WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound monitoring screen

  1. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  2. Sound solutions for habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Christina D. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    For agencies and organizations to effectively manage wildlife, knowledge about the status and trend of wildlife habitat is critical. Traditional wildlife monitoring, however, has focused on populations rather than habitat, because ultimately population status drives long-term species viability. Still, habitat loss has contributed to the decline of nearly all at-risk...

  3. Electromagnetic Sampo monitoring soundings at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Korpisalo, A.; Ojamo, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland has carried out electromagnetic frequency-domain depth soundings at fixed measurement stations in Olkiluoto annually since 2004. The purpose of the soundings is to monitor the groundwater conditions in the vicinity of the ONKALO rock characterization facility which will ultimately be part of the final nuclear waste disposal facility for the Finnish nuclear power companies. A new monitoring survey was carried out at the turn of May-June 2010. The survey resulted in 38 successfully performed soundings at 10 stations. The data set spanning the time period of 2004 to 2010 was interpreted with layered-earth models. Most of the interpretations indicate no systematic changes in the level of deep saline groundwater. However, at one station there are indications of a systematic rise in the groundwater level. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of chewing sounds for dietary monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Stäger, M.; Lukowicz, P.; Tröster, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the first stage of our work on an automatic dietary monitoring system. The work is part of a large European project on using ubiquitous systems to support healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention. We demonstrate that sound from the user's mouth can be

  5. THE MODEL FOR DIEGETIC ANALYSIS OF SOUNDS IN SCREEN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of the relationship between representational visual spaces and sounds in screen media. The methodology presented in this paper can be used for the accurate classification and differentiation for screen sounds, as well as for the general analysis of the specific sound of screen media. For this, the concept of «diegesis» is used. It allows us to analyze the spatial specificity of audiovisual images in cinematographic works and the spatial-functional interactive action in video games and others multimedia.

  6. High sound screening in low impedance slit arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Hector; Bravo, Jose Maria; Meseguer, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We report on the key role of the acoustical impedance ratio between the solid and the host fluid in the transmission properties of slit arrays. Numerical calculations predict huge sound screening effects up to 60 dB for low impedance ratio values. The screening band appears over a broad frequency region and is very robust against dissipative losses of the material as well as against the sound incident angle. This counterintuitive result is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic short circuit, where the fluid and the solid at the radiating interface vibrate out of phase, resulting in a huge sound blocking effect.

  7. Monitoring hydraulic stimulation using telluric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Nigel; Heinson, Graham; Conway, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    The telluric sounding (TS) method is introduced as a potential tool for monitoring hydraulic fracturing at depth. The advantage of this technique is that it requires only the measurement of electric fields, which are cheap and easy when compared with magnetotelluric measurements. Additionally, the transfer function between electric fields from two locations is essentially the identity matrix for a 1D Earth no matter what the vertical structure. Therefore, changes in the earth resulting from the introduction of conductive bodies underneath one of these sites can be associated with deviations away from the identity matrix, with static shift appearing as a galvanic multiplier at all periods. Singular value decomposition and eigenvalue analysis can reduce the complexity of the resulting telluric distortion matrix to simpler parameters that can be visualised in the form of Mohr circles. This technique would be useful in constraining the lateral extent of resistivity changes. We test the viability of utilising the TS method for monitoring on both a synthetic dataset and for a hydraulic stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system case study conducted in Paralana, South Australia. The synthetic data example shows small but consistent changes in the transfer functions associated with hydraulic stimulation, with grids of Mohr circles introduced as a useful diagnostic tool for visualising the extent of fluid movement. The Paralana electric field data were relatively noisy and affected by the dead band making the analysis of transfer functions difficult. However, changes in the order of 5% were observed from 5 s to longer periods. We conclude that deep monitoring using the TS method is marginal at depths in the order of 4 km and that in order to have meaningful interpretations, electric field data need to be of a high quality with low levels of site noise.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. A Two-Level Sound Classification Platform for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios A. Mitilineos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available STORM is an ongoing European research project that aims at developing an integrated platform for monitoring, protecting, and managing cultural heritage sites through technical and organizational innovation. Part of the scheduled preventive actions for the protection of cultural heritage is the development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs that will be used for assessing the impact of human-generated activities as well as for monitoring potentially hazardous environmental phenomena. Collected sound samples will be forwarded to a central server where they will be automatically classified in a hierarchical manner; anthropogenic and environmental activity will be monitored, and stakeholders will be alarmed in the case of potential malevolent behavior or natural phenomena like excess rainfall, fire, gale, high tides, and waves. Herein, we present an integrated platform that includes sound sample denoising using wavelets, feature extraction from sound samples, Gaussian mixture modeling of these features, and a powerful two-layer neural network for automatic classification. We contribute to previous work by extending the proposed classification platform to perform low-level classification too, i.e., classify sounds to further subclasses that include airplane, car, and pistol sounds for the anthropogenic sound class; bird, dog, and snake sounds for the biophysical sound class; and fire, waterfall, and gale for the geophysical sound class. Classification results exhibit outstanding classification accuracy in both high-level and low-level classification thus demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  9. Pollution monitoring of puget sound with honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, J J; Carlson, S R; Simpson, J C; Thomas, J M

    1985-02-08

    To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were generated. Results, based on actual concentrations of contaminants in bee tissues, show that the greatest concentrations of contaminants occur close to Commencement Bay and that honey bees are effective as large-scale monitors.

  10. Sound at the zoo: Using animal monitoring, sound measurement, and noise reduction in zoo animal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Soltis, Joseph; Perkins, Lori; Mellen, Jill D

    2017-05-01

    A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels. A case study of a female giant anteater and her environment is presented to illustrate how this process worked. Associated with this case, several sound-reducing barriers were tested for efficacy in mitigating sound. Integrating daily animal welfare assessment with environmental monitoring can lead to a better understanding of animals and their sensory environment and positively impact animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Interpretation of electromagnetic Sampo monitoring soundings of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.

    2010-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has carried out electromagnetic Sampo soundings at Olkiluoto annually since 2004 commissioned by Posiva. The soundings have been carried out at the same measurement stations every year. The goal of the soundings is to detect any changes in the electrical conditions of the bedrock surrounding the ONKALO underground research facility. This study aims to detect possible changes in the groundwater conditions using modelling. The sensitivity of the Sampo method to changes in the electrical properties and the level of groundwater were investigated as part of this study. The results of the sensitivity investigation indicate that the Sampo method is capable of detecting changes occurring even quite deep in the bedrock. Thus, the usage of the Sampo method to monitor the groundwater conditions is warranted. The plots of apparent resistivity as a function of depth indicate that the area directly above the ONKALO facility is very disturbed electromagnetically. However, most of the soundings to the east and west of ONKALO are of better quality and were interpreted. The results indicate possible changes in the groundwater conditions. The level of saline groundwater may be sinking in the eastern part while it may be rising on the western part. (orig.)

  12. Electromagnetic SAMPO monitoring soundings at Olkiluoto 2011 with updated interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.

    2013-11-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has carried out electromagnetic depth soundings annually at fixed stations in Olkiluoto since 2004 as part of a monitoring programme. The goal of the programme is to detect and monitor changes in the electrical properties of the bedrock above and in the vicinity of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility. A new Sampo monitoring survey was carried out during September-October 2011. The survey resulted in 39 soundings at 17 measurement stations. The nominal coil separations of 200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 meters were used. Eight stations were selected for detailed annual layer-model interpretation. The layer models were based on prior geological and geophysical knowledge of the area. The thicknesses of the layer-model layers were kept fixed whereas their resistivities were solved for each subsequent year independent of each other. Many time series indicate clear trends in electrical resistivity. However, even though the data was carefully corrected and edited, the time series display a fairly large amount of variability increasing the uncertainty of the calculated trends. (orig.)

  13. Upgrade Of The ESRF Fluorescent Screen Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidt, K

    2003-01-01

    The ESRF injector system contains 23 Fluorescent Screen monitors: 4 in the TL-1 transferline (200 MeV), 8 in the Booster, and 11 in the TL-2 transferline (6 GeV). They are based on Chromium doped Alumina screens that are pneumatically inserted at 45o angle in the beam path with an optical system, at 90o angle, collecting and focusing the emitted light onto a low-cost CCD camera with standard 75Ω video output. Serving mainly alignment purposes in the past 10 years, the present upgrade aims at a 200 μm fwhm resolution for beam-size and profile measurements. The particularity of the Alumina screen not in vacuum but in atmosphere will be explained. Details of the mechanics, the optic system and a cost-efficient way of light flux adjustment will be given. The analysis of the factors determining the ultimate spatial resolution will show that it is dominated by the screen characteristics. Results obtained with different screen material will be presented.

  14. Water quality monitoring and data collection in the Mississippi sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runner, Michael S.; Creswell, R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources are collecting data on the quality of the water in the Mississippi Sound of the Gulf of Mexico, and streamflow data for its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting continuous water-level data, continuous and discrete water-temperature data, continuous and discrete specific-conductance data, as well as chloride and salinity samples at two locations in the Mississippi Sound and three Corps of Engineers tidal gages. Continuous-discharge data are also being collected at two additional stations on tributaries. The Mississippi Department of Marine Resources collects water samples at 169 locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Between 1800 and 2000 samples are collected annually which are analyzed for turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria. The continuous data are made available real-time through the internet and are being used in conjunction with streamflow data, weather data, and sampling data for the monitoring and management of the oyster reefs, the shrimp fishery and other marine species and their habitats.

  15. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  16. Puget Sound Intertidal Habitat Inventory; Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program, 1996 (NODC Accession 9900221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound's intertidal areas provide habitat for species of commercial, recreational, biotic, and aesthetic value. Habitat is a critical ecosystem component -- it...

  17. Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M

    2012-01-01

    In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.

  18. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis.

  19. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) can provide valuable data to constrain and calibrate groundwater flow and transport models. With this non-invasive geophysical technique, field measurements of water content and hydraulic conductivities can be obtained. We developed a hydrogeophyiscal forward...

  20. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Data for Puget Sound - SoundToxins: Partnership for Enhanced Monitoring and Emergency Response to Harmful Algal Blooms in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Toxic outbreaks of species of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium have become pervasive in the Puget Sound region over the last two decades, escalating the threats to...

  1. Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Luis F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). MIPAS acts as a proxy for typical infrared limb emission sounders, while MLS acts as a proxy for microwave limb sounders. These biases were calculated for temperature and several trace gases by interpolating model fields to real sampling patterns and, additionally, screening those locations as directed by their corresponding quality criteria. Both instruments have dense uniform sampling patterns typical of limb emission sounders, producing almost identical sampling biases. However, there is a substantial difference between the number of locations discarded. MIPAS, as a mid-infrared instrument, is very sensitive to clouds, and measurements affected by them are thus rejected from the analysis. For example, in the tropics, the MIPAS yield is strongly affected by clouds, while MLS is mostly unaffected. The results show that upper-tropospheric sampling biases in zonally averaged data, for both instruments, can be up to 10 to 30 %, depending on the species, and up to 3 K for temperature. For MIPAS, the sampling reduction due to quality screening worsens the biases, leading to values as large as 30 to 100 % for the trace gases and expanding the 3 K bias region for temperature. This type of sampling bias is largely induced by the geophysical origins of the screening (e.g. clouds). Further, analysis of long-term time series reveals that these additional quality screening biases may affect the ability to accurately detect upper-tropospheric long-term changes using such data. In contrast, MLS data quality screening removes sufficiently few points that no additional bias is introduced, although its penetration is limited to the upper troposphere, while MIPAS may cover well into the mid-troposphere in cloud-free scenarios. We emphasize that the

  2. Assessing and optimizing infra-sound networks to monitor volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailpied, Dorianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding infra-sound signals is essential to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test ban Treaty, and also to demonstrate the potential of the global monitoring infra-sound network for civil and scientific applications. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a robust tool to estimate and optimize the performance of any infra-sound network to monitor explosive sources such as volcanic eruptions. Unlike previous studies, the developed method has the advantage to consider realistic atmospheric specifications along the propagation path, source frequency and noise levels at the stations. It allows to predict the attenuation and the minimum detectable source amplitude. By simulating the performances of any infra-sound networks, it is then possible to define the optimal configuration of the network to monitor a specific region, during a given period. When carefully adding a station to the existing network, performance can be improved by a factor of 2. However, it is not always possible to complete the network. A good knowledge of detection capabilities at large distances is thus essential. To provide a more realistic picture of the performance, we integrate the atmospheric longitudinal variability along the infra-sound propagation path in our simulations. This thesis also contributes in providing a confidence index taking into account the uncertainties related to propagation and atmospheric models. At high frequencies, the error can reach 40 dB. Volcanic eruptions are natural, powerful and valuable calibrating sources of infra-sound, worldwide detected. In this study, the well instrumented volcanoes Yasur, in Vanuatu, and Etna, in Italy, offer a unique opportunity to validate our attenuation model. In particular, accurate comparisons between near-field recordings and far-field detections of these volcanoes have helped to highlight the potential of our simulation tool to remotely monitor volcanoes. Such work could significantly help to prevent

  3. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  4. Estuarine monitoring programs in the Albemarle Sound study area, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle; Kolb, Katharine R.; Supak, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Albemarle Sound was selected in 2012 as one of the two demonstration sites in the Nation to test and improve the design of the National Water Quality Monitoring Council’s National Monitoring Network (NMN) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their tributaries. The goal of the NMN for U.S. coastal waters and tributaries is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource management. The NMN is an integrated, multidisciplinary, and multiorganizational program using multiple sources of data and information to augment current monitoring programs.

  5. Radiation levels from computer monitor screens within Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of possible presence of soft X-ray levels from Computer Screens at distances of 0.5m and 1.0m was carried out within Benue State University, Makurdi, using ten different monitor models. Radiation measurement was carried out using a portable digital radiation meter, INSPECTOR 06250 (SE international Inc.

  6. Elecromagnetic Sampo monitoring soundings at Olkiluoto in 2013 with updated interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.

    2014-10-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has carried out electromagnetic depth soundings annually at fixed stations in Olkiluoto since 2004 as part of a monitoring program. The goal of the monitoring program is to detect and monitor changes in the electrical properties of the bedrock in the vicinity of the ONKALO underground research facility which will constitute a part of the final nuclear waste repository. A new Sampo monitoring survey was carried out by GTK in October 2013. The survey consists of 37 soundings performed at 17 measurement stations. The nominal coil separations of 200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 metres were used depending on the station. Layer-model interpretations of soundings at eight selected stations were updated with the new data. The interpretations indicate consistent annual changes. Resistivities be-low stations to the East of the ONKALO facility appear to increase annually. In contrast, resistivities below stations to the West of the ONKALO facility appear to decrease annually. However, these changes need to be considered keeping in mind the uncertainties associated with the data and their interpretations. (orig.)

  7. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  8. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  9. Feasibility of an electronic stethoscope system for monitoring neonatal bowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jasmine; Hill, Krista M; Adrezin, Ronald S; Alba, Jorge; Curry, Raquel; Campagna, Eric; Fernandes, Cecilia; Lamba, Vineet; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2013-09-01

    Bowel dysfunction remains a major problem in neonates. Traditional auscultation of bowel sounds as a diagnostic aid in neonatal gastrointestinal complications is limited by skill and inability to document and reassess. Consequently, we built a unique prototype to investigate the feasibility of an electronic monitoring system for continuous assessment of bowel sounds. We attained approval by the Institutional Review Boards for the investigational study to test our system. The system incorporated a prototype stethoscope head with a built-in microphone connected to a digital recorder. Recordings made over extended periods were evaluated for quality. We also considered the acoustic environment of the hospital, where the stethoscope was used. The stethoscope head was attached to the abdomen with a hydrogel patch designed especially for this purpose. We used the system to obtain recordings from eight healthy, full-term babies. A scoring system was used to determine loudness, clarity, and ease of recognition comparing it to the traditional stethoscope. The recording duration was initially two hours and was increased to a maximum of eight hours. Median duration of attachment was three hours (3.75, 2.68). Based on the scoring, the bowel sound recording was perceived to be as loud and clear in sound reproduction as a traditional stethoscope. We determined that room noise and other noises were significant forms of interference in the recordings, which at times prevented analysis. However, no sound quality drift was noted in the recordings and no patient discomfort was noted. Minimal erythema was observed over the fixation site which subsided within one hour. We demonstrated the long-term recording of infant bowel sounds. Our contributions included a prototype stethoscope head, which was affixed using a specially designed hydrogel adhesive patch. Such a recording can be reviewed and reassessed, which is new technology and an improvement over current practice. The use of this

  10. Monitoring sound to quantify snoring and sleep apnea severity using a smartphone: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kenji; Sadamitsu, Yumiko; Toshimitsu, Ayaka; Fujita, Hisayuki; Shin, Shizue; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2014-01-15

    Habitual snoring is a prevalent condition that is not only a marker of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but can also lead to vascular risk. However, it is not easy to check snoring status at home. We attempted to develop a snoring sound monitor consisting of a smartphone alone, which is aimed to quantify snoring and OSA severity. The subjects included 50 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), of which the data of 10 patients were used for developing the program and that of 40 patients were used for validating the program. A smartphone was attached to the anterior chest wall over the sternum. It acquired ambient sound from the built-in microphone and analyzed it using a fast Fourier transform on a real-time basis. Snoring time measured by the smartphone highly correlated with snoring time measured by PSG (r = 0.93). The top 1 percentile value of sound pressure level (L1) determined by the smartphone correlated with the ambient sound L1 during sleep determined by PSG (r = 0.92). Moreover, the respiratory disturbance index estimated by the smartphone (smart-RDI) highly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by PSG (r = 0.94). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the smart-RDI for diagnosing OSA (AHI ≥ 15) were 0.70 and 0.94, respectively. A smartphone can be used for effectively monitoring snoring and OSA in a controlled laboratory setting. Use of this technology in a noisy home environment remains unproven, and further investigation is needed.

  11. Electromagnetic SAMPO monitoring soundings at OLKILUOTO in 2012 with updated interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.

    2013-11-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has carried out electromagnetic depth soundings annually at fixed stations at Olkiluoto since 2004 as part of a monitoring programme. The goal of the programme is to detect and monitor changes in the electrical properties of the bedrock above and in the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel which will serve as a part of the future underground nuclear waste disposal facility. A new Sampo monitoring survey was carried out during October 2012. The survey plan of 2011 was slightly modified and 36 soundings at 16 measurement stations were carried out. The nominal coil separations of 200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 meters were used. Interpretations at eight selected stations were updated with the new data. The interpretations indicate consistent statistically significant changes. Annual increases in resistivity were detected at stations to the East of ONKALO while annual decreases in resistivity were detected to the West of ONKALO. However, these changes need to be considered keeping in mind the high degree of uncertainty associated with the data and their interpretations. (orig.)

