Power quality characteristics of wind...

  2. Sound Quality Evaluation and Optimization for Interior Noise of Rail Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for sound filed simulation, sound quality (SQ evaluation, and optimization of interior noise of a rail vehicle is investigated in this paper. Firstly, some interior noises are measured on site when the subway is running in tunnel at a speed of 60 km/h. The sound pressure levels (SPLs, loudness, sharpness, and roughness of the measured noise are analyzed. A finite element model for acoustical simulation of the carriage is established by using the Actran software. The accuracy and feasibility of the finite model are verified by comparing the psychoacoustical parameters from the simulations and measurements. By using orthogonal experimental design, finally, the best optimization scheme is put forward, which obtained a sound quality improvement with a 4.81 dB decrease in SPL and a 1.07 sone reduction in loudness. The proposed optimization scheme may be extended to other vehicles for improving interior acoustic environment.

  3. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung

    2009-01-01

    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  4. A comparison of sound quality judgments for monaural and binaural hearing aid processed stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, P B; Hawkins, D B

    1992-10-01

    Fifteen adults with bilaterally symmetrical mild and/or moderate sensorineural hearing loss completed a paired-comparison task designed to elicit sound quality preference judgments for monaural/binaural hearing aid processed signals. Three stimuli (speech-in-quiet, speech-in-noise, and music) were recorded separately in three listening environments (audiometric test booth, living room, and a music/lecture hall) through hearing aids placed on a Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustics Research. Judgments were made on eight separate sound quality dimensions (brightness, clarity, fullness, loudness, nearness, overall impression, smoothness, and spaciousness) for each of the three stimuli in three listening environments. Results revealed a distinct binaural preference for all eight sound quality dimensions independent of listening environment. Binaural preferences were strongest for overall impression, fullness, and spaciousness. Stimulus type effect was significant only for fullness and spaciousness, where binaural preferences were strongest for speech-in-quiet. After binaural preference data were obtained, subjects ranked each sound quality dimension with respect to its importance for binaural listening relative to monaural. Clarity was ranked highest in importance and brightness was ranked least important. The key to demonstration of improved binaural hearing aid sound quality may be the use of a paired-comparison format.

  5. Predicting the perceived sound quality of frequency-compressed speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Huber

    Full Text Available The performance of objective speech and audio quality measures for the prediction of the perceived quality of frequency-compressed speech in hearing aids is investigated in this paper. A number of existing quality measures have been applied to speech signals processed by a hearing aid, which compresses speech spectra along frequency in order to make information contained in higher frequencies audible for listeners with severe high-frequency hearing loss. Quality measures were compared with subjective ratings obtained from normal hearing and hearing impaired children and adults in an earlier study. High correlations were achieved with quality measures computed by quality models that are based on the auditory model of Dau et al., namely, the measure PSM, computed by the quality model PEMO-Q; the measure qc, computed by the quality model proposed by Hansen and Kollmeier; and the linear subcomponent of the HASQI. For the prediction of quality ratings by hearing impaired listeners, extensions of some models incorporating hearing loss were implemented and shown to achieve improved prediction accuracy. Results indicate that these objective quality measures can potentially serve as tools for assisting in initial setting of frequency compression parameters.

  6. The Sound Quality of Cochlear Implants: Studies With Single-sided Deaf Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Michael F; Natale, Sarah Cook; Butts, Austin M; Zeitler, Daniel M; Carlson, Matthew L

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess the sound quality of a cochlear implant for single-sided deaf (SSD) patients fit with a cochlear implant (CI). One of the fundamental, unanswered questions in CI research is "what does an implant sound like?" Conventional CI patients must use the memory of a clean signal, often decades old, to judge the sound quality of their CIs. In contrast, SSD-CI patients can rate the similarity of a clean signal presented to the CI ear and candidate, CI-like signals presented to the ear with normal hearing. For Experiment 1 four types of stimuli were created for presentation to the normal hearing ear: noise vocoded signals, sine vocoded signals, frequency shifted, sine vocoded signals and band-pass filtered, natural speech signals. Listeners rated the similarity of these signals to unmodified signals sent to the CI on a scale of 0 to 10 with 10 being a complete match to the CI signal. For Experiment 2 multitrack signal mixing was used to create natural speech signals that varied along multiple dimensions. In Experiment 1 for eight adult SSD-CI listeners, the best median similarity rating to the sound of the CI for noise vocoded signals was 1.9; for sine vocoded signals 2.9; for frequency upshifted signals, 1.9; and for band pass filtered signals, 5.5. In Experiment 2 for three young listeners, combinations of band pass filtering and spectral smearing lead to ratings of 10. The sound quality of noise and sine vocoders does not generally correspond to the sound quality of cochlear implants fit to SSD patients. Our preliminary conclusion is that natural speech signals that have been muffled to one degree or another by band pass filtering and/or spectral smearing provide a close, but incomplete, match to CI sound quality for some patients.

  7. International Liability Issues for Software Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...

  8. Code quality issues in student programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, H.W.; Heeren, B.J.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Because low quality code can cause serious problems in software systems, students learning to program should pay attention to code quality early. Although many studies have investigated mistakes that students make during programming, we do not know much about the quality of their code. This study

  9. Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tuan Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.

  10. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  11. Harmonic Frequency Lowering: Effects on the Perception of Music Detail and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Synesthetic colors are elicited by sound quality in Japanese synesthetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for Japanese phonetic characters were studied in six Japanese synesthetes. The study used Hiragana and Katakana characters, which represent the same set of syllables although their visual forms are dissimilar. From a palette of 138 colors, synesthetes selected a color corresponding to each character. Results revealed that synesthetic color choices for Hiragana characters and those for their Katakana counterparts were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on character-related sounds and not visual form. This Hiragana-Katakana invariance cannot be regarded as the same phenomenon as letter case invariance, usually reported for English grapheme-color synesthesia, because Hiragana and Katakana characters have different identities whereas upper and lower case letters have the same identity. This involvement of phonology suggests that cross-activation between an inducer (i.e., letter/character) brain region and that of the concurrent (i.e., color) area in grapheme-color synesthesia is mediated by higher order cortical processing areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Product Life Cycle - Quality Management Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Majstorovic, Vidosav D.

    2004-01-01

    The strategic goal of our country is European and world integration. Within this context the management of sustainable development considered from the aspect of product’s life cycle and its quality management represents a real challenge for researchers, economy and educational system. The aim...

  14. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  15. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.

    2000-07-01

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  16. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    .... The editor of Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues presents a comprehensive reference through authors that assist in meeting this challenge by explaining the latest developments and analyzing the latest trends...

  17. Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatment Issues Related to Children with Developmental Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) in the population of clients with developmental speech sound disorders. NSOMTs are a collection of nonspeech methods and procedures that claim to influence tongue, lip, and jaw resting postures; increase strength; improve muscle tone; facilitate range of motion; and develop…

  18. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hunziker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  19. Economic Journal in Russia: Quality Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova

    2016-05-01

    alternative to the new VAK List. The author draws a conclusion about the need to review the first results of the project and to continue working with them, because the issues identified still do not allow the RSCI list to be used as a full replacement for the VAK List. The paper propose options to expand the RSCI list. The author substantiates the necessity to expand the geography of journals included in the RSCI

  20. [Issue of population quality under economic reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1991-02-01

    Under the current economic reform program, various problems about the quality of the population have emerged; dropping out of school is one such problem. In recent years, dropping out of school, has become a prevalent phenomenon. It was estimated that between 1980 and 1987, 40 million primary and middle school students dropped out of school. Drop-outs occurred mostly in primary and middle schools and in rural areas. The reasons for dropping out can be summarized as follows: 1) families could not afford to pay for tuition, 2) students were not able to keep up with school work, and 3) families or students were influenced by other students who had dropped out. In weighing the cost and benefit of attending school, parents would decide whether or not and for how many years to send their children to school. The costs included both direct costs and opportunity costs. Children in urban areas have practically no opportunity costs, while those in rural areas do. Dropping out has been more prevalent among girls than boys. Since girls marry into other families, parents were less willing to invest in their education. On the other hand, the school curriculum gave more emphasis to preparing students for advanced studies than to relaying practical knowledge. Parents did not feel there was any advantage for their children to spend more time in school. Rural economic reform had strengthened the decision-making function of the family in the area of investment. It has also widened the gap between the rich and the poor. For less affluent families, it has become more and more difficult to bear the increasing cost of education. To deal with this problem, the author made several suggestions: 1) persuade parents to continue sending children to school 2) set regulations forbidding the employment of school age children 3) forbid schools to collect unauthorized feeds and establish scholarships to help economically disadvantaged students, 4) develop more vocational schools and change the

  1. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  2. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  3. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises.

  4. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In operating the air-cleaner for a long time, people in a quiet enclosed space expect low sound at low operational levels for a routine cleaning of air. However, in the condition of high operational levels of the cleaner, a powerful yet nonannoying sound is desired, which is connected to a feeling...... of an immediate cleaning of pollutants. In this context, it is important to evaluate and design the air-cleaner noise to satisfy such contradictory expectations from the customers. In this study, a model for evaluating the sound quality of air-cleaners of mechanical type was developed based on objective...... and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...

  5. Evaluating the lower-tropospheric COSMIC GPS radio occultation sounding quality over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xie, Feiqin; Ao, Chi O.

    2018-04-01

    Lower-tropospheric moisture and temperature measurements are crucial for understanding weather prediction and climate change. Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) has been demonstrated as a high-quality observation technique with high vertical resolution and sub-kelvin temperature precision from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere. In the tropical lower troposphere, particularly the lowest 2 km, the quality of RO retrievals is known to be degraded and is a topic of active research. However, it is not clear whether similar problems exist at high latitudes, particularly over the Arctic, which is characterized by smooth ocean surface and often negligible moisture in the atmosphere. In this study, 3-year (2008-2010) GPS RO soundings from COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) over the Arctic (65-90° N) show uniform spatial sampling with average penetration depth within 300 m above the ocean surface. Over 70 % of RO soundings penetrate deep into the lowest 300 m of the troposphere in all non-summer seasons. However, the fraction of such deeply penetrating profiles reduces to only about 50-60 % in summer, when near-surface moisture and its variation increase. Both structural and parametric uncertainties of GPS RO soundings were also analyzed. The structural uncertainty (due to different data processing approaches) is estimated to be within ˜ 0.07 % in refractivity, ˜ 0.72 K in temperature, and ˜ 0.05 g kg-1 in specific humidity below 10 km, which is derived by comparing RO retrievals from two independent data processing centers. The parametric uncertainty (internal uncertainty of RO sounding) is quantified by comparing GPS RO with near-coincident radiosonde and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim profiles. A systematic negative bias up to ˜ 1 % in refractivity below 2 km is only seen in the summer, which confirms the moisture impact on GPS RO quality.

  6. Subjective Evaluation of Sound Quality for Normal-hearing and Hearing-i,paired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    1992-01-01

    11 hearing-impaired (HI) and 12 normal-hearing (NH) subjects have performed sound quality ratings on 6 perceptual scales (Loudness, Clarity, Sharpness, Fullness, Spaciousness and Overall judgement). The signals for the rating experiment consisted of running speech and music with or without......, but the normal-hearing group was slightly more reliable. There were significant differences between stimuli and between subjects, with stimuli affecting the ratings the most. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects showed similar trends, but normal-hearing listeners were generally more sensitive, i...

  7. Power quality event classification: an overview and key issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used for PQ events' classifications. Various artificial intelligent techniques which are used in PQ event classification are also discussed. Major Key issues and challenges in classifying PQ events are critically examined and outlined. Keywords: Power quality, PQ event classifiers, artificial intelligence techniques, PQ noise, ...

  8. Sound quality assessment of Diesel combustion noise using in-cylinder pressure components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Margot, X.; Monelletta, L.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion process in direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is an important source of noise, and it is thus the main reason why end-users could be reluctant to drive vehicles powered with this type of engine. This means that the great potential of Diesel engines for environment preservation—due to their lower consumption and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions—may be lost. Moreover, the advanced combustion concepts—e.g. the HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition)—developed to comply with forthcoming emissions legislation, while maintaining the efficiency of current engines, are expected to be noisier because they are characterized by a higher amount of premixed combustion. For this reason many efforts have been dedicated by car manufacturers in recent years to reduce the overall level and improve the sound quality of engine noise. Evaluation procedures are required, both for noise levels and sound quality, that may be integrated in the global engine development process in a timely and cost-effective manner. In previous published work, the authors proposed a novel method for the assessment of engine noise level. A similar procedure is applied in this paper to demonstrate the suitability of combustion indicators for the evaluation of engine noise quality. These indicators, which are representative of the peak velocity of fuel burning and the resonance in the combustion chamber, are well correlated with the combustion noise mark obtained from jury testing. Quite good accuracy in the prediction of the engine noise quality has been obtained with the definition of a two-component regression, which also permits the identification of the combustion process features related to the resulting noise quality, so that corrective actions may be proposed.

  9. Automated signal quality assessment of mobile phone-recorded heart sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David B; Brennan, Thomas; Ntusi, Ntobeko; Abdelrahman, Hassan Y; Zühlke, Liesl J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifford, Gari D

    Mobile phones, due to their audio processing capabilities, have the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of heart disease through automated auscultation. However, such a platform is likely to be used by non-experts, and hence, it is essential that such a device is able to automatically differentiate poor quality from diagnostically useful recordings since non-experts are more likely to make poor-quality recordings. This paper investigates the automated signal quality assessment of heart sound recordings performed using both mobile phone-based and commercial medical-grade electronic stethoscopes. The recordings, each 60 s long, were taken from 151 random adult individuals with varying diagnoses referred to a cardiac clinic and were professionally annotated by five experts. A mean voting procedure was used to compute a final quality label for each recording. Nine signal quality indices were defined and calculated for each recording. A logistic regression model for classifying binary quality was then trained and tested. The inter-rater agreement level for the stethoscope and mobile phone recordings was measured using Conger's kappa for multiclass sets and found to be 0.24 and 0.54, respectively. One-third of all the mobile phone-recorded phonocardiogram (PCG) signals were found to be of sufficient quality for analysis. The classifier was able to distinguish good- and poor-quality mobile phone recordings with 82.2% accuracy, and those made with the electronic stethoscope with an accuracy of 86.5%. We conclude that our classification approach provides a mechanism for substantially improving auscultation recordings by non-experts. This work is the first systematic evaluation of a PCG signal quality classification algorithm (using a separate test dataset) and assessment of the quality of PCG recordings captured by non-experts, using both a medical-grade digital stethoscope and a mobile phone.

  10. Pre-slaughter sound levels and pre-slaughter handling from loading at the farm till slaughter influence pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between sound levels, pre-slaughter handling during loading and pork quality. Pre-slaughter variables were investigated from loading till slaughter. A total of 3213 pigs were measured 30 min post-mortem for pH(30LT) (M. Longissimus thoracis). First, a sound level model for the risk to develop PSE meat was established. The difference in maximum and mean sound level during loading, mean sound level during lairage and mean sound level prior to stunning remained significant within the model. This indicated that sound levels during loading had a significant added value to former sound models. Moreover, this study completed the global classification checklist (Vermeulen et al., 2015a) by developing a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) and PSE prevalence, with the difference in maximum and mean sound level measured during loading, the feed withdrawal period and the difference in temperature during loading and lairage. Hence, this study provided new insights over previous research where loading procedures were not included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of spatial and physical neighborhood characteristics that influence sound quality and herewith well-being and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devilee, Jeroen; Kempen, Elise van; Swart, Wim; Kamp, Irene van; Ameling, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Environmental noise and health studies seldom address the positive effect of environments with high acoustic quality. Sound quality, in turn, is influenced by a large number of factors, including the spatial-physical characteristics of a neighborhood. In general, these characteristics cannot be

  12. Optimizing sound quality with AACHENHEAD {sup trademark} -technology; Optimierung der Geraeuschqualitaet mit der AACHENHEAD {sup trademark} -Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, C. [HEAD acoustics GmbH (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The sound quality of interior and exterior vehicle noise is gaining more and more importance. Not only that modern vehicles show a considerably lower noise level, the characteristic sound of a vehicle influences the buyer`s choice of a car. The acoustic engineer is faced with a complex task. In addition to reducing the noise level he has to make sure that the sound design goes along with the product. This is where aurally-adequate sound diagnosis is needed. Conventional methods, e.g. measuring the noise level or third-octave spectrum, alone cannot solve this specific task. HEAD acoustics offers the full range of aurally-adequate measurement and analysis systems, starting with the Artificial Head Measurement System and making the recorded data available for further analysis with the Binaural Analysis System BAS or the Mobile Sound Quality Laboratory SQlab. This full range of systems helps the acoustic engineer to solve his tasks for improving sound quality in a fast and cost-effective way. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kaum jemand wuerde ein Geraeusch mit verschlossenen Ohren beurteilen. Dennoch ist dies in der Praxis durchaus noch ueblich. Konventionelle Analyseverfahren in der Akustik und Schwingungsmesstechnik verlassen sich ausschliesslich auf den Augenschein. Dieser Aufsatz zeigt neue Wege von HEAD acoustics in diesem Bereich der Messtechnik. (orig.)

  13. Use of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances AIRS would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The temperature profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The AIRS Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based

  14. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  15. Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Luis F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). MIPAS acts as a proxy for typical infrared limb emission sounders, while MLS acts as a proxy for microwave limb sounders. These biases were calculated for temperature and several trace gases by interpolating model fields to real sampling patterns and, additionally, screening those locations as directed by their corresponding quality criteria. Both instruments have dense uniform sampling patterns typical of limb emission sounders, producing almost identical sampling biases. However, there is a substantial difference between the number of locations discarded. MIPAS, as a mid-infrared instrument, is very sensitive to clouds, and measurements affected by them are thus rejected from the analysis. For example, in the tropics, the MIPAS yield is strongly affected by clouds, while MLS is mostly unaffected. The results show that upper-tropospheric sampling biases in zonally averaged data, for both instruments, can be up to 10 to 30 %, depending on the species, and up to 3 K for temperature. For MIPAS, the sampling reduction due to quality screening worsens the biases, leading to values as large as 30 to 100 % for the trace gases and expanding the 3 K bias region for temperature. This type of sampling bias is largely induced by the geophysical origins of the screening (e.g. clouds). Further, analysis of long-term time series reveals that these additional quality screening biases may affect the ability to accurately detect upper-tropospheric long-term changes using such data. In contrast, MLS data quality screening removes sufficiently few points that no additional bias is introduced, although its penetration is limited to the upper troposphere, while MIPAS may cover well into the mid-troposphere in cloud-free scenarios. We emphasize that the

  16. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  17. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  18. General measures and quality of life issues in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL, which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure. Eating a balanced and low glycemic diet could be an important adjuvant factor in the prevention and treatment of moderate nonpustular psoriasis. Obese people are more likely to have severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis than people with an average body mass index. Dietary supplementation with oily fish, rich in n-3 fatty acids, in psoriasis had shown mixed results in trials. Promising results have been documented for parenteral application of n-3 fatty acid, but not with oral supplementation. Increased smoking or alcohol abuse increases the risk of developing psoriasis and may influence disease severity, and hence must be avoided. Soaking in warm water with bath oil can be done in extensive psoriasis for hydration and emollient effect, and bland soaps or soap substitutes should be used; antiseptics should be avoided as they may irritate the skin. Relatively small, localized patches of psoriasis may improve with occlusion, i.e., waterproof adhesive dressings. The use of emollients is an internationally accepted standard adjunctive to the treatment of psoriasis. Dermatology Life Quality Index is a psychometrically sound and responsive measure of psoriasis-specific outcomes and most comprehensively captures the impact of clinical signs and symptoms on patient's well-being.

  19. Interactive Sonification of Spontaneous Movement of Children-Cross-Modal Mapping and the Perception of Body Movement Qualities through Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Emma; Bresin, Roberto; Alborno, Paolo; Elblaus, Ludvig

    2016-01-01

    cross-modal mapping of body motion qualities from bodily movement to sounds. Sound can be translated and understood from bodily motion, conveyed through sound visualizations in the shape of drawings and translated back from sound visualizations to audio. The work underlines the potential of using interactive sonification to communicate high-level features of human movement data.

  20. Interactive Sonification of Spontaneous Movement of Children—Cross-Modal Mapping and the Perception of Body Movement Qualities through Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Emma; Bresin, Roberto; Alborno, Paolo; Elblaus, Ludvig

    2016-01-01

    cross-modal mapping of body motion qualities from bodily movement to sounds. Sound can be translated and understood from bodily motion, conveyed through sound visualizations in the shape of drawings and translated back from sound visualizations to audio. The work underlines the potential of using interactive sonification to communicate high-level features of human movement data. PMID:27891074

  1. Social and environmental sustainability in large-scale coastal zones: Taking an issue-based approach to the implementation of the Prince William Sound sustainable human use framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale J. Blahna; Aaron Poe; Courtney Brown; Clare M. Ryan; H. Randy Gimblett

    2017-01-01

    Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based...

  2. Testicular echotexture and seminal quality of young Montana Tropical Compound bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Oliveira Pinho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between testicular echotexture and seminal quality, in addition to evaluate the testicular parenchyma echogenicity pattern in young Montana bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Fifty-two young Montana Tropical Compound bulls from 22 to 33 months of age were used. The animals were previously evaluated by breeding soundness evaluation and thereafter divided into two groups of breeding soundness classes: 1 = 16 animals sound for breeding; 2 = 36 animals unsound for breeding by means of physical and morphological analysis of semen. All animals underwent an ultrasound examination of the testes, and the images were analyzed with the software "Image J". ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, to determine the effect of groups in relation to testicular measurements, physical and morphological semen features and ultrasound pixel analysis. There was a difference between scrotal circumference between classes, with 39.7±2.1 cm and 37.3±3.1 cm for sound and unsound animals, respectively. Regarding testicular echotexture, mean values for the pixel intensity were 95.7 and 94.0 for sound and unsound animals for breeding, respectively, with no difference between the classes. None of the studied parameters were correlated with each other, indicating that the quantification of the pixel intensity in testicular echotexture was not effective in determining the degree of sexual maturity in Montana Tropical Compound bulls.

  3. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  4. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains two significant improvements over Version 4: 1) Improved physics allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profile T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of cloud cleared radiances R(sub i). This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel error estimates for R(sub i). These error estimates are used for Quality Control of the retrieved products. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS temperature profiles with different levels of Quality Control using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. Assimilation of Quality Controlled T(p) resulted in significantly improved forecast skill compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP, except for AIRS data, is assimilated. We also conducted an experiment assimilating AIRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, as done operationally by ECMWF and NCEP. Forecast resulting from assimilated AIRS radiances were of poorer quality than those obtained assimilating AIRS temperatures.

  5. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  6. MERIS Retrieval of Water Quality Components in the Turbid Albemarle-Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Paerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two remote-sensing optical algorithms for the retrieval of the water quality components (WQCs in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System (APES were developed and validated for chlorophyll a (Chl. Both algorithms were semi-empirical because they incorporated some elements of optical processes in the atmosphere, water, and air/water interface. One incorporated a very simple atmospheric correction and modified quasi-single-scattering approximation (QSSA for estimating the spectral Gordon’s parameter, and the second estimated WQCs directly from the top of atmosphere satellite radiance without atmospheric corrections. A modified version of the Global Meteorological Database for Solar Energy and Applied Meteorology (METEONORM was used to estimate directional atmospheric transmittances. The study incorporated in situ Chl data from the Ferry-Based Monitoring (FerryMon program collected in the Neuse River Estuary (n = 633 and Pamlico Sound (n = 362, along with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS satellite imagery collected (2006–2009 across the APES; providing quasi-coinciding samples for Chl algorithm development and validation. Results indicated a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.70 and mean-normalized root-mean-squares errors (NRMSE of 52% in the Neuse River Estuary and R2 = 0.44 (NRMSE = 75 % in the Pamlico Sound—without atmospheric corrections. The simple atmospheric correction tested provided on performance improvements. Algorithm performance demonstrated the potential for supporting long-term operational WQCs satellite monitoring in the APES.

  7. Quality Assurance Issues for Therapeutic Application of Radioactive Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezarn, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radioactive microspheres for the treatment of hepatic cancer is a procedure that raises unique quality assurance (QA) concerns. The greatest of these concerns is the coordination of the responsibilities among the medical team members from interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A single QA practice and procedure guidance document does not currently exist that addresses the range of issues of concern for radioactive microspheres. A small sampling of QA issues of concern include imaging QA, procedure-specific imaging protocols, detector calibration, activity measurement, radiation safety, patient dose calculations, and patient-specific QA. Some of the items listed have historically been the responsibility of a single team member, and other items have been concerns for all. A procedural overview of the therapeutic application of radioactive microspheres is presented to illustrate the broad, team-based QA approach necessary to safely and effectively deliver this type of treatment. From this overview, the reader will be able to customize the local QA protocol to meet the local division of responsibilities

  8. [Evaluation of a transient noise reduction strategy on the loudness perception and sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihong; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Xueqing; Wu, Yanjun; Kong, Ying; Wang, Shuo; Li, Jing

    2010-10-01

    A current technology for detecting and controlling transient noise in hearing aids (AntiShock) was evaluated. The objective was to evaluate AntiShock on loudness control and whether results in negative changes in sound quality of speech, transient noise and environmental noise and provide implications for hearing aid fitting. Twenty-four subjects with sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study. In a single-blinded paradigm, the subjects were asked to rate loudness of transient noise and distortion of speech, transient noise and environmental noise with the AntiShock in both on and off conditions. (1) The percentage of the transient noise rated as soft, comfortable, loud, too loud was 3.0%, 72.7%, 22.9% and 1.4%, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores of loudness perception among listening conditions and between genders by a Two-Way ANOVA, the P values were 0.009 and 0.001, respectively. (2) The percentage of the speech rated as mild distorted, understandable, clear and very clear was 2.5%, 30.6%, 32.9% and 34.0%, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores of speech distortion under different listening conditions by an One-Way ANOVA (P 0.05). (4) The percentage of the environmental noise rated as mild distorted, clear but soft, clear and natural was 0.4%, 0.8% and 98.8%, respectively. No significant differences in mean scores of nature of environmental noise was found between different listening conditions by an Independent-Samples T Test (P > 0.05). AntiShock showed positive effects on the loudness control of the transient noise. Quality of speech, transient noise and environmental noise were not impacted by AntiShock.

  9. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  10. Spiritual issues and quality of life assessment in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficace, Fabio; Marrone, Robert

    2002-11-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer forces most human beings to face their own death. The comfortable sense of both invulnerability and immortality is shattered, making the patient thoroughly aware that life is finite and limited. Approaching death, cancer patients commonly embark on an inner journey involving a search for meaning as well as a reordering of priorities involving physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although interest in the role of spirituality, relating to both adjustment to cancer and the overall quality of life of cancer patients, has increased in recent years, most of the commonly used quality of life (QOL) instruments in oncology typically do not include spiritual issues. In this article, it is argued that assessing QOL effectively should involve all aspects of the personality, including mind, body, and spirit as well. This article also reviews recent studies, which have shown that spiritual well-being, although a many-sided and difficult construct to define, is closely related to the QOL of cancer patients. It is also suggested that further research is needed to understand how the new focus on spirituality can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of patient's QOL in cancer care.

  11. Mass Digitisation by Libraries: Issues concerning Organisation, Quality and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verheusen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the world-wide web made it possible to display graphics on the Internet, libraries have been scanning their older documents and pictures to provide access to them. From the middle of the 1990s thousands of libraries of all sizes began scanning parts of their collections, provided these with metadata and made them available on the web. The emphasis in these first, rather small, digitisation projects was on experimenting with different techniques for both scanning and building interfaces for the Internet. Along the way, methods for quality assurance, project management and business models became more professional. In line with the progress made in the field of digitisation, a profound knowledge of best practices has been developed. However, this knowledge is not available for all cultural heritage institutions who want to digitise their collections. Most of the smaller institutions lack experience and, moreover, the means to digitise in an efficient way. At the same time, the larger libraries are moving towards large-scale digitisation of historical texts while Google has already digitised millions of books from several libraries around the world. Although many libraries welcome the unprecedented access to all this information, Google has also been criticized for the inferior quality of their images, the emphasis on the English language, the violation of copyright laws and the lack of attention for preservation issues. The question therefore arises: can libraries do better than Google?

  12. How can we obtain quality controlled sounding data during the YMC campaign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, K.; Bellenger, H.; Nurhayati, N.

    2016-12-01

    Years of the Maritime Continent or YMC is an international field campaign, which aims at enhancing our knowledge of weather-climate systems over the Maritime Continent and its relation to higher latitudes through observations and numerical modeling. It is expected to take place for the period of two years from July 2017. One of the key components of this campaign is a tight relationship with scientists all over the world and the local meteorological agencies. While several intensive observations are designed aiming at specific phenomena such as diurnal cycle of the rainfall, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and monsoon, long-term measurement done by the local meteorological agencies as their routine basis is also a key to study background atmospheric condition as well as specific phenomena. In particular, radiosonde atmospheric sounding is still the most basic and important observation. While we can obtain data at the conventional heights in near real-time via GTS, original hi-resolution data (1-2 seconds during ascent) will also be available thanks to the great contribution from the local agencies. We must, however, be careful to use those data, since they are obtained under the different conditions with various different radiosonde-types. Even in one country, they adopt different systems due to various reasons. By considering above as well as the necessity of accurate data for analysis, we have started the preparation to produce quality-controlled data. As its first step, since we obtained different radiosonde data (Vaisala RS92, RS41, and Meisei RS-11G) during the pre-YMC campaign done by Japanese and Indonesian groups in November - December 2015, we have developed a correction scheme for them. We also evaluate their accuracy using GPS-derived water vapor. Currently, we are also collecting information for other sites with the help of BMKG for Indonesia (they use Meisei and Modem sensors), MetMalaysia for Malaysia (Changfeng), PAGASA for Philippines (Vaisala

  13. Speed of sound in biodiesel produced by low power ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    The quality control of the biodiesel produced is an important issue to be addressed for every manufacturer or retailer. The speed of sound is a property that has an influence on the quality of the produced fuel. This work presents the evaluation about the speed of sound in biodiesel produced with the aid of low power ultrasound in the frequencies of 1 MHz and 3 MHz. The speed of sound was measured by pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic frequency used during reaction affects the speed of sound in biodiesel. The larger expanded uncertainty for adjusted curve was 4.9 m.s-1.

  14. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  15. Software Quality and Copyright: Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Virginia

    The two interconnected problems of educational quality and piracy are described and analyzed in this book, which begins with an investigation of the accusations regarding the alleged dismal quality of educational software. The reality behind accusations of rampant piracy and the effect of piracy on the quality of educational software is examined…

  16. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the “clean” speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids. PMID:29708061

  17. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids.

  18. Assessment of spatial and physical neighborhood characteristics that influence sound quality and herewith well-being and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Devilee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise and health studies seldom address the positive effect of environments with high acoustic quality. Sound quality, in turn, is influenced by a large number of factors, including the spatial–physical characteristics of a neighborhood. In general, these characteristics cannot be retrieved from existing databases. In this article, we describe the design of an audit instrument and demonstrate its value for gathering information about these characteristics of neighborhoods. The audit instrument used was derived from research in other fields than environmental health. The instrument was tested in 33 neighborhoods in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Arnhem. In these neighborhoods, more or less homogeneous subareas were identified that were subject of the audit. The results show that the audit approach is suitable to gather neighborhood data that are relevant for the sound quality of neighborhoods. Together with survey data, they provide information that could further the field of soundscape and health. Several suggestions for improvement of the audit instrument were made.

  19. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  20. Determination of the mechanical thermostat electrical contacts switching quality with sound and vibration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejc, Jure; Munih, Marko [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanical thermostat is a device that switches heating or cooling appliances on or off based on temperature. For this kind of use, electronic or mechanical switching concepts are applied. During the production of electrical contacts, several irregularities can occur leading to improper switching events of the thermostat electrical contacts. This paper presents a non-obstructive method based on the fact that when the switching event occurs it can be heard and felt by human senses. We performed several laboratory tests with two different methods. The first method includes thermostat switch sound signal analysis during the switching event. The second method is based on sampling of the accelerometer signal during the switching event. The results show that the sound analysis approach has great potential. The approach enables an accurate determination of the switching event even if the sampled signal carries also the switching event of the neighbour thermostat.

  1. Ethical issues in using data from quality management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerenz, David R

    2009-08-01

    Since the advent of formal, data-driven quality improvement programs in health care in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are have been questions raised about requirements for ethical committee review of quality improvement activities. A form of consensus emerged through a series of articles published between 1996 and 2007, but there is still significant variation among ethics review committees and individual project leaders in applying broad policies on requirements for committee review and/or written informed consent by participants. Recent developments in quality management, particularly the creation and use of multi-site disease registries, have raised new questions about requirements for review and consent, since the activities often have simultaneous research and quality improvement goals. This article discusses ways in which policies designed for local quality improvement projects and data bases may be adapted to apply to multi-site registries and research projects related to them.

  2. Power quality and reliability issues in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining power quality and reliability in Ontario's new competitive electricity market was the focus of this paper. The intention of Ontario's deregulation is to lower costs and give customers more power and choice. However, some fear that costs pressures may lead to poorer quality. This paper reviewed the causes, costs, and responsibilities, and made some suggestions concerning how customers can protect their interests as the market opens. It was suggested that in order to assure power quality, especially during the transition period, customers need to take care to design their systems and equipment to tolerate some quality variations. Conversely, utilities need to strive for at least minimum industry standards under most conditions. Contracts should be carefully crafted, with responsibilities for reliability and quality clearly stated. 2 refs

  3. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  4. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  5. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  6. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  7. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  8. Quality of life and sexuality issues in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M H

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life may decrease after menopause. Hormone replacement therapy remains the first-line and most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms and improvement of low quality of life due to estrogen deficiency. The decrease of health-related quality of life in women suffering from cardiovascular disease may be superimposed on the decrease of quality of life induced by menopause itself. Postmenopausal women with acute cardiovascular disease have a significantly higher probability of death than men of the same age. Quality of life predicts long-term mortality. A myocardial infarction does not automatically interdict sexual activity. The Princeton guidelines classify patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases in three categories. Most patients belong to the low-risk category. In general, these patients can be safely encouraged to initiate or resume sexual activity or to receive treatment for sexual dysfunction. Patients at intermediate (or indeterminate) levels of risk should further receive cardiologic evaluation to be classified into either the low- or high-risk group. Patients in the high-risk category have to be stabilized by specific treatment for their cardiac condition before resumption of sexual activity, or initiation of treatment for sexual dysfunction.

  9. Sound classification schemes in Europe - Quality classes intended for renovated housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    exposure in the home included in the proposed main objectives for a housing policy. In most countries in Europe, building regulations specify minimum requirements concerning acoustical conditions for new dwellings. In addition, several countries have introduced sound classification schemes with classes...... intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. Consequently, acoustic requirements for a dwelling can be specified as the legal minimum requirements or as a specific class in a classification scheme. Most schemes have both higher classes than corresponding to the regulatory requirements...

  10. Why is sound insulation between dwellings in renovated housing not upgraded like other qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    of acoustic issues on check lists, lack of knowledge or simply lack of attention, implying that upgrading is opted out, before even evaluated on equal terms with other improvements. The paper will discuss the above issues, describe examples from selected countries in Europe about efforts to change...... in a direction with acoustic issues taken into account. Furthermore, suggestions for joint efforts to improve the situation will be provided....

  11. Filtering out the noise: evaluating the impact of noise and sound reduction strategies on sleep quality for ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Karen J; Ranieri, V Marco

    2009-01-01

    The review article by Xie and colleagues examines the impact of noise and noise reduction strategies on sleep quality for critically ill patients. Evaluating the impact of noise on sleep quality is challenging, as it must be measured relative to other factors that may be more or less disruptive to patients' sleep. Such factors may be difficult for patients, observers, and polysomnogram interpreters to identify, due to our limited understanding of the causes of sleep disruption in the critically ill, as well as the challenges in recording and quantifying sleep stages and sleep fragmentation in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, most research in this field has focused on noise level, whereas acousticians typically evaluate additional parameters such as noise spectrum and reverberation time. The authors highlight the disparate results and limitations of existing studies, including the lack of attention to other acoustic parameters besides sound level, and the combined effects of different sleep disturbing factors.

  12. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Power Quality in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    -healing from power disturbances, efficient energy management, automation based on ICT and advanced metering infrastructures (smart metering), integration of distributed power generation, renewable energy resources and storage units as well as high power quality and reliability. In this regard, the concept...

  13. Quality of life issues and measurement in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan X

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Xi Tan1, Steven R Feldman2, Rajesh Balkrishnan11Department of Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic immunologic disease characterized by red papules and plaques with a silver colored scale. The impact of psoriasis on patients’ overall quality of life is significant, broad, and deep, including effects on emotional wellbeing, psychological stress, self-esteem, relationship, work, social activities, financial burden, and even physical function. Although there are various measures available for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL in research studies, there is no consensus on which measure is best to use in clinical practice or for research comparing different treatments. Choosing treatments based on patients’ specific individual preferences, goal-orientation, and close, attentive cooperation between patients and their doctors may be an effective strategy that can be applied to improve patients’ quality of life.Keywords: treatment, health related quality of life, HRQoL

  14. Total Quality Management: Empirical, Conceptual, and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, J. Richard; Wageman, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) has become a U.S. social movement. This commentary analyzes the writings of W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Kaoru Ishikawa to assess TQM's coherence, distinctiveness, and likely perseverance. Rhetoric is winning over substance, unrelated interventions are being herded under the TQM banner, and research is not…

  15. Test Code Quality and Its Relation to Issue Handling Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiou, D.; Nugroho, A.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Automated testing is a basic principle of agile development. Its benefits include early defect detection, defect cause localization and removal of fear to apply changes to the code. Therefore, maintaining high quality test code is essential. This study introduces a model that assesses test code

  16. Nuclear technology education in Mongolia: Issues of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davaa, S.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Centre (NRC) at the National University of Mongolia, founded in 1965, is the only educational and research institution in Mongolia that carries out fundamental and applied low energy nuclear physics research. The main activities of the NRC are described in the Mission, Strategic Goals, and Objectives Statement of the NRC (http://www.num.edu.mn/nrc). The mission of the Nuclear Research Center is to be the leading national institution that conducts both training and research/development to obtain new information and results, to develop new methodology and technology in fundamental and applied nuclear physics, and also to develop equipment and devices. In order to implement quality management in nuclear technology training activities and conduct quality assurance, the Bachelor's education program has been required to create a self evaluation and the first copy of the report had been produced. It is a common perception that the main mechanism of higher education quality assurance is the internal quality management, and quality external monitoring. Therefore a general model used in most countries for higher education quality assurance. This model's main device is internal and external evaluation. The external evaluation has responsibility to improve accreditation, responsibility/commitment. Based on its self evaluation, the organization will develop its quality plan and, combined with external evaluation conclusions, will be lead toward quality improvement. The most important part of quality assessment is the use of external experts' assessment. Our nuclear research center is the only educational and research institution in the country, and, thus, it is impossible to find respectable independent experts (who do not get involved in our operations). In order to hire reputable foreign expert there are several obstacles: It is not easy to find a person who would know not only nuclear technology training but also do the benchmarking based on our

  17. Predicting Causes of Data Quality Issues in a Clinical Data Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Ruth, Byron J; Miller, Matthew; Tucker, Joshua; Utidjian, Levon H; Razzaghi, Hanieh; Patibandla, Nandan; Burrows, Evanette K; Bailey, L Charles

    2018-01-01

    Clinical data research networks (CDRNs) invest substantially in identifying and investigating data quality problems. While identification is largely automated, the investigation and resolution are carried out manually at individual institutions. In the PEDSnet CDRN, we found that only approximately 35% of the identified data quality issues are resolvable as they are caused by errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) code. Nonetheless, with no prior knowledge of issue causes, partner institutions end up spending significant time investigating issues that represent either inherent data characteristics or false alarms. This work investigates whether the causes (ETL, Characteristic, or False alarm) can be predicted before spending time investigating issues. We trained a classifier on the metadata from 10,281 real-world data quality issues, and achieved a cause prediction F1-measure of up to 90%. While initially tested on PEDSnet, the proposed methodology is applicable to other CDRNs facing similar bottlenecks in handling data quality results.

  18. Quality of Mobile Phone and Tablet Mobile Apps for Speech Sound Disorders: Protocol for an Evidence-Based Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa M; Morris, Meg E; Erickson, Shane; Serry, Tanya A

    2016-11-29

    Although mobile apps are readily available for speech sound disorders (SSD), their validity has not been systematically evaluated. This evidence-based appraisal will critically review and synthesize current evidence on available therapy apps for use by children with SSD. The main aims are to (1) identify the types of apps currently available for Android and iOS mobile phones and tablets, and (2) to critique their design features and content using a structured quality appraisal tool. This protocol paper presents and justifies the methods used for a systematic review of mobile apps that provide intervention for use by children with SSD. The primary outcomes of interest are (1) engagement, (2) functionality, (3) aesthetics, (4) information quality, (5) subjective quality, and (6) perceived impact. Quality will be assessed by 2 certified practicing speech-language pathologists using a structured quality appraisal tool. Two app stores will be searched from the 2 largest operating platforms, Android and iOS. Systematic methods of knowledge synthesis shall include searching the app stores using a defined procedure, data extraction, and quality analysis. This search strategy shall enable us to determine how many SSD apps are available for Android and for iOS compatible mobile phones and tablets. It shall also identify the regions of the world responsible for the apps' development, the content and the quality of offerings. Recommendations will be made for speech-language pathologists seeking to use mobile apps in their clinical practice. This protocol provides a structured process for locating apps and appraising the quality, as the basis for evaluating their use in speech pathology for children in English-speaking nations. ©Lisa M Furlong, Meg E Morris, Shane Erickson, Tanya A Serry. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 29.11.2016.

  19. Plastic packaged microcircuits: Quality, reliability, and cost issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecht, Michael G.; Agarwal, Rakesh; Quearry, Dan

    1993-12-01

    Plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) find their main application in commercial and telecommunication electronics. The advantages of PEMs in cost, size, weight, performance, and market lead-time, have attracted 97% of the market share of worldwide microcircuit sales. However, PEMs have always been resisted in US Government and military applications due to the perception that PEM reliability is low. This paper surveys plastic packaging with respect to the issues of reliability, market lead-time, performance, cost, and weight as a means to guide part-selection and system-design.

  20. Security Issues for Information Quality on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are used everywhere, from making acall to store huge volume of information. But together withdevices shrinking and rise of storage space on a single device webring to mind the problem of trusting the stored information.Trusting the information and assuring its quality meansknowing the security threats these devices face and measuresthat should be taken. Many questions rise from here like “Whathappens when a mobile device is used by several persons andespecially employees?”, “Is that information reliable andoriginal?”, “Who is responsible for a device and its security?”.We are going to see in this paper that information quality can beassured even on portable devices by using the adequate securitymeasures.