  12. SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field

  13. MNAtoolbox: A Monitored Natural Attenuation Site Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, David J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Brady, Warren D.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Spalding, Brian P.; Waters, Robert D.; Zhang, Pengchu

    1999-07-12

    Screening of sites for the potential application and reliance upon monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be done using MNAtoolbox, a web-based tool for estimating extent of biodegradation, chemical transformation, and dilution. MNAtoolbox uses site-specific input data, where available (default parameters are taken from the literature), to roughly quantify the nature and extent of attenuation at a particular site. Use of MNAtoolbox provides 3 important elements of site evaluation: (1) Identifies likely attenuation pathways, (2) Clearly identifies sites where MNA is inappropriate, and (3) Evaluates data requirements for subsequent reliance on MNA as a sole or partial corrective action.

  14. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  15. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  16. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches. PMID:27011187

  17. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  18. Monitoring oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Stoker, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of shoreline monitoring programs were employed to evaluate the recovery of the ecological communities of Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines after the oil spill: (a) Extensive shoreline surveys conducted (1989--1992) over much of the oiled shoreline to define extent of shoreline oiling and to assess biological conditions; (b) Detailed sampling in 1989 at nonrandomly chosen locations representing a range of oiling conditions (c) Comprehensive shoreline ecology program initiated in 1990 to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound using (1) a rigorous stratified random sampling study design with 64 sites representing 4 shoreline habitats and 4 oiling levels (unoiled, light, moderate, heavy); (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites of particular concern. Biological communities were analyzed to detect differences due to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Following the spill, populations of all major species survived as sources for recolonization. Recruitment to oiled shores began in summer 1989. By 1990, shoreline biota in PWS had largely recovered. Estimates of shoreline recovery (biological community indistinguishable from reference) ranged from 91% based on univariate analysis of standard community parameters to 73% based on multivariate correspondence analysis

  19. New developments in the surveillance and diagnostics technology for vibration, structure-borne sound and leakage monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloth, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnostic systems are of main importance for a safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. The author describes new developments with respect to vibration monitoring with a functional extension in the time domain for den secondary circuit, the development of a local system for the surveillance of rotating machines, the structure-borne sound monitoring with improvement of event analysis, esp. the loose part locating, leakage monitoring with a complete system for humidity measurement, and the development of a common platform for all monitoring and diagnostic systems, that allows an efficient access for comparison and cross references.

  20. A more realistic simulation of the performance of the infra-sound monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Vergoz, J.; Blanc, E.

    2008-01-01

    The first global maps showing the performance of the infra-sound network of the international monitoring system were set in the nineties. Recent measurement of the background noise by the 36 operating stations combined with advanced models of wind give now a more realistic mapping. It has become possible to validate simulations by measuring real events. For instance the explosion that happened in March 2008 in an ammunition storehouse in Albania was detected till Zalesovo (Russia) 4920 km away. These new simulations confirm the detection capability of the network to detect and localize atmospheric explosions whose energy is over 1 kt. It is also shown that the detection performance are very sensitive to both time and places. (A.C.)

  1. Three-dimensional audio-magnetotelluric sounding in monitoring coalbed methane reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Zhao, Shanshan; Hui, Jian; Qin, Qiming

    2017-03-01

    Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sounding is widely employed in rapid resistivity delineation of objective geometry in near surface exploration. According to reservoir patterns and electrical parameters obtained in Qinshui Basin, China, two-dimensional and three-dimensional synthetic "objective anomaly" models were designed and inverted with the availability of a modular system for electromagnetic inversion (ModEM). The results revealed that 3-D full impedance inversion yielded the subsurface models closest to synthetic models. One or more conductive targets were correctly recovered. Therefore, conductive aquifers in the study area, including hydrous coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs, were suggested to be the interpretation signs for reservoir characterization. With the aim of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, the AMT surveys in continuous years (June 2013-May 2015) were carried out. 3-D inversion results demonstrated that conductive anomalies accumulated around the producing reservoirs at the corresponding depths if CBM reservoirs were in high water production rates. In contrast, smaller conductive anomalies were generally identical with rapid gas production or stopping production of reservoirs. These analyses were in accordance with actual production history of CBM wells. The dynamic traces of conductive anomalies revealed that reservoir water migrated deep or converged in axial parts and wings of folds, which contributed significantly to formations of CBM traps. Then the well spacing scenario was also evaluated based on the dynamic production analysis. Wells distributed near closed faults or flat folds, rather than open faults, had CBM production potential to ascertain stable gas production. Therefore, three-dimensional AMT sounding becomes an attractive option with the ability of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, and lays a solid foundation of quantitative evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  2. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the ways used for minimizing the cost of maintenance and repairs of rotating industrial equipment is condition monitoring using acoustic analysis. One of the most important problems which always have been under consideration in industrial equipment application is confidence possibility. Each dynamic, electrical, hydraulic or thermal system has certain characteristics which show the normal condition of the machine during function. Any changes of the characteristics can be a signal of a problem in the machine. The aim of condition monitoring is system condition determination using measurements of the signals of characteristics and using this information for system impairment prognostication. There are a lot of ways for condition monitoring of different systems, but sound analysis is accepted and used extensively as a method for condition investigation of rotating machines. The aim of this research is the design and construction of considered gearbox and using of obtaining data in frequency and time spectrum in order to analyze the sound and diagnosis. Materials and Methods This research was conducted at the department of mechanical biosystem workshop at Aboureihan College at Tehran University in February 15th.2015. In this research, in order to investigate the trend of diagnosis and gearbox condition, a system was designed and then constructed. The sound of correct and damaged gearbox was investigated by audiometer and stored in computer for data analysis. Sound measurement was done in three pinions speed of 749, 1050 and 1496 rpm and for correct gearboxes, damage of the fracture of a tooth and a tooth wear. Gearbox design and construction: In order to conduct the research, a gearbox with simple gearwheels was designed according to current needs. Then mentioned gearbox and its accessories were modeled in CATIA V5-R20 software and then the system was constructed. Gearbox is a machine that is used for mechanical power transition

  3. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained.

  4. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. Effect of gentamicin and levels of ambient sound on hearing screening outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garinis, Angela C; Liao, Selena; Cross, Campbell P; Galati, Johnathan; Middaugh, Jessica L; Mace, Jess C; Wood, Anna-Marie; McEvoy, Lindsey; Moneta, Lauren; Lubianski, Troy; Coopersmith, Noe; Vigo, Nicholas; Hart, Christopher; Riddle, Artur; Ettinger, Olivia; Nold, Casey; Durham, Heather; MacArthur, Carol; McEvoy, Cynthia; Steyger, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    Hearing loss rates in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) run at 2-15%, compared to 0.3% in full-term births. The etiology of this difference remains poorly understood. We examined whether the level of ambient sound and/or cumulative gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) exposure affect NICU hearing screening results, as either exposure can cause acquired, permanent hearing loss. We hypothesized that higher levels of ambient sound in the NICU, and/or gentamicin dosing, increase the risk of referral on the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) assessments and/or automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) screens. This was a prospective pilot outcomes study of 82 infants (4172 Hz) was 44%. DPOAE referrals were significantly greater for infants receiving >2 days of gentamicin dosing compared to fewer doses (p = 0.004). The effect of sound exposure and gentamicin treatment on hearing could not be determined due to the low number of NICU infants without gentamicin exposure (for control comparisons). All infants were exposed to higher levels of ambient sound that substantially exceed AAP guidelines. More referrals were generated by DPOAE assessments than with AABR screens, with significantly more DPOAE referrals with a high-frequency F2 range, consistent with sound- and/or gentamicin-induced cochlear dysfunction. Adding higher frequency DPOAE assessments to existing NICU hearing screening protocols could better identify infants at-risk for ototoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatale screening infectieziekten en erytrocytenimmunisatie (PSIE) : proces monitor 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Schönbeck, Y.; Hirschberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Belangrijkste resultaten Prenatale Screening en erytrocytenimmunisatie over 2013. De Prenatale Screening Infectieziekten en Erytocytenimmuni-satie (PSIE) is een landelijk bevolkingsonderzoek waarbij een zwangere vrouw in het eerste verloskundige consult een bloedonderzoek aangeboden krijgt. Het

  7. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  8. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  9. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  10. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  11. Postrelease monitoring of radio-instrumented sea otters in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.; Stack, C.; Monson, Daniel H.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that were captured in western Prince William Sound (PWS) or the Gulf of Alaska, treated, and held in captivity at the temporary rehabilitation centers established in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill were instrumented with radio transmitters, released into eastern PWS, and monitored by radiotelemetry. We undertook the present study to gain information for guiding the release of the remaining captive otters and evaluating the efficacy of sea otter rehabilitation after exposure to crude oil. Radio transmitters were attached to the flippers of seven sea otters released in May 1989 and monitored for periods of a few hours to more than 60 days. However, little was learned about the fate of these animals because the radio transmitters used proved unreliable. Forty-five additional sea otters from the rehabilitation centers were implanted with radio transmitters, released into northeastern PWS and monitored for 8 months. During the first 20 days after the first release of these implanted otters (n = 21), they were more mobile than wild-caught and released sea otters studied in PWS, from 1984 through 1990. All were alive and vigorous at the end of the 20-day period. Tracking of all 45 implanted sea otters during the 8-month period showed that the otters remained highly mobile. Many (46.6%) crossed into western PWS. However, by the end of the 8 months, 12 of the instrumented otters were dead and 9 were missing. One radio failed. These mortality and missing rates are much higher than those normally observed for adult sea otters in PWS. The death rate was highest in winter. These data suggest that, despite the tremendous amount of money and energy directed toward the treatment and care of these animals, the sea otters released from the centers were not completely rehabilitated, that is, not returned to a normal state. We recommend that future policies focus on preventing otters from becoming oiled, rather than attempting to treat them

  12. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  13. Glance strategies for using an in-vehicle touch-screen monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In this study, subjects in a driving simulator followed a lead vehicle that continuously changed speed : while they also performed a secondary task on a touch-screen monitor that could be located at various : positions within the simulator. Subjects ...

  14. The screening of sound in a subsonic flow by a cylindrical airbubble layer and a semi-infinite tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grand, Pieter le

    1971-01-01

    The problem here under discussion lies in the field of sound waves in layered media. The presence of a layer with a velocity of sound less than that of the surroundings will enable sound waves to travel along great distances. In this domain many investigations have been made e. g. in connection with

  15. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications.

  16. A yeast screening system for simultaneously monitoring multiple genetic endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.L.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Mutation, recombination, and mitochondrial deficiencies have been proposed to have roles in the carcinogenic process. The authors describe a diploid strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of detecting this wide spectrum of genetic changes. The markers used for monitoring these events have been especially well characterized genetically. Ultraviolet light was chosen as a model carcinogenic agent to test this system. In addition to highly significant increases in the frequencies of each genetic change, increases in the absolute numbers of each change indicated induction and not selective survival. The relative amounts of each type of genetic change varied with dose. The wide spectrum of endpoints monitored in the XD83 yeast system may allow the detection of certain carcinogens and other genetically toxic agents which have escaped detection in more limited systems. Since only one strain is required to simultaneously monitor these genetic changes, this assay system should facilitate comparisons of the induced changes and be more efficient than using multiple strains to monitor the same endpoints. (Auth.)

  17. Radioactivity on the surfaces of computer monitors and television screens due to progeny palatal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nady, A.; Morsy, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer monitors and television screens can collect radon progeny. Radon decay forming meta-stable progeny, namely, Po-218, Po-214, and Po-210, which are found mostly in positively, charged aerosol particles. These particles are attract by the large negative field of a video display terminals (VDT) leading to buildup of radioactivity on the VDT screen. The charged aerosol particles might drift in the electric field between the VDT and the operator and be accelerated into the operator's face. The aim of this work is to measure these phenomena set of ultra-sensitive TASTRAK detectors used to measure the plate out of positively charged radioactive radon progeny. The track detectors were fixed on the outer monitor screen. For an occupational computer worker spending 200 days per year for 6 hours a day. It was found that the mean dose equivalent was 1.77 mSv, 0.25 mSv/year for normal CRT and LCD monitors respectively

  18. Breast cancer screening programmes: the development of a monitoring and evaluation system.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, N. E.; Williams, D. R.; Khaw, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval c...

  19. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  20. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS): a synthetic case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, E.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) can provide valuable data to constrain and calibrate groundwater flow and transport models. With this non-invasive geophysical technique, measurements of water content and hydraulic conductivity can be obtained. We developed a hydrogeophyiscal forward method, which...... calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a virtual pump test with a partially and a fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we were...

  1. Radiation exposure by monitors and effects of whistling sound on hearing at workplaces in TV and film production sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, H.

    1988-01-01

    Information transmission by means of VDUs, spreading at present rapidly in office work and some branches of the industrial production, is not only an auxiliary means but the essential destination and objective of working activities in specific areas of the media sector. By the progression of the video technique a further concentration of VDT work and the increasing gravity of all advantages and disadvantages is to be expected in the film and TV sectors. The real radiation exposure of the technical staff involved in working with and at monitors and potential risks of hearing by whistling sounds sent out by these apparatuses are analysed and evaluated. Experiences in health hazards by radiation from VDUs in office work had to be adapted adequately to the specific working conditions at work places in film and TV productions. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Passive acoustic monitoring of the temporal variability of odontocete tonal sounds from a long-term marine observatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available The developments of marine observatories and automatic sound detection algorithms have facilitated the long-term monitoring of multiple species of odontocetes. Although classification remains difficult, information on tonal sound in odontocetes (i.e., toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises can provide insights into the species composition and group behavior of these species. However, the approach to measure whistle contour parameters for detecting the variability of odontocete vocal behavior may be biased when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Thus, methods for analyzing the whistle usage of an entire group are necessary. In this study, a local-max detector was used to detect burst pulses and representative frequencies of whistles within 4.5-48 kHz. Whistle contours were extracted and classified using an unsupervised method. Whistle characteristics and usage pattern were quantified based on the distribution of representative frequencies and the composition of whistle repertoires. Based on the one year recordings collected from the Marine Cable Hosted Observatory off northeastern Taiwan, odontocete burst pulses and whistles were primarily detected during the nighttime, especially after sunset. Whistle usage during the nighttime was more complex, and whistles with higher frequency were mainly detected during summer and fall. According to the multivariate analysis, the diurnal variation of whistle usage was primarily related to the change of mode frequency, diversity of representative frequency, and sequence complexity. The seasonal variation of whistle usage involved the previous three parameters, in addition to the diversity of whistle clusters. Our results indicated that the species and behavioral composition of the local odontocete community may vary among seasonal and diurnal cycles. The current monitoring platform facilitates the evaluation of whistle usage based on group behavior and provides feature vectors for species and

  3. Breast cancer screening programmes: the development of a monitoring and evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, N E; Williams, D R; Khaw, K T

    1989-06-01

    It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval cancers after the initial screen, the pick-up rate and stage distribution at later screening tests, the rate of interval cancers after later tests, the absolute rate of advanced cancer and finally the breast cancer mortality rate. For evaluation purposes, historical data on stage at diagnosis is desirable; it is suggested that tumour size is probably the most relevant variable available in most cases.

  4. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Monitoring of a Self Aligning Spherical Journal using Surface Vibration, Airborne Sound and Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, P; Tesfa, B; Gu, F; Ball, A D

    2012-01-01

    A Self aligning spherical journal bearing is a plain bearing which has spherical surface contact that can be applied in high power industrial machinery. This type of bearing can accommodate a misalignment problem. The journal bearing faults degrade machine performance, decrease life time service and cause unexpected failure which are dangerous for safety issues. Non-intrusive measurements such as surface vibration (SV), airborne sound (AS) and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are appropriate monitoring methods for early stage journal bearing fault in low, medium and high frequency. This paper focuses on the performance comparison using SV, AS and AE measurements in monitoring a self aligning spherical journal bearing for normal and faulty (scratch) conditions. It examines the signals in the time domain and frequency domain and identifies the frequency ranges for each measurement in which significant changes are observed. The results of SV, AS and AE experiments indicate that the spectrum can be used to detect the differences between normal and faulty bearing. The statistic parameter shows that RMS value and peak value for faulty bearing is higher than normal bearing.

  6. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  7. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  8. Sound the alarm : monitoring system's real-time data reduces well downtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-10-15

    This article presented a new electrical heating element tool used to boost performance at low-producing wells. The down hole tool (DHT) was designed to generate steam underground in order to avoid the energy losses associated with above-ground equipment. The tool operates like an oven element but is connected to a computerized well-monitoring system in order to ensure that heat is evenly distributed. The DHT is equipped with an Optiview monitoring system designed to provide continuous readouts of near real time data. The system can also be customized to deliver messages to telephones, computers, or alarm systems. Changes in hydraulic torque, flow rates, tank levels, speeds, temperatures and hydraulic pressures can be set within ranges in order to optimize oil and gas well production by reducing operating costs and increasing equipment efficiencies. Use of the tool has during tests has minimized the need for well servicing. The patent pending technology is also being investigated for its use in water disposal and other pump-to-surface units. It was concluded that use of the technology will allow oil and gas managers to determine the status of wells in remote locations. 1 fig.

  9. Screening of seaweeds in the East China Sea as potential bio-monitors of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaoru; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Holmer, Marianne; Li, Ke; Wu, Jiaping; Lin, Fang; Yu, Yan; Xu, Jiang; Zhou, Chaosheng; Huang, Zhixing; Xiao, Xi

    2018-03-30

    Seaweeds are good bio-monitors of heavy metal pollution and have been included in European coastal monitoring programs. However, data for seaweed species in China are scarce or missing. In this study, we explored the potential of seaweeds as bio-monitor by screening the natural occurring seaweeds in the "Kingdom of seaweed and shellfish" at Dongtou Islands, the East China Sea. Totally, 12 seaweed species were collected from six sites, with richness following the sequence of Rhodophyta > Phaeophyta > Chlorophyta. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, As) in the seaweeds was determined, and the bioaccumulation coefficient was calculated. A combination of four seaweeds, Pachydictyon coriaceum, Gelidium divaricatum, Sargassum thunbergii, and Pterocladiella capillacea, were proposed as bio-monitors due to their high bioaccumulation capabilities of specific heavy metals in the East China Sea and hence hinted the importance of using seaweed community for monitoring of pollution rather than single species. Our results provide first-hand data for the selection of bio-monitor species for heavy metals in the East China Sea and contribute to selection of cosmopolitan bio-monitor communities over geographical large area, which will benefit the establishment of monitoring programs for coastal heavy metal contamination.