  1. [CAP quality management system in clinical laboratory and its issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiromitsu

    2004-03-01

    The CAP (College of American Pathologists) was established in 1962 and, at present, CAP-accredited laboratories include about 6000 institutions all over the world, mainly in the U.S. The essential purpose of CAP accreditation is high quality reservation and improvement of clinical laboratory services for patient care, and is based on seven points, listed below. (1) Establishment of a laboratory management program and laboratory techniques to assure accuracy and improve overall quality of laboratory services. (2) Maintenance and improvement of accuracy objectively by centering on a CAP survey. (3) Thoroughness in safety and health administration. (4) Reservation of the performance of laboratory services by personnel and proficiency management. (5) Provision of appropriate information to physicians, and contribution to improved quality of patient care by close communication with physicians (improvement in patient care). (6) Reduction of running costs and personnel costs based on evidence by employing the above-mentioned criteria. (7) Reduction of laboratory error. In the future, accreditation and/or certification by organizations such as CAP, ISO, etc., may become a requirement for providing any clinical laboratory services in Japan. Taking the essence of the CAP and the characteristics of the new international standard, ISO151589, into consideration, it is important to choose the best suited accreditation and/or certification depending of the purpose of clinical laboratory.

  2. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  3. EDUCATION QUALITY AND ISSUES OF PEDAGOGICAL STAFF TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Borisenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the reasons of deterioration of education quality at the Soviet and Post-Soviet school and, adopting the best experience of the countries that are recognised as world leaders in education; to plan the solution ways to current problems and situation at the Russian school. Methods. The principle of a historicism that expresses the necessity of concrete historical studying of the public phenomena is put in a basis of methodology of the research conducted by the author; it includes pedagogical phenomena (in the course of its origin, its development and transformation, taking into account variety of its communications, dependences and mediations. The concrete methods used in work, are typical for theoretical research: the analysis, an estimation and reduction in system of the empirical and generalised material on the selected theme. Large corpus of the scientific literature is studied. The data of the published international researches on education in which our country is widely involved (PISA, TIMSS, and also the national researches undertaken in the USA, Great Britain and other countries are considered. Methods of expert estimations, and direct supervision of educational process in secondary and higher educational institutions are applied. Results. The general characteristic of evolution of quality of the Russian education is presented during the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. The factors which have had negative influence on quality of school training during the various periods are revealed. The estimation of the reasons which have caused failures of school reforms, carried out in the USSR in the 60–80s and within two last decades in modern Russia is given. The concurrent important positive shifts in this sphere, taking place in the same years are noted. Results of the international researches on education (PISA and TIMSS are presented; the scoring of Russia among other states is defined, following

  4. EDUCATION QUALITY AND ISSUES OF PEDAGOGICAL STAFF TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir P. Borisenkov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to reveal the reasons of deterioration of education quality at the Soviet and Post-Soviet school and, adopting the best experience of the countries that are recognised as world leaders in education; to plan the solution ways to current problems and situation at the Russian school. Methods. The principle of a historicism that expresses the necessity of concrete historical studying of the public phenomena is put in a basis of methodology of the research conducted...

  5. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  7. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  8. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  9. Report: Quality Control Review of EPA OIG Reports Issued in Fiscal Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-N-0223, July 18, 2016. OIG reports issued in FY 2015 demonstrated high levels of compliance with OIG quality assurance procedures, and received average compliance scores of 90 percent or greater.

  10. Three issues in consumer quality perception and acceptance of dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bredahl, Lone

    2000-01-01

    in communication provided. Drawing on five different empirical studies on consumer quality perception of dairy products, three issues related to the communication on credence quality dimensions are discussed: providing credible information, the role of consumer attitudes, and inference processes in quality......It is argued that consumer quality perception of dairy products is characterised by four major dimensions: hedonic, health-related, convenience-related and process-related quality. Two of these, viz. health and process-related quality, are credence dimensions, ie, a matter of consumer trust...

  11. Measuring tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival

    OpenAIRE

    Petzer, Daniel; Kruger, Philippus

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival - the Aardklop National Arts Festival in Potchefstroom. Problem investigated: Understanding satisfaction with quality of life issues could assist Festival organizers and other businesses to improve services for tourists by tailoring these to meet their needs. Satisfied tourists spread positive word-of-mouth communication and are more likely to return in the futur...

  12. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  13. Air quality in Malaysia: impacts, management issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, M B; Jaafar, A B; Abdullah, A M; Ismail, M B; Hassan, M N; Abdullah, R; Johan, S; Noor, H

    2000-06-01

    Observations have been made on the long-term trends of major air pollutants in Malaysia including nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, the ozone and total suspended particulate matter (particularly PM10), and sulfur dioxide, emitted from industrial and urban areas from early 1970s until late 1998. The data show that the status of atmospheric environment in Malaysia, in particular in highly industrialized areas such as Klang Valley, was determined both by local and transboundary emissions and could be described as haze and non-haze periods. During the non-haze periods, vehicular emissions accounted for more than 70% of the total emissions in the urban areas and have demonstrated two peaks in the diurnal variations of the aforementioned air pollutants, except ozone. The morning 'rush-hour' peak was mainly due to vehicle emissions, while the late evening peak was mainly attributed to meteorological conditions, particularly atmospheric stability and wind speed. Total suspended particulate matter was the main pollutant with its concentrations at few sites often exceeding the Recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines. The levels of other pollutants were generally within the guidelines. Since 1980, six major haze episodes were officially reported in Malaysia: April 1983, August 1990, June 1991, October 1991, August to October 1994, and July to October 1997. The 1997 haze episode was the worst ever experienced by the country. Short-term observations using continuous monitoring systems during the haze episodes during these periods clearly showed that suspended particulate matter (PM10) was the main cause of haze and was transboundary in nature. Large forest fires in parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan during the haze period, clearly evident in satellite images, were identified as the probable key sources of the widespread heavy haze that extended across Southeast Asia from Indonesia to Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. The results of several studies have also provided strong

  14. Patient issues in health research and quality of care: an inventory and data synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, G.J.; Visse, M.A.; Boer, P.; Abma, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this review is to generate an inventory of issues that matter from a patient perspective in health research and quality of care. From these issues, criteria will be elicited to support patient(s) (groups) in their role as advisor or advocate when appraising health research, health

  15. Sound quality prediction of vehicle interior noise and mathematical modeling using a back propagation neural network (BPNN) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Enlai; Hou, Liang; Shen, Chao; Shi, Yingliang; Zhang, Yaxiang

    2016-01-01

    To better solve the complex non-linear problem between the subjective sound quality evaluation results and objective psychoacoustics parameters, a method for the prediction of the sound quality is put forward by using a back propagation neural network (BPNN) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is optimizing the initial weights and thresholds of BP network neurons through the PSO. In order to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of this approach, the noise signals of the B-Class vehicles from the idle speed to 120 km h −1 measured by the artificial head, are taken as a target. In addition, this paper describes a subjective evaluation experiment on the sound quality annoyance inside the vehicles through a grade evaluation method, by which the annoyance of each sample is obtained. With the use of Artemis software, the main objective psychoacoustic parameters of each noise sample are calculated. These parameters include loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation, tonality, articulation index (AI) and A-weighted sound pressure level. Furthermore, three evaluation models with the same artificial neural network (ANN) structure are built: the standard BPNN model, the genetic algorithm-back-propagation neural network (GA-BPNN) model and the PSO-back-propagation neural network (PSO-BPNN) model. After the network training and the evaluation prediction on the three models’ network based on experimental data, it proves that the PSO-BPNN method can achieve convergence more quickly and improve the prediction accuracy of sound quality, which can further lay a foundation for the control of the sound quality inside vehicles. (paper)

  16. A Hearing-Based, Frequency Domain Sound Quality Model for Combined Aerodynamic and Power Transmission Response with Application to Rotorcraft Interior Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondkar, Pravin B.

    The severity of combined aerodynamics and power transmission response in high-speed, high power density systems such as a rotorcraft is still a major cause of annoyance in spite of recent advancement in passive, semi-active and active control. With further increase in the capacity and power of this class of machinery systems, the acoustic noise levels are expected to increase even more. To achieve further improvements in sound quality, a more refined understanding of the factors and attributes controlling human perception is needed. In the case of rotorcraft systems, the perceived quality of the interior sound field is a major determining factor of passenger comfort. Traditionally, this sound quality factor is determined by measuring the response of a chosen set of juries who are asked to compare their qualitative reactions to two or more sounds based on their subjective impressions. This type of testing is very time-consuming, costly, often inconsistent, and not useful for practical design purposes. Furthermore, there is no known universal model for sound quality. The primary aim of this research is to achieve significant improvements in quantifying the sound quality of combined aerodynamic and power transmission response in high-speed, high power density machinery systems such as a rotorcraft by applying relevant objective measures related to the spectral characteristics of the sound field. Two models have been proposed in this dissertation research. First, a classical multivariate regression analysis model based on currently known sound quality metrics as well some new metrics derived in this study is presented. Even though the analysis resulted in the best possible multivariate model as a measure of the acoustic noise quality, it lacks incorporation of human judgment mechanism. The regression model can change depending on specific application, nature of the sounds and types of juries used in the study. Also, it predicts only the averaged preference scores and

  17. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  18. Quality and Quality Assurance in Ethiopian Higher Education. Critical Issues and Practical Implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahsay, M.

    2012-01-01

    This book critically examines quality and quality assurance in the Ethiopian higher education context. More specifically, the main research problem that guided the study was: ‘how and under what circumstances do the public Universities in Ethiopia assure quality of their education, and what

  19. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2015-12-24

    The North Carolina Turnpike Authority, a division of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, is planning to make transportation improvements in the Currituck Sound area by constructing a two-lane bridge from U.S. Highway 158 just south of Coinjock, North Carolina, to State Highway 12 on the Outer Banks just south of Corolla, North Carolina. The results of the Final Environmental Impact Study associated with the bridge and existing roadway improvements indicated potential water-quality and habitat impacts to Currituck Sound related to stormwater runoff, altered light levels, introduction of piles as hard substrate, and localized turbidity and siltation during construction.

  20. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  1. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  2. Quality of working life issues of employees with a chronic physical disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Merel; de Boer, Angela G E M; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2015-03-01

    To assess issues that contribute to the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of employees with a chronic physical disease. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Experiences and perceptions during the working life of employees with a chronic physical disease were extracted and synthesized into issues that contributed to their QWL. We organized these synthesized QWL issues into higher order themes and categories with qualitative data analysis software. From a total of 4,044 articles identified by the search, 61 articles were included. Data extraction and data synthesis resulted in an overview of 73 QWL issues that were classified into 30 themes. The following five categories of themes were identified: (1) job characteristics with issues such as job flexibility and work-site access; (2) the social structure and environment containing issues about disclosure, discrimination, misunderstanding, and awareness by employers or colleagues; (3) organizational characteristics with issues such as requesting work accommodations; (4) individual work perceptions including issues about enjoyment and evaluating work or life priorities; and (5) effect of the disease and treatment including issues about cognitive and physical health and work ability. This systematic review offers an extensive overview of issues that might contribute to the QWL of employees with a chronic physical disease. This overview may function as a starting point for occupational support, such as monitoring and evaluating the QWL of employees with a chronic physical disease during return-to-work and work continuation processes.

  3. Quality Management in Reverse Logistics A Broad Look on Quality Issues and Their Interaction with Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of Quality Management (QM) have been used for a long time by manufacturing companies to ensure customers receive a constant and high quality level of products. But what happens with remanufactured or refurbished products?   Quality Management in Reverse Logistics: A Broad Look on Quality Issues and Their Interaction with Closed-Loop Supply Chains discusses the new, promising area of QM and Reverse Logistics interaction. More specifically, it examines and evaluates a number of QM tools and techniques, which can be applied in practice in order to understand, review and improve any closed-loop supply chain process.   Modeling and quantitative methods that can be used by students, practitioners and academics in the Reverse Logistics industry are described. The readers will broaden their scope of thinking in the area of Reverse Logistics, where Quality Management can be applied.

  4. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  5. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  6. Quality Assurance/Quality Control Issues for Intraoperative Planning and Adaptive Repeat Planning of Image-Guided Prostate Implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, Marco; Cohen, Gilad; Meli, Jerome; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality assurance/quality control purpose is this. We design a treatment plan, and we wish to be as certain as reasonably possible that the treatment is delivered as planned. In the case of conventionally planned prostate brachytherapy, implementing to the letter the implantation plan is rarely attainable and therefore can require adaptive replanning (a quality control issue). The reasons for this state of affairs include changes in the prostate shape and volume during implantation and treatment delivery (e.g., edema resolution) and unavoidable inaccuracy in the placement of the seeds in the prostate. As a result, quality-control activities (e.g., the need to monitor-ideally, on the fly-the target and urethral and rectal dosage) must be also addressed

  7. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  8. Power quality issues into a Danish low-voltage grid with electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Jensen, Morten M.; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    An increased interest on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is dealing with their introduction into low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Lately, analysis on power quality issues has received attention when considering EVs as additional load. The charging of EVs...

  9. Garbage in, Garbage Stays: How ERPs Could Improve Our Data-Quality Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    As universities begin to implement business intelligence tools such as end-user reporting, data warehousing, and dashboard indicators, data quality becomes an even greater and more public issue. With automated tools taking nightly snapshots of the database, the faulty data grow exponentially, propagating as another layer of the data warehouse.…

  10. Quality of working life issues of employees with a chronic physical disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Merel; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess issues that contribute to the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of employees with a chronic physical disease. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Experiences and perceptions during the working life of employees with a chronic physical

  11. Interactive Sonification of Spontaneous Movement of Children - Cross-modal Mapping and the Perception of Body Movement Qualities through Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Frid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models ininteractive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterizedby continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics thana model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could bereflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conductedto investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1 a motioncapture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously movingin a room, (2 an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in theform of abstract drawings. In (1 we used a system constituting of 17 IR cameras trackingpassive reflective markers. The head positions in the horizontal plane of 3-4 children weresimultaneously tracked and sonified, producing 3-4 sound sources spatially displayed throughan 8-channel loudspeaker system. We analyzed children’s spontaneous movement in termsof energy-, smoothness- and directness index. Despite large inter-participant variability andgroup-specific effects caused by interaction among children when engaging in the spontaneousmovement task, we found a small but significant effect of sound model. Results from (2 indicatethat different sound models can be rated differently on a set of motion-related perceptual scales(e.g. expressivity and fluidity. Also, results imply that audio-only stimuli can evoke strongerperceived properties of movement (e.g. energetic, impulsive than stimuli involving both audioand video representations. Findings in (3 suggest that sounds portraying bodily movementcan be represented using abstract drawings in a meaningful way. We argue that the resultsfrom these studies support the existence of a cross

  12. Urban drinking water quality: A survey of selected literature. Issues in urban sustainability No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pip, E

    1993-01-01

    This literature survey covers a variety of issues relating to the quality of the urban water supply. It begins with a brief historical overview, and goes on to look at the health and politics of water, including issues of contamination. Next, it discusses water quantity including the main uses to which we put our water supply, and means of regulating or charging for usage. The main part of the report deals with water quality, describing how drinking water is assessed in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters which are deemed to be important because of health or aesthetic reasons. Municipal water treatment and distribution discusses storage and disinfection, followed by a discussion of other treatments such as fluoridation and aeration. Incidental effects of distribution looks at a variety of other related issues such as asbestos fibres or metals in water.

  13. Impact of global climate change on regional air quality: Introduction to the thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautard, R.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the major international efforts devoted to the understanding and to the future estimate of global climate change and its impact on regional scale processes, the evolution of the atmospheric composition in a changing climate is far to be understood. In particular, the future evolution of the concentration of near-surface pollutants determining air quality at a scale affecting human health and ecosystems is a subject of intense scientific research. This thematic issue reviews the current scientific knowledge of the consequences of global climate change on regional air quality and its related impact on the biosphere and on human mortality. This article provides a presentation of the key issues, summarizes the current knowledge, and introduces the thematic issue. (authors)

  14. Issues and Experiences on Radioactive Waste Quality Control / Quality Assurance with Regard to Future Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.; Bandt, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany all types of radioactive waste (short-lived, long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. Thus, the safe management of radioactive waste presupposes an appropriate conditioning of primary waste-to-waste packages suitable for emplacement in a repository as well as the documentation of pre-treatment, processing and packaging steps and the waste package characteristics being relevant for disposal. Due to the operation, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities as well as the application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine and research and development radioactive waste continuously arises in Germany. In order to manage this waste different measures and procedures regarding its conditioning and quality control/quality assurance were introduced and since many years successfully applied. Waste conditioning is especially characterized by a flexible application of the Konrad waste acceptance requirements. The rationale for this approach is due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany. Several examples of a 'tailor-made' application of the waste acceptance requirements in treatment, conditioning and documentation processes as well as the quality assurance/quality control processes illustrate the current German approach. (authors)

  15. A lack of standardization: the basis for the ethical issues surrounding quality and performance reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Consumers in the United States are taking advantage of the proliferation of publicly available, internet-based performance reports and quality appraisals of health plans, healthcare organizations, hospitals, and physicians to aid in their healthcare decision making. However, these appraisal practices have given rise to controversy and debate over certain distinctive ethical issues. This article advocates a standardized ethical framework to guide current and future development and implementation of performance reports. This framework, which would resolve a number of the major issues, includes the following ethical principles to guide the practice of public reporting on the Internet and facilitate enhanced quality improvement in the healthcare industry: legitimacy, data integrity and quality, transparency, informed understanding, equity, privacy and confidentiality, collaboration, accountability, and evaluation and continuous improvement.

  16. OAI-PMH repositories : quality issues regarding metadata and protocol compliance, tutorial 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Cole, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial will provide an overview of emerging guidelines and best practices for OAI data providers and how they relate to expectations and needs of service providers. The audience should already be familiar with OAI protocol basics and have at least some experience with either data provider or service provider implementations. The speakers will present both protocol compliance best practices and general recommendations for creating and disseminating high-quality "shareable metadata". Protocol best practices discussion will include coverage of OAI identifiers, date-stamps, deleted records, sets, resumption tokens, about containers, branding, errors conditions, HTTP server issues, and repository lifecycle issues. Discussion of what makes for good, shareable metadata will cover topics including character encoding, namespace and XML schema issues, metadata crosswalk issues, support of multiple metadata formats, general metadata authoring recommendations, specific recommendations for use of Dublin Core elemen...

  17. Issues of quality and consumer rights in the health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C

    1998-04-01

    This Issue Brief describes how the structure of the health care market has changed in the recent years. It outlines the growth in managed care and the changes in the types of managed care plans available. In addition, it discusses the issue of quality in the health care market. It also includes an overview of the legislative topics and issues relating to quality and consumer rights that policymakers are currently considering. Growth in national health expenditures, the medical care price index, and employer health care costs has slowed significantly since 1990. This decreased growth has coincided with substantial increases in managed care plan enrollment. The percentage of employees enrolled in managed care plans increased from 48 percent to 85 percent from 1992 to 1997. Quality is a multidimensional concept. Although individuals may agree on its components, they may disagree on the relative importance of these components. Therefore, disagreement exists not only on how to measure quality but also on how it is defined. Consequently, policy decisions need to be based on an evaluation of a particular law's effect as opposed to its stated goal or intent. This distinction is important because a law that addresses access or consumer rights does not necessarily address the quality of care a consumer receives. Ultimately, whether an individual believes that a law truly addresses quality will depend in a large part on his or her subjective opinion of what quality entails. To date, comparison of the quality of managed care plans with that of fee-for-service plans has not produced results that uniformly differentiate between these two plan types in either a positive or a negative way. In addition, it is important to note that the current debate on the quality of care provided in the health care market is not new to the present managed care era. The regulations and mandates discussed in this report would not guarantee increased quality in the health care market, unless quality

  18. [Schools, office buildings, leisure settings: diversity of indoor air quality issues. Global review on indoor air quality in these settings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, C; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S

    2012-07-01

    This review provides a global overview of indoor air quality issues in schools, office buildings and recreational settings. It presents the most recent scientific publications and the on-going work conducted in France in the frame of the indoor air quality Observatory. Monitoring campaigns on indoor air quality in schools have been carried out in the recent years in Europe. However, few studies have specifically addressed the role of exposure in these buildings on children's health. Indoor air quality in office buildings has been little studied so far. However, some specificities, such as emissions from electronic devices, frequent cleaning, impossibility to open windows in high-rise buildings, for example, should be examined and their role on the health and comfort studied. Finally, even if the time spent in recreational settings is short, the quality of indoor air should also be considered because of specific pollution. This is the case of indoor swimming pools (exposure to chlorination byproducts) and ice-rinks (exposure to exhaust from machines used to smooth the ice). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Issues in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Madalinska, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractProstate and ovarian cancers are among the leading causes of death in Western countries. Applied preventive health strategies, including screening and early medical treatments either with prophylactic or curative intention, may substantially affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). This thesis focuses on the psychosocial and QOL issues involved in the evaluation of early-detected and treated prostate cancer among men in the general population, and in the evaluation of preventive he...

  20. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  1. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  2. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  3. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  4. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  5. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  6. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  7. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  8. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  9. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  10. Metadata Quality in Institutional Repositories May be Improved by Addressing Staffing Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Stovold

    2016-09-01

    selection. The majority of repositories used locally established standards (61%, n=11. When asked about obstacles to metadata quality, the majority identified time and staff hours (85%, n=17 as a barrier, as well as repository software (60%, n=12. When the responses to questions about obstacles to quality were tabulated with the responses to quality rating, time limitations and staff hours came out as the top or joint-top answer, regardless of the quality rating. Finally, the authors present a sample of responses to the question on how metadata could be improved and these offer some solutions to staffing issues, the application of standards, and the repository system in use. Conclusion – The authors conclude that staffing, standards, and systems are all concerns in providing quality metadata. However, they suggest that standards and software issues could be overcome if adequate numbers of qualified staff are in place.

  11. A system for heart sounds classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    Full Text Available The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability.

  12. Argumentation Quality of Socio-scientific Issue between High School Students and Postgraduate Students about Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisa, A.; Widodo, A.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Argumentation is one factor that can help improve critical thinking skills. Arguing means to defend statements with the various data, denials, evidence, and reinforcement that support the statement. The research aimed to capture the quality of argument skills by students in grade 12 high school students and in postgraduate student on social-scientific issues of cancer. Both group subjects are not in the same school or institution, chosen purposively with the subject of 39 high school students of grade 12 in one district of West Java and 13 students of Biology education postgraduate in one of University in West Java - Indonesia. The results of the quality structure of arguments in both subject groups show the same pattern, which is claim - warrant - and ground, with the quality of counterclaim aspects on the postgraduate students look better than grade 12 students. This provides an illustration that the ability in argumentation between students and teachers in the socio-scientific issue of cancer should be evaluate so that the learning process would be more refined in schools.

  13. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. CLIR Publication No. 144

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besek, June M.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the question of what libraries and archives are legally empowered to do to preserve and make accessible for research their holdings of unpublished pre-1972 sound recordings. The report's author, June M. Besek, is executive director of the Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts at Columbia Law School. Unpublished sound…

  14. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  15. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H.; Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available

  16. Power quality issues of 3MW direct-driven PMSG wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, IA; Zobaa, AF; Taylor, GA

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents power quality issues of a grid connected wind generation system with a MW-class direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A variable speed wind turbine model was simulated and developed with the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. The model includes a wind turbine with one mass-model drive train model, a PMSG model and a full-scale voltage source back to back PWM converter. The converter controller model is employed in the dq-synchronous rotating reference f...

  17. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  18. Microbial load in indoor sport environments: new quality issues by molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano Spica

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The quality of hygiene found in sporting environments represents an emergent requirement in societies of industrialised countries.

    Besides safety issues, the microbial load of indoor air, water and surfaces affects comfort and performance. Recent studies have identified fungi as the quantitatively most important component, of unhealthy indoor air.

    Few studies have been carried out regarding indoor sport, recreational and rehabilitative facilities, such as swimming pools, saunas and spas. The aim of our study is to determine the extent of fungal and microbial contamination in indoor swimming pool environments, by means of both morphological and molecular typing of isolated species.

    Establishment of appropriate standardised monitoring procedures prevents infections and improves quality.

  19. Statistical issues in reporting quality data: small samples and casemix variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, A M

    2001-12-01

    To present two key statistical issues that arise in analysis and reporting of quality data. Casemix variation is relevant to quality reporting when the units being measured have differing distributions of patient characteristics that also affect the quality outcome. When this is the case, adjustment using stratification or regression may be appropriate. Such adjustments may be controversial when the patient characteristic does not have an obvious relationship to the outcome. Stratified reporting poses problems for sample size and reporting format, but may be useful when casemix effects vary across units. Although there are no absolute standards of reliability, high reliabilities (interunit F > or = 10 or reliability > or = 0.9) are desirable for distinguishing above- and below-average units. When small or unequal sample sizes complicate reporting, precision may be improved using indirect estimation techniques that incorporate auxiliary information, and 'shrinkage' estimation can help to summarize the strength of evidence about units with small samples. With broader understanding of casemix adjustment and methods for analyzing small samples, quality data can be analysed and reported more accurately.

  20. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  2. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  3. Psychosocial issues and quality of life in patients on renal replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulou, Alkioni; Hardalias, Andreas; Fourtounas, Costas; Berati, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial variables related to objective and subjective indicators of quality of life in a single center cohort study of patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis (Hd), Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and renal transplant recipients (RTx). We studied 40 HD patients, 36 CAPD, and 48 RTx patients by a special questionnaire examining demographics, functional status, employment status, and impact of therapy on psychosocial issues such as anxiety and depression. The RTx patients disclosed a better functional and employment status than the CAPD and the HD patients. They were also more compliant and satisfied with their therapy and their relationship with the medical and nursing personnel. The CAPD patients were also more satisfied, more compliant, better motivated, and less anxious and depressed compared with the HD patients who scored low in every aspect studied. Successful renal transplantation is a superior modality of therapy than HD or CAPD regarding psychosocial and quality of life issues. However these results can partially be explained by some selection bias, as RTx patients are usually younger and CAPD patients are selected for this modality after examining functional and social status. (author)

  4. High-quality collection and disposal of WEEE: Environmental impacts and resultant issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, John; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Askham, Cecilia; Hanssen, Ole Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment of the collection, transport and recycling of various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Norway shows that small amounts of critical materials (refrigerants, precious/trace metals) are vital for the overall environmental accounts of the value chains. High-quality recycling ensures that materials and energy are effectively recovered from WEEE. This recovery means that responsible waste handling confers net environmental benefits in terms of global warming potential (GWP), for all types of WEEE analysed. For refrigeration equipment, the potential reduction of GWP by high-quality recycling is so large as to be of national significance. For all waste types, the magnitude of the net benefit from recovering materials and energy exceeds the negative consequences of irresponsible disposal. One outcome of this may be widespread misunderstanding of the need for recycling. Furthermore, framing public communication on recycling in terms of avoiding negative consequences, as is essentially universal, may not convey an appropriate message. The issue is particularly important where the consumer regards products as relatively disposable and environmentally benign, and/or where the "null option" of retaining the product at end-of-life is especially prevalent. The paper highlights the implications of all these issues for policy-makers, waste collectors and recyclers, and consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  6. Measuring tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival - the Aardklop National Arts Festival in Potchefstroom. Problem investigated: Understanding satisfaction with quality of life issues could assist Festival organizers and other businesses to improve services for tourists by tailoring these to meet their needs. Satisfied tourists spread positive word-of-mouth communication and are more likely to return in the future. Methodology: A self-administered survey developed and validated by Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999:156 & 2004:245 was fielded at the 2007 Aardklop National Arts Festival in Potchefstroom. The target population included all visitors to the Festival who were staying for two or more days, and who had travelled to Potchefstroom from elsewhere. Findings and implications: Respondents were satisfied with travel / tourism services and experiences at the Festival, and with their leisure time and life in general. However, certain things at the Festival led to lowered levels of satisfaction. Demographically, respondents did not differ significantly in their levels of satisfaction with travel / tourism services, travel / tourism experiences, leisure life, and life in general at the Festival except in terms of population group and region from which they came. Organizers of the Festival and other businesses should take cognizance of the fact that all parties involved in providing services to tourists attending an arts festival impact on their satisfaction levels with travel / tourism services and experiences - and ultimately also on their quality of life. Tourists attending the arts festival are not homogenous and differ substantially in terms of their demographic profile. Tourist service providers should tailor their offerings in order to satisfy the varied needs of the different types of tourist attending the Festival. Originality and value of the research: This research focused on

  7. Quality issues in the market based dissemination of solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Klara [MicroEnergy International, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In general, Photovoltaic systems are built to last and require little maintenance. However, field studies have revealed a high number of system failures, which are linked to a lack of quality assurance. This paper depicts problems that occur with solar home systems (SHS) disseminated on a market-based approach. The research methodology is based on three pillars: A literature review covers documented projects around the world dealing with solar home system dissemination. Expert practitioners drawn together in a workshop have shared valuable experiences, while a trip to rural Tanzania has been carried out to collect personal insights from the field. To facilitate continuous sharing of challenges between different stakeholders, common quality issues are grouped into four categories according to their cause: component quality, system integration, business model and framework conditions. While the solar component and the user are often initially blamed for system failure, it shows that difficulties arise at various levels of the SHS life cycle - this paper highlights focus problems within each stage. As a root, three underlying challenges are suggested: maladjusted systems, inadequate installations and a disorganized after-sales service. A possible instrument to assure better quality in this context is the enforcement of standards also in market-based SHS sales. Microfinance institutions are assumed as an important partner, because only clients with a functioning system are willing to repay the linked loan. As most of these institutions lack technical knowledge, they can only become an agent for their clients' wish for customer protection, if an independent facility certifies the system's functionality. The given recommendation is that a sustainable approach for solar home system dissemination should not attempt to increase the affordability by developing cheaper products but by fostering income-generating activities, which facilitate paying for good quality

  8. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  9. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  10. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The Copernicus data publication journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD) represents an important and unique (and by no means final!) step forward in the larger world of data publication. Working with authors, reviewers, editors and data centres, ESSD has successfully produced many high-quality data publications across a wide variety of scientific disciplines, for individual data sets, multiple data sets as the product of scientific consortia and in special issues coordinated with other science journals. The ESSD success also exposes issues and challenges for present and future data publication, particularly around the topic and implementation of persistent identifiers. • As ESSD encourages redundant data sets across multiple data centres for access and archive purposes, how will DOIs be employed to accurately point to those distributed or replicated data? How can authenticity and integrity be verified? • How can or should object identifiers be employed in pointing from raw to quality-controlled and finally derived data processing levels; how can we designate or distinguish among these, particularly as those terms vary substantially among, for example, geophysical and ecological communities? Likewise, how to distinguish an auto-generated data product (e.g a species identification from GBIF) from a high-effort expertly reviewed data product (e.g. an ESSD publication)? • For a growing number of ESSD data publications with expected annual or periodic revisions and updates, how should data journals' and the repositories' use of persistent identifiers best record the subsequent versions, extensions or corrections? • As published data sets become a valued part of high profile science, with attendant deadlines, announcements and publicity, do the various DOI policies and minting practices among cooperating publishers, data centres and journals represent a help or a hindrance? These questions evolve directly from increasing interest in and activity by ESSD and, as

  11. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  12. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  13. Importance of Quality of Life Issues: A Pilot Comparison of Teachers and Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Frederick, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) issues for parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are important to investigate. Independence, social functioning, school functioning and participating in leisure activities are some of the quality of life indicators that parents and teachers must agree upon to ensure effective communication and…

  14. Raising the Bar of Teacher Quality: Accountability, Collaboration, and Social Justice. The Claremont Letter. Volume 1, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, DeLacy Derin; Quintanar, Anita P.; Loop, Lisa S.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, reform efforts to address poor student achievement have focused on a variety of issues other than teacher quality. Movements such as TQM (Total Quality Management), class size reduction (CSR), school leadership, parental involvement, and multicultural curriculum have not directly addressed the power or influence of the individual…

  15. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  16. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  17. Data quality objective to support resolution of the organic complexant safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.; Babad, H.; Buckley, L.L.; Meacham, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the organic complexant safety issue at the Hanford Site. Two important outputs of this particular DQO application were the following: (1) decision rules for categorizing organic tanks; and (2) analytical requirements that feed into the tank-specific characterization plans. The decision rules developed in this DQO allow the organic tanks to be categorized as safe, conditionally safe, or unsafe based on fuel and moisture concentrations. Then analytical requirements from this DQO process fall into two groups, primary and secondary. The primary data requirements are always applied, while the secondary requirements are only necessary on those half segment samples that violate the fuel and moisture decision rules or that propagate during adiabatic calorimetry testing

  18. Labelled agents for PET studies of the dopaminergic system -some quality assurance methods, experience and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.; Kensett, M.J.; Turton, D.R.; Waters, S.L.; Silvester, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Practical methods are described for the quality assurance of three labelled agents (L-6-[ 18 F]fluoro-DOPA, S-[N-methyl- 11 C]nomifensine and [O-methyl- 11 C]raclopride) now produced regularly for PET studies of the dopaminergic system in man. These include indirect methods for the initial determination of label position (e.g. 13 C-NMR spectroscopy) and also direct methods for the assessment of chiral purity (TLC and HPLC) and the routine determination of radiochemical purity, chemical purity and specific activity (HPLC). Mass spectrometry has been used to identify some impurities. L-6-hydroxy-DOPA (a precursor in vivo of the neurotoxin, L-6-hydroxydopamine) has been detected by HPLC in some preparations of L-6-[ 18 F]fluoro-DOPA. Formulated S-[N-methyl- 11 C]nomifensine has been found to be stable. Some quality assurance issues are discussed in relation to experience in the application of the described methods and the obtained results. (author)

  19. Quality of life and psychosocial issues in ventilated patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaub-Wittemer, Dagmar; Steinbüchel, Nicole von; Wasner, Maria; Laier-Groeneveld, Gerhard; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an efficient palliative measure for symptoms of chronic hypoventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and can also lengthen survival. A subset of ALS patients undergoes tracheostomy ventilation (TV) for life prolongation. We investigated the quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial situation of 52 home ventilated ALS patients and their caregivers. The battery included sociodemographic, generic, and disease-specific variables, as well as the Profile of Mood States and the Munich Quality of Life Dimensions List. Data were compared between the NIV (n=32) and the TV (n=21) groups. Mean ventilation time was 14 months for NIV and 35 months for TV. Eighty-one percent of TV patients had been tracheotomized without informed consent. The data show a good overall QOL for both NIV and TV patients, but a very high burden of care for TV caregivers, 30% of whom rated their own QOL lower than their patient's QOL. Sexuality was an important issue. Thus, any assessment of QOL in a home palliative care situation should include the primary caregivers.

  20. Simulation and study of power quality issues in a fixed speed wind farm substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesh, T; Chellamuthu, C

    2015-01-01

    Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation.

  1. Simulation and Study of Power Quality Issues in a Fixed Speed Wind Farm Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Magesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation.

  2. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  3. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  4. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  5. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  6. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  7. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements

  8. Management of Power Quality Issues in Low Voltage Networks using Electric Vehicles: Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    the existing and future power quality problems. One of the main aspects of the power quality relates to voltage quality. The aim of this work is to experimentally analyse whether series-produced EVs, adhering to contemporary standard and without relying on any V2G capability, can mitigate line voltage drops...... in improving the power quality of a highly unbalanced grid...

  9. The quality issues at departmental level at a recently merged | Mentz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality assurance is an important subject in modern universities. After discussing several theoretical aspects of quality and quality assurance, the authors conclude that the care taken by heads of academic departments or directors of academic schools in the process of quality assurance may be regarded as one of the key ...

  10. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of nonlinear frequency compression on speech recognition and sound quality for adults with mild to moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Marcrum, Steven C; Ricketts, Todd A

    2015-03-01

    While potentially improving audibility for listeners with considerable high frequency hearing loss, the effects of implementing nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) for listeners with moderate high frequency hearing loss are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of activating NFC for listeners who are not traditionally considered candidates for this technology. Participants wore study hearing aids with NFC activated for a 3-4 week trial period. After the trial period, they were tested with NFC and with conventional processing on measures of consonant discrimination threshold in quiet, consonant recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in noise, and acceptableness of sound quality of speech and music. Seventeen adult listeners with symmetrical, mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated. Better ear, high frequency pure-tone averages (4, 6, and 8 kHz) were 60 dB HL or better. Activating NFC resulted in lower (better) thresholds for discrimination of /s/, whose spectral center was 9 kHz. There were no other significant effects of NFC compared to conventional processing. These data suggest that the benefits, and detriments, of activating NFC may be limited for this population.

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  14. Clean air issues in the 110th Congress : climate change, air quality standards, and oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-28

    Attention to environmental issues in the 110th Congress focused early and heavily on climate change the state of the science, and whether (and, if so, how) to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Fourteen bills had been introduced to establish...

  15. Prioritizing Quality of Life Issues: Laying a Vision for Tomorrow (Joint Vision 2010)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Kerri

    2000-01-01

    .... The heart of the issue is increased missions, decreased personnel, insufficient equipment, too much time away from family, too little leisure time, and not enough money to balance out these negatives...

  16. Quantitative performance of E-Scribe warehouse in detecting quality issues with digital annotated ECG data from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapa, Nenad; Mortara, Justin L; Brown, Barry D; Isola, Lamberto; Badilini, Fabio

    2008-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends submission of digital electrocardiograms in the standard HL7 XML format into the electrocardiogram warehouse to support preapproval review of new drug applications. The Food and Drug Administration scrutinizes electrocardiogram quality by viewing the annotated waveforms and scoring electrocardiogram quality by the warehouse algorithms. Part of the Food and Drug Administration warehouse is commercially available to sponsors as the E-Scribe Warehouse. The authors tested the performance of E-Scribe Warehouse algorithms by quantifying electrocardiogram acquisition quality, adherence to QT annotation protocol, and T-wave signal strength in 2 data sets: "reference" (104 digital electrocardiograms from a phase I study with sotalol in 26 healthy subjects with QT annotations by computer-assisted manual adjustment) and "test" (the same electrocardiograms with an intentionally introduced predefined number of quality issues). The E-Scribe Warehouse correctly detected differences between the 2 sets expected from the number and pattern of errors in the "test" set (except for 1 subject with QT misannotated in different leads of serial electrocardiograms) and confirmed the absence of differences where none was expected. E-Scribe Warehouse scores below the threshold value identified individual electrocardiograms with questionable T-wave signal strength. The E-Scribe Warehouse showed satisfactory performance in detecting electrocardiogram quality issues that may impair reliability of QTc assessment in clinical trials in healthy subjects.

  17. Sound insulation performance in Danish multi-storey housing 1850-2009 and upgrade possibilities to meet current regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan

    2013-01-01

    to improve sound insulation in multi-storey housing. The paper quantifies dwellings built in different periods of 1850-2009 and summarizes key characteristics of building types and constructions as well as related sound insulation performance, some being far from fulfilling the limits in the latest Danish...... regulations. Sound insulation data from selected building types are presented, and improvement potential and feasibility based on benefits and drawbacks of different solutions are discussed. To include practical experience in development of solutions, several housing associations have been contacted, but even...... when carrying out major refurbishment work, focus is on energy issues, building maintenance and visual qualities, and sound insulation improvement almost never considered. Thus, it is clearly a challenge to change the mind-set of involved parties to apply a more holistic approach and include sound...

  18. Organizational culture, team climate, and quality management in an important patient safety issue: nosocomial pressure ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.; Halfens, R.J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Wensing, M.J.P.; Akkermans, R.P.; Grol, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, policy reform in health care is discussed in terms of changing organizational culture, creating practice teams, and organizational quality management. Yet, the evidence for these suggested determinants of high-quality care is inconsistent. AIMS: To determine if the type of

  19. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  20. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Organizational culture, team climate, and quality management in an important patient safety issue: nosocomial pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Halfens, Ruud J G; van der Weijden, Trudy; Wensing, Michel; Akkermans, Reinier; Grol, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, policy reform in health care is discussed in terms of changing organizational culture, creating practice teams, and organizational quality management. Yet, the evidence for these suggested determinants of high-quality care is inconsistent. To determine if the type of organizational culture (Competing Values Framework), team climate (Team Climate Inventory), and preventive pressure ulcer quality management at ward level were related to the prevalence of pressure ulcers. Also, we wanted to determine if the type of organizational culture, team climate, or the institutional quality management related to preventive quality management at the ward level. In this cross-sectional observational study multivariate (logistic) regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders and institution-level clustering. Data from 1274 patients and 460 health care professionals in 37 general hospital wards and 67 nursing home wards in the Netherlands were analyzed. The main outcome measures were nosocomial pressure ulcers in patients at risk for pressure ulcers (Braden score ≤ 18) and preventive quality management at ward level. No associations were found between organizational culture, team climate, or preventive quality management at the ward level and the prevalence of nosocomial pressure ulcers. Institutional quality management was positively correlated with preventive quality management at ward level (adj. β 0.32; p organizational culture, team climate, or preventive quality management at the ward level. These results would therefore not subscribe the widely suggested importance of these factors in improving health care. However, different designs and research methods (that go beyond the cross-sectional design) may be more informative in studying relations between such complex factors and outcomes in a more meaningful way. Copyright ©2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 3, Issue 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    affecting the behavioral change beyond issuing a memorandum. Exhortations are no way to develop a sound business process ( Deming , 1982, pp. 65–70), much...Acquisition University Press. Deming , W. E. (1982). Out of the crisis: Quality, productivity and competitive position. New York, NY: Cambridge University

  3. HPV testing for primary cervical screening: Laboratory issues and evolving requirements for robust quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Special issues as criterion for journal quality evaluation: Letter to editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadkhah Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predatory publishers are defined as publishers who have financial goals. This definition was introduced for the first time by Jeffrey Beall (2012. In some predatory publishers, we can find some papers that are not related to journal's aim and scope. These journals create special issues in order to publish papers that are not related to journal's aim and scope. Thus, we are faced with a question of how the editor of these journals could evaluate these papers. In some trusted journals, editor invites guest editors for special issues, which are related to journal's aim and scope. On the other hand predatory publishers, publish papers without any external reviewers or guest editors. In addition, some journals that publish irrelevant papers in regular issues are also found. This problem can be seen especially in some biological or life science journals. It seems that these problems pose new challenge for the academic world.

  5. Important Issues to Quality of Life Among Norwegian Older Adults: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kalfoss, Mary; Halvorsrud, Liv

    2009-01-01

    The increasing numbers of older people and higher expectations of a ?good life? within societies, has lead to international interest in the enhancement of quality of life (QoL) among older adults. Understanding whether the same aspects of life are equally important to the life quality of subgroups of older people is important in helping health professionals plan social and health care policy and caring strategies. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance given to 38 areas of Q...