  10. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  11. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suslick, Carolynn R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Robert K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  12. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  13. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid screening and live-cell monitoring: application to nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S K; Sacksteder, Colette A; Weber, Thomas J; Riley, Brian J; Addleman, R Shane; Harrer, Bruce J; Peterman, John W

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge to realize the full potential of nanotechnology for therapeutic and diagnostic applications is to understand and evaluate how live cells interact with an external stimulus, such as a nanosized particle, and the toxicity and broad risk associated with these stimuli. It is difficult to capture the complexity and dynamics of these interactions by following omics-based approaches exclusively, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to provide noninvasive live-cell monitoring of cellular responses to potentially toxic nanosized particles or other stimuli. This alternative approach provides the ability to carry out rapid toxicity screenings and nondisruptive monitoring of live-cell cultures. We review the technical basis of the approach, the instrument configuration and interface with the biological media, the various effects that impact the data, subsequent data analysis and toxicity, and present some preliminary results on live-cell monitoring.

  14. Ultrasonic sounding and monitoring of the excavation damaged zone in a soft supported gallery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balland, Cyrille; Souley, Mountaka; Morel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Under high in situ stresses and high anisotropic stress ratios, the excavation of underground openings generally causes the creation of a disturbed (EdZ: Excavation disturbed Zone) and/or damaged (EDZ: Excavation Damaged Zone) zone, resulting from the initiation and growth of cracks and fractures and by a redistribution and rearrangement of the initial stresses. Due to the modifications of mechanical and hydro-mechanical properties in the EdZ/EDZ, the latter constitute a potential risk for the efficiency of the geologic and/or engineered barriers. To estimate the performance of a site of radioactive waste storage, it is essential to know the geometry, the extensions of the EdZ/EDZ, the density of cracks, their connectivity and the variations of permeability which can result from it. In particular, their extension depends on numerous factors among which the nature of the rock, the pre-existent fractures and their reactivation, the initial stress field (magnitudes and/or rate of anisotropy), the time, the geometry and the techniques of excavations etc.. In addition, the evolution of EdZ/EDZ properties in the medium term is little or poorly known, particularly under the influence of environmental conditions such as the re-confining by near field rock creep in contact with a rigid structural support or the evolution of hydric conditions (desaturation and re-saturation). Ultrasonic experimentation under the OHZ experiment has been implemented to characterize the EDZ extension and its evolution in time according to the structural support type (soft or rigid) and the environmental conditions present in the laboratory. This study consists of two experimental components: (1) the prior auscultation of the sole and face of the gallery by ultrasonic transmission tomography, (2) the monitoring the EDZ and the analysis of measurable changes in the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the medium term. Mechanical modelling of the

  15. Quality improvement project in cervical cancer screening: practical measures for monitoring laboratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Jussi; Geagea, Antoine; Nieminen, Pekka; Anttila, Ahti

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project in a cervical cancer screening programme in Helsinki in order to see if detection of precancerous lesions could be influenced by external (participation rate) and internal (laboratory praxis) quality measures. In order to increase the participation rate, a second personal invitation to Pap-test was mailed to nonparticipants of the first call. In order to improve the quality of screening, the cytotechnicians monitored their performance longitudinally by recording the number of slides reviewed per day, the pick-up rate of abnormal smears, the report of the consulting cytopathologist, and the number of histologically verified lesions detected from the cases that they had screened. Regular sessions were held to compare the histological findings with the cytological findings of all cases referred for colposcopy. No pressure was applied on the cytotechnicians to ensure that they felt comfortable with their daily workload. A total of 110 000 smears were screened for cervical cancer at the Helsinki City Hospital during 1996-99. Initially, the overall participation rate increased from 62% to 71%. The number of histologically confirmed precancerous lesions (CIN 1-3) more than doubled and their detection rate increased from 0.32% to 0.72%. Continuous education and feedback from daily work performance were important, yet rather inexpensive means in increasing laboratory performance. Additional measures are needed to further increase the participation rate. Impact of the quality measures on cancer incidence needs to be assessed later on.

  16. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  17. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  18. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  19. WHEN DYLAN MET THE BARD: TRANSLATING HAMLET FROM TEXT TO SCREEN (SOUND: MICHAEL ALMEREYDA’S HAMLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gerzic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Director Michael Almereyda’s diverse musical choices in the film are a threshold into understanding his cinematic interpretation of Hamlet (2000. Almereyda recontextualises Hamlet in terms of contemporary social problems. Hamlet and Ophelia are confronted with and battle against urban claustrophobia, conspiracy and global corporate power. A fragment of the Bob Dylan song ‘All Along the Watchtower’ (1966 is used as a filmic shortcut to translate Shakespeare’s iconic ‘gravedigger scene’ between Hamlet and the Gravedigger from playtext to screen. ‘All Along the Watchtower’ encapsulates certain ideas about mortality and the worth of life from the ‘gravedigger scene’ and demonstrates these issues still resonate in the contemporary urban world the film is set.

  20. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded

  1. Screening, monitoring, and educating patients with diabetes in an independent community pharmacy in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, F J; Monsanto, H A

    2001-03-01

    Increase the awareness about the importance of Diabetes mellitus (DM) management and assess the educational and monitoring needs of patients visiting a community pharmacy in Puerto Rico. A community service activity focusing on DM was held in a community pharmacy. The educational and monitoring needs of the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. Glucose tests were conducted in the pharmacy by medical technologists. Educational activities consisted of presentations and printed materials. Two-thirds of the fasting people had blood glucose levels higher than 140 mg/dl. Seventy-nine percent of the patients with diabetes were not aware of the glycosilated hemoglobin test. Most of the patients were interested in learning more about how to manage their condition. A greater understanding is needed among patients with DM that blood glucose control decreases diabetes related complications. Community pharmacists are in an excellent position to collaborate with other health professionals in screening, monitoring and educating patients with DM to prevent long-term complications.

  2. Screen-printed electrodes for environmental monitoring of heavy metal ions: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; González García, María Begoña; Hernández Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Ribotti, Alberto; Magni, Paolo; McCaul, Margaret; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, zinc and copper are among the most important pollutants because of their non-biodegradability and toxicity above certain thresholds. Here, we review methods for sensing heavy metal ions (HMI) in water samples using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) as transducers. The review (with 107 refs.) starts with an introduction into the topic, and this is followed by sections on (a) mercury-coated SPEs, (b) bismuth-coated SPEs, (c) gold-coated SPEs (d) chemically modified and non-modified carbon SPEs, (e) enzyme inhibition-based SPEs, and (f) an overview of commercially available electrochemical portable heavy metal analyzers. The review reveals the significance of SPEs in terms of decentralized and of in situ analysis of heavy metal ions in environmental monitoring. (author)

  3. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  4. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  6. Diabetic retinopathy screening: can the viewing monitor influence the reading and grading outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D S W; Tay-Kearney, M L; Vignarajan, J; Kanagasingam, Y

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of different viewing monitors for image reading and grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Single-centre, experimental case series-evaluation of reading devices for DR screening. A total of 100 sets of three-field (optic disc, macula, and temporal views) colour retinal still images (50 normal and 50 with DR) captured by FF 450 plus (Carl Zeiss) were interpreted on 27-inch iMac, 15-inch MacBook Pro, and 9.7-inch iPad. All images were interpreted by a retinal specialist and a medical officer. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of 15-inch MacBook Pro and 9.7-inch iPad in detection of DR signs and grades with reference to the reading outcomes obtained using a 27-inch iMac reading monitor. In detection of any grade of DR, the 15-inch MacBook Pro had sensitivity and specificity of 96% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-99.3) and 96% (95% CI: 85.1-99.3), respectively, for retinal specialist and 91.5% (95% CI: 78.7-97.2) and 94.3% (95% CI: 83.3-98.5), respectively, for medical officer, whereas for 9.7-inch iPad, they were 91.8% (95% CI: 79.5-97.4) and 94.1% (95% CI: 82.8-98.5), respectively, for retinal specialist and 91.3% (95% CI: 78.3-97.1) and 92.6% (95% CI: 81.3-97.6), respectively, for medical officer. The 15-inch MacBook Pro and 9.7-inch iPad had excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting DR and hence, both screen sizes can be utilized to effectively interpret colour retinal still images for DR remotely in a routine, mobile or tele-ophthalmology setting. Future studies could explore the use of more economical devices with smaller viewing resolutions to reduce cost implementation of DR screening services.

  7. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  8. Evaluation of mobile smartphones app as a screening tool for environmental noise monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Titus S; Folorunsho, David O; Dahilo, Enoch A; Gbujie, Ibeneche O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere G

    2016-01-01

    Noise is a global occupational and environmental health hazard with considerable social and physiological impact and, therefore, there is a need for regular measurements to boost monitoring and regulations of environmental noise levels in our communities. This necessitates a readily available, inexpensive, and easy to use noise measuring device. We aimed to test the sensitivity and validity of mobile "smart" phones for this purpose. This was a comparative analysis of a cross sectional study done between January 2014 and February 2015. Noise levels were measured simultaneously at different locations within Abuja Nigeria at day and night hours in real time environments. A sound level meter (SLM) (Extech407730 Digital Soundmeter, serial no.: 2310135, calibration no: 91037) and three smartphones (Samsung Galaxy note3, Nokia S, and Techno Phantom Z running on Android "Apps" Androidboy1) were used. Statistical calculations were done with Pearson correlation, T-test and Consistency within American National Standards Institute acceptable standard errors. Noise level readings for both daytime and night with the SLM and the mobile phones showed equivalent values. All noise level meters measured were <100dB. The daytime readings were nearly identical in six locations and the maximum difference in values between the SLM and Smartphone instruments was 3db, noted in two locations. Readings in dBA showed strong correlation (r = 0.9) within acceptable error limits for Type 2 SLM devices and no significant difference in the values (p = 0.12 & 0.58) for both day and night. Sensitivity of the instrument yielded 92.9%. The androidboy1 "app" performance in this study showed a good correlation and comparative high sensitivity to the Standard SLM (type 2 SLM device). However there is the need for further studies.

  9. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  10. A screening model for depleted uranium testing using environmental radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunfrund, F.L.; Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    Information from an ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium test areas at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) was used to update the required environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) plan. Data to be collected for the ERM can also be used to evaluate the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to terrestrial reptiles and mammals in the affected areas. We developed a spreadsheet-based screening model that incorporates the ERM data and associated uncertainties. The purpose of the model is to provide a conservative estimate of radiological exposure of terrestrial, biota to DU using the ERM data. The uncertainty in the estimate is also predicted so that the variation in the radiological exposure can be used in assessing potential adverse effects from DU testing. Toxicological effects are evaluated as well as radiological effects in the same program using the same data. Our presentation shows an example data set, model calculations, and the report of expected radiation dose rates and probable kidney burdens of select mammals and reptiles. The model can also be used in an inverse mode to calculate the soil concentration required to give either a radiological dose that would produce a potential adverse effect such as fatal cancer or a toxicological dose that would result in nephrotoxic effects in mammals

  11. Compliance monitoring system using screen printing technology based on conductive ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kenji; Kawakami, Junko; Aoki, Sorama; Hamada, Kouji; Sato, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We developed a compliance monitoring system that electrically detects which drug among the multiple prescribed drugs a patient has taken and the date of drug-taking by a patient to prevent the patient from missing doses and taking drugs incorrectly at home. A conductive pattern is screen printed using conductive ink (silver paste) on the surface of a calendar-type pill organizer containing medications for as long as 1 week (4 times per day × 7 days, 28 doses) to create a sensor for detecting the opening of a pill organizer. Whenever the patient opens the pill organizer and removes a dose of the drug (pill), information about which of the 28 locations is opened and the date of opening are recorded in nonvolatile memory. This system is applicable to patients who take multiple drugs, for whom recording of drug-taking behavior is reportedly difficult. Specific benefits are that the user needs no additional manipulation to use the system: the user can take the drug from the pill organizer according to usual procedures.

  12. Portable electrochemical system using screen-printed electrodes for monitoring corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squissato, André L; Silva, Weberson P; Del Claro, Augusto T S; Rocha, Diego P; Dornellas, Rafael M; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a portable electrochemical system for the continuous monitoring of corrosion inhibitors in a wide range of matrices including ethanol, seawater and mineral oil following simple dilution of the samples. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the sensing of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,5-thiadiazole (DMCT), an important corrosion inhibitor. Disposable screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) associated with a portable batch-injection cell are proposed for the amperometric determination of DMCT following sample dilution with electrolyte (95% v/v ethanol + 5% v/v 0.1molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution). This electrolyte was compatible with all samples and the organic-resistant SPGE could be used continuously for more than 200 injections (100µL injected at 193µLs -1 ) free from effects of adsorption of DMCT, which have a great affinity for metallic surfaces, and dissolution of the other reported SPGE inks which has hampered prior research efforts. Fast (180h -1 ) and precise responses (RSD < 3% n = 10) with a detection limit of 0.3µmolL -1 was obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was attested through recovery tests (93-106%) and the reasonable agreement of results of DMCT concentrations in samples analyzed by both proposed and spectrophotometric (comparative) methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of energy windowing algorithms for effective cargo screening with radiation portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevener, Ryne; Yim, Man-Sung; Baird, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are distributed across the globe in an effort to decrease the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Many current generation RPMs utilizes large polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillators. These detectors are low cost and reliable but have very poor energy resolution. The lack of spectroscopic detail available from PVT spectra has restricted these systems primarily to performing simple gross counting measurements in the past. A common approach to extend the capability of PVT detectors beyond simple “gross-gamma” use is to apply a technique known as energy windowing (EW) to perform rough nuclide identification with limited spectral information. An approach to creating EW algorithms was developed in this work utilizing a specific set of calibration sources and modified EW equations; this algorithm provided a degree of increased identification capability. A simulated real-time emulation of the algorithm utilizing actual port-of-entry RPM data supplied by ORNL provided an extensive proving ground for the algorithm. This algorithm is able to identify four potential threat nuclides and the major NORM source with a high degree of accuracy. High-energy masking, a major detriment of EW algorithms, is reduced by the algorithm's design. - Highlights: • Gross counting algorithms do not produce detailed screenings. • Energy windowing algorithms enhance nuclide identification capability. • Proper use of EW algorithm can identify multiple threat nuclides. • Utilizing specific set of calibration sources is important for nuclide identification

  14. Screening and Follow-Up Monitoring for Substance Use in Primary Care: An Exploration of Rural-Urban Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Lu, Shou-En; Howe, Bill; Tieben, Hendrik; Hoeft, Theresa; Unützer, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Rates of substance use in rural areas are close to those of urban areas. While recent efforts have emphasized integrated care as a promising model for addressing workforce shortages in providing behavioral health services to those living in medically underserved regions, little is known on how substance use problems are addressed in rural primary care settings. To examine rural-urban variations in screening and monitoring primary care- based patients for substance use problems in a state-wide mental health integration program. This was an observational study using patient registry. The study included adult enrollees (n = 15,843) with a mental disorder from 133 participating community health clinics. We measured whether a standardized substance use instrument was used to screen patients at treatment entry and to monitor symptoms at follow-up visits. While on average 73.6 % of patients were screened for substance use, follow-up on substance use problems after initial screening was low (41.4 %); clinics in small/isolated rural settings appeared to be the lowest (13.6 %). Patients who were treated for a mental disorder or substance abuse in the past and who showed greater psychiatric complexities were more likely to receive a screening, whereas patients of small, isolated rural clinics and those traveling longer distances to the care facility were least likely to receive follow-up monitoring for their substance use problems. Despite the prevalent substance misuse among patients with mental disorders, opportunities to screen this high-risk population for substance use and provide a timely follow-up for those identified as at risk remained overlooked in both rural and urban areas. Rural residents continue to bear a disproportionate burden of substance use problems, with rural-urban disparities found to be most salient in providing the continuum of services for patients with substance use problems in primary care.

  15. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhardt, Christine; Hsu, Larry

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for the 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.

  16. Screening and identification of sites for a proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE), has identified the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hartsville Nuclear Plant site as preferred and alternative sites, respectively, for development of site-specific designs as part of the proposal for construction of an integrated Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The proposal, developed pursuant to Section 141 (b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, will be submitted to Congress in January 1986. The Director expects to propose to Congress that an MRS be constructed at the perferred site. His judgment could change based on information to be developed between now and January 1986. The decision to construct an MRS facility and final site selection are reserved by Congress for itself. The Director's judgment is based on the results of a rigorous site screening and evaluation process described in this report. The three sites were selected from among eleven sites evaluated in detail. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, was identified as the preferred site. It has several particularly desirable features including: (1) federal ownership and control by the Department of Energy; (2) particularly good transportation access (five miles to the nearest interstate highway and direct rail access); (3) site characteristics and current data base judged by the NRC in 1983 as sufficient for granting a limited work authorization for the now cancelled breeder reactor; and (4) a technical community in the vicinity of site which can provide experienced nuclear facility support functions. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  18. A Mobile Health Data Collection System for Remote Areas to Monitor Women Participating in a Cervical Cancer Screening Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Kelly; Tran, Phuong Lien; Jinoro, Jéromine; Herniainasolo, Joséa Lea; Viviano, Manuela; Vassilakos, Pierre; Benski, Caroline; Petignat, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Barriers to efficient cervical cancer screening in low- and medium-income countries include the lack of systematic monitoring of the participants' data. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a mobile health (m-Health) data collection system to facilitate monitoring of women participating to cervical cancer screening campaign. Women aged 30-65 years, participating in a cervical cancer screening campaign in Ambanja, Madagascar, were invited to participate in the study. Cervical Cancer Prevention System, an m-Health application, allows the registration of clinical data, while women are undergoing cervical cancer screening. All data registered in the smartphone were transmitted onto a secure, Web-based platform through the use of an Internet connection. Healthcare providers had access to the central database and could use it for the follow-up visits. Quality of data was assessed by computing the percentage of key data missing. A total of 151 women were recruited in the study. Mean age of participants was 41.8 years. The percentage of missing data for the key variables was less than 0.02%, corresponding to one woman's medical history data, which was not sent to the central database. Technical problems, including transmission of photos, human papillomavirus test results, and pelvic examination data, have subsequently been solved through a system update. The quality of the data was satisfactory and allowed monitoring of cervical cancer screening data of participants. Larger studies evaluating the efficacy of the system for the women's follow-up are needed in order to confirm its efficiency on a long-term scale.