  6. Framing the Issue of Research Quality in a Context of Research Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the two frameworks in structuring arguments on the relationship between research quality and diversity. The author suggests understanding the research diversity drawn outside the discipline of accounting. He mentions the research methods in two dimensions which was distinguis......The author discusses the two frameworks in structuring arguments on the relationship between research quality and diversity. The author suggests understanding the research diversity drawn outside the discipline of accounting. He mentions the research methods in two dimensions which...

  7. The impact of a noise reduction quality improvement project upon sound levels in the open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W F

    2010-07-01

    To decrease measured sound levels in the neonatal intensive care unit through implementation of human factor and minor design modification strategies. Prospective time series. Two open-unit-design neonatal centers. Implementation of a coordinated program of noise reduction strategies did not result in any measurable improvement in levels of loudness or quiet. Two centers, using primarily human behavior noise reduction strategies, were unable to demonstrate measurable improvements in sound levels within the occupied open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Addressing Quality of Life Issues in Long Term Survivors of Head & Neck Cancer treated with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan Basu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of curative treatment modalities has resulted in improvement of cure rates of head neck cancer leaving us with a larger number of long term survivors from the disease. Unfortunately, long term complications of therapy continue to hurt patients even after cure, compromising their quality of life. This is particularly true for the patients treated with primary radiation/chemo-radiation therapy, where so called organ preservation does not necessarily translate into preservation of organ function. Long term sequelae of treatment, particularly xerostomia and swallowing difficulties compromise the survivors’ quality of life. More studies, particularly suited to our clinical scenario, are warranted to address the quality of life issues in these patients, so that better evidence-based guidelines may be developed for their benefit.

  9. Assuring the Quality of Agricultural Learning Repositories: Issues for the Learning Object Metadata Creation Process of the CGIAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas; Beniest, Jan

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Re- search (CGIAR) has established a digital repository to share its teaching and learning resources along with descriptive educational information based on the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) standard. As a critical component of any digital repository, quality metadata are critical not only to enable users to find more easily the resources they require, but also for the operation and interoperability of the repository itself. Studies show that repositories have difficulties in obtaining good quality metadata from their contributors, especially when this process involves many different stakeholders as is the case with the CGIAR as an international organization. To address this issue the CGIAR began investigating the Open ECBCheck as well as the ISO/IEC 19796-1 standard to establish quality protocols for its training. The paper highlights the implications and challenges posed by strengthening the metadata creation workflow for disseminating learning objects of the CGIAR.

  10. Intensity assignments from historical earthquake data: issues of certainty and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of macroseismic data in assessing parameters for historical earthquakes for use in seismic hazard assessment has thrown more attention on the way in which these data are treated. The processes involved in selecting which macroseismic data from a historical earthquake survive to the present day can be modelled as a series of filters, most of which are outside the control of the seismologist/historian, and which cause distortion in the resulting picture of the earthquake. The ways in which the data become distorted should be taken into account when interpreting the data as intensity values. One can usefully discriminate between the certainty of an intensity assignment (how well the data fits the scale and the quality of an intensity assignment (how well one can trust that the value is a true reflection of what really happened. The expression of uncertainty is usually in the form of ranged intensity values; the expression of quality requires an extra symbol or rating of some sort. A system is presented for three types of quality problems: reliability of intensity assessment, locational certainty or uncertainty, and veracity of the original data. Each of these is treated as a binary variable, giving a final quality code ranging from 0 (best to 7 (worst. This single integer quality code preserves three types of information which can then be expanded as required by computer programs designed to handle macroseismic data.

  11. QUALITY AND ETHICS IN THE ROMANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEM. REGARDS ON THE CORRUPTION ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULPUŞ IOANA ALEXANDRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current demands require an increased responsibility of the judicial institutions that must meet quality requirements in accordance with European standards, legislative progress and not least the expectations and needs of the customer of justice. In this context, the quality of courts should include the guiding principles of justice among which ethical behavior is paramount. The research aims to demonstrate the role of ethics in the current context, to highlight the link between quality and ethics, and formulate proposals on corruption regarded as unethical behavior. Besides analyzing the definitions and legislation on corruption, the article emphasizes the role of managers in the fight against this scourge. Stressing that coercive measures are not enough to eradicate corruption, we try to highlight the important role of the leadership of courts in quality planning by promoting ethical values, in creating and maintaining an organizational culture based on quality and ethics, in identifying preventive measures in the fight against corruption. Without the involvement of management and adopting a proactive behavior without constant communication with staff on ethical and unethical, legal regulations in the field will have a limited effect.

  12. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  13. Modelling voltage sag mitigation using dynamic voltage restorer and analyzing power quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Laili; Hidzir, Hizrin Dayana Mohd; Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Ibrahim, Pungut; Ali, Che Ku Muhammad Sabri Che Ku

    2018-02-01

    Power quality problem which are arise due to a fault or a pulsed load can have caused an interruption of critical load. The modern power systems are becoming more sensitive to the quality of the power supplied by the utility company. Voltage sags and swells, flicker, interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortion to the sinusoidal waveform are the examples of the power quality problems. The most affected due to these problems is industrial customers who use a lot of sensitive equipment. There has suffered a huge loss to these problems. Resulting of broken or damage equipment if voltage sag exceeds the sensitive threshold of the equipment. Thus, device such as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has been created to solve this problem among users. DVR is a custom power device that most effective and efficient. This paper intended to report the DVR operations during voltage sag compensation.

  14. On the issue of quality of experience in technology supported learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Snyder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality in education has been discussed for many decades, and as such the discussion reflects the social accountability to which schools are bound in order to demonstrate the degree to which they fulfill their purpose. What has changed overtime is the way in which quality is perceived and how it is used as both an accountability device as well as a form of change agency (Fredriksson & Snyder, 2004; Power, 2002; Riley & Nutall 1994; Snyder, Acker-Hocevar & Snyder, 2000; 2008. Typical accountability models, such as those found in Great Britain and the U.S. and more recently in the European Union and Sweden as well, focus on student achievement, drop-out rates, student attrition and teacher training as some of the key factors that define ”quality” in education (Fredriksson & Snyder, 2004. Presently, international comparison tests such as TIMMS, PEARLS, and PISA are acquiring a greater significance as a ”measure of quality”. At the same time, many argue that such large scale testing does not consider important factors that relate to learning, and drop-out rates do not necessarily relate to quality education. In contrast to the standard accountability and comparative models of quality, are other systemic models, such as total quality management (Deming, 1986; Juran, 1992 that focus on both process and outcome, and recognize the inter-relationship between the two. Quality, from a systemic model, thus must address a variety of factors in addition to student achievement, including elements in the learning environment, as well as the leadership of the school, the infrastructure and resource allocation, team work, etc. (Murgatroyd & Morgan, 1994; Snyder, Acker-Hocevar & Snyder, 2000.

  15. Water quality of the river yamuna in the Delhi stretch: Key determinants and management issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trisal, Chaman; Tabassum, Tanveera; Kumar, Ritesh [Wetlands International - South Asia, New Delhi (India)

    2008-03-15

    The assessment of water quality of the River Yamuna in the Delhi stretch was carried out by determining changes in the concentration levels of 19 physico-chemical parameters. It was observed that vegetation plays an important role in acting as a biological sink for mineral nutrients, thereby restoring the water quality. It is proposed that restoration of the inundation pattern of floodplains would greatly help in re-aeration of the overlying water and re-absorption of pollutants through mud/water exchanges. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  17. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  18. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  19. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  20. Quality is the key for emerging issues of population-based colonoscopy screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is currently regarded as the gold standard and preferred method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the benefit of colonoscopy screening may be blunted by low participation rates in population-based screening programs. Harmful effects of population-based colonoscopy screening may include complications induced by colonoscopy itself and by sedation, psychosocial distress, potential over-diagnosis, and socioeconomic burden. In addition, harmful effects of colonoscopy may increase with age and comorbidities. As the risk of adverse events in population-based colonoscopy screening may offset the benefit, the adverse events should be managed and monitored. To adopt population-based colonoscopy screening, consensus on the risks and benefits should be developed, focusing on potential harm, patient preference, socioeconomic considerations, and quality improvement of colonoscopy, as well as efficacy for CRC prevention. As suboptimal colonoscopy quality is a major pitfall of population-based screening, adequate training and regulation of screening colonoscopists should be the first step in minimizing variations in quality. Gastroenterologists should promote quality improvement, auditing, and training for colonoscopy in a population-based screening program.

  1. Institutional Responses to the Quality/Quantity Issue in Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Vance, Victor S.

    1983-01-01

    This North Carolina-based study argues that a reexamination is needed of the competitive position of teaching in the larger occupational structure of society and that the quality of the teaching force will not be raised merely by raising entrance or exit standards in teacher education. (JBM)

  2. Qualitative study into quality of life issues surrounding insulin pump use in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, Katharine D.; Skinner, T. Chas

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is a need for qualitative research about how insulin pump therapy changes quality of life, which is significant to people with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to elicit thd experiences of current insulin pump users in order to discover the therapy's benefits, downsides and effe...

  3. Long-Term Care Workforce Issues: Practice Principles for Quality Dementia Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilster, Susan D; Boltz, Marie; Dalessandro, Jennifer L

    2018-01-18

    This article is one in a series of articles in this supplement addressing best practice for quality dementia care. The Alzheimer's Association, in revising their Dementia Care Practice Recommendations for 2017 has identified staff across the long-term care spectrum as a distinct and important determinant of quality dementia care. The purpose of this article is to highlight areas for developing and supporting a dementia-capable workforce. The Alzheimer's Association Principles For Advocacy To Assure Quality Dementia Care Across Settings provide a framework to examine interventions to support the dementia care workforce in long-term care settings. Evidence-based approaches that represent these principles are discussed: (a) staffing, (b) staff training, (c) compensation, (d) supportive work environments, (e) career growth and retention, and (f) engagement with family. Although not all settings currently require attention to the principles described, this article proposes these principles as best practice recommendations. Recommendations and future research considerations to further improve the lives of those who live and work in nursing homes, assisted living, hospice, and home care, are proposed. Additional areas to improve the quality of a dementia care workforce person-centered care information, communication and interdepartmental teamwork, and ongoing evaluation are discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Health-related quality of life issues in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Judy Griffin; Reame, Nancy E; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of obesity, fertility status, and androgenism scores on health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional, correlational. Private reproductive endocrinology practice in two southeast U.S. cities. Convenience sample of 128 women with PCOS, half of whom were attempting to conceive in addition to being treated for PCOS. Most were White (97%), married (78%), with a mean age of 30.4 years (SD +/- 5.5). The Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A laboratory panel and clinical measures, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and degree of hirsutism. The most common health-related quality of life concern reported by women with PCOS was weight, followed in descending order by menstrual problems, infertility, emotions, and body hair. The psychological implications of PCOS are easily underestimated and have been largely ignored. Nursing has a pivotal role in recognizing these concerns and implementing therapy to improve quality of life in women with PCOS.

  5. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Issues in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Madalinska

    2007-01-01

    textabstractProstate and ovarian cancers are among the leading causes of death in Western countries. Applied preventive health strategies, including screening and early medical treatments either with prophylactic or curative intention, may substantially affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). This

  6. Issues of improving quality of training personnel for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacko, J.

    1987-01-01

    The basic stages are characterized of the development of a standard system of personnel training for the start-up, operation and maintenance of nuclear power facilities. The experience is analyzed gained by the Branch Training Centre of the Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute. Suggestions are submitted for improving the quality of personnel training based on Czechoslovak and foreign experiences. (author). 3 refs

  7. The Quality of Online Health-Related Information – an Emergent Consumer Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nădăşan Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  8. Exploring Issues of Relevance and Quality in the Context of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper draws insights from a mini research project that was conducted at the University of Botswana in Botswana, within a wider, collaborative research effort established amongst five universities in the Southern African Development Community which focused on the links between educational quality and relevance and ...

  9. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  10. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 16: Prescribed fire and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that, while prescribed burning and other fuels treatments can lower visual quality in some situations, they can also improve it in others. This fact sheet reviews the visual aspects of different levels of prescribed burning.Other publications in this series...

  11. GMP production of [18F]FDOPA and issues concerning its quality analyses as in USP 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.K.; Hsu Wenlin; Xie Hengli; Lin Mingchi; Lan Wenchun; Chao Haoyu

    2011-01-01

    Lately, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) has found increase in its clinical demand for whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and two key issues in fulfilling this demand are the difficulties in producing FDOPA under the recently imposed PET drug good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations and in providing it in the quality meeting the terms of major compendia. This paper describes the approaches for the GMP production of FDOPA and for the product testing to meet the standard of United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection.' FDOPA was produced by the carrier-added electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in the facility complying Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme clean room standard. The special aseptic handling technique was applied to minimize the bioburden. The product quality control followed all testing items and procedures, including three different settings of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The process yielded FDOPA average 2.60±0.26 GBq (N=22) in every batch. All qualities of the product were within the specifications described in the USP 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection.' The entire production was audited by the government authority and certified to comply with the latest PET drug GMP regulation. Our efforts in producing FDOPA following all aspects of GMP requirements have resulted in a product with the USP quality and certified as GMP complied. The routine production yields enough doses for three to four whole-body scans in each batch. The issues discussed in the report provide good reference for producers planning in routine production for PET drugs that are not commonly produced or with complicated compendial quality control tests. (author)

  12. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  13. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  14. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  15. Application of Computer Vision for quality control in frozen mixed berries production: colour calibration issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ricauda Aimonino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.

  16. How to Address the Data Quality Issues in Regression Models: A Guided Process for Data Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camilo Corrales

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, data availability has gone from scarce to superabundant. Technologies like IoT, trends in social media and the capabilities of smart-phones are producing and digitizing lots of data that was previously unavailable. This massive increase of data creates opportunities to gain new business models, but also demands new techniques and methods of data quality in knowledge discovery, especially when the data comes from different sources (e.g., sensors, social networks, cameras, etc.. The data quality process of the data set proposes conclusions about the information they contain. This is increasingly done with the aid of data cleaning approaches. Therefore, guaranteeing a high data quality is considered as the primary goal of the data scientist. In this paper, we propose a process for data cleaning in regression models (DC-RM. The proposed data cleaning process is evaluated through a real datasets coming from the UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases. With the aim of assessing the data cleaning process, the dataset that is cleaned by DC-RM was used to train the same regression models proposed by the authors of UCI datasets. The results achieved by the trained models with the dataset produced by DC-RM are better than or equal to that presented by the datasets’ authors.

  17. Social stigma and compounded losses: quality-of-life issues for multiple-birth families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marcia A; Hall, Janet E

    2003-08-01

    To determine the quality-of-life domains most impacted by multiple births. Focus groups, qualitative research. Human volunteers in a medical research environment.Forty-three mothers, 29 raising multiple-birth children, 13 raising singletons, identified from random and convenience samples. None. Maternal self-reports of the psychosocial sequelae of multiple or singleton births, based on qualitative data analysis of transcribed group discussions. The quality-of-life domains that were most impacted by raising multiple birth children were social stigma, pregnancy loss, marital satisfaction, children's health, unmet family needs, parenting stress, maternal depression, and the infertility experience. Qualitative methods identified two novel quality-of-life domains in iatrogenic multiple birth families: social stigma and compounded losses. An unexpected finding was the potential for increased marital solidification as parents coped with the inordinate stresses of multiple births. As anticipated, children's health, unmet family needs, maternal depression, and parental stress were key areas of concern. In addition, the infertility experience had a lasting impact. These findings are significant, given that at least 38% of all assisted conceptions result in a multiple birth. This study lays the groundwork for further research on the impact of iatrogenic multiple births.

  18. Quality-of-life measurements in multiethnic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: cross-cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Sergio M A; Jolly, Meenakshi; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2010-08-01

    Although the survival rate for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved dramatically during the past 50 years, the quality of life of patients afflicted with this disease remains poor. Currently existent measures of disease activity and damage in SLE do not capture the patient's perspective and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Most studies in SLE pertaining to HRQoL are from developed Western societies, with only a few from others. These studies have been conducted predominantly in women and using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36, a generic HRQoL instrument that has been shown not to be sensitive to change in lupus. Existent lupus-specific HRQoL measures have not yet been used in SLE clinical trials. New HRQoL research tools are currently undergoing validation in different countries, languages, and cultural settings, which may help dissect the underlying role of socioeconomic status and specific disease-related features that impact SLE-related quality of life.

  19. Primary Payer at DX: Issues with Collection and Assessment of Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Recinda L; Williamson, Laura; Andrews, Patricia; Kahn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    An individual's access to health insurance influences the amount and type of health services a patient receives for prevention and treatment, and, ultimately, influences survival. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Item #630, Primary Payer at DX, is a required field intended to document health insurance status for the purpose of supporting patterns-of-care studies and other research. However, challenges related to the uniformity of collection and availability of data needed to populate this field diminish the value of the Primary Payer at DX data. A NAACCR taskforce worked on issues surrounding the collection of Primary Payer at DX; including proposing a crosswalk between Primary Payer at DX and the new Public Health Payment Typology standard, often available in hospital discharge databases. However, there are issues with compatibility between coding systems, intent of data collection, timelines for coding insurance, and changes in insurance coverage (partly due to the Affordable Care Act) that continue to complicate the collection and use of Primary Payer at DX data.

  20. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    Sound in hospital space has traditionally been considered in negative terms as both intrusive and unwanted, and based mainly on sound levels. However, sound level is only one aspect of the soundscape. There is strong evidence that exploring the positive aspect of sound in a hospital context can evoke positive feelings in both patients and nurses. Music psychology studies have also shown that music intervention in health care can have a positive effect on patient's emotions and recuperating processes. In this way, hospital spaces have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress, and make patients feel comfortable and secure. This paper describes a review of the literature exploring sound perception and its effect on health care. This review sorted the literature and main issues into themes concerning sound in health care spaces; sound, stress and health; positive soundscape; psychological perspective of music and emotion; music as a complementary medicine for improving health care; contradicting arguments concerning the use of music in health care; and implications for clinical practice. Using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, and Google, a literature search on sound levels, sound sources and the impression of a soundscape was conducted. The review focused on the role and use of music on health care in clinical environments. In addition, other pertinent related materials in shaping the understanding of the field were retrieved, scanned and added into this review. The result indicated that not all noises give a negative impression within healthcare soundscapes. Listening to soothing music was shown to reduce stress, blood pressure and post-operative trauma when compared to silence. Much of the sound conveys meaningful information that is positive for both patients and nurses, in terms of soft wind, bird twitter, and ocean sounds. Music perception was demonstrated to bring about positive change in patient-reported outcomes such as eliciting

  1. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  2. Common issues raised during the quality assurance process of WHO guidelines: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porgo, Teegwendé V; Ferri, Mauricio; Norris, Susan L

    2018-02-07

    In 2007, WHO established the Guidelines Review Committee (GRC) to ensure that WHO guidelines adhere to the highest international standards. The GRC reviews guideline proposals and final guidelines. The objectives of this study were to examine the rates of and reasons for conditional approval and non-approval of documents submitted for the first time to the GRC, and calculate the time intervals and numbers of submissions to achieve approval for documents conditionally approved or not approved at first submission. All initial submissions to the GRC between 2014 and 2017 were examined. Data were extracted from the GRC's records of written comments and discussions. Of a total of 85 proposals and 88 final guidelines, 32 (37.6%) proposals and 37 (42.0%) final guidelines were conditionally approved, and 15 (17.6%) proposals and 28 (31.8%) final guidelines were not. For both conditionally approved and not approved proposals, the most frequent reasons were suboptimal composition or inadequate description of the guideline contributor groups (in all proposals), followed by inadequate formulation of key questions (in 90.6% of conditionally approved proposals and all not approved proposals). For both conditionally approved and not approved final guidelines, the most frequent reasons were problems with recommendations (in all final guidelines), followed by inappropriate methods for evidence retrieval or an inadequate description thereof (in all conditionally approved final guidelines and 75.0% of not approved final guidelines). The median time to achieve approval was 2 months for proposals and 1-2 months for final guidelines. The median number of submissions was 2 for proposals and 2-2.5 for final guidelines. The GRC implements a rigorous quality assurance process and identifies problems with a significant percentage of initial submissions. WHO needs to continuously evaluate its guideline development processes to inform effective quality improvement measures and optimise the

  3. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-02-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.

  4. Online Tools for Uncovering Data Quality (DQ) Issues in Satellite-Based Global Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Heo, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Data quality (DQ) has many attributes or facets (i.e., errors, biases, systematic differences, uncertainties, benchmark, false trends, false alarm ratio, etc.)Sources can be complicated (measurements, environmental conditions, surface types, algorithms, etc.) and difficult to be identified especially for multi-sensor and multi-satellite products with bias correction (TMPA, IMERG, etc.) How to obtain DQ info fast and easily, especially quantified info in ROI Existing parameters (random error), literature, DIY, etc.How to apply the knowledge in research and applications.Here, we focus on online systems for integration of products and parameters, visualization and analysis as well as investigation and extraction of DQ information.

  5. Database Quality and Access Issues Relevant to Research Using Anesthesia Information Management System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin

    2018-07-01

    For this special article, we reviewed the computer code, used to extract the data, and the text of all 47 studies published between January 2006 and August 2017 using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH). Data from this institution were used in the largest number (P = .0007) of papers describing the use of AIMS published in this time frame. The AIMS was replaced in April 2017, making this finite sample finite. The objective of the current article was to identify factors that made TJUH successful in publishing anesthesia informatics studies. We examined the structured query language used for each study to examine the extent to which databases outside of the AIMS were used. We examined data quality from the perspectives of completeness, correctness, concordance, plausibility, and currency. Our results were that most could not have been completed without external database sources (36/47, 76.6%; P = .0003 compared with 50%). The operating room management system was linked to the AIMS and was used significantly more frequently (26/36, 72%) than other external sources. Access to these external data sources was provided, allowing exploration of data quality. The TJUH AIMS used high-resolution timestamps (to the nearest 3 milliseconds) and created audit tables to track changes to clinical documentation. Automatic data were recorded at 1-minute intervals and were not editable; data cleaning occurred during analysis. Few paired events with an expected order were out of sequence. Although most data elements were of high quality, there were notable exceptions, such as frequent missing values for estimated blood loss, height, and weight. Some values were duplicated with different units, and others were stored in varying locations. Our conclusions are that linking the TJUH AIMS to the operating room management system was a critical step in enabling publication of multiple studies using AIMS data. Access to this and

  6. Quality and quantity tackling real issues in an institutional research repository

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Simpson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    The TARDis project has examined and tackled many practical issues in scaling up from the current individual departmental scholarly communication practices towards an active institutional research repository. This repository must, of necessity, serve a variety of goals for a wide spread of disciplines. We illustrate the steps that have helped move the University of Southampton’s institutional research repository into a key position within the university’s research strategy for both visibility and reporting. We demonstrate the practical activities being developed to manage research assessment in conjunction with the EPrints software. These balance others which we show help fulfill the broad vision of disseminating all research output. These steps are enabling the visions of open access and institutional repositories to come closer together in a constructive fashion.

  7. Quality Assurance Issues in Conducting Multi-Institutional Advanced Technology Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-sponsored Advanced Technology Quality Assurance (QA) Consortium, which consisted of the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Radiological Physics Center, Quality Assurance Review Center, and Resource Center for Emerging Technologies, has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials that requires volumetric digital data submission of a protocol patient's treatment plan and verification data. In particular, the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center has nearly 15 years experience in facilitating QA review for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trials. This QA process includes (1) a data integrity review for completeness of protocol required elements, the format of data, and possible data corruption, and recalculation of dose-volume histograms; (2) a review of compliance with target volume and organ-at-risk contours by study chairs; and (3) a review of dose prescription and dose heterogeneity compliance by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters Dosimetry Group or the Radiological Physics Center dosimetrists (for brachytherapy protocols). This report reviews the lessons learned and the QA challenges presented by the use of advanced treatment modalities in clinical trials requiring volumetric digital data submission

  8. trans-Resveratrol in Nutraceuticals: Issues in Retail Quality and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Sacchetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen brands of resveratrol-containing nutraceuticals were evaluated in order to verify their actual resveratrol content and to control if their health-promoting properties are related to manufacturing quality. Products included pure resveratrol capsules or multi-ingredient formulations with standardized amounts of resveratrol and other phytochemicals. Samples were analyzed for total trans-resveratrol, flavonoids, procyanidin, polyphenol content and the results were compared with the content declared on-label. Only five out of 14 brands had near label values, compliant with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP requirements (95–105% content of active constituent, four products were slightly out of this range (83–111% and three were in the 8–64% range. Two samples were below the limit of detection. The greater the difference between actual and labeled resveratrol content, the lower was the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity strength. Dietary supplements containing pure trans-resveratrol exhibited a greater induction of differentiation towards human leukemic K562 cells when compared to multicomponent products. Great differences currently exist among resveratrol food supplements commercially available and GMP-grade quality should not be taken for granted. On the other side, dosages suggested by most “pure”, “high-dosage” supplements may allow a supplementation level adequate to obtain some of the purported health benefits.

  9. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  10. Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

  11. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  12. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  13. Assessment of indoor air quality related to potential vapor intrusion: Issues for former manufactured gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rames, Antoine; Guillossou, Gaelle; Ronga-Pezeret, Sylvaine; Hulot, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    The indoor air quality of buildings on sites with soil or groundwater contaminated with volatile or semi-volatile compounds can be degraded by potential vapor intrusion (VI) from these environmental media. For sites of former manufactured gas plants (MGP), the compounds that must be considered are BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), 8 of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generally studied, and, to a lesser degree, phenol and hydrogen cyanide. Given the plausibility of VI and in accordance with current recommendations of the French Ministry of the Environment, measurements of indoor air quality (and outdoor air, for additional analyses) were conducted on two occasions during the winter and summer of 2010. These measurements simultaneously used multiple air sampling devices (Summa canisters, Gore modules, air pumps coupled to various matrices; such as XAD2, silica gel, etc.). Phenol and hydrogen cyanide have not previously been quantified (limit of quantification between 0.12 and 2.00 μg/m 3 ). BTEX and PAHs were found ubiquitously at concentrations on the order of 1 to 10 μg/m 3 for BTEX and naphthalene and one to ten ng/m 3 for PAHs other than naphthalene) at all 14 MGP and both control sites, regardless of where onsite the air was sampled (office, basement or crawl space, or outdoors). These levels (the maximum considered) do not allow us to conclude that the indoor air is degraded according to the official French guidelines for managing potentially contaminated sites and soils. Thus, no excess health risk is expected for residents of these sites because of exposure to possible VI, which cannot be ruled out in view of the ubiquity of some compounds. (authors)

  14. Objective burden, resources, and other stressors among informal cancer caregivers: a hidden quality issue?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ryn, Michelle; Sanders, Sara; Kahn, Katherine; van Houtven, Courtney; Griffin, Joan M.; Martin, Michelle; Atienza, Audie A.; Phelan, Sean; Finstad, Deborah; Rowland, Julia

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of clinical cancer care is delivered in the home by informal caregivers (e.g. family, friends), who are often untrained. Caregivers' context varies widely, with many providing care despite low levels of resources and high levels of additional demands. Background Changes in health care have shifted much cancer care to the home, with limited data to inform this transition. We studied the characteristics, care tasks, and needs of informal caregivers of cancer patients. Methods Caregivers of seven geographically and institutionally defined cohorts of newly diagnosed colorectal and lung cancer patients completed self-administered questionnaires (n = 677). We combined this information with patient survey and chart abstraction data and focused on caregivers who reported providing, unpaid, at least 50% of the patient's informal cancer care. Results Over half of caregivers (55%) cared for a patient with metastatic disease, severe comorbidity, or undergoing current treatment. Besides assisting with activities of daily living, caregivers provided cancer-specific care such as watching for treatment side effects (68%), helping manage pain, nausea or fatigue (47%), administering medicine (34%), deciding whether to call a doctor (30%), deciding whether medicine was needed (29%), and changing bandages (19%). However, half of caregivers reported not getting training perceived as necessary. In addition, 49% of caregivers worked for pay, 21% reported poor or fair health, and 21% provided unpaid care for other individuals. One in four reported low confidence in the quality of the care they provided. Conclusions Much assistance for cancer patients is delivered in the home by informal caregivers, often without desired training, with a significant minority having limited resources and high additional demands. Future research should explore the potentially high yield of addressing caregiver needs in improving quality of cancer care and both survivors' and caregivers' outcomes

  15. Could We Really Use Aloe vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes? Quality Control Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes UK has recently listed a number of herbs and spices that have been clinically shown to improve blood glucose control in type-2 diabetes patients and the diabetes high-risk group. With Aloe vera being top in this list, its health benefit along with health and beauty/food retailers supplying it was illustrated in detail. Previous article from this laboratory scrutinised the merit of using A. vera as an alternative therapy to prescription antidiabetic drugs and the risk of using food supplements in the market which do not qualify as drug preparations. In continuation of this discussion, the present study assesses three Aloe Pura brands and one Holland and Barret brand of A. vera juice supplements in the UK market through chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. While the polysaccharide active ingredient, acemannan, appears to be within the recommended limit, it was found that Aloe Pura (one of the best-selling brands for A. vera supplement products have benzoate additive that does not appear in the supplement levels. Moreover, two of the Aloe Pura brand juices contain methanol, suggesting that the International Aloe Science Council (IASC certification does not guarantee the medicinal quality of these products. The therapeutic fitness of such supplements is discussed.

  16. Could We Really Use Aloe vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes? Quality Control Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes UK has recently listed a number of herbs and spices that have been clinically shown to improve blood glucose control in type-2 diabetes patients and the diabetes high-risk group. With Aloe vera being top in this list, its health benefit along with health and beauty/food retailers supplying it was illustrated in detail. Previous article from this laboratory scrutinised the merit of using A. vera as an alternative therapy to prescription antidiabetic drugs and the risk of using food supplements in the market which do not qualify as drug preparations. In continuation of this discussion, the present study assesses three Aloe Pura brands and one Holland and Barret brand of A. vera juice supplements in the UK market through chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. While the polysaccharide active ingredient, acemannan, appears to be within the recommended limit, it was found that Aloe Pura (one of the best-selling brands for A. vera supplement) products have benzoate additive that does not appear in the supplement levels. Moreover, two of the Aloe Pura brand juices contain methanol, suggesting that the International Aloe Science Council (IASC) certification does not guarantee the medicinal quality of these products. The therapeutic fitness of such supplements is discussed. PMID:29511381

  17. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  18. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  19. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  20. Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85 Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85 Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

  1. Mapping saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne Aquifer, Miami-Dade County, Florida using transient electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion in southern Florida poses a potential threat to the public drinking-water supply that is typically monitored using water samples and electromagnetic induction logs collected from a network of wells. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are a complementary addition to the monitoring program because of their ease of use, low cost, and ability to fill in data gaps between wells. TEM soundings have been used to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer over a large part of south Florida including eastern Miami-Dade County and the Everglades. These two areas are very different with one being urban and the other undeveloped. Each poses different conditions that affect data collection and data quality. In the developed areas, finding sites large enough to make soundings is difficult. The presence of underground pipes further restricts useable locations. Electromagnetic noise, which reduces data quality, is also an issue. In the Everglades, access to field sites is difficult and working in water-covered terrain is challenging. Nonetheless, TEM soundings are an effective tool for mapping saltwater intrusion. Direct estimates of water quality can be obtained from the inverted TEM data using a formation factor determined for the Biscayne aquifer. This formation factor is remarkably constant over Miami-Dade County owing to the uniformity of the aquifer and the absence of clay. Thirty-six TEM soundings were collected in the Model Land area of southeast Miami-Dade County to aid in calibration of a helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey. The soundings and HEM survey revealed an area of saltwater intrusion aligned with canals and drainage ditches along U.S. Highway 1 and the Card Sound Road. These canals and ditches likely reduced freshwater levels through unregulated drainage and provided pathways for seawater to flow at least 12.4 km inland.

  2. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  3. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  4. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  5. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  6. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  7. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  8. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 01: CPQR Technical Quality Control Suite Development including Quality Control Workload Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, Kyle; Nielsen, Michelle; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L. John; Tantot, Laurent; Barajas, Eduardo Villareal; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist’s (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) Guidelines for radiation treatment equipment, that outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing and ratification by COMP. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics community during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e. “living documents”) through subsequent planned reviews and updates. This presentation will show the Multi-Leaf Linear Accelerator document as an example of how feedback and cross-national work to achieve a robust guidance document. During field-testing, each technology was tested at multiple centres in a variety of clinic environments. As part of the defined feedback, workload data was captured. This lead to average time associated with testing as defined in each TQC document. As a result, for a medium-sized centre comprising 6 linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicist per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite.

  9. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 01: CPQR Technical Quality Control Suite Development including Quality Control Workload Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkoske, Kyle; Nielsen, Michelle; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L. John; Tantot, Laurent; Barajas, Eduardo Villareal; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Royal Victoria Hospital, Trillium Health Partners, CPQR, Juravinski Cancer Centre, CIUSSS MCQ - CHAUR, Cape Breton Health Care Complex, Centre d’oncologie Dr. Léon-Richard / Dr. Léon Richard Oncology Centre, QEII Health Sciences Centre, Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist’s (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) Guidelines for radiation treatment equipment, that outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing and ratification by COMP. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics community during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e. “living documents”) through subsequent planned reviews and updates. This presentation will show the Multi-Leaf Linear Accelerator document as an example of how feedback and cross-national work to achieve a robust guidance document. During field-testing, each technology was tested at multiple centres in a variety of clinic environments. As part of the defined feedback, workload data was captured. This lead to average time associated with testing as defined in each TQC document. As a result, for a medium-sized centre comprising 6 linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicist per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite.

  10. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  11. Addressing water quality issues on a watershed basis: a comprehensive approach for utilizing chapter 20 of the Michigan drain code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    There are five major watersheds in Oakland County. They are the Clinton, Flint, Huron, Rouge and Shiawassee. Included in these watersheds are 61 individual cities, villages and townships. Actions taken by one community within the watershed have a significant impact on other communities in the watershed. Consequently, a multi-community approach needs to be identified and utilized to comprehensively address public health and water quality issues. Some of the issues faced by these communities individually include stormwater management, flooding, drainage, and river and stream management. Failing septic systems, illicit connections causing groundwater contamination, and habitat and wetland degradation are also primary concerns. Finally, wastewater treatment capacity and sanitary sewer service also are regularly dealt with by these communities. Traditionally, short-term solutions to these often urgent problems required the construction of relief sewers or temporary retention structures. Unfortunately, solving the problem in one area often meant the creation of new problems downstream. Coordinating efforts among these 61 individual communities is difficult. These difficult challenges are best met with a coordinated, comprehensive plan. (author)

  12. Electronic health records, adoption, quality of care, legal and privacy issues and their implementation in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the healthcare sector has shown a growing interest in information technologies. Two popular health IT (HIT) products are the electronic health record (EHR) and health information exchange (HIE) networks. The introduction of these tools is believed to improve care, but has also raised some important questions and legal and privacy issues. The implementation of these systems has not gone smoothly, and still faces some considerable barriers. This article reviews EHR and HIE to address these obstacles, and analyzes the current state of development and adoption in various countries around the world. Moreover, legal and ethical concerns that may be encountered by EHR users and purchasers are reviewed. Finally, links and interrelations between EHR and HIE and several quality of care issues in today's healthcare domain are examined with a focus on EHR and HIE in the emergency department (ED), whose unique characteristics makes it an environment in which the implementation of such technology may be a major contributor to health, but also faces substantial challenges. The paper ends with a discussion of specific policy implications and recommendations based on an examination of the current limitations of these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer survivorship: history, quality-of-life issues, and the evolving multidisciplinary approach to implementation of cancer survivorship care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    To discuss the history of cancer survivorship, related quality-of-life issues, and cancer survivorship care plans (CSCPs). CINAHL, PubMed, published articles, and Web sites. A cancer survivor is an individual who has been diagnosed with cancer, regardless of when that diagnosis was received, who is still living. Cancer survivorship is complex and involves many aspects of care. Major areas of concern for survivors are recurrence, secondary malignancies, and long-term treatment sequelae that affect quality of life. Four essential components of survivorship care are prevention, surveillance, intervention, and coordination. A CSCP should address the survivor's long-term care, such as type of cancer, treatments received, potential side effects, and recommendations for follow-up. It should include preventive practices, how to maintain health and well-being, information on legal protections regarding employment and health insurance, and psychosocial services in the community. Survivorship care for patients with cancer requires a multidisciplinary effort and team approach. Enhanced knowledge of long-term complications of survivorship is needed for healthcare providers. Further research on evidence-based practice for cancer survivorship care also is necessary. Nurses can review CSCPs with patients, instruct them when to seek treatment, promote recommended surveillance protocols, and encourage behaviors that lead to cancer prevention and promote well-being for cancer survivors.

  14. A New Control Strategy Based Multi Converter UPQC Using Fuzzy Logic Controller to Improve the Power Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Babu Paduchuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of multiconverter unified power quality conditioner to improve the power quality issues is presents in this paper. Modified SRF theory and fuzzy logic controller technique are incorporated in this modelling. This newly designed controller is connected to a source in order to compensate voltage and current in the two feeders. The expanded concept of UPQC is multi converter-UPQC; this system has two series voltage source converter (VSC and one shunt VSC connected back to back. In the proposed system, the power can be conveyed from one feeder to another in order to mitigate the voltage sag, swell, interruption and transient response of the system. The control strategies of multi converter-UPQC are designed based on the modified synchronous reference frame theory with fuzzy logic controller. The transient response of the fuzzy logic controller in dc-link voltage controller will be very fast. The relevant simulation and compensation performance analysis of multi converter-UPQC with fuzzy logic controller is performed using MATLAB/Simulink software.

  15. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  16. Experimental Study on Improvement of Interior Sound Quality of Cars by Using Music Control Method%音乐控制法改善车内声品质的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 左言言; 李玉东

    2014-01-01

    以4种类型汽车内采集到的32个不同噪声样本为评价对象,通过试验研究建立了以心理声学客观参数描述主观评价结果的车内声品质模型,并对声品质较差的噪声样本实施了音乐掩蔽控制试验,试验结果表明,车内噪声的低沉度下降,音调度上升。研究结果表明音乐掩蔽控制法用于改善汽车声品质的可行性和有效性。%Taking 32 car’s interior noise samples acquired from 4 types of vehicles under different conditions as evaluation objects, a sound quality model is built to describe the subjective evaluation by using the objective psycho-acoustical parameters. The music masking control experiments for poor noise sample are performed. The results show that the low-and-deep noise inside the cars is reduced, but the tonality is raised. The music masking control is proved to be feasible and effective in the vehicle sound quality improvement.

  17. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first......While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved...

  19. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  20. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  1. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  2. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  3. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  4. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  5. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  6. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  7. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  8. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  9. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  10. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  11. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  12. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  13. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  14. [The Federal Law "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation" and the issues of management of medical care quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbraten, A P

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of main statutory provisions of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No 323-FZ of 21.11.2011 "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation", concerning the issue of medical care quality.

  15. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  17. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  18. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  19. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  20. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  1. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  2. Darshana Jolts - Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Raman1. Emeritus Professor of Physics and Humanities at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search ...

  3. Application of the ROC method to assessment of image quality issues in mammography. Part 2. Comparative evaluation of image quality and radiation dose to thick body sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Saebel, M.

    2000-01-01

    For the experimental comparative assessment reported, the following radiation qualities were compared for radiation dose applied and image quality: molydenum anode, 30mum molybdenum filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; molybdenum anode, 25 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; tungsten anode, 50 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV. The results show that in the differentiated assessment according to the various radiation qualities, significant deviations in imaging quality of the different detail types are possible. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Adaptive RD Optimized Hybrid Sound Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, N.H. van; Bensa, J.; Christensen, M.G.; Colomes, C.; Edler, B.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.; Kleijn, W.B.; Kot, V.; Kövesi, B.; Lindblom, J.; Massaloux, D.; Niamut, O.A.; Nordén, F.; Plasberg, J.H.; Vafin, R.; Virette, D.; Wübbolt, O.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, sound codecs have been developed with a particular application in mind, their performance being optimized for specific types of input signals, such as speech or audio (music), and application constraints, such as low bit rate, high quality, or low delay. There is, however, an

  5. Visual bias in subjective assessments of automotive sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate how strong the influence of visual input on sound quality evaluation may be, a naive sample of 20 participants was asked to judge interior automotive sound recordings while simultaneously being exposed to pictures of cars. twenty-two recordings of second-gear acceleration...

  6. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  7. An Examination of Information Technology and Its Perceived Quality Issues in Single System Hospitals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Linda W.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and quality of healthcare is of great concern in the United States. The positive effects of information technology reported in past research, especially case studies, has encouraged expectations that information technology may increase the quality of healthcare while reducing costs of healthcare. The goals of this study was to examine…

  8. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination...

  9. Airborne sound insulation of new composite wall structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yonka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection against noise is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Product directive. In buildings, airborne sound insulation is used to define the acoustical quality between rooms. In order to develop wall structures with optimal sound insulation, an understanding of the physical origins of sound transmission is necessary. To develop a kind of knowledge that is applicable to the improvement of real walls and room barriers is the motive behind this study. The purpose of the work is to study the sound insulation of new composite wall structure.

  10. Application of subharmonics for active sound design of electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Doo Young; Yoon, Kiseop; Seong, Yeolwan; Lee, Soogab

    2014-12-01

    The powertrain of electric vehicles generates an unfamiliar acoustical environment for customers. This paper seeks optimal interior sound for electric vehicles based on psychoacoustic knowledge and musical harmonic theory. The concept of inserting a virtual sound, which consists of the subharmonics of an existing high-frequency component, is suggested to improve sound quality. Subjective evaluation results indicate that the impression of interior sound can be enhanced in this manner. Increased appeal is achieved through two designed stimuli, which proves the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  11. An adaptive, data driven sound field control strategy for outdoor concerts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuchel, Franz Maria; Caviedes Nozal, Diego; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    One challenge of outdoor concerts is to ensure adequate levels for the audience while avoiding disturbance of the surroundings. We outline the initial concept of a sound field control (SFC) system for tackling this issue using sound-zoning. The system uses Bayesian inference to update a sound...

  12. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  13. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  14. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  15. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  16. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  17. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  18. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  19. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  20. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  1. The Safeguard of Audio Collections: A Computer Science Based Approach to Quality Control—The Case of the Sound Archive of the Arena di Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of multimedia, very little attention is given to the activities involved in the preservation of audio documents. At the same time, more and more archives storing audio and video documents face the problem of obsolescing and degrading media, which could largely benefit from the instruments and the methodologies of research in multimedia. This paper presents the methodology and the results of the Italian project REVIVAL, aimed at the development of a hardware/software platform to support the active preservation of the audio collection of the Fondazione Arena di Verona, one of the finest in Europe for the operatic genre, with a special attention on protocols and tools for quality control. On the scientific side, the most significant objectives achieved by the project are (i the setup of a working environment inside the archive, (ii the knowledge transfer to the archival personnel, (iii the realization of chemical analyses on magnetic tapes in collaboration with experts in the fields of materials science and chemistry, and (iv the development of original open-source software tools. On the cultural side, the recovery, the safeguard, and the access to unique copies of unpublished live recordings of artists the calibre of Domingo and Pavarotti are of great musicological and economical value.