  19. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  20. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  1. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  2. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  3. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  4. Seabed sediment classification for monitoring underwater nourishments using time series of multi-beam echo-soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, T. C.; Snellen, M.; van Dijk, T. A. G. P.; Simons, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal erosion induced by natural processes, such as wind, waves, tidal currents, or human interferences endangers human beings, infrastructure, fauna and flora at the oceans and rivers all over the world. In The Netherlands, in particular the North Sea islands are strongly affected by sediment erosion. To protect and stabilize the coastline, beach and shoreface nourishments are frequently performed. Thereby, sediment reservoirs are created that replace the eroded sediments. Increasing the long-term efficiency of coastal protection requires monitoring of the temporal and spatial development of the coastal nourishments. Multi-beam echo-sounders (MBES) allow for detailed and comprehensive investigations of the seabed composition and structure. To investigate the potential of using MBES for monitoring nourishments in a tidal inlet, four MBES surveys per year are carried out at the Dutch Wadden island Ameland. A pre-nourishment MBES survey was performed in April 2017 and the subsequent post-nourishment survey will take place in September 2017. Both surveys are equipped with a Kongsberg EM 2040C dual-head MBES and are supported with extensive grab sampling. In this study the use of MBES backscatter and bathymetry data are considered as an approach for monitoring coastal nourishments. The aim is to develop a monitoring procedure that allows for comparing MBES data taken during different surveys, i.e., with variations in environmental conditions, MBES characteristics and acquisition procedures. Different unsupervised and supervised acoustic seafloor classification techniques are applied to the processed MBES data to classify the seabed sediments. The analysis of the pre-nourishment MBES data indicates that the backscatter and consequently the classification are highly driven by the abundancy of shell fragments. These results will be used as a baseline to investigate the accumulation of the underwater nourishments. Independent grab samples will be used to select the

  5. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  6. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  7. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  8. Screening and monitoring of main diseases a modern strategy of health maintenance in personnel of radiation dangerous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhauov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.; Kubat, I. I.; Maslyuk, A. I.; Semenova, Y. V.; Freidin, M. B.; Trivozhenko, A. B.; Litvinenko, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    Population health is greatly determined by social factors, mode of life, ecological situation, amount and quality of medical assistance. The analysis of reasons of health troubles increase in population should be done taking into account the above aspects. Main consideration should be given to the development of measures aimed at the highest possible decrease of technogenic and anthropogenic factors influence on a human. Thereupon a complex programme of main diseases screening and monitoring in the personnel of the Siberian Group of Chemical enterprises (SGCE) to be the biggest one among Russian atomic plants has been developed. The purpose of the present paper is to determine main diseases at the earliest stage, the decrease of death rate, as well as the complex estimation of technogenic factor influence on the personnel of radiation dangerous plants nand their offsprings. In this case a long-term effect of low doses seems to be the main risk factor. Taking into account the structure of death rate causes of the population of industrialized countries as well as the spectrum of stochastic effects of ionizing radiation, the screening of cardiac ischemia and arterial hypertension, localization of cancer and congenital malformations have been chosen as the program priorities. Algorithm of instrumental laboratory screening of a particular disease includes modern diagnostic tests. Groups ar risk are formed taking into account a complex of exogenous and endogenous risk factors (age, chronic diseases, bad habits, length of service at a radiation dangerous plant, dose loads, hereditary factors) and on the basis of the screening examination results. The information obtained is entered in the list of database of the Regional Medico dosimetric Register of the SGCE personnel and Seversk residents followed by analysis and monitoring of groups ar risk. (Author) 4 refs

  9. Occupation-specific screening for future sickness absence: Criterion validity of the trucker strain monitor (TSM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Blonk, R.W.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring psychological job strain may help occupational physicians to take preventive action at the appropriate time. For this purpose, the 10-item trucker strain monitor (TSM) assessing work-related fatigue and sleeping problems in truck drivers was developed. Objectives: This study

  10. Screening for Circulating Tumour Cells Allows Early Detection of Cancer and Monitoring of Treatment Effectiveness: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Eng, Peter; Sali, Avni

    2017-08-27

    Background: Circulating-Tumour-Cells (CTC) provide a blood biomarker for early carcinogenesis, cancer progression and treatment effectiveness. An increase in CTCs is associated with cancer progression, a CTC decrease with cancer containment or remission. Several technologies have been developed to identify CTC, including the validated Isolation-by-Size-of-Epithelial-Tumour (ISET, Rarecells) technology, combining blood filtration and microscopy using standard histo-pathological criteria. Methods: This observational study compared CTC count to cancer status and cancer risk, by monitoring treatment effectiveness in cancer patients and by screening for CTC in asymptomatic patients with risk factors, including family history of cancer. Results: Between Sept-2014 and Dec-2016 we undertook 600 CTC tests (542 patients), including 50% screening requests of patients without cancer diagnosis but with risk factors. CTC were detected in all cancer patients (n=277, 100%), and in half of the asymptomatic patients screened (50%, 132 out-of 265 patients). Follow-up tests including scans, scheduled within 1-10 months of positive CTC tests, found early cancerous lesions in 20% of screened patients. In 50% of male patients with CTC and normal PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) levels, PSMA-PET scans revealed increased uptake in the prostate, indicative of early prostate cancer. Other types of cancers detected by CTC screening and subsequent scans included early breast, ovarian, lung, or renal cancer. Patients with CTC were advised on integrative approaches including immune-stimulating and anti-carcinogenic nutritional therapies. CTC repeat tests were available in 10% of patients with detected CTC (40 outof 409 patients, n=98 CTC tests) to assess treatment effectiveness, suggesting nutritional therapies to be beneficial in reducing CTC count. Conclusions: CTC screening provided a highly sensitive biomarker for the early detection of cancer, with higher CTC counts being associated with

  11. Monitoring Student Immunization, Screening, and Training Records for Clinical Compliance: An Innovative Use of the Institutional Learning Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elting, Julie Kientz

    2017-12-13

    Clinical compliance for nursing students is a complex process mandating them to meet facility employee occupational health requirements for immunization, screening, and training prior to patient contact. Nursing programs monitor clinical compliance with in-house management of student records, either paper or electronic, or by contracting with a vendor specializing in online record tracking. Regardless of method, the nursing program remains fully accountable for student preparation and bears the consequences of errors. This article describes how the institution's own learning management system can be used as an accurate, cost-neutral, user-friendly, and Federal Educational Rights Protection Act-compliant clinical compliance system.

  12. Assessment of the applicability of AWJ technique for dismantling the reactor of Fugen. Performance of underwater-cutting thick plate and testing of sound-based monitoring for underwater-cutting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The reactor of Fugen is characterized by its double-walled pressure tube construction that is composed of pressure tubes and calandria tubes. The reactor dismantlement has been planning on dismantling it under water and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) underwater-cutting method is chosen as an option among simultaneous double tubes cutting technologies. For assessing the applicability of the AWJ cutting technology, a thick plate was cut under water by the small AWJ cutting machine. In addition, since cutting causes muddiness in water, cutting was monitored by the sound-based monitoring system which was adopted as a secondary cutting monitoring method. As a results, it was demonstrated that one-phase cutting was possible under water for a stainless-steel plate with 150mm thickness and that the relationship between cutting depth and capable cutting speed could be predictable. As for the sound-based cutting monitoring, the predictability whether or not cutting would be successful was verified by checking the change of sounds level. (author)

  13. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  14. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  15. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  16. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  17. Monitoring of drug intake during pregnancy by questionnaires and LC-MS/MS drug urine screening: evaluation of both monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Henrike; Roeder, Stefan; Bertsche, Thilo; Lehmann, Irina; Borte, Michael; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-01

    Various studies pointed towards a relationship between chronic diseases such as asthma and allergy and environmental risk factors, which are one aspect of the so-called Exposome. These environmental risk factors include also the intake of drugs. One critical step in human development is the prenatal period, in which exposures might have critical impact on the child's health outcome. Thereby, the health effects of drugs taken during gestation are discussed controversially with regard to newborns' disease risk. Due to this, the drug intake of pregnant women in the third trimester was monitored by questionnaire, in addition to biomonitoring using a local birth cohort study, allowing correlations of drug exposure with disease risk. Therefore, 622 urine samples were analyzed by an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) urine screening and the results were compared to self-administered questionnaires. In total, 48% (n = 296) reported an intake of pharmaceuticals, with analgesics as the most frequent reported drug class in addition to dietary supplements. 182 times compounds were detected by urine screening, with analgesics (42%; n = 66) as the predominantly drug class. A comparison of reported and detected drug intake was performed for three different time spans between completion of the questionnaires and urine sampling. Even if the level of accordance was low in general, similar percentages (~25%, ~19%, and ~ 20%) were found for all groups. This study illustrates that a comprehensive evaluation of drug intake is neither achieved by questionnaires nor by biomonitoring alone. Instead, a combination of both monitoring methods, providing complementary information, should be considered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Non-invasive carboxyhemoglobin monitoring: screening emergency medical services patients for carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Douglas; Partridge, Robert; Suner, Selim; Jay, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity is a significant health problem. The use of non-invasive pulse CO-oximetry screening in the emergency department has demonstrated that the rapid screening of numerous individuals for CO toxicity is simple and capable of identifying occult cases of CO toxicity. The objective of this study was to extend the use of this handheld device to the prehospital arena, assess carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) levels in emergency medical services (EMS) patients, and correlate these levels with clinical and demographic data. This was a retrospective, observational, chart review of adult patients transported to hospital emergency departments by urban fire department EMS ambulances during a six-week period. Each ambulance used a non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad-57, Masimo Inc.) to record patients' COHb concentrations (SpCO) along with the standard EMS assessment data. Spearman's Rank Correlation tests and Student's t-tests were used to analyze the data and calculate relationships between SpCO and other variables (age, gender, respiratory rate, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry). A total of 36.4% of the patients transported during the study had SpCO documented. Of the 1,017 adults included in this group, 11 (1.1%) had an SpCO >15%. There was no correlation between SpCO and heart rate, ventilatory rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation. Screening for CO toxicity in the EMS setting is possible, and may aid in the early detection and treatment of CO-poisoned patients.

  19. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  20. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  1. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  2. The use of RIA tests for screening and for monitoring of some diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegesippe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some examples are described concerning the progress realized in the antenatal and neonatal diagnoses of congenital anomalies and in the follow-up of cancer patients using RIA techniques. The frequencies of some well known congenital abnormalities are recalled. The first example concerns Duchene myopathy. A second example, much more advanced, is the antenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects. A third example, already in routine state by state in north America and in Europe is the neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroidism. The last example concerns the use of CEA assay in the evaluation, the prognosis and the follow-up of cancer patient's state. These RIA examples were chosen to illustrate and also to situate the important place of this analytical response among informations available to the clinician

  3. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  4. Sensitive and stable monitoring of lead and cadmium in seawater using screen-printed electrode and electrochemical stripping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueell, Raquel; Aragay, Gemma; Fontas, Claudia; Antico, Enriqueta; Merkoci, Arben

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and stable monitoring of heavy metals in seawater using screen-printed electrodes (SPE) is presented. The analytical performance of SPE coupled with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the simultaneous determination of Pb and Cd in seawater samples, in the low μg L -1 range, is evaluated. The stripping response for the heavy metals following 2 min deposition was linear over the concentration range examined (10-2000 μg L -1 ) with detection limits of 1.8 and 2.9 μg L -1 for Pb and Cd, respectively. The accuracy of the method was validated by analyzing metal contents in different spiked seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the well-established anodic stripping voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode. Moreover, a certified reference material was also used and the results obtained were satisfactory

  5. Sensitive and stable monitoring of lead and cadmium in seawater using screen-printed electrode and electrochemical stripping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueell, Raquel [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Aragay, Gemma [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Fontas, Claudia; Antico, Enriqueta [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Merkoci, Arben [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es

    2008-10-10

    Sensitive and stable monitoring of heavy metals in seawater using screen-printed electrodes (SPE) is presented. The analytical performance of SPE coupled with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the simultaneous determination of Pb and Cd in seawater samples, in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range, is evaluated. The stripping response for the heavy metals following 2 min deposition was linear over the concentration range examined (10-2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}) with detection limits of 1.8 and 2.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Pb and Cd, respectively. The accuracy of the method was validated by analyzing metal contents in different spiked seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the well-established anodic stripping voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode. Moreover, a certified reference material was also used and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  6. Automated high-performance cIMT measurement techniques using patented AtheroEdge™: a screening and home monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Meiburger, Kristen M; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the carotid artery wall is fundamental for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. This paper presents the general architecture of an automatic strategy, which segments the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders, classified under a class of Patented AtheroEdge™ systems (Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc, CA, USA). Guidelines to produce accurate and repeatable measurements of the intima-media thickness are provided and the problem of the different distance metrics one can adopt is confronted. We compared the results of a completely automatic algorithm that we developed with those of a semi-automatic algorithm, and showed final segmentation results for both techniques. The overall rationale is to provide user-independent high-performance techniques suitable for screening and remote monitoring.

  7. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  8. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  9. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Target-Lighted dsDNA-Indicator for High-Performance Monitoring of Mercury Pollution and Its Antagonists Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhihe; Zhu, Lixuan; Li, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Sheng; Zou, Zhen; Guo, Jingru; Cao, Zhong; Yang, Ronghua

    2017-10-17

    As well-known, the excessive discharge of heavy-metal mercury not only destroys the ecological environment, bust also leads to severe damage of human health after ingestion via drinking and bioaccumulation of food chains, and mercury ion (Hg 2+ ) is designated as one of most prevalent toxic metal ions in drinking water. Thus, the high-performance monitoring of mercury pollution is necessary. Functional nucleic acids have been widely used as recognition probes in biochemical sensing. In this work, a carbazole derivative, ethyl-4-[3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium iodine)-9H-carbazol -9-yl)] butanoate (EBCB), has been synthesized and found as a target-lighted DNA fluorescent indicator. As a proof-of-concept, Hg 2+ detection was carried out based on EBCB and Hg 2+ -mediated conformation transformation of a designed DNA probe. By comparison with conventional nucleic acid indicators, EBCB held excellent advantages, such as minimal background interference and maximal sensitivity. Outstanding detection capabilities were displayed, especially including simple operation (add-and-read manner), ultrarapidity (30 s), and low detection limit (0.82 nM). Furthermore, based on these advantages, the potential for high-performance screening of mercury antagonists was also demonstrated by the fluorescence change of EBCB. Therefore, we believe that this work is meaningful in pollution monitoring, environment restoration and emergency treatment, and may pave a way to apply EBCB as an ideal signal transducer for development of high-performance sensing strategies.

  11. Oxygen sensor nanoparticles for monitoring bacterial growth and characterization of dose–response functions in microfluidic screenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jialan; Köhler, J. Michael; Nagl, Stefan; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a microfluidic droplet-based system for non-invasive, simultaneous optical monitoring of oxygen during bacterial cultivation in nL-sized droplets using ∼350 nm nanobeads made from polystyrene and doped with the NIR-emitting oxygen probe platinum (II) 5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPTBP). Data were readout by a two-channel micro flow-through fluorimeter and a two-channel micro flow-through photometer. The time-resolved miniaturized optical multi endpoint detection was applied to simultaneously sense dissolved oxygen, cellular autofluorescence, and cell density in nL-sized segments. Two bacterial strains were studied that are resistant to heavy metal ions, viz. Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Psychrobacillus psychrodurans UrPLO1. The study has two main features in that it demonstrates (a) the possibility to monitor the changes in oxygen partial pressure during metabolic activity of different bacterial cultures inside droplets, and (b) the efficiency of droplet-based microfluidic techniques along with multi-parameter optical sensing for highly resolved microtoxicological screenings in aquatic systems. (author)

  12. Validation of the custo screen pediatric blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beime, Beate; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Hammel, Gertrud; Bramlage, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device custo screen pediatric in children aged 3 to 12 years according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP revision 2010). Thirty-three children were included and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were performed according to the ESH-IP. The protocol was modified for children considering data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS). The custo screen pediatric met all the requirements of the ESH-IP. The mean difference between the test device and the reference was -1.4 ± 3.0 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -0.7 ± 3.2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). For SBP and DBP, all 99 measurements were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the test device and the reference. As to part 2 of the protocol, for DBP in all subjects, two out of three measurements were within 5 mmHg between the device and the standard, whereas for SBP in 32 of 33 subjects, two out of three measurements were within this range. The custo screen pediatric met all criteria of the ESH-IP review 2010, modified for children from 3 to about 12 years, and can be recommended for ABPM in children. What is Known: • Validation of blood pressure measuring devices is essential to provide patients with an accurate blood pressure measuring device. • The majority of devices has not been validated in children. What is New: • Prior to the present validation, study protocol adjustments of ESH-IP review 2010 for children were defined according to German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2013 (KIGGS). • The custo screen pediatric test device met all criteria of ESH-IP revision 2010, modified for children, and can be recommended for ABPM in children aged 3 to about 12 years.

  13. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  14. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat.

  15. Film-Screen Mammography versus digital storage plate mammography: Hard copy and monitor display of microcalcifications and focal findings - A retrospective clinical and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wenkel, E.; Aichinger, U.; Tartsch, M.; Kuchar, I.; Bautz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective clinical-histological study to determine the diagnostic accuracy of mammography using conventional screen-film cassettes (hard copy), high-resolution digital phosphor storage plates (hard copy) and monitor display (soft copy) for microcalcifications and focal lesions (BI-RADS TM category 4 or 5). Materials and methods: From April to November 2001, 76 patients underwent conventional film-screen mammography and, after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, digital mammography with the same exposure parameters. Five investigators retrospectively determined the diagnosis after the operation from randomly distributed mediolateral views (hard-copy reading) and from the monitor display (soft-copy reading). These results were correlated with the final histology. Results: The accuracy of conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography and monitor-displayed mammography was 67%, 65% and 68% for all findings, (n = 76), 59%, 59% and 68% for microcalcifications (n = 44) and 75%, 72% and 63% for focal lesions (n = 32). The overall results showed no difference. Conclusions: Our findings indicate equivalence of conventional screen-film mammography, high-resolution digital phosphor storage plate mammography and monitor-displayed mammography. (orig.) [de

  16. THE SOUND OF CINEMA: TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a means of creating any product. However, in the onscreen art, it is one of the elements creating the art space of film. Considering the main stages of the development of cinematography, this article explores the influence of technology of sound recording on the creating a special artistic and physical space of film (the beginning of the use a sound in movies; the mastering the artistic means of an audiovisual work; the expansion of the spatial characteristics for the screen sound; and the sound in a modern cinema. Today, thanks to new technologies, the sound in a cinema forms a specific quasirealistic landscape, greatly enhancing the impact on the viewer of the virtual screen images.

  17. Novel heparan sulfate assay by using automated high-throughput mass spectrometry: Application to monitoring and screening for mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kelly, Joan; LaMarr, William A; van Vlies, Naomi; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W; Mackenzie, William; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    in an HS assay, indicating that HT-MS/MS may be feasible for diagnosis, monitoring, and newborn screening of MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening and Monitoring for Infectious Complications When Immunosuppressive Agents Are Studied in the Treatment of Autoimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loechelt, Brett J; Green, Michael; Gottlieb, Peter A; Blumberg, Emily; Weinberg, Adriana; Quinlan, Scott; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-09-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development, investigation, and clinical application of immunosuppressive agents to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders. The expansion of clinical applications of these new agents requires the performance of large multicenter clinical trials. These large clinical trials are particularly important as one considers these agents for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, which although autoimmune in its pathogenesis, is not classically treated as an autoimmune disorder. Although these agents hold promise for amelioration or cure of this disease, they have the potential to facilitate infectious complications. There are limited data regarding the prospective assessment of infectious risks with these agents in trials of this nature. Pediatric subjects may be at greater risk due to the higher likelihood of primary infection. A subgroup of experts associated with TrialNet (a National Institutes of Health [NIH]-funded Type 1 diabetes mellitus research network) with expertise in infectious diseases, immunology, and diagnostics developed an approach for screening and monitoring of immunosuppression-associated infections for prospective use in clinical trials. The goals of these recommendations are to provide a structured approach to monitor for infections, to identify specific laboratory testing and surveillance methods, and to consider therapies for treatment of these potential complications. Prospective evaluations of these infectious risks allow for greater scientific rigor in the evaluation of risk, which must be balanced with the potential benefits of these therapies. Our experience supports an important role for investigators with expertise in infections in immunocompromised individuals in protocol development of immunosuppressive trials in type 1diabetes and potentially other autoimmune diseases.

  19. A multiparametric automatic method to monitor long-term reproducibility in digital mammography: results from a regional screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, G; Ballaminut, A; Contento, G

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to illustrate a multiparametric automatic method for monitoring long-term reproducibility of digital mammography systems, and its application on a large scale. Twenty-five digital mammography systems employed within a regional screening programme were controlled weekly using the same type of phantom, whose images were analysed by an automatic software tool. To assess system reproducibility levels, 15 image quality indices (IQIs) were extracted and compared with the corresponding indices previously determined by a baseline procedure. The coefficients of variation (COVs) of the IQIs were used to assess the overall variability. A total of 2553 phantom images were collected from the 25 digital mammography systems from March 2013 to December 2014. Most of the systems showed excellent image quality reproducibility over the surveillance interval, with mean variability below 5%. Variability of each IQI was 5%, with the exception of one index associated with the smallest phantom objects (0.25 mm), which was below 10%. The method applied for reproducibility tests-multi-detail phantoms, cloud automatic software tool to measure multiple image quality indices and statistical process control-was proven to be effective and applicable on a large scale and to any type of digital mammography system. • Reproducibility of mammography image quality should be monitored by appropriate quality controls. • Use of automatic software tools allows image quality evaluation by multiple indices. • System reproducibility can be assessed comparing current index value with baseline data. • Overall system reproducibility of modern digital mammography systems is excellent. • The method proposed and applied is cost-effective and easily scalable.

  20. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  1. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis W. Peterson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by “smart” diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings.

  2. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W; Rose, Donny; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2016-05-16

    In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA) system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by "smart" diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings.

  3. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  4. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  5. UV-screening Organic Matter (CDOM and MAA) as indicators for monitoring changes of the polar marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, M. O.; Kang, S. H.; Ha, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    At Kongsfjorden bay, DOC, CDOM, FDOM, composition of phytoplankton and MAAs were measured from seawater. The relationship between CDOM, DOC vs Chl a was also investigated. DOC of seawater in 2010 and 2011 was increased 68% and 34% respectively in average compared to DOC in 2009. CDOM was in the range of acdom(375): 0.1855 m-1 ~ 0.0965 m-1, and it showed clear decreasing gradient form inside bay to offshore. CDOM vs DOC and Chl a was inversely related in the study area. Biomass of phytoplankton during 2009~2011 was 0.43~ 0.76 mg/m3 and little change was observed, but the composition and dominant classes have changed. Phaeocystis sp. was rare and diatom and cryptophyte were dominant in the center of bay and coastal area, respectively. 5 different MAAs, shinorine, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, porphyra-334, asterine-330 are identified and separated from Arctic phytoplanktons by HPLC and an unknown MAA was identified from Phaeocystis pouchetti. The spatial distribution pattern of MAAs in the study area was similar with the distribution of Phaeocystis sp. in 2009. The concentration of MAA in 2011 was decreased upto 50% with maximum concentration and seems to related with very low abundance of Phaeocystis sp. in the bay. The results from UV B exposure experiment with Phaeocystis pouchetti. and Porosira glacialis revealed clear discrepancy in the response to carbon uptake rate and photo-inhibition, and also the organic matter from these phytoplankton showed a different photo reactivity. Porosira glacialis, larger than Phaeocystis pouchetti. was more resistant to harmful UV B effect and result of carbon uptake rate using 13C support this tendency. In case Phaeocystis pouchetti becomes the dominant species, it is likely CDOM will be easily degraded and the UV screening effect of seawater will be reduced. acdom(375) 0.14m-1in spring in the arctic was higher than 0.11m-1 in the antarctic at monitoring station. These 3 year monitoring in the arctic Kongsfjorden showed a

  6. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  7. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  8. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  9. Beneath sci-fi sound: primer, science fiction sound design, and American independent cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    Primer is a very low budget science-fiction film that deals with the subject of time travel; however, it looks and sounds quite distinctively different from other films associated with the genre. While Hollywood blockbuster sci-fi relies on “sound spectacle” as a key attraction, in contrast Primer sounds “lo-fi” and screen-centred, mixed to two channel stereo rather than the now industry-standard 5.1 surround sound. Although this is partly a consequence of the economics of its production, the...

  10. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  11. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  12. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  13. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  14. Prognostic factors for specific lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries identified through medical screening and training load monitoring in professional football (soccer): a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Jamie C; Parkes, Matthew J; Callaghan, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical screening and load monitoring procedures are commonly used in professional football to assess factors perceived to be associated with injury. Objectives To identify prognostic factors (PFs) and models for lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries in professional/elite football players from medical screening and training load monitoring processes. Methods The MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed electronic bibliographic databases were searched (from inception to January 2017). Prospective and retrospective cohort studies of lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injury incidence in professional/elite football players aged between 16 and 40 years were included. The Quality in Prognostic Studies appraisal tool and the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation synthesis approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Results Fourteen studies were included. 16 specific lower extremity injury outcomes were identified. No spinal injury outcomes were identified. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and study quality. All evidence related to PFs and specific lower extremity injury outcomes was of very low to low quality. On the few occasions where multiple studies could be used to compare PFs and outcomes, only two factors demonstrated consensus. A history of previous hamstring injuries (HSI) and increasing age may be prognostic for future HSI in male players. Conclusions The assumed ability of medical screening tests to predict specific musculoskeletal injuries is not supported by the current evidence. Screening procedures should currently be considered as benchmarks of function or performance only. The prognostic value of load monitoring modalities is unknown. PMID:29177074

  15. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  16. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was -0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and -0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.

  17. Annual Report: 2011-2012 Storm Season Sampling, Non-Dry Dock Stormwater Monitoring for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Rupert, Brian; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhart, Christine

    2013-07-03

    Annual PSNS non-dry dock storm water monitoring results for 2011-2012 storm season. Included are a brief description of the sampling procedures, storm event information, laboratory methods and data collection, a results and discussion section, and the conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Long-term monitoring program: Evaluating chronic exposure of harlequin ducks and sea otters to lingering Exxon Valdez Oil in Western Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    We found that average cytochrome P4501A induction (as measured by EROD activity) during March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks captured in areas of Prince William Sound oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, relative to those captured in unoiled areas. This result is consistent with findings from March 2013. We interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 years after the original spill. Results from preceding sampling in 2011 indicated that EROD activity was elevated in harlequin ducks in oiled relative to unoiled areas, although the magnitude of elevation was lower than in previous years (1998-2009), suggesting that the rate or intensity of exposure was diminishing by 2011. The data presented in this report add to a growing body of literature indicating that persistence of oil in the environment, and exposure of wildlife to that oil, can occur over much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  19. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Cornelia Deutsch,1 Ralf Krüger,1 Andreas Wolf,2 Peter Müller,2 Thomas Zwingers,1,4 Beate Beime,1 Thomas Mengden31Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Cloppenburg, 2Müller and Sebastiani, Ottobrunn, 3Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim, 4Estimate, Augsburg, GermanyObjective: The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP. The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours.Materials and methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers. A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained.Results: The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP.Conclusion: The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.Keywords: validation, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ESH

  20. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  1. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  2. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  3. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  4. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  5. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  6. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  7. A neutral-beam profile monitor with a phosphor screen and a high-sensitivity camera for the J-PARC KOTO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Kamiji, I.; Nakagiri, K.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasao, N.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a beam-profile monitor (BPM) system to align the collimators for the neutral beam-line at the Hadron Experimental Facility of J-PARC. The system is composed of a phosphor screen and a CCD camera coupled to an image intensifier mounted on a remote control X- Y stage. The design and detailed performance studies of the BPM are presented. The monitor has a spatial resolution of better than 0.6 mm and a deviation from linearity of less than 1%. These results indicate that the BPM system meets the requirements to define collimator-edge positions for the beam-line tuning. Confirmation using the neutral beam for the KOTO experiment is also presented.

  8. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  9. Color-Changing Microfiber-Based Multifunctional Window Screen for Capture and Visualized Monitoring of NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Xinxin; Cong, Shan; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Qingwen; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2018-05-02

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues affecting the world today. Instead of expensive and energy-intensive air filtering devices, a fiber-based transparent air filter coated on a window screen is seen as one of the state-of-the-art filtration technologies to combat the seriously growing problem, delivering the advantages of simplicity, convenience, and high filtering efficiency. However, such a window screen is currently limited to particulate matter (PM) filtration and ineffective with other air pollutants. Here, we report the use of a newfangled type of color-changing fibers, porous Prussian blue analogues (CuHCF)/polymer composite microfibers, for transparent window screens toward air pollutant filtration. To increase pollution filtration, pores and dimples are purposely introduced to the fibers using binary solvent systems through a nonsolvent-induced phase separation mechanism. Such composite microfibers overcome some of the limitations of those previously used fibers and could simultaneously capture PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and NH 3 with high efficiency. More interestingly, a distinct color change is observed upon exposure to air pollutants in such window screens, which provides multifunctional capability of simultaneous pollutant capture and naked eye screening of the pollutant amount. Specifically, in the case of long-term exposure to low-concentration NH 3 , the symbol displayed in such window screens changes from yellow color to brown and the coloration rate is directly controlled by the NH 3 concentration, which may serve as a careful reminder for those people who are repeatedly exposed to low-concentration ammonia gas (referred to as chronic poisoning). In contrast, after short-term exposure to a high concentration of ammonia gas, the yellow symbol immediately becomes blackened, which provides timely information about the risk of acute ammonia poisoning or even ammonia explosion. Further spectroscopic results show that the chromatic behaviors in

  10. Congenital hypothyroidism - Polish recommendations for therapy, treatment monitoring, and screening tests in special categories of neonates with increased risk of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna Małgorzata; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona; Walczak, Mieczysław; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Jackowska, Teresa; Lewiński, Andrzej; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Proper treatment of congenital hypothyroidism warrants normal intellectual and physical development. This paper introduces the principles of treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, the recommended levothyroxine dosage, and the aims of therapy with its justification. The principles of treatment, specialist care of the patient, and methods used to evaluate therapeutic effects are described. Based on these data, recommendations concerning treatment and its monitoring in patients with congenital hypothyroidism are formulated. The paper also highlights the importance of educating the patients and/or their caretakers as one of the basic components of an effective therapy. The interpretation of screening tests in preterm neonates is provided as well. In the current screening program in preterm children TSH was determined between days three and five of life and then after three weeks. During this time TSH values are frequently low because of the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Due to the increased risk of primary and secondary hypothyroidism in preterm and low birth weight babies the determination of TSH and fT4 between days three and five of life is recommended, irrespective of the screening test. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 536-547).

  11. Impact of screening and monitoring of capillary blood glucose in the detection of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in non-critical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Silicani Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of screening hyper and hypoglycemia measured by capillary glycemia and standard monitorization of  hyperglycemic patients hospitalized in regular care units of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Methods: The capillary glycemia was  measured by the Precision PCx (Abbott glucosimeter, using the PrecisionWeb (Abbott software. The detection of hyper and hypoglycemia during the months of May/June were compared to those of March/April in 2009 and to the frequency of the diagnosis of diabetes in 2007. Rresults: There was an increase in the glycemia screening from 27.7 to 77.5% of hospitalized patients (p < 0.001, of hyperglycemia detection (from 9.3 to 12.2%; p < 0.001 and of hypoglycemia (from 1.5 to 3.3%; p < 0.001 during  the months of May/June  2009. According to this action 14 patients for each additional case of hyperglycemia and 26 cases for each case of hypoglycemia were identified. The detection of hyperglycemia was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than the frequency of registered diagnosis related do diabetes in the year of 2007. Cconclusions: the adoption of an institutional program of glycemia monitorization improves the detection of hyper and hypoglycemia and glycemia control in hospitalized patients in regular care units.

  12. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  13. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  14. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  15. In-situ nanoelectrospray for high-throughput screening of enzymes and real-time monitoring of reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhan; Han, Feifei; Ouyang, Jin; Zhao, Yunling; Han, Juan; Na, Na

    2016-01-01

    The in-situ and high-throughput evaluation of enzymes and real-time monitoring of enzyme catalyzed reactions in liquid phase is quite significant in the catalysis industry. In-situ nanoelectrospray, the direct sampling and ionization method for mass spectrometry, has been applied for high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, as well as the on-line monitoring of reactions. Simply inserting a capillary into a liquid system with high-voltage applied, analytes in liquid reaction system can be directly ionized at the capillary tip with small volume consumption. With no sample pre-treatment or injection procedure, different analytes such as saccharides, amino acids, alkaloids, peptides and proteins can be rapidly and directly extracted from liquid phase and ionized at the capillary tip. Taking irreversible transesterification reaction of vinyl acetate and ethanol as an example, this technique has been used for the high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, fast optimizations, as well as real-time monitoring of reaction catalyzed by different enzymes. In addition, it is even softer than traditional electrospray ionization. The present method can also be used for the monitoring of other homogenous and heterogeneous reactions in liquid phases, which will show potentials in the catalysis industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the AQT Color-Form Additive Model for Screening and Monitoring Pharmacological Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) processing-speed and efficiency measures for evaluating sensitivity and monitoring effects during pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD. Method: Color (C), form (F), and color-form (CF) combination naming were administered to 69 adults during outpatient…

  17. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  18. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  19. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  20. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  1. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  2. A efetividade dos testes complementares no acompanhamento da intervenção terapêutica no transtorno fonológico Effectiveness of complementary tests in monitoring therapeutic intervention in speech sound disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento e a evolução terapêutica de crianças com transtorno fonológico estão diretamente relacionados à avaliação inicial e aos testes complementares aplicados. Acompanhar a evolução do caso por meio de verificações regulares acrescenta informações importantes à avaliação diagnóstica, o que permite fortalecer achados iniciais a respeito da dificuldade subjacente identificada na avaliação inicial. Assim, no presente estudo de caso verificou-se a efetividade e a eficiência da aplicação do índice de porcentagem de consoantes corretas revisado (PCC-R bem como dos testes complementares de inconsistência de fala, de estimulabilidade e de habilidades metafonológicas no acompanhamento da intervenção terapêutica em crianças com transtorno fonológico. Participaram deste estudo três crianças do gênero masculino. Na data da avaliação inicial o Caso 1 tinha 6 anos e 9 meses de idade, o Caso 2, 8 anos e 10 meses, e o Caso 3, 9 anos e 7 meses. Além da avaliação específica da fonologia, foram aplicados testes complementares que auxiliaram na verificação da dificuldade subjacente específica em cada um dos casos. Desta forma, os sujeitos foram submetidos à avaliação de habilidades metafonológicas, à prova de inconsistência de fala e de estimulabilidade. A análise conjunta dos dados permitiu constatar que os testes selecionados foram efetivos e eficientes tanto para complementar o diagnóstico como para indicar mudanças nos três casos de crianças com transtorno fonológico.Therapeutic planning and evolution of children with speech sound disorders are related to both the initial assessment and to the complementary tests selected to be applied. Monitoring the case by regular evaluations adds important information to the diagnosis, which allows strengthening the initial findings with regards to the underlying deficits identified in the initial evaluation. The aim of this case report was to verify the

  3. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  4. A model for calculating specular and diffuse reflections in outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In many practical outdoor situations, the direct sound path between a noise source and a receiver is screened by an obstacle. In these situations indirect sound paths become important, in particular reflections of sound waves. Reflections may occur at objects such as a vertical wall, but also at the

  5. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  6. Use of pulse co-oximetry as a screening and monitoring tool in mass carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Bryan E; Nowicki, Kevin; Creel, James H; Carrison, Dale; Severance, Harry W

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of poisoning in the United States. We describe a case where responding fire department personnel encountered a sick employee with a headache at an automotive brake manufacturing plant. Using both atmospheric CO monitoring and pulse CO-oximetry technology, fire department personnel were able to diagnose the cause of the patient's illness and later identify the source of CO in the plant.

  7. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  8. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  9. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  10. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  11. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-07-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches.

  13. Computerised decision support systems in order communication for diagnostic, screening or monitoring test ordering: systematic reviews of the effects and cost-effectiveness of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, C; Moxham, T; Wyatt, J C; Kay, J; Anderson, R; Stein, K

    2010-10-01

    Order communication systems (OCS) are computer applications used to enter diagnostic and therapeutic patient care orders and to view test results. Many potential benefits of OCS have been identified including improvements in clinician ordering patterns, optimisation of clinical time, and aiding communication processes between clinicians and different departments. Many OCS now include computerised decision support systems (CDSS), which are information systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. CDSS match individual patient characteristics to a computerised knowledge base, and software algorithms generate patient-specific recommendations. To investigate which CDSS in OCS are in use within the UK and the impact of CDSS in OCS for diagnostic, screening or monitoring test ordering compared to OCS without CDSS. To determine what features of CDSS are associated with clinician or patient acceptance of CDSS in OCS and what is known about the cost-effectiveness of CDSS in diagnostic, screening or monitoring test OCS compared to OCS without CDSS. A generic search to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Xplore digital library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and EconLit, searched between 1974 and 2009 with a total of 22,109 titles and abstracts screened for inclusion. CDSS for diagnostic, screening and monitoring test ordering OCS in use in the UK were identified through contact with the 24 manufacturers/suppliers currently contracted by the National Project for Information Technology (NpfIT) to provide either national or specialist decision support. A generic search to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review was

  14. Original monitoring of desert dust in African air masses transported over the Mediterranean Sea by quasi-Lagrangian drifting balloons and sounding balloons during the summer 2013 ChArMEx field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, F.; Renard, J. B.; Durand, P.; Denjean, C.; Bourgeois, Q.; Vignelles, D.; Jeannot, M.; Mallet, M.; Verdier, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on in situ balloon-borne measurements of mineral dust from summer regional field campaigns in the western Mediterranean basin performed in the framework of ChArMEx (the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; see special issue https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue334.html). Due to long-range transport from Africa, the lower troposphere over this regional sea is subject to high levels of desert dust with a maximum during the long dry and sunny Mediterranean summer season. Based on developments of boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPBs) and of a dedicated optical particle counter named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter/sizer), we were able to perform original quasi-Lagrangian monitoring of desert dust aerosols over the sea. The strategy combined classical sounding balloons and drifting BLPBs to document both the vertical distribution and long-range transport. A total of 27 LOAC flights were successfully conducted from Minorca Isl. (Spain) or Levant Isl. (France), during 4 Saharan dust transport events, including 10 flights with BLPBs at drifting altitudes between 2.0 and 3.3 km above sea level. The longest flight exceeded 700 km and lasted more than 25 h. Numerous tests and validations of LOAC measurements were performed to qualify the instrument, including comparisons with concurrent airborne measurements, sounding balloons, and remote sensing measurements with an AERONET sun-photometer, and a ground-based and the CALIOP lidar systems. Aerosol optical depths in the balloon vicinity did not exceed about 0.4 but the presence of turbid dust layers was confirmed thanks to dual scattering angle measurements by LOAC allowing the identification of dust particles. LOAC data could generally be fitted by a 3-mode lognormal distribution at roughly 0.2, 4 and 30 µm in modal diameter. Up to about 10-4 dust particles larger than 40 µm per cm3 are reported and no significant evolution of the size distribution was observed during the

  15. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  16. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  17. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  18. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  19. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  20. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  1. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  2. FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid screening and monitoring of polyunsaturated fatty acid production in commercially valuable marine yeasts and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Gupta, Adarsha; Puri, Munish; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-10-21

    The increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption has prompted research into alternative resources other than fish oil. In this study, a new approach based on focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis was developed for the characterisation of some marine microorganisms. Cell and lipid compositions in lipid-rich marine yeasts collected from the Australian coast were characterised in comparison to a commercially available PUFA-producing marine fungoid protist, thraustochytrid. Multivariate classification methods provided good discriminative accuracy evidenced from (i) separation of the yeasts from thraustochytrids and distinct spectral clusters among the yeasts that conformed well to their biological identities, and (ii) correct classification of yeasts from a totally independent set using cross-validation testing. The findings further indicated additional capability of the developed FPA-FTIR methodology, when combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for rapid monitoring of lipid production in one of the yeasts during the growth period, which was achieved at a high accuracy compared to the results obtained from the traditional lipid analysis based on gas chromatography. The developed FTIR-based approach when coupled to programmable withdrawal devices and a cytocentrifugation module would have strong potential as a novel online monitoring technology suited for bioprocessing applications and large-scale production.

  3. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  4. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  5. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A; Ramirez Silva, M T; Palomar Pardave, M E

    2010-01-01

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10 -6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  6. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  7. Portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiev, Rustam; Glazova, Anna; Olyinik, Valery; Makarenkova, Anastasiia; Makarenkov, Anatolii; Rakhimov, Abdulvosid; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    A portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis has been developed, including the original electronic stethoscope coupled with mobile devices and special algorithms for the automated analysis of pulmonary sound signals. It's planned that the developed system will be used for monitoring of health status of patients with various pulmonary diseases.

  8. Frequent screening for syphilis as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Leslie, David; Howley, Kerri; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-10-01

    Syphilis continues to be a significant public health problem among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. This study aimed to determine whether the routine inclusion of syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM. We examined the effect of this intervention, implemented in January 2007, on the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, and compared this with the previous clinic policy of annual syphilis screening. In the 18 months before and after the intervention, the median number of syphilis tests performed per man per year was 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of MSM diagnosed with early syphilis who were asymptomatic was 21% (3 of 14) and 85% (41 of 48) for the 2 respective periods (P = 0.006). The time between the midpoint since last syphilis serology and diagnosis of syphilis was a median of 107 days (range 9-362) and 45 days (range 23-325) for the 2 periods, respectively (P = 0.018). The inclusion of routine syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring in HIV-positive MSM resulted in a large increase in the proportion of men diagnosed with early asymptomatic syphilis. This simple intervention probably also decreased the duration of infectiousness, enhancing syphilis control while also reducing morbidity.

  9. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  10. Halifax Sound Range Trials (DE0301, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiated sound measurements of vessels are important for monitoring the noise characteristics of fishing and research vessels. A vessel's radiated noise can have...

  11. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  12. Interval cancer peer review in East Anglia: Implications for monitoring doctors as well as the NHS breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.D.; McCann, J.; O'Driscoll, D.; Hunnam, G.; Warren, R.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To devise a method for reviewing interval cancers that will both educate radiologists and facilitate improvement of breast screening practice. To evaluate different methods for case classification to find one that best serves this purpose. METHOD: The method of peer review and the means by which interval cancers are classified is described. The way in which cases are designated false-negative is an issue of acceptability for radiologists, and so three different methods are evaluated. Each is applied to the data set collected in this region over a 3-year period. RESULTS: For cases read by five readers, when a consensus method was used for classifying cases, the proportion of cases classified as false-negative was 14%. Using a method in which only one of the five readers had to classify a case as false-negative for it to be categorized as such, the proportion of false-negative cases rose to a maximum of 38%. The minimum proportion of cases that could be considered to be false-negative was 6% and was obtained when all five readers had to classify a case as false-negative for it to be so categorized. Consistent with its majority viewpoint, the consensus method gave results for proportions of total cases classified as false-negative which were similar to those given by methods in which cases are classified as false-negative if either three of five readers, or at least 60% of readers, classified it as such. CONCLUSION: For the peer review method to achieve its dual aims of educating radiologists and auditing performance, the participating radiologists must share ownership of the results and view the analysis as fair. The method used to classify interval cancers as false-negative will influence the number so classified. A consensus method has been found to give a result that is both fair and acceptable to our radiologist. Using this method 16% of all reviewed cases were classified as false-negative and 60% as true interval cancers. Britton, P.D. (2001)

  13. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  14. Reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroto.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor noise monitoring device by detecting abnormal sounds in background noises. Vibration sounds detected by accelerometers are applied to a loose parts detector. The detector generates high alarm if there are sudden impact sounds in the background noises and applies output signals to an accumulation device. If there is slight impact sounds in the vicinity of any of the accelerometers, the accumulation device accumulates the abnormal sounds assumed to be generated from an identical site while synchronizing the waveforms for all of the channels. Then, the device outputs signals in which the background noises are cancelled, as detection signals. Therefore, S/N ratio can be improved and the abnormal sounds contained in the background noises can be detected, to thereby improve the accuracy for estimating the position where the abnormal sounds are generated. (I.S.)

  15. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  16. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  17. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  18. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  19. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  20. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  1. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  2. 75 FR 16159 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-0121] Prince William Sound Regional... the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the...

  3. 77 FR 19301 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2012-0099] Prince William Sound Regional... Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the activities...

  4. Making Movies: From Script to Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobker, Lee R.

    This book is a guide to the making of films. It covers preparation (scripting, storyboarding, budgeting, casting, and crew selection), filming (directing, camera operating, and sound recording), and postproduction (editing, sound dubbing, laboratory processing, and trial screening). Distribution of films is discussed in detail. Possible careers in…

  5. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  6. Development of a computer-based automated pure tone hearing screening device: a preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Kok Beng; Azeez, Dhifaf; Umat, Cila; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd; Wahab, Noor Alaudin Abdul; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Hearing screening is important for the early detection of hearing loss. The requirements of specialized equipment, skilled personnel, and quiet environments for valid screening results limit its application in schools and health clinics. This study aimed to develop an automated hearing screening kit (auto-kit) with the capability of realtime noise level monitoring to ensure that the screening is performed in an environment that conforms to the standard. The auto-kit consists of a laptop, a 24-bit resolution sound card, headphones, a microphone, and a graphical user interface, which is calibrated according to the American National Standards Institute S3.6-2004 standard. The auto-kit can present four test tones (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) at 25 or 40 dB HL screening cut-off level. The clinical results at 40 dB HL screening cut-off level showed that the auto-kit has a sensitivity of 92.5% and a specificity of 75.0%. Because the 500 Hz test tone is not included in the standard hearing screening procedure, it can be excluded from the auto-kit test procedure. The exclusion of 500 Hz test tone improved the specificity of the auto-kit from 75.0% to 92.3%, which suggests that the auto-kit could be a valid hearing screening device. In conclusion, the auto-kit may be a valuable hearing screening tool, especially in countries where resources are limited.

  7. Offshore dredger sound: source levels, sound maps and risk assessment (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is expanding to meet the growing demand to accommodate large cargo vessels. One of the licensing conditions was the monitoring of the underwater sound produced during its construction, with an emphasis on the establishment of acoustic source levels of the Trailing Suction

  8. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  9. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  10. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  11. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  12. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  13. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  14. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  15. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  16. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  17. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  18. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  19. Impact of screens on air quality. Final report of a study on the performance of (sound)screens on the air quality along highways; Invloed schermen op de luchtkwaliteit. Eindrapport onderzoek naar de werking van (geluids)schermen op de luchtkwaliteit langs snelwegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blokland, G.; Hooghwerff, J.; Tollenaar, C. [M en P Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Aalsmeer (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Within the framework of the IPL (innovation Program Air) between 2005 and 2009 an extensive study was performed of the beneficial effects of (sound)barriers on the air quality in the vicinity of roads. Also several new designs were developed to improve the performance of standard barriers and attention was given to the reliability and compatibility of procedures for CFD calculation and wind tunnel measurements. At the start of this program it was known that barriers alongside the roads could have significant positive effects on the air quality in the vicinity of the road and first tests in a wind tunnel corroborated these positive expectations. At about 15 m behind a standard screen of 4 m height, the emission effect of the road was reduced to 60% if the non-screened situation, decreasing to 12% in case of a 16 m screen. A broad inventory of knowledge on barrier effects on air flow and on absorption of particles and NOx learned that the expectations for standard constructions may in practice be lower, but that modification of the barrier design could lead to significant improvements for NOx and particle reduction. Next in three rounds the market was challenged to propose improved designs. The 1st round required ready-to-build concepts, the 2nd and 3rd round also accepted more futuristic designs. Four selected proposals of the 1st round were tested at full scale in the designated barrier proving ground along the A-27 near Nulde-beach. The performance of the selected designs from the 2nd and 3rd round were studied on base of reduced scale lab testing and desk studies. At the same time an extensive proving ground was facilitated to perform full-scale testing of barrier designs under practical conditions. At 4 cross sections of the motorway, each about 200 m apart, instrumentation for the determinations of NOx, NO2, PM10 and PM2,5 was installed at a distance of 5, 10 and 28,5 m behind the barrier. One of the cross section without barrier served as reference. A standard

  20. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  1. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  2. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  3. A monitoring of chemical contaminants in waters used for field irrigation and livestock watering in the Veneto region (Italy), using bioassays as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liguoro, Marco; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Gallina, Guglielmo; Capolongo, Francesca; Gallocchio, Federica; Binato, Giovanni; Di Leva, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 50 livestock watering sources (ground water) and 50 field irrigation sources (surface water) from various industrialised areas of the Veneto region were monitored for chemical contaminants. From each site, four water samples (one in each season) were collected during the period from summer 2009 through to spring 2010. Surface water samples and ground water samples were first screened for toxicity using the growth inhibition test on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the immobilisation test on Daphnia magna, respectively. Then, based on the results of these toxicity tests, 28 ground water samples and 26 surface water samples were submitted to chemical analysis for various contaminants (insecticides/acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, metals and anions) by means of UPLC-MS(n) HPLC-MS(n), AAS and IEC. With the exception of one surface water sample where the total pesticides concentration was greater than 4 μg L(-1), positive samples (51.9 %) showed only traces (nanograms per liter) of pesticides. Metals were generally under the detection limit. High concentrations of chlorines (up to 692 mg L(-1)) were found in some ground water samples while some surface water samples showed an excess of nitrites (up to 336 mg L(-1)). Detected levels of contamination were generally too low to justify the toxicity recorded in bioassays, especially in the case of surface water samples, and analytical results painted quite a reassuring picture, while tests on P. subcapitata showed a strong growth inhibition activity. It was concluded that, from an ecotoxicological point of view, surface waters used for field irrigation in the Veneto region cannot be considered safe.

  4. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  5. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  6. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  7. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  8. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  9. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  10. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  11. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  12. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  13. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  14. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  15. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  16. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  17. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  18. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  19. Sound segregation via embedded repetition is robust to inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Results During First Year of Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and Optimization by Altering Fecal Immunochemical Test Cut-Off Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toes-Zoutendijk, Esther; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien; van Hees, Frank; Penning, Corine; Nagtegaal, Iris; van der Meulen, Miriam P; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bonfrer, Johannes M G; Biermann, Katharina; Thomeer, Maarten G J; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Kroep, Sonja; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Meijer, Gerrit A; de Koning, Harry J; Spaander, Manon C W; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-03-01

    After careful pilot studies and planning, the national screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC), with biennial fecal immunochemical tests (FITs), was initiated in The Netherlands in 2014. A national information system for real-time monitoring was developed to allow for timely evaluation. Data were collected from the first year of this screening program to determine the importance of planning and monitoring for optimal screening program performance. The national information system of the CRC screening program kept track of the number of invitations sent in 2014, FIT kits returned, and colonoscopies performed. Age-adjusted rates of participation, the number of positive test results, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for advanced neoplasia were determined weekly, quarterly, and yearly. In 2014, there were 741,914 persons invited for FIT; of these, 529,056 (71.3%; 95% CI, 71.2%-71.4%) participated. A few months into the program, real-time monitoring showed that rates of participation and positive test results (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.5%-10.8%) were higher than predicted and the PPV was lower (42.1%; 95% CI, 41.3%-42.9%) than predicted based on pilot studies. To reduce the burden of unnecessary colonoscopies and alleviate colonoscopy capacity, the cut-off level for a positive FIT result was increased from 15 to 47 μg Hb/g feces halfway through 2014. This adjustment decreased the percentage of positive test results to 6.7% (95% CI, 6.6%-6.8%) and increased the PPV to 49.1% (95% CI, 48.3%-49.9%). In total, the first year of the Dutch screening program resulted in the detection of 2483 cancers and 12,030 advanced adenomas. Close monitoring of the implementation of the Dutch national CRC screening program allowed for instant adjustment of the FIT cut-off levels to optimize program performance. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  3. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  4. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  5. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  6. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  7. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  8. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: umaboofa@cc.umanitoba.ca; Moussavi, Zahra [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: mousavi@ee.umanitoba.ca

    2009-01-30

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  9. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron V Tronstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival’s duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization’s recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.

  10. Sound Exposure During Outdoor Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, Tron V.; Gelderblom, Femke B.

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure. PMID:27569410

  11. Second sound scattering in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosgen, T.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing cavities are used to study the scattering of second sound in liquid helium II. The special geometries reduce wall interference effects and allow measurements in very small test volumes. In a first experiment, a double elliptical cavity is used to focus a second sound wave onto a small wire target. A thin film bolometer measures the side scattered wave component. The agreement with a theoretical estimate is reasonable, although some problems arise from the small measurement volume and associated alignment requirements. A second cavity is based on confocal parabolas, thus enabling the use of large planar sensors. A cylindrical heater produces again a focused second sound wave. Three sensors monitor the transmitted wave component as well as the side scatter in two different directions. The side looking sensors have very high sensitivities due to their large size and resistance. Specially developed cryogenic amplifers are used to match them to the signal cables. In one case, a second auxiliary heater is used to set up a strong counterflow in the focal region. The second sound wave then scatters from the induced fluid disturbances

  12. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    colours show element displacements in opposite directions. Geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth, and thus learn about the inner structure of our planet. The same technique works for stars. The Sun, our nearest star and a typical middle-age member of its class, has been investigated in this way since the 1960's. With "solar seismology" , astronomers have been able to learn much about the inner parts of the star, and not only the outer layers normally visible to the telescopes. In the Sun, heat is bubbling up from the central regions where enormous amount of energy is created by nuclear reactions . In the so-called convective zone , the gas is virtually boiling, and hot gas-bubbles are rising with a speed that is close to that of sound. Much like you can hear when water starts to boil, the turbulent convection in the Sun creates noise . These sound waves then propagate through the solar interior and are reflected on the surface, making it oscillate. This "ringing" is well observed in the Sun, where the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations provide astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the solar interior. From the Sun to the stars There is every reason to believe that our Sun is a quite normal star of its type. Other stars that are similar to the Sun are therefore likely to pulsate in much the same way as the Sun. The search for such oscillations in other solar-like stars has, however, been a long and difficult one. The problem is simply that the pulsations are tiny, so very great precision is needed in the measurements. However, the last few years have seen considerable progress in asteroseismology, and François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory have now been able to detect unambiguous acoustic oscillations in the Solar-twin star, Alpha Centauri A. The bright and nearby star Alpha Centauri Alpha Centauri (Alpha Cen) [1] is the brightest star in the constellation

  13. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  14. Fluctuations of radio occultation signals in sounding the Earth's atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the relationships that link the observed fluctuation spectra of the amplitude and phase of signals used for the radio occultation sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, with the spectra of atmospheric inhomogeneities. Our analysis employs the approximation of the phase screen and of weak fluctuations. We make our estimates for the following characteristic inhomogeneity types: (1 the isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and (2 the anisotropic saturated internal gravity waves. We obtain the expressions for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of radio occultation signals as well as their estimates for the typical parameters of inhomogeneity models. From the GPS/MET observations, we evaluate the spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations in the altitude interval from 4 to 25 km in the middle and polar latitudes. As indicated by theoretical and experimental estimates, the main contribution into the radio signal fluctuations comes from the internal gravity waves. The influence of the Kolmogorov turbulence is negligible. We derive simple relationships that link the parameters of internal gravity waves and the statistical characteristics of the radio signal fluctuations. These results may serve as the basis for the global monitoring of the wave activity in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  15. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  16. Incore monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Ichiro; Shirayama, Shin-pei; Nozaki, Shin-ichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an incore monitoring device wherein both radiation monitoring and acoustic monitoring are carried out simultaneously by one detector, whereby installation of the device and signal pick-up are facilitated. Incore conditions are accurately grasped. Constitution: When a neutron is irradiated in a state where a DC voltage is applied between the electrode and the vessel in the device, an ionization current is occured by (n.γ) reaction of the transformed substance as in an ionization chamber, Accordingly, a voltage drop occurs at both ends of the resistor of the radiation signal processing system, as a result of which a neutron flux can be detected. Further, when a sound is generated in the reactor, the monitoring device bottom wall which formed by a piezoelectric element detects the sound-waves. This output signal is picked up by the acoustic signal processing system to judge the generation of sound. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  18. Geometric and frequency EMI sounding of estuarine earthen flood defence embankments in Ireland using 1D inversion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganotti, Matteo; Jackson, Ruth; Krahn, Hartmut; Dyer, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Earthen flood defence embankments are linear structures, raised above the flood plain, that are commonly used as flood defences in rural settings; these are often relatively old structures constructed using locally garnered material and of which little is known in terms of design and construction. Alarmingly, it is generally reported that a number of urban developments have expanded to previously rural areas; hence, acquiring knowledge about the flood defences protecting these areas has risen significantly in the agendas of basin and asset managers. This paper focusses, by reporting two case studies, on electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods that would efficiently complement routine visual inspections and would represent a first step to more detailed investigations. Evaluation of the results is presented by comparison with ERT profiles and intrusive investigation data. The EM data, acquired using a GEM-2 apparatus for frequency sounding and an EM-31 apparatus for geometrical sounding, has been handled using the prototype eGMS software tool, being developed by the eGMS international research consortium; the depth sounding data interpretation was assisted by 1D inversions obtained with the EM1DFM software developed by the University of British Columbia. Although both sounding methods showed some limitations, the models obtained were consistent with ERT models and the techniques were useful screening methods for the identification of areas of interest, such as material interfaces or potential seepage areas, within the embankment structure: 1D modelling improved the rapid assessment of earthen flood defence embankments in an estuarine environment; evidence that EMI sounding could play an important role as a monitoring tool or as a first step towards more detailed investigations.

  19. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  20. Understanding Animal Detection of Precursor Earthquake Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Kelley, Michael C

    2017-08-31

    We use recent research to provide an explanation of how animals might detect earthquakes before they occur. While the intrinsic value of such warnings is immense, we show that the complexity of the process may result in inconsistent responses of animals to the possible precursor signal. Using the results of our research, we describe a logical but complex sequence of geophysical events triggered by precursor earthquake crustal movements that ultimately result in a sound signal detectable by animals. The sound heard by animals occurs only when metal or other surfaces (glass) respond to vibrations produced by electric currents induced by distortions of the earth's electric fields caused by the crustal movements. A combination of existing measurement systems combined with more careful monitoring of animal response could nevertheless be of value, particularly in remote locations.

  1. Noise detection in heart sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Mohammad K; Griffel, Benjamin; Fridman, Vladimir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although progression of CAD can be controlled using drugs and diet, it is usually detected in advanced stages when invasive treatment is required. Current methods to detect CAD are invasive and/or costly, hence not suitable as a regular screening tool to detect CAD in early stages. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive and cost-effective system to detect CAD using the acoustic approach. This method identifies sounds generated by turbulent flow through partially narrowed coronary arteries to detect CAD. The limiting factor of this method is sensitivity to noises commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Because the CAD sounds are faint, these noises can easily obscure the CAD sounds and make detection impossible. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and eliminate noise encountered in the clinical setting using a reference channel. We show that our method is effective in detecting noise, which is essential to the success of the acoustic approach.

  2. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  3. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  4. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  5. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  6. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Facile high-throughput forward chemical genetic screening by in situ monitoring of glucuronidase-based reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek eHalder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologically active small molecules to perturb biological functions holds enormous potential for investigating complex signaling networks. However, in contrast to animal systems, the search for and application of chemical tools for basic discovery in the plant sciences, generally referred to as ‘chemical genetics’, has only recently gained momentum. In addition to cultured cells, the well-characterized, small-sized model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is suitable for cultivation in microplates, which allows employing diverse cell- or phenotype-based chemical screens. In such screens, a chemical’s bioactivity is typically assessed either through scoring its impact on morphological traits or quantifying molecular attributes such as enzyme or reporter activities. Here, we describe a facile forward chemical screening methodology for intact Arabidopsis seedlings harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter by directly quantifying GUS activity in situ with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (4-MUG as substrate. The quantitative nature of this screening assay has an obvious advantage over the also convenient histochemical GUS staining method, as it allows application of statistical procedures and unbiased hit selection based on threshold values as well as distinction between compounds with strong or weak bioactivity. At the same time, the in situ bioassay is very convenient requiring less effort and time for sample handling in comparison to the conventional quantitative in vitro GUS assay using 4-MUG, as validated with several Arabidopsis lines harboring different GUS reporter constructs. To demonstrate that the developed assays is particularly suitable for large-scale screening projects, we performed a pilot screen for chemical activators or inhibitors of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling using the Arabidopsis PR1p::GUS line. Importantly, the screening methodology provided here can be adopted for any inducible GUS reporter line.

  8. ECOLOGY OF FILM SOUND: FROM AUDIOVISUAL IMAGES TO AUDIOVISUAL SIMULATIONAL SOUNDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the aesthetic and technological innovations in the modern film sound: it discusses the concept of "simulational soundscapes" and questions on the "acoustic ecology" in films. Expressive techniques are analyzed, by means of which the distance between viewers and cinematographic images is leveled in modern movies, as well as the viewer's physical participation is simulated in the events shown on a screen. The author proposes to expand the conceptual framework and the methodological basis of on-screen sound research using the concepts of acoustic ecology (R.M.Shafer and the "event" sounds (R.Altman.

  9. Do top predators cue on sound production by mesopelagic prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Pickering, S.; Checkley, D. M., Jr.; Demer, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-scattering layer (DSL) organisms, comprising a variety of mesopelagic fishes, and squids, siphonophores, crustaceans, and other invertebrates, are preferred prey for numerous large marine predators, e.g. cetaceans, seabirds, and fishes. Some of the DSL species migrate from depth during daylight to feed near the surface at night, transitioning during dusk and dawn. We investigated if any DSL organisms create sound, particularly during the crepuscular periods. Over several nights in summer 2015, underwater sound was recorded in the San Diego Trough using a high-frequency acoustic recording package (HARP, 10 Hz to 100 kHz), suspended from a drifting surface float. Acoustic backscatter from the DSL was monitored nearby using a calibrated multiple-frequency (38, 70, 120, and 200 kHz) split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60) on a small boat. DSL organisms produced sound, between 300 and 1000 Hz, and the received levels were highest when the animals migrated past the recorder during ascent and descent. The DSL are globally present, so the observed acoustic phenomenon, if also ubiquitous, has wide-reaching implications. Sound travels farther than light or chemicals and thus can be sensed at greater distances by predators, prey, and mates. If sound is a characteristic feature of pelagic ecosystems, it likely plays a role in predator-prey relationships and overall ecosystem dynamics. Our new finding inspires numerous questions such as: Which, how, and why have DSL organisms evolved to create sound, for what do they use it and under what circumstances? Is sound production by DSL organisms truly ubiquitous, or does it depend on the local environment and species composition? How may sound production and perception be adapted to a changing environment? Do predators react to changes in sound? Can sound be used to quantify the composition of mixed-species assemblages, component densities and abundances, and hence be used in stock assessment or predictive modeling?

  10. Leakage monitoring device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1995-01-01

    In a water leakage monitor for a steam generator, output signals from an acoustic sensor disposed in the vicinity of a region to be monitored is subjected to phasing calculation (beam forming calculation) to determine the distribution of a sound source intensity distribution. A peak is retrieved based on the distribution of the sound source intensity distribution. A correction coefficient depending on the position of the peak is multiplied to the sound source intensity. The presence or absence of leakage is determined based on the degree of the sound source intensity after the completion of correction. Namely, a relative value of sound source intensity for each of the portions in the region to be monitored is determined, and the point of the greatest sound source intensity is assumed as a leaking point, to determine the position of the leakage. An absolute value of the sound source intensity at the leaking point is determined by such a constitution that a correction coefficient depending on the position is multiplied to the intensity of the position of the peak in the distribution of the sound intensity. A threshold value for the determination of the presence or absence of the leakage can be set if a relation between an amount of the leakage previously determined experimentally and the intensity of the sound source. Then, a countermeasure can easily be taken after the detection of the leakage and a restoring operation can be carried out rapidly after the occurrence of leakage while avoiding unnecessary shutdown. (N.H.)

  11. Improving the Reliability of Tinnitus Screening in Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aikeen; May, Bradford J

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral screening remains a contentious issue for animal studies of tinnitus. Most paradigms base a positive tinnitus test on an animal's natural tendency to respond to the "sound" of tinnitus as if it were an actual sound. As a result, animals with tinnitus are expected to display sound-conditioned behaviors when no sound is present or to miss gaps in background sounds because tinnitus "fills in the gap." Reliable confirmation of the behavioral indications of tinnitus can be problematic because the reinforcement contingencies of conventional discrimination tasks break down an animal's tendency to group tinnitus with sound. When responses in silence are rewarded, animals respond in silence regardless of their tinnitus status. When responses in silence are punished, animals stop responding. This study introduces stimulus classification as an alternative approach to tinnitus screening. Classification procedures train animals to respond to the common perceptual features that define a group of sounds (e.g., high pitch or narrow bandwidth). Our procedure trains animals to drink when they hear tinnitus and to suppress drinking when they hear other sounds. Animals with tinnitus are revealed by their tendency to drink in the presence of unreinforced probe sounds that share the perceptual features of the tinnitus classification. The advantages of this approach are illustrated by taking laboratory rats through a testing sequence that includes classification training, the experimental induction of tinnitus, and postinduction screening. Behavioral indications of tinnitus are interpreted and then verified by simulating a known tinnitus percept with objective sounds.

  12. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  13. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-Soundings at Olkiluoto 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2007-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2007 Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) at Onkalo situated in Olkiluoto nuclear power plant area. The same soundings sites were the first time measured and marked in 2004 and repeated after it yearly. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The total number of the soundings stations is 48. In 2007 at 8 sounding stations the transmitter and/or receiver sites were changed and the line L11.400 was substituted by line L11.500. Some changes helped but anyway there were 6 stations that could not be measured because of the strong electromagnetic noise. The numerous power lines and the cables of the area generate local 3-D effects on the sounding curves, but the repeatability of the results is good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong 3-D effects. Comparison of results 2004-2007 shows small differences at some sounding sites. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  15. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  16. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  17. Automatic Bowel Motility Evaluation Technique for Noncontact Sound Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Sato

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on bowel motility can be obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs and X-ray imaging. However, these approaches require expensive medical instruments and are unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Bowel sounds (BS can be conveniently obtained using electronic stethoscopes and have recently been employed for the evaluation of bowel motility. More recently, our group proposed a novel method to evaluate bowel motility on the basis of BS acquired using a noncontact microphone. However, the method required manually detecting BS in the sound recordings, and manual segmentation is inconvenient and time consuming. To address this issue, herein, we propose a new method to automatically evaluate bowel motility for noncontact sound recordings. Using simulations for the sound recordings obtained from 20 human participants, we showed that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of approximately 90% in automatic bowel sound detection when acoustic feature power-normalized cepstral coefficients are used as inputs to artificial neural networks. Furthermore, we showed that bowel motility can be evaluated based on the three acoustic features in the time domain extracted by our method: BS per minute, signal-to-noise ratio, and sound-to-sound interval. The proposed method has the potential to contribute towards the development of noncontact evaluation methods for bowel motility.

  18. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  19. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  20. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  1. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Farshad; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Safar Khorasani, Ehsan

    2011-10-04

    Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  2. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Khorasani Ehsan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  3. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  4. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Compound Libraries for Modulators of Salicylic Acid Signaling by In Situ Monitoring of Glucuronidase-Based Reporter Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Vivek; Kombrink, Erich

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a vital phytohormone that is intimately involved in coordination of the complex plant defense response to pathogen attack. Many aspects of SA signaling have been unraveled by classical genetic and biochemical methods using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but many details remain unknown, owing to the inherent limitations of these methods. In recent years, chemical genetics has emerged as an alternative scientific strategy to complement classical genetics by virtue of identifying bioactive chemicals or probes that act selectively on their protein targets causing either activation or inhibition. Such selective tools have the potential to create conditional and reversible chemical mutant phenotypes that may be combined with genetic mutants. Here, we describe a facile chemical screening methodology for intact Arabidopsis seedlings harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter by directly quantifying GUS activity in situ with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (4-MUG) as substrate. The quantitative nature of this screening assay has an obvious advantage over the also convenient histochemical GUS staining method, as it allows application of statistical procedures and unbiased hit selection based on threshold values as well as distinction between compounds with strong or weak bioactivity. We show pilot screens for chemical activators or inhibitors of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling using the Arabidopsis line expressing the SA-inducible PR1p::GUS reporter gene. Importantly, the screening methodology provided here can be adopted for any inducible GUS reporter line.

  5. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  6. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  7. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  8. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  9. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  10. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  11. Evaluation of the Data-Ray DR96L 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 22-Inch Diagonal Flat Screen Monochrome CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Based on results of our evaluation of the third sample NIDL cannot certify the Data-Ray DR96L monochrome monitor as being suitable for suitable monoscopic or stereoscopic operation in IEC workstations...

  12. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  13. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  14. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  15. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  16. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  17. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  18. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  19. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  20. The Influence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Design on Sound Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Li Chen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: The sound level measured in the enclosed space was quieter than in the open space. The design of bed space should be taken into consideration when building a new NICU. Besides the design of NICU architecture, continuous monitoring of sound level in the NICU is important to maintain a quiet environment.

  1. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    Sound is the most efficient radiation in the ocean. Sounds of seismic and biological origin contain information regarding the underlying processes that created them. A single hydrophone records summary time-frequency information from the volume within acoustic range. Beamforming using a hydrophone array additionally produces azimuthal estimates of sound sources. A two-dimensional array and acoustic focusing produce an unambiguous two-dimensional `image' of sources. This dissertation describes the application of these techniques in three cases. The first utilizes hydrophone arrays to investigate T-phases (water-borne seismic waves) in the Philippine Sea. Ninety T-phases were recorded over a 12-day period, implying a greater number of seismic events occur than are detected by terrestrial seismic monitoring in the region. Observation of an azimuthally migrating T-phase suggests that reverberation of such sounds from bathymetric features can occur over megameter scales. In the second case, single hydrophone recordings from coral reefs in the Line Islands archipelago reveal that local ambient reef sound is spectrally similar to sounds produced by small, hard-shelled benthic invertebrates in captivity. Time-lapse photography of the reef reveals an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at sundown, consistent with an increase in sound level. The dominant acoustic phenomenon on these reefs may thus originate from the interaction between a large number of small invertebrates and the substrate. Such sounds could be used to take census of hard-shelled benthic invertebrates that are otherwise extremely difficult to survey. A two-dimensional `map' of sound production over a coral reef in the Hawaiian Islands was obtained using two-dimensional hydrophone array in the third case. Heterogeneously distributed bio-acoustic sources were generally co-located with rocky reef areas. Acoustically dominant snapping shrimp were largely restricted to one location within the area surveyed

  2. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  3. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  4. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  5. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  6. Gefinex 400S (SAMPO) EM-soundings at Olkiluoto 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.; Korhonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2009 Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out electromagnetic (EM) frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) in the vicinity of ONKALO at the Olkiluoto site investigation area. The EM-monitoring sounding program started in 2004 and has been repeated since yearly in the same season. The aim of the study is to monitor the variations of the groundwater properties down to 500 m depth by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The original measurement grid was based on two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The receiver and transmitter sites are marked with stakes and the profiles were measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The measurement program was revised in 2007 and then again in 2009. Now 15 noisy soundings were removed from the program and 3 new points were selected from the area to the east from ONKALO. The new receiver/transmitter sites, called ABC-points were marked with stakes and the points were measured using transmitter-receiver separations 200, 400 and 800 meters. In 2009 the new EM-Sampo monitoring program included 28+9 soundings. The numerous power lines and cables in the area generate local disturbances on the sounding curves, but the SN (signal to noise) ratio and the repeatability of the results is reasonably good even with long coil separations. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong shallow 3D effects. Comparison of the new results to old 2004-2008 surveys shows differences on some ARD (apparent resistivity-depth) curves. Those are mainly results of the modified shallow structures. The changes in groundwater conditions based on the monitoring results seem insignificant. (orig.)

  7. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-Soundings at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2006-08-01

    In the beginning of summer 2006 Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (called also Sampo) at Onkalo situated in Olkiluoto nuclear power plant area. The same soundings sites were the first time measured and marked in 2004 and repeated in 2005. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The total number of the soundings was 48 but at 8 stations the measurement did not succeed because of strong electromagnetic noise. The numerous power lines and the cables of the area generate local 3-D effects on the sounding curves, but the repeatability of the results is good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong 3-D effects. Comparison of results 2004-2006 shows small differences at some sounding sites. (orig.)

  8. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. Heart sounds analysis via esophageal stethoscope system in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Bae, Jin Ho; Kwon, Eun Jung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Shin, Ji-Yun; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Gyeong-Deuk; Kim, Myoung hwan

    2013-10-01

    Esophageal stethoscope is less invasive and easy to handling. And it gives a lot of information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of blood pressure and heart sound as measured by esophageal stethoscope. Four male beagles weighing 10 to 12 kg were selected as experimental subjects. After general anesthesia, the esophageal stethoscope was inserted. After connecting the microphone, the heart sounds were visualized and recorded through a self-developed equipment and program. The amplitudes of S1 and S2 were monitored real-time to examine changes as the blood pressure increased and decreased. The relationship between the ratios of S1 to S2 (S1/S2) and changes in blood pressure due to ephedrine was evaluated. The same experiment was performed with different concentration of isoflurane. From S1 and S2 in the inotropics experiment, a high correlation appeared with change in blood pressure in S1. The relationship between S1/S2 and change in blood pressure showed a positive correlation in each experimental subject. In the volatile anesthetics experiment, the heart sounds decreased as MAC increased. Heart sounds were analyzed successfully with the esophageal stethoscope through the self-developed program and equipment. A proportional change in heart sounds was confirmed when blood pressure was changed using inotropics or volatile anesthetics. The esophageal stethoscope can achieve the closest proximity to the heart to hear sounds in a non-invasive manner.

  10. Frog sound identification using extended k-nearest neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukahar, Nordiana; Affendi Rosdi, Bakhtiar; Athiar Ramli, Dzati; Jaafar, Haryati

    2017-09-01

    Frog sound identification based on the vocalization becomes important for biological research and environmental monitoring. As a result, different types of feature extractions and classifiers have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of frog sound identification. This paper presents a frog sound identification with Extended k-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN) classifier. The EKNN classifier integrates the nearest neighbors and mutual sharing of neighborhood concepts, with the aims of improving the classification performance. It makes a prediction based on who are the nearest neighbors of the testing sample and who consider the testing sample as their nearest neighbors. In order to evaluate the classification performance in frog sound identification, the EKNN classifier is compared with competing classifier, k -Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Fuzzy k -Nearest Neighbor (FKNN) k - General Nearest Neighbor (KGNN)and Mutual k -Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) on the recorded sounds of 15 frog species obtained in Malaysia forest. The recorded sounds have been segmented using Short Time Energy and Short Time Average Zero Crossing Rate (STE+STAZCR), sinusoidal modeling (SM), manual and the combination of Energy (E) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) (E+ZCR) while the features are extracted by Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). The experimental results have shown that the EKNCN classifier exhibits the best performance in terms of accuracy compared to the competing classifiers, KNN, FKNN, GKNN and MKNN for all cases.

  11. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  12. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...

  13. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  14. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  15. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches. (topical review)

  16. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Bacria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against noise.

  17. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  18. Loose parts monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Kohji; Nishida, Eiichi; Ishii, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Hiroto.

    1987-01-01

    In the loose parts monitoring system (LPMS), installed for integrity monitoring of the nuclear power plants; when there occur foreign metallic objects in the reactor primary system, including a steam generator and the piping, the sounds caused by them moving with the cooling water and thereby getting in contact with various structures are detected. Its purpose is, therefore, to detect any abnormality in the reactor plant system through such abnormal sounds due to loose or fallen supports etc., and so provide this information to the reactor operators. In principle, accelerometers are distributed in such as reactor vessel, steam generator, coolant pumps, etc., so that various sounds are collected and converted into electrical signals, followed by analysis of the data. Described are the LPMS configuration/functions, the course taken in LPMS development, future problems, etc. (Mori, K.)

  19. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  20. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  1. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  2. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  3. Longitudinal Monitoring of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain During Physical Therapy Treatment Using the STarT Back Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Preplanned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Background The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) was developed to screen and to classify patients with low back pain into subgroups for the risk of having a poor prognosis. However, this classification at baseline does not take into account variables that can influence the prognosis during treatment or over time. Objectives (1) To investigate the changes in risk subgroup measured by the SBST over a period of 6 months, and (2) to assess the long-term predictive ability of the SBST when administered at different time points. Methods Patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (n = 148) receiving physical therapy care as part of a randomized trial were analyzed. Pain intensity, disability, global perceived effect, and the SBST were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Changes in SBST risk classification were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were built to analyze the predictive capabilities of the SBST when administered at different time points. Results A large proportion of patients (60.8%) changed their risk subgroup after receiving physical therapy care. The SBST improved the prediction for all 6-month outcomes when using the 5-week risk subgroup and the difference between baseline and 5-week subgroup, after controlling for potential confounders. The SBST at baseline did not improve the predictive ability of the models after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion This study shows that many patients change SBST risk subgroup after receiving physical therapy care, and that the predictive ability of the SBST in patients with chronic low back pain increases when administered at different time points. Level of Evidence Prognosis, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(5):314-323. Epub 29 Mar 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7199.

  4. Employee Screening : Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang; Peter Cappelli

    2007-01-01

    Arguably the fundamental problem faced by employers is how to elicit effort from employees. Most models suggest that employers meet this challenge by monitoring employees carefully to prevent shirking. But there is another option that relies on heterogeneity across employees, and that is to screen job candidates to find workers with a stronger work ethic who require less monitoring. This should be especially useful in work systems where monitoring by supervisors is more difficult, such as tea...

  5. SOUND FIELD SHIELDING BY FLAT ELASTIC LAYER AND THIN UNCLOSED SPHERICAL SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ch. Shushkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of a boundary problem describing the process of penetration of a sound field of a spherical radiator located inside a thin unclosed spherical shell through a flat elastic layer is constructed. An influence of some parameters of the problem on the value of the attenuation coeffi-cient (screening of the sound field was studied by using a numerical simulation.

  6. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  7. Wearable Eating Habit Sensing System Using Internal Body Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.

  8. Screening and monitoring of MPL W515L mutation with real-time PCR in patients with myelofibrosis undergoing allogeneic-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchalby, H; Badbaran, A; Bock, O; Fehse, B; Bacher, U; Zander, A R; Kröger, N

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic (allo)-SCT for myelofibrosis (MF) allows recognizing the depth of remission and thus guides application of appropriate therapeutic interventions. MPL W515L/K mutations, which are detected in 5-10% of JAK2V617F-negative patients, may be useful for this purpose. Using a highly sensitive quantitative PCR method, we tested 90 patients with MF who underwent allo-SCT for the presence of MPL W515L/K mutations. Two patients with primary MF were found to harbor MPLW515L while no patient was positive for MPLW515K mutation. Both patients were JAK2V617F negative and cleared the mutation rapidly after allo-SCT and remained negative for a median follow-up of 19 months. The results of molecular monitoring correlated well with other remission parameters such as normalization of peripheral blood counts and morphology and complete donor chimerism. We conclude that MPLW515L can be cleared after allo-SCT and hence may be used as an MRD marker in a proportion of JAK2V617F-negative MF patients.

  9. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  10. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  11. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  12. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  14. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  15. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  16. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  17. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided psound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John R.; O'Dell, Matthew B.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Straley, Janice M.; Dickson, Danielle M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, are a conspicuous predator in the Prince William Sound ecosystem, yet there has been little effort directed towards monitoring this species since the 1980s, prior to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We used vessel-based surveys to examine the seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in the waters of Prince William Sound during eight years from 2007 to 2015. Over the course of 168 days and 15,653 km of survey effort, 921 Dall's porpoise were encountered in 210 groups. We estimate an encounter rate of 0.061 porpoise/km traveled or 1 porpoise encountered for every 16.5 km traveled. Dall's porpoise were found throughout the year in Prince William Sound, and used a wide range of habitats, including those not considered typical of the species, such as bays, shallow water, and nearshore waters. Dall's porpoise seasonally shifted their center of distribution from the western passages in fall to the bays of the eastern Sound in winter and spring. Dall's porpoises were widely dispersed throughout the Sound in summer. We identified potential Dall's porpoise habitat (depth, slope, and distance from shore) within Prince William Sound using generalized additive models (GAM). Dall's porpoise were found in deeper water during summer and in shallowest water during spring. We propose that their use of novel habitats is a function of reduced predation risk associated with the decline of their main predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca), following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the presence of overwintering and spawning Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). While the size of the Dall's porpoise population within Prince William Sound remains unknown, our encounter rates were lower than those reported in the 1970s. Their high metabolic rate and ubiquitous presence makes them one of the more important, yet understudied, forage fish predators in the region.

  19. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  20. Post-acquisition data processing for the screening of transformation products of different organic contaminants. Two-year monitoring of river water using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Herrera; Ulaszewska, M M; Hernando, M D; Martínez Bueno, M J; Gómez, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a comprehensive strategy for detecting and elucidating the chemical structures of expected and unexpected transformation products (TPs) from chemicals found in river water and effluent wastewater samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), with post-acquisition data processing and an automated search using an in-house database. The efficacy of the mass defect filtering (MDF) approach to screen metabolites from common biotransformation pathways was tested, and it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive and applicable for detecting metabolites in environmental samples. Four omeprazole metabolites and two venlafaxine metabolites were identified in river water samples. This paper reports the analytical results obtained during 2 years of monitoring, carried out at eight sampling points along the Henares River (Spain). Multiresidue monitoring, for targeted analysis, includes a group of 122 chemicals, amongst which are pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and PAHs. For this purpose, two analytical methods were used based on direct injection with a LC-ESI-QTOF-MS system and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with bi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight spectrometer (GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS).

  1. Sounds of space: listening to the Sun-Earth connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, N.; Mendez, B.; Luhmann, J.; Sircar, I.

    2003-04-01

    NASA's STEREO/IMPACT Mission includes an Education and Public Outreach component that seeks to offer national programs for broad audiences highlighting the mission's solar and geo-space research. In an effort to make observations of the Sun more accessible and exciting for a general audience, we look for alternative ways to represent the data. Scientists most often represent data visually in images, graphs, and movies. However, any data can also be represented as sound audible to the human ear, a process known as sonification. We will present our plans for an exciting prototype program that converts the science results of solar energetic particle data to sound. We plan to make sounds, imagery, and data available to the public through the World Wide Web where they may create their own sonifications, as well as integrate this effort to a science museum kiosk format. The kiosk station would include information on the STEREO mission and monitors showing images of the Sun from each of STEREO's two satellites. Our goal is to incorporate 3D goggles and a headset into the kiosk, allowing visitors to see the current or archived images in 3D and hear stereo sounds resulting from sonification of the corresponding data. Ultimately, we hope to collaborate with composers and create musical works inspired by these sounds and related solar images.

  2. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  3. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  4. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-soundings at Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2008-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2008 Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) in the vicinity of ONKALO at the Olkiluoto site investigation area. The same soundings sites were first time measured and marked in 2004 and has been repeated after it yearly in the same season. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. Because of the strong electromagnetic noise all planned sites (48) could not be measured. In 2008 the measurements were performed at the sites that were successful in 2007 (43 soundings). The numerous power lines and cables in the area generate local disturbances on the sounding curves, but the signal/noise also with long coil separations and the repeatability of the results is reasonably good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong surficial 3D effects. Comparison of the results of 2004 to 2008 surveys shows differences on some ARD (Apparent resistivity-depth) curves. Those are mainly results of the modified man-made structures. The effects of changes in groundwater conditions are obviously slight. (orig.)

  5. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan ... a safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ...

  6. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  7. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  8. Data verification of a hardware-software complex of sounding an ionosphere and ionosonde DPS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vladimir; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnova, Elena; Skobelkin, Vladimir; Tynyankin, Sergey

    Appeared in recent years, opportunities to use as a source of signals used to determine the parameters of the ionosphere, the spacecraft global navigation satellite systems GLONASS and GPS are not currently in widespread use practices ionospheric wave frequency and radio centers and dispatch services. Given the urgency of the discussed areas of research, long experiment whose purpose is to conduct a comparative analysis of the results of determining the critical frequency of F2-layer of the ionosphere in two ways - vertical sounding (ionosonde DPS-4) and radio translucence track "satellite-the Earth" with signals using GLONASS satellites and GPS was started in 2013. For a comparative analysis of the results the hardware-software complex ionospheric soundings (HSCIS) was located at territory of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. HSCIS product includes a personal computer with it specialized software, a dual-frequency navigation receiver and small receiving antenna. Used in the product receiver developed by NovAtel allows us to receive the signals of the navigation systems GPS/GLONASS and maintain their processing in real time. Location receiver determined autonomously: antenna position - 55.76o N, 37.94o E, coordinates ionosonde DPS-4 - 55.5o N, 37.3o E. In fact, both devices were in close proximity, which it allows for the identity conditions of observation. Both devices operate in real time. Ionosonde DPS- 4 gave the ionosphere parameters every 15 minutes, HSCIS - every minute. Information from both instruments displayed on the screen monitors, and recorded in the memory used by computers. Along with the numerical parameters on the monitor products HSCIS displayed time course of the critical frequency F2- layer of the ionosphere obtained from observations of the nearest navigation satellite. When limiting elevation observations 15o simultaneous use of navigation satellites can

  9. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  10. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  11. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  12. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  13. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  15. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  16. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  17. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the

  18. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  19. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS, 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS, and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization. From the collected heart sounds, relative power of the frequency band, energy of the sinusoid formants, and entropy were extracted. PAH subjects were differentiated by applying the linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation. The entropy of the first sinusoid formant decreased significantly in subjects with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg versus subjects with a mPAp < 25 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 88.57%, within a 10-s optimized window length for heart sounds recorded at the 2LICS. First sinusoid formant entropy reduction of heart sounds in PAH subjects suggests the existence of a vowel-like pattern. Pattern analysis revealed a unique sound signature, which could be used in non-invasive screening tools.

  20. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  1. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  2. Operation and monitoring guidelines and the development of a screening tool for irrigating with coal mine water in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years onl both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study, the fundamental considerations of mine-water irrigation, the regulatory environment and, as far as possible, the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management. In an attempt to standardise decision-making regarding mine-water irrigation, the criteria, data, rules and fundamentals discussed have been combined in a user-friendly tool, called GIMI (Groundwater Impacts from Minewater Irrigation). This tool should assist in the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management.

  3. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  4. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  5. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  6. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  7. Intercepting a sound without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals’ performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions. PMID:28481939

  8. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  9. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  10. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  11. Comparison between xCELLigence biosensor technology and conventional cell culture system for real-time monitoring human tenocytes proliferation and drugs cytotoxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Lei, Kin Fong; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chen, Poyu; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu

    2017-10-16

    tenocytes could proliferate inside xCELLigence system. These responses varied when tenocytes were exposed to different concentrations of ketorolac tromethamine, bupivacaine, methylprednisolone, and betamethasone. The result of cell proliferation and gene expression of tenocytes in both xCELLigence and conventional culture system is strongly correlated. xCELLigence culture system may replace conventional cell culture, which made real-time tenocyte proliferation monitoring possible.

  12. Personal sleep pattern visualization using sequence-based kernel self-organizing map on sound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongle; Kato, Takafumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Numao, Masayuki; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method to discover sleep patterns via clustering of sound events recorded during sleep. The proposed method extends the conventional self-organizing map algorithm by kernelization and sequence-based technologies to obtain a fine-grained map that visualizes the distribution and changes of sleep-related events. We introduced features widely applied in sound processing and popular kernel functions to the proposed method to evaluate and compare performance. The proposed method provides a new aspect of sleep monitoring because the results demonstrate that sound events can be directly correlated to an individual's sleep patterns. In addition, by visualizing the transition of cluster dynamics, sleep-related sound events were found to relate to the various stages of sleep. Therefore, these results empirically warrant future study into the assessment of personal sleep quality using sound data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of the performance of a noise screen due to screen-induced wind-speed gradients: numerical computations and wind-tunnel experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Downwind sound propagation over a noise screen is investigated by numerical computations and scale model experiments in a wind tunnel. For the computations, the parabolic equation method is used, with a range-dependent sound-speed profile based on wind-speed profiles measured in the wind tunnel and

  14. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  15. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  16. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  17. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  18. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  19. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  20. Marine Animal Sound Database. Twelve Years of Tracking 52-Hz Whale Calls from a Unique Source in the North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, William

    2004-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of underwater sounds using U.S. Navy SOSUS and other hydrophone arrays allowed us to follow the seasonal distribution of underwater calls produced by blue, fin and humpback whales across the North Pacific...

  1. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  2. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  3. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  4. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  5. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly ...

  6. Sounds in one-dimensional superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Whang, E.H.; Hong, S.K.; Oh, H.G.; George, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature variations of first-, second-, and third-sound velocity and attenuation coefficients in one-dimensional superfluid helium are evaluated explicitly for very low temperatures and frequencies (ω/sub s/tau 2 , and the ratio of second sound to first sound becomes unity as the temperature decreases to absolute zero

  7. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  8. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  9. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  10. Snoring classified: The Munich-Passau Snore Sound Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janott, Christoph; Schmitt, Maximilian; Zhang, Yue; Qian, Kun; Pandit, Vedhas; Zhang, Zixing; Heiser, Clemens; Hohenhorst, Winfried; Herzog, Michael; Hemmert, Werner; Schuller, Björn

    2018-03-01

    Snoring can be excited in different locations within the upper airways during sleep. It was hypothesised that the excitation locations are correlated with distinct acoustic characteristics of the snoring noise. To verify this hypothesis, a database of snore sounds is developed, labelled with the location of sound excitation. Video and audio recordings taken during drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) examinations from three medical centres have been semi-automatically screened for snore events, which subsequently have been classified by ENT experts into four classes based on the VOTE classification. The resulting dataset containing 828 snore events from 219 subjects has been split into Train, Development, and Test sets. An SVM classifier has been trained using low level descriptors (LLDs) related to energy, spectral features, mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), formants, voicing, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), spectral harmonicity, pitch, and microprosodic features. An unweighted average recall (UAR) of 55.8% could be achieved using the full set of LLDs including formants. Best performing subset is the MFCC-related set of LLDs. A strong difference in performance could be observed between the permutations of train, development, and test partition, which may be caused by the relatively low number of subjects included in the smaller classes of the strongly unbalanced