  2. The sound of high winds. The effect of atmospheric stability on wind turbine sound and microphone noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis issues are raised concerning wind turbine noise and its relationship to altitude dependent wind velocity. The following issues are investigated: what is the influence of atmospheric stability on the speed and sound power of a wind turbine?; what is the influence of atmospheric stability on the character of wind turbine sound?; how widespread is the impact of atmospheric stability on wind turbine performance: is it relevant for new wind turbine projects; how can noise prediction take this stability into account?; what can be done to deal with the resultant higher impact of wind turbine sound? Apart from these directly wind turbine related issues, a final aim was to address a measurement problem: how does wind on a microphone affect the measurement of the ambient sound level?

  3. Quality and safety issues of web-based information about herbal medicines in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alexander; Xu, Min

    2004-12-01

    A number of studies have been carried out to assess health information on the internet and they all have demonstrated that, whereas the internet can be the third opinion for many patients, often contains inaccurate and misleading information. Furthermore, as herbal medicines are increasingly used by patients, it is imperative to assess the quality of information presented on the internet. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the quality and safety of the information presented on the internet about medicinal herbs specifically in the field of cancer. Two hundred relevant websites were initially selected from a process using 10 search engines and the keywords 'herbs' and 'cancer', and 43 sites actually met all inclusion criteria. Assessment of both quality and safety indicators was carried out using the DISCERN instrument, which has been developed to enable consumers and information providers to judge the quality of health information. Readability scores of the sites were also obtained (Flesch formula). It was shown that most sites had low quality in a number of indicators, including accuracy of information, revealing sources of information, biased presentation of information or regularity of updates. The mean score for quality was 22.12 (S.D.=4.18) out of a maximum score of 50. The mean safety score was 13.26 (S.D.=2.14) out of a maximum score of 30. Commercial sites had the most inaccurate or misleading information, emphasizing only the positive aspects of the use of herbs, with little or no evidence. The only biomedical sites assessed achieved the highest score in both quality and safety. Readability of the information was equal to the school level of college (mean=44.63). Seven percent of the sites discouraged the use of conventional medicine. Results suggest that health professionals should talk about use of alternative therapies with their patients and help them find the best available information when using the internet.

  4. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  5. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  6. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  7. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  8. Dissonance: scientific paradigms underpinning the study of sound in geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to approach the different conceptions of sound – and its relations to the underlying scientific paradigms – that emerged throughout the history of geography. There has been a growing interest among geographers in understanding the spatialities of sound, and geographies of sound have become an emerging subfield of the discipline. For this reason, it is the right time to address how the discipline has approached sound throughout its history. Several theoretical perspectives influenced geography in the twentieth century, changing its methodologies and how its subjects were conceived. Sound, like other subjects, has been conceived very differently by geographers of competing paradigms. Concepts such as noise, soundscape, or sound as affect, among others, have dominated geographies of sound at specific periods. Due to the marginality of the subject in the discipline, assessments of these conceptual shifts are rare. I tackle this issue in this article as I provide a first attempt of writing a history of sound in geography. The article reviews debates regarding the name of the subfield, and the conceptions of sound in the successive and competing scientific paradigms in geography.

  9. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  10. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  11. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  12. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  13. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  14. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  15. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  16. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  17. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  18. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  19. The High Cost of Child Care Puts Quality Care out of Reach for Many Families. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Karen

    This issue brief presents data on the cost of child care, collected from local child care resource and referral agencies (CCR&Rs) surveyed by the Children's Defense Fund. The report's key findings on the high cost of child care are: (1) child care for a 4-year-old in a child care center averages $4,000 to $6,000 a year in cities and states…

  20. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  1. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 13: Strategies for managing fuels and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    The public's acceptance of forest management practices, including fuels reduction, is heavily based on how forests look. Fuels managers can improve their chances of success by considering aesthetics when making management decisions. This fact sheet reviews a three-part general strategy for managing fuels and visual quality: planning, implementation, and monitoring...

  2. Quality of Life Issues for Families Who Make the Decision to Use a Feeding Tube for Their Child with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherson, Mary Jane; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Eight families deciding to use a feeding tube to meet the nutrition needs of their children with disabilities were interviewed over a two-year period. Family decision making in the context of quality of life was examined using a theoretical family systems model. Implications for future interventions are addressed. (Author/SW)

  3. Keeping our charm: residents, growth, and quality of life issues in a small but growing Texas coastal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaying Lu; Michael A. Schuett

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed residents' perceptions of quality of life, conservation, and growth in a small, fast-growing coastal community. Data were collected from an on-site survey in Aransas County, TX, from 2006 to 2007. Results show that the residents are concerned about preserving their natural resources, maintaining a small-town atmosphere in their community, and...

  4. Strategic Issues Relating to Data Quality for E-Government: Learning from an Approach Adopted in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydens, Isabelle

    Data quality is a strategic matter in the context of e-government as the integration of services requires authentic, coherent, and reliable data. However, establishing databases that are devoid of duplication, redundancy, or ambiguity isn't simple either in theory or in practice. In the context of e-government, this problem has been neglected for too long, particularly because administrative databases have often been wrongly regarded as “simple.” We demonstrate in this chapter that this is not the case at all, in particular because of the questions of interpretation that they raise. This chapter is based on case studies stemming from the Belgian federal administration (social security, business directories, federal authentic sources, etc.). Contrary to the assertions of common theories postulating a permanent bijective relationship between data and the corresponding reality, we argue that an empirical information system evolves over time along with the interpretation of the values that it allows one to determine. To address data quality, we propose a temporal framework that provides new operational strategies to improve administrative data quality (mainly, new ways to define quality indicators for continuous monitoring and re-engineering strategies). We finally demonstrate how our approach is generally applicable in the context of empirical information systems.

  5. Problems and solutions on issues of medical care quality in community-acquired pneumonia in hospitals of Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotsmanov Yu.F.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative assessment of diagnostics and treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was carried out in ten therapeutic departments of urban and district hospitals of Saratov region, using quality indicators (Qls. Each case of CAP was assessed in expert health care quality (HCQ card according to the diagnostic and treatment quality federal standards and the basic Ql. The application of Ql in CAP patients allowed revealing the following: low CAP agent isolation rate; late hospitalization of CAP patients; low frequency of sputum bacteriological and bacterioscopic investigations prior to antibiotic therapy; insufficient frequency of step-by-step introduction of antibiotics. Recommendations on CAP patients dispenserization were not properly prescribed; recommendations on vaccination were absent. The basic measures of HCQ improvement are as follows: organizing for each CAP patient therapeutic and diagnostic quality control according to Ql; quick administrative decisions; using of HCQ expertise during the first 2-3 days of treatment to correct diagnosis and treatment; optimizing hospital diagnostic resources (laboratory and instrumental and rational pharmacotherapy

  6. Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in Their Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by sociocultural perspectives on the importance of place as a resource for learning, we investigated 14- and 15-year old students' understandings of their community and water quality during a school-based watershed unit. Methods included a theory-driven thematic analysis of field notes and video transcripts from four biology classrooms, a…

  7. Quality Issues Identified During the Evaluation of Biosimilars by the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Mark; Ruiz, Sol; Richardson, Peter; Salmonson, Tomas; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Wirth, Francesca; Borg, John Joseph

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in deficiencies raised during the EU evaluation of the quality part of dossiers for marketing authorisation applications of biosimilar medicinal products. All adopted day 120 list of questions on the quality module of 22 marketing authorisation applications for biosimilars submitted to the European Medicines Agency and concluded by the end of October 2015 was analysed. Frequencies of common deficiencies identified were calculated and summarised descriptions included. Frequencies and trends on quality deficiencies were recorded and presented for 22 biosimilar applications. Thirty-two 'major objections' for 9 products were identified from 14 marketing authorisation applications with 15 raised for drug substance and 17 for drug product. In addition, 547 'other concerns' for drug substance and 495 for drug product were also adopted. The frequencies and trends of the identified deficiencies together with their impact were discussed from a regulatory perspective and how these impact key manufacturing processes and key materials used in the production of biosimilars. This study provides an insight to the regulatory challenges prospective companies need to consider when developing biosimilars; it also helps elucidate common pitfalls in the development and production of biosimilars and in the submission of dossiers for their marketing authorisations. The results are expected to be of interest to pharmaceutical companies but also to regulators to obtain consistent information on medicinal products based on transparent rules safeguarding the necessary pharmaceutical quality of medicinal products.

  8. Research quality and efficiency: An analysis of assessments and management issues in Dutch economics and business research programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.L.C.M.; Garcia Valderrama, T.

    2006-01-01

    Assessments of quality and productivity of academic research programs become more and more important in gaining financial support, in hiring and promoting research staff, and in building academic reputation. Most assessments are based on peer review or on bibliometric information. In this paper we

  9. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  10. Sound insulation design of modular construction housing

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D. J.; Hughes, Lawrence; Campbell, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into the acoustic issues of modular housing using the Verbus System of construction. The paper briefly summarises the history of the development of Verbus modular housing and the acoustic design considerations of the process. Results are presented from two sound insulation tests conducted during the course of the project. The results are discussed in terms of compliance with Approved Document E1 and increased performance standards such as EcoHomes2.

  11. Organizational influences and quality-of-life issues during the professional socialization of certified athletic trainers working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal bond; the challenge is dealing with a bureaucratic structure and balancing one's professional and

  12. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification

  13. Precision of working memory for speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Iverson, Paul; Manohar, Sanjay; Fox, Zoe; Scott, Sophie K; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Memory for speech sounds is a key component of models of verbal working memory (WM). But how good is verbal WM? Most investigations assess this using binary report measures to derive a fixed number of items that can be stored. However, recent findings in visual WM have challenged such "quantized" views by employing measures of recall precision with an analogue response scale. WM for speech sounds might rely on both continuous and categorical storage mechanisms. Using a novel speech matching paradigm, we measured WM recall precision for phonemes. Vowel qualities were sampled from a formant space continuum. A probe vowel had to be adjusted to match the vowel quality of a target on a continuous, analogue response scale. Crucially, this provided an index of the variability of a memory representation around its true value and thus allowed us to estimate how memories were distorted from the original sounds. Memory load affected the quality of speech sound recall in two ways. First, there was a gradual decline in recall precision with increasing number of items, consistent with the view that WM representations of speech sounds become noisier with an increase in the number of items held in memory, just as for vision. Based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), the level of noise appeared to be reflected in distortions of the formant space. Second, as memory load increased, there was evidence of greater clustering of participants' responses around particular vowels. A mixture model captured both continuous and categorical responses, demonstrating a shift from continuous to categorical memory with increasing WM load. This suggests that direct acoustic storage can be used for single items, but when more items must be stored, categorical representations must be used.

  14. The Quality of Life of Employees in EU Member States. Issues Related to the Nature and Organization of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life of employees has become one of the main concerns of European employment policies in the last ten years, with the strategies that were developed taking into account the new emerging risks related to the changes in the way work is organized (flexible work arrangements, increased work intensity in order to meet deadlines, increased share of highly skilled non-manual workers, etc.. The article presents a comparative analysis between member states with respect to the quality of the life of employees, from the point of view of the nature and organization of work, focusing on one of the negative effects of overworking, especially in non-manual occupations in new member states, which has increased in incidence in the last years: stress.

  15. Cross-sectional study into quality of life issues surrounding insulin pump use in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, Katharine D.; Skinner, T. Chas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in routine care in the UK. We conducted a multiple cohort survey study of individuals with type 1 diabetes (matched for age, gender and frequency of blood glucose......-economic environment, individuals using CSII reported better QoL than a matched cohort of individuals managing their diabetes using MDI....

  16. The issue of interactional hypothesis in self-determination theory: a proposal of a new motivation quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín-Albo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The postulates of self-determination theory have been frequently gauged by a measure of motivation quality called self-determination index (SDI. This index relies on an interactional hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are not independent constructs; on the contrary, when one increases the other decreases. However, the literature on the subiect has revealed that these constructs are orthogonal and thus SDI presents measurement problems. Considering these limitations, the obiective of this research was to propose and test the effectiveness of a new way to calculate a motivation quality index (PMI: positive motivation index. Two athletes' samples were used. Results of the two studies carried out showed that PMI fit better the self-determination theory postulates than SDI did. Positive correlations were found between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and PMI, and between PMI and positive emotions. Finally, results provided preliminary support for the use of the new motivation quality index proposed from the framework of self-determination theory.

  17. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  18. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  19. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  20. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  1. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  2. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  3. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  4. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  5. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  6. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  7. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed ...

  8. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 05: QC Program Management and the Benefits of QATrack+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal Plume; Bottema, Ryan; Buckley, Lesley; Studinski, Ryan [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Treatment unit uptime statistics are typically used to monitor radiation equipment performance. The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre has introduced the use of Quality Control (QC) test success as a quality indicator for equipment performance and overall health of the equipment QC program. Methods: Implemented in 2012, QATrack+ is used to record and monitor over 1100 routine machine QC tests each month for 20 treatment and imaging units ( http://qatrackplus.com/ ). Using an SQL (structured query language) script, automated queries of the QATrack+ database are used to generate program metrics such as the number of QC tests executed and the percentage of tests passing, at tolerance or at action. These metrics are compared against machine uptime statistics already reported within the program. Results: Program metrics for 2015 show good correlation between pass rate of QC tests and uptime for a given machine. For the nine conventional linacs, the QC test success rate was consistently greater than 97%. The corresponding uptimes for these units are better than 98%. Machines that consistently show higher failure or tolerance rates in the QC tests have lower uptimes. This points to either poor machine performance requiring corrective action or to problems with the QC program. Conclusions: QATrack+ significantly improves the organization of QC data but can also aid in overall equipment management. Complimenting machine uptime statistics with QC test metrics provides a more complete picture of overall machine performance and can be used to identify areas of improvement in the machine service and QC programs.

  9. Using heuristic algorithms for capacity leasing and task allocation issues in telecommunication networks under fuzzy quality of service constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyin Turan, Hasan; Kasap, Nihat; Savran, Huseyin

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, every firm uses telecommunication networks in different amounts and ways in order to complete their daily operations. In this article, we investigate an optimisation problem that a firm faces when acquiring network capacity from a market in which there exist several network providers offering different pricing and quality of service (QoS) schemes. The QoS level guaranteed by network providers and the minimum quality level of service, which is needed for accomplishing the operations are denoted as fuzzy numbers in order to handle the non-deterministic nature of the telecommunication network environment. Interestingly, the mathematical formulation of the aforementioned problem leads to the special case of a well-known two-dimensional bin packing problem, which is famous for its computational complexity. We propose two different heuristic solution procedures that have the capability of solving the resulting nonlinear mixed integer programming model with fuzzy constraints. In conclusion, the efficiency of each algorithm is tested in several test instances to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology.

  10. Dynamic compression and sound quality of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van R.A.J.M.; Wagenaars, W.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.; Stikvoort, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude compression is often used to match the dynamic: range of music to a particular playback situation in order to ensure, e .g ., continuous audibility in a noisy environment or unobtrusiveness if the music is intended as a quiet background. Since amplitude compression is a nonlinear process,

  11. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  12. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  13. Quality issues of self-report of hypertension: analysis of a population representative sample of older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alan Chung-Hong; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the quality of self-report of hypertension and examine the factors associated with under- and over-reporting of hypertension in older Taiwanese. Data for this analysis were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers Study in Taiwan 2000, which involved a national sample of 1021 Taiwanese over 54 years of age. We performed binary classification tests to compare the prevalence rates of self-reported vs. clinically measured hypertension according to World Health Organization (WHO) (blood pressure ≥ 160/95 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) and JNC-6 (140/90 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) definitions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the potential factors associated with under- or over-reporting of blood pressure status. Results showed the test characteristics of self-reports were: sensitivity 73%, specificity 93%, and kappa = 0.68 (p WHO definition; and sensitivity 51%, specificity 95% and kappa = 0.43 (p definition. Old age was associated with over-reporting whereas having no health checkup during the past 12 months was associated with under-reporting. The relatively low agreement between self-reports and clinically measured hypertension (JNC-6 definition) was mainly due to the lack of a well-defined hypertension practice guideline and the failure of clinicians to clearly inform patients of their diagnoses. The consistency of hypertension practice guidelines and the effectiveness of informing the patients of their diagnoses are two main factors impacting the quality of self-report of hypertension in elderly Taiwanese. Better self-reports of health data can improve the efficiency of public health surveillance efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  15. Reversal of the decline in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia? Ethnic and educational differentials and data quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaVanzo, J; Sine, J; Peterson, C; Haaga, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys in 1976 and 1988, respectively, are analyzed to examine long-term trends in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia, educational and ethnic differences therein, and the quality of retrospective data on infant feeding. The steady decrease between the mid-1950's and mid-1970's in breastfeeding was reversed to become a nearly monotonic increase since 1975. Part of the change is attributable to the changing composition of the Malaysian population. Over time, the percentages of births to subgroups with higher rates of breastfeeding--particularly Malays and more highly educated women--have increased. However, there is also evidence of changes in rates of breastfeeding within these subgroups. Many Malaysian infants have a total duration of breastfeeding (including with supplementation) considerably shorter than WHO's recommended four months of exclusive (unsupplemented) breastfeeding. Moreover, nearly all breastfed infants are first given supplementary food or beverage shortly after birth. Breastfeeding promotion efforts in Malaysia need to emphasize the appropriate timing of and types of supplementary feeding.

  16. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  17. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  18. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  19. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  20. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  1. Development of the Database for Environmental Sound Research and Application (DESRA: Design, Functionality, and Retrieval Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gygi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and applied environmental sounds research is gaining prominence but progress has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, high quality, accessible database of environmental sounds. An ongoing project to develop such a resource is described, which is based upon experimental evidence as to the way we listen to sounds in the world. The database will include a large number of sounds produced by different sound sources, with a thorough background for each sound file, including experimentally obtained perceptual data. In this way DESRA can contain a wide variety of acoustic, contextual, semantic, and behavioral information related to an individual sound. It will be accessible on the Internet and will be useful to researchers, engineers, sound designers, and musicians.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... This article is devoted to the modeling of sound absorption .... two-channel sound level meter, 6 - white noise generator. ... sound pressure was perceived by two microphones 3, 4, connected with the sound level meter. 5.

  3. Optical Reading and Playing of Sound Signals from Vinyl Records

    OpenAIRE

    Hensman, Arnold; Casey, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    While advanced digital music systems such as compact disk players and MP3 have become the standard in sound reproduction technology, critics claim that conversion to digital often results in a loss of sound quality and richness. For this reason, vinyl records remain the medium of choice for many audiophiles involved in specialist areas. The waveform cut into a vinyl record is an exact replica of the analogue version from the original source. However, while some perceive this media as reproduc...

  4. Adaptive sound speed correction for abdominal ultrasonography: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sungmin; Kang, Jeeun; Song, Tai-Kyung; Yoo, Yangmo

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonography has been conducting a critical role in assessing abdominal disorders due to its noninvasive, real-time, low cost, and deep penetrating capabilities. However, for imaging obese patients with a thick fat layer, it is challenging to achieve appropriate image quality with a conventional beamforming (CON) method due to phase aberration caused by the difference between sound speeds (e.g., 1580 and 1450m/s for liver and fat, respectively). For this, various sound speed correction (SSC) methods that estimate the accumulated sound speed for a region-of interest (ROI) have been previously proposed. However, with the SSC methods, the improvement in image quality was limited only for a specific depth of ROI. In this paper, we present the adaptive sound speed correction (ASSC) method, which can enhance the image quality for whole depths by using estimated sound speeds from two different depths in the lower layer. Since these accumulated sound speeds contain the respective contributions of layers, an optimal sound speed for each depth can be estimated by solving contribution equations. To evaluate the proposed method, the phantom study was conducted with pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data acquired with a SonixTouch research package (Ultrasonix Corp., Canada) with linear and convex probes from the gel pad-stacked tissue mimicking phantom (Parker Lab. Inc., USA and Model539, ATS, USA) whose sound speeds are 1610 and 1450m/s, respectively. From the study, compared to the CON and SSC methods, the ASSC method showed the improved spatial resolution and information entropy contrast (IEC) for convex and linear array transducers, respectively. These results indicate that the ASSC method can be applied for enhancing image quality when imaging obese patients in abdominal ultrasonography.

  5. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  6. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  7. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  8. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  9. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  10. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  11. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  12. Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Sato

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility.

  13. SOUND-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY USING FIRST-ARRIVAL TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND FOR A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; QUAN, YOULI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-31

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  14. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  15. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  16. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  17. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  18. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  19. Non-musical sound branding – a conceptualization and research overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graakjær, Nicolai J.; Bonde, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of sound branding by developing a new conceptual framework and providing an overview of the research literature on non-musical sound. Design/methodology/approach Using four mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive types of non......-musical sound, the paper assesses and synthesizes 99 significant studies across various scholarly fields. Findings The overview reveals two areas in which more research may be warranted, that is, non-musical atmospherics and non-musical sonic logos. Moreover, future sound-branding research should examine...... in further detail the potentials of developed versus annexed object sounds, and mediated versus unmediated brand sounds. Research limitations/implications The paper provides important insights into critical issues that suggest directions for further research on non-musical sound branding. Practical...

  20. Quality assurance of metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Beger, Richard; Flynn, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Harris, Georgina; Hogberg, Helena; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Kamp, Hennicke; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Pamies, David; Robertson, Donald; Smirnova, Lena; Sun, Jinchun; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics promises a holistic phenotypic characterization of biological responses to toxicants. This technology is based on advanced chemical analytical tools with reasonable throughput, including mass-spectroscopy and NMR. Quality assurance, however - from experimental design, sample preparation, metabolite identification, to bioinformatics data-mining - is urgently needed to assure both quality of metabolomics data and reproducibility of biological models. In contrast to microarray-based transcriptomics, where consensus on quality assurance and reporting standards has been fostered over the last two decades, quality assurance of metabolomics is only now emerging. Regulatory use in safety sciences, and even proper scientific use of these technologies, demand quality assurance. In an effort to promote this discussion, an expert workshop discussed the quality assurance needs of metabolomics. The goals for this workshop were 1) to consider the challenges associated with metabolomics as an emerging science, with an emphasis on its application in toxicology and 2) to identify the key issues to be addressed in order to establish and implement quality assurance procedures in metabolomics-based toxicology. Consensus has still to be achieved regarding best practices to make sure sound, useful, and relevant information is derived from these new tools.

  1. Predicting the Reasons of Customer Complaints: A First Step Toward Anticipating Quality Issues of In Vitro Diagnostics Assays with Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris-Brosou, Stephane; Kim, James; Li, Li; Liu, Hui

    2018-05-15

    Vendors in the health care industry produce diagnostic systems that, through a secured connection, allow them to monitor performance almost in real time. However, challenges exist in analyzing and interpreting large volumes of noisy quality control (QC) data. As a result, some QC shifts may not be detected early enough by the vendor, but lead a customer to complain. The aim of this study was to hypothesize that a more proactive response could be designed by utilizing the collected QC data more efficiently. Our aim is therefore to help prevent customer complaints by predicting them based on the QC data collected by in vitro diagnostic systems. QC data from five select in vitro diagnostic assays were combined with the corresponding database of customer complaints over a period of 90 days. A subset of these data over the last 45 days was also analyzed to assess how the length of the training period affects predictions. We defined a set of features used to train two classifiers, one based on decision trees and the other based on adaptive boosting, and assessed model performance by cross-validation. The cross-validations showed classification error rates close to zero for some assays with adaptive boosting when predicting the potential cause of customer complaints. Performance was improved by shortening the training period when the volume of complaints increased. Denoising filters that reduced the number of categories to predict further improved performance, as their application simplified the prediction problem. This novel approach to predicting customer complaints based on QC data may allow the diagnostic industry, the expected end user of our approach, to proactively identify potential product quality issues and fix these before receiving customer complaints. This represents a new step in the direction of using big data toward product quality improvement. ©Stephane Aris-Brosou, James Kim, Li Li, Hui Liu. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http

  2. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  3. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  4. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  5. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  6. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  7. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  8. Neuromimetic Sound Representation for Percept Detection and Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Taishih

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic wave received at the ears is processed by the human auditory system to separate different sounds along the intensity, pitch, and timbre dimensions. Conventional Fourier-based signal processing, while endowed with fast algorithms, is unable to easily represent a signal along these attributes. In this paper, we discuss the creation of maximally separable sounds in auditory user interfaces and use a recently proposed cortical sound representation, which performs a biomimetic decomposition of an acoustic signal, to represent and manipulate sound for this purpose. We briefly overview algorithms for obtaining, manipulating, and inverting a cortical representation of a sound and describe algorithms for manipulating signal pitch and timbre separately. The algorithms are also used to create sound of an instrument between a "guitar" and a "trumpet." Excellent sound quality can be achieved if processing time is not a concern, and intelligible signals can be reconstructed in reasonable processing time (about ten seconds of computational time for a one-second signal sampled at . Work on bringing the algorithms into the real-time processing domain is ongoing.

  9. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  10. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  11. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    be met. The classification system is based on limit values for airborne sound insulation, impact sound pressure level, reverberation time and indoor and outdoor noise levels. The purpose of the standard is to offer a tool for specification of a standardised acoustic climate and to promote constructors......A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  13. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  14. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine how well various methodologic textwords, Medical Subject Headings, and their Boolean combinations retrieve methodologically sound literature on the prognosis of health disorders in MEDLINE. Methods An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for candidate search terms and combinations. Six research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. All articles were rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of prognosis and other clinical topics. Candidate search strategies were developed for prognosis and run in MEDLINE – the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 12% of studies classified as prognosis met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 90%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 25.2% (absolute increase, and increased specificity, but by a much smaller amount (1.1% when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize both sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities of approximately 83% for each. Conclusion Empirically derived

  15. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  16. Effects of wind turbine wake on atmospheric sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine considering the effects of wake-induced velocity deficit and turbulence. In order to address this issue, an advanced approach was developed in which both scalar and vector parabolic equations in two dimensions are solved. Flow...

  17. Typewriting: Personal-Use Typewriting--A Sound Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Arnola; Rhea, Jeanine

    1977-01-01

    Because educators are recognizing the contributions that typewriting can make as a tool of communication, greater numbers of personal-use typewriting courses are being offered in which students will develop an effective skill for personal use, as well as gain a sound foundation for further study in a vocational course. The major issue is one of…

  18. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  19. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  20. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  1. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  2. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  3. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  4. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  5. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    Environmental sounds are what we hear everyday, or more generally sounds that surround us ambient or background audio. Humans utilize both vision and hearing to respond to their surroundings, a capability still quite limited in machine processing. The first step toward achieving multimodal input applications is the ability to process unstructured audio and recognize audio scenes (or environments). Such ability would have applications in content analysis and mining of multimedia data or improving robustness in context aware applications through multi-modality, such as in assistive robotics, surveillances, or mobile device-based services. The goal of this thesis is on the characterization of unstructured environmental sounds for understanding and predicting the context surrounding of an agent or device. Most research on audio recognition has focused primarily on speech and music. Less attention has been paid to the challenges and opportunities for using audio to characterize unstructured audio. My research focuses on investigating challenging issues in characterizing unstructured environmental audio and to develop novel algorithms for modeling the variations of the environment. The first step in building a recognition system for unstructured auditory environment was to investigate on techniques and audio features for working with such audio data. We begin by performing a study that explore suitable features and the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information. In my initial investigation to explore the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information, I have found that traditional recognition and feature extraction for audio were not suitable for environmental sound, as they lack any type of structures, unlike those of speech and music which contain formantic and harmonic structures, thus dispelling the notion that traditional speech and music recognition techniques can simply

  6. FTIR Calibration Methods and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Gaetan

    Over the past 10 years, several space-borne FTIR missions were launched for atmospheric research, environmental monitoring and meteorology. One can think of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) launched by the European Space Agency, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) launched by the Canadian Space Agency, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) launched by NASA and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched by Eumetsat in Europe. Others are near to be launched, namely the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the Integrated Program Of- fice in the United States and the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Moreover, several missions under definition foresee the use of this technology as sensor, e.g. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), Eumetsat Polar System (EPS) and the Premier mission, one of the six candidates of the next ESA Earth Explorer Core Mission. In order to produce good quality products, calibration is essential. Calibrated data is the output of three main sub-systems that are tightly coupled: the instrument, the calibration targets and the level 1B processor. Calibration requirements must be carefully defined and propagated to each sub-system. Often, they are carried out by different parties which add to the complexity. Under budget and schedule pressure, some aspects are sometimes neglected and jeopardized final quality. For space-borne FTIR, level 1B outputs are spectra that are radiometrically, spectrally calibrated and geolocated. Radiometric calibration means to assign an intensity value in units to the y-axis. Spectral calibration means to assign to the x-axis the proper frequency value in units. Finally, geolocated means to assign a target position over the earth geoid i.e. longitude, latitude and altitude. This paper will present calibration methods and issues related to space-borne FTIR missions, e.g. two

  7. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  8. Supporting sound partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, B.

    2009-01-01

    According to the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board's (ERCB) business plan, the ERCB needs to continue its priority of assessing the interests of government, industry, the public and other stakeholders and be responsive to their needs. This presentation discussed the evolution of noise criteria requirements and the establishment of a regulatory foundation with ERCB Directive 038, which is the only comprehensive noise requirement in the province and works towards building relationships with industry and the community to address noise issues. The role of the field centres was also outlined. Their role is to respond and investigate noise complaints throughout the province; communicate with landowners and industry on the front lines; and identify compliance of facilities. Alternative dispute resolution and noise issues were discussed. The field centres facilitate communication between landowners and industry and resolution of noise issues through a collaborative process. The presentation also outlined the role of community and Aboriginal involvement; the role of synergy groups; and successes such as the Sundre Petroleum Operators Group and Aberdeen Pilot Project. It was concluded that Directive 038 promotes noise awareness and strong partnerships with stakeholders.

  9. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  11. Between Precautionary Principle and "Sound Science": Distributing the Burdens of Proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, v.d. H.; Gremmen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Opponents of biotechnology ofteninvoke the Precautionary Principle to advancetheir cause, whereas biotech enthusiasts preferto appeal to ``sound science.'' Publicauthorities are still groping for a usefuldefinition. A crucial issue in this debate isthe distribution of the burden of proof amongthe

  12. Enabling Teachers to Develop Pedagogically Sound and Technically Executable Learning Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Van der Klink, M., Boon, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Enabling Teachers to Develop Pedagogically Sound and Technically Executable Learning Designs [Special issue: Learning Design]. Distance Education, 30(2), 259-276.

  13. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  14. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  15. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  16. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. The osseous external auditory canal : Surgery, shape, and sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, E.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis describes three aspects of the osseous external auditory canal (OEAC) which are related to each other: Surgery of the OEAC, the shape of the OEAC and the perceived sound quality due to the resonance function of the OEAC. Several aspects of the surgical intervention (Canalplasty) in

  18. Physically based sound synthesis and control of jumping sounds on an elastic trampoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Pugliese, Roberto; Takala, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a system to interactively sonify the foot-floor contacts resulting from jumping on an elastic trampoline. The sonification was achieved by means of a synthesis engine based on physical models reproducing the sounds of jumping on several surface materials. The engine was contr......This paper describes a system to interactively sonify the foot-floor contacts resulting from jumping on an elastic trampoline. The sonification was achieved by means of a synthesis engine based on physical models reproducing the sounds of jumping on several surface materials. The engine...... was controlled in real-time by pro- cessing the signal captured by a contact microphone which was attached to the membrane of the trampoline in order to detect each jump. A user study was conducted to evaluate the quality of the in- teractive sonification. Results proved the success of the proposed algorithms...

  19. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  20. Children with congenital limb deficiency in Norway: issues related to school life and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Heidi; Dammann, Brede; Øinæs Andersen, Liv; Andresen, Inger-Lise

    2016-09-01

    To describe clinical features, issues related to school life and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children with congenital limb deficiency (CLD) and compare these children to Norwegian school children on HRQOL. Cross-sectional study. In 2010, a postal questionnaire, designed for this study and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), was sent to 154 eligible parents of children with CLD, aged 6-18 years and registered at TRS National Resource Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Response rate 44% (n = 67), median age 11 years, 42% were girls. Of the total group, 46 had unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) and 21 had multiple/lower limb deficiency (MLD/LLD). The most common UULD was below-elbow deficiency, of these, 65% used grip-improving devices, and 35% used prostheses. Children with UULD-reported PedsQL score similar to Norwegian schoolchildren (NSC). The MLD/LLD group was heterogeneous; most had below-elbow/knee deficiency. In this group, PedsQL scores were reduced for physical and social functioning compared with NSC. Compared with children with UULD, more children with MLD/LLD were restricted in participation because of pain and fewer participated in physical education with peers. Most children with CLD participated with their peers and managed well in everyday life. Children with MLD/LLD seemed to have more challenges than children with UULD. Approximately one-third of all the children had assistive devices and/or practical assistance in school. Implications for Rehabilitation Most children with upper-limb deficiency (UULD) in Norway manage well in everyday life and have HRQOL equal to other Norwegian children. Many choose grip-improving devices instead of prostheses. Their preferences should be respected and taken into account as the need for new assistive devices arise. For children with pronounced disabilities, access to, and use of, assistive devices, adaptions and practical assistance may be important for participation

  1. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  2. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  3. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  4. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  5. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  7. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  8. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  9. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  10. [The system of quality management in medical laboratory: the problematic issues of implementation of GOST RKS 9001-2008, GOST R ISO 15189-2009 and GOST R ISO 53079-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, T I

    2013-04-01

    The article presents the approaches to development and implementation of system of quality management in laboratory as an integral part of the given system in whole medical institution. The costs of works execution concerning quality support are to be weighted with economic profitability and timeliness of medical care provision to ill people considering pre-analytic stage (out-laboratory and in-laboratory) laboratory analysis. Factually it is a matter of development of system of balanced indicators concerning quality management of institution and laboratory functioning. The problematic issues are presented concerning maintenance of particular requirements of GOSTR ISO 15189 about quality of production. The emphasis is made on the necessity of training of administrations of laboratories in the field of quality management and economics of laboratory business.

  11. Sounding ruins: reflections on the production of an ‘audio drift’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the use of audio media in researching places, which I term ‘audio geography’. The article narrates some episodes from the production of an ‘audio drift’, an experimental environmental sound work designed to be listened to on a portable MP3 player whilst walking in a ruinous landscape. Reflecting on how this work functions, I argue that, as well as representing places, audio geography can shape listeners’ attention and bodily movements, thereby reworking places, albeit temporarily. I suggest that audio geography is particularly apt for amplifying the haunted and uncanny qualities of places. I discuss some of the issues raised for research ethics, epistemology and spectral geographies. PMID:29708107

  12. A basis for sound management-plant-operator interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Sound management-plant-operator interface is based on the application of suitable quality assurance principles. Quality assurance can aptly be termed ''putting priority and emphasis where such are due''. Accordingly, the application of suitable quality assurance principles achieves the all-important combination of both safety and production. Neither of these is mutually exclusive of the other, and both together establish the prime foundation for long-term nuclear power plant operation. This paper presents the application of suitable quality assurance principles to the management, the plant, the operators, and the interface between them. (author)

  13. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...... constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing...

  14. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  15. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  16. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  17. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... The formulas for determining the sound absorption coefficient are shown. Keywords: sound absorption, damping, noise, noise protection, intensity of sound fluxes. 1. INTRODUCTION. The suppression of negative sound flux - noise has become an actual problem of our time. Noise, affecting people, in terms ...

  19. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  20. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  1. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  2. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  3. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  5. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  6. Exposure to a patient-centered, Web-based intervention for managing cancer symptom and quality of life issues: impact on symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Blonquist, Traci M; Patel, Rupa A; Halpenny, Barbara; McReynolds, Justin

    2015-06-03

    Effective eHealth interventions can benefit a large number of patients with content intended to support self-care and management of both chronic and acute conditions. Even though usage statistics are easily logged in most eHealth interventions, usage or exposure has rarely been reported in trials, let alone studied in relationship to effectiveness. The intent of the study was to evaluate use of a fully automated, Web-based program, the Electronic Self Report Assessment-Cancer (ESRA-C), and how delivery and total use of the intervention may have affected cancer symptom distress. Patients at two cancer centers used ESRA-C to self-report symptom and quality of life (SxQOL) issues during therapy. Participants were randomized to ESRA-C assessment only (control) or the ESRA-C intervention delivered via the Internet to patients' homes or to a tablet at the clinic. The intervention enabled participants to self-monitor SxQOL and receive self-care education and customized coaching on how to report concerns to clinicians. Overall and voluntary intervention use were defined as having ≥2 exposures, and one non-prompted exposure to the intervention, respectively. Factors associated with intervention use were explored with Fisher's exact test. Propensity score matching was used to select a sample of control participants similar to intervention participants who used the intervention. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare change in Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15) scores from pre-treatment to end-of-study by groups in the matched sample. Radiation oncology participants used the intervention, overall and voluntarily, more than medical oncology and transplant participants. Participants who were working and had more than a high school education voluntarily used the intervention more. The SDS-15 score was reduced by an estimated 1.53 points (P=.01) in the intervention group users compared to the matched control group. The intended effects of a Web-based, patient

  7. ``I Didn't Realize that Science Could Be So Useful'': Integrating Service Learning and Student Research on Water-Quality Issues within an Undergraduate Geoscience Curriculum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, P. D.; Urquhart, J.

    2010-12-01

    The title quote, from a senior geoscience major, illustrates one of the important aspects of service learning. The associated authentic research experiences benefit not only learning of geoscience concepts, but also students’ perceptions of the role of science in society. For the past two years, a wide-ranging study of water-quality dynamics in the Androscoggin Lake watershed of Maine has engaged (1) introductory students and non-science majors in spring-semester courses, (2) upper-level geoscience majors in fall-semester courses, and (3) seniors undertaking independent summer research. The overall focus of the research is to understand nutrient loading to Androscoggin Lake, which receives back-flooded water from the industrialized Androscoggin River, as well as from agricultural lands in the connecting Dead River valley. Stakeholders include the local lake association, the state DEP, pulp-mill and wastewater-plant operators, and local farmers. A key element in the project is the role adopted by the student researchers vis-à-vis policy options. Following the taxonomy of Pielke (2007, The Honest Broker: Cambridge University Press), students doing service learning may serve as issue advocates, seeking to provide scientific support for the policy positions of community partners. In contrast, we have adopted explicitly the position of honest brokers who seek to understand and communicate the workings of this complex system without advocating specific policy solutions. This approach has facilitated buy-in from a larger range of stakeholders, and encouraged students to address choices in the roles and responsibilities of scientists in policy decisions—a valuable perspective for future scientists and non-scientists alike. In service-learning courses, groups of 3 to 5 students engage in a variety of sub-projects, such as lake-bottom sediment studies, nutrient sampling in streams and lakes, developing rating curves for streamflow, and calculating phosphorus fluxes

  8. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Managing Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kelemen, Mihaela L

    2002-01-01

    Managing Quality provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis of quality management discourses and techniques by drawing on a number of management disciplines such as operations management, HRM, organizational behaviour, strategy, marketing and organization theory. The book: - introduces readers to key concepts and issues in quality management - provides an overview of both managerial and critical perspectives on quality management - presents the 'wisdom' of quality management gurus - documents the way quality is pursued in manufacturing, service and public sector organizations - comp

  11. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided psound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Search for fourth sound propagation in supersolid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Y.; Kojima, H.; Lin, X.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study is carried out to search for fourth sound propagation solid 4 He samples below 500 mK down to 40 mK between 25 and 56 bar using the techniques of heat pulse generator and titanium superconducting transition edge bolometer. If solid 4 He is endowed with superfluidity below 200 mK, as indicated by recent torsional oscillator experiments, theories predict fourth sound propagation in such a supersolid state. If found, fourth sound would provide convincing evidence for superfluidity and a new tool for studying the new phase. The search for a fourth sound-like mode is based on the response of the bolometers to heat pulses traveling through cylindrical samples of solids grown with different crystal qualities. Bolometers with increasing sensitivity are constructed. The heater generator amplitude is reduced to the sensitivity limit to search for any critical velocity effects. The fourth sound velocity is expected to vary as ∞ √ Ρ s /ρ. Searches for a signature in the bolometer response with such a characteristic temperature dependence are made. The measured response signal has not so far revealed any signature of a new propagating mode within a temperature excursion of 5 μK from the background signal shape. Possible reasons for this negative result are discussed. Prior to the fourth sound search, the temperature dependence of heat pulse propagation was studied as it transformed from 'second sound' in the normal solid 4 He to transverse ballistic phonon propagation. Our work extends the studies of [V. Narayanamurti and R. C. Dynes, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1731 (1975)] to higher pressures and to lower temperatures. The measured transverse ballistic phonon propagation velocity is found to remain constant (within the 0.3% scatter of the data) below 100 mK at all pressures and reveals no indication of an onset of supersolidity. The overall dynamic thermal response of solid to heat input is found to depend strongly on the sample preparation procedure

  14. Extended abstracts from the Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) 2006 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Fuentes, Tracy L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.

    2010-01-01

    Puget Sound is the second largest estuary in the United States. Its unique geology, climate, and nutrient-rich waters produce and sustain biologically productive coastal habitats. These same natural characteristics also contribute to a high quality of life that has led to a significant growth in human population and associated development. This population growth, and the accompanying rural and urban development, has played a role in degrading Puget Sound ecosystems, including declines in fish and wildlife populations, water-quality issues, and loss and degradation of coastal habitats.In response to these ecosystem declines and the potential for strategic large-scale preservation and restoration, a coalition of local, State, and Federal agencies, including the private sector, Tribes, and local universities, initiated the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project (PSNERP). The Nearshore Science Team (NST) of PSNERP, along with the U.S. Geological Survey, developed a Science Strategy and Research Plan (Gelfenbaum and others, 2006) to help guide science activities associated with nearshore ecosystem restoration. Implementation of the Research Plan includes a call for State and Federal agencies to direct scientific studies to support PSNERP information needs. In addition, the overall Science Strategy promotes greater communication with decision makers and dissemination of scientific results to the broader scientific community.On November 14–16, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored an interdisciplinary Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) Research Workshop at Fort Worden State Park, Port Townsend, Washington. The main goals of the workshop were to coordinate, integrate, and link research on the nearshore of Puget Sound. Presented research focused on three themes: (1) restoration of large river deltas; (2) recovery of the nearshore ecosystem of the Elwha River; and (3) effects of urbanization on nearshore ecosystems. The more than 35 presentations

  15. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  16. The Contribution of Sound Intensity in Vocal Emotion Perception: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuhai; Yang, Jianfeng; Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies. PMID:22291928

  17. The contribution of sound intensity in vocal emotion perception: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhai Chen

    Full Text Available Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies.

  18. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  19. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  20. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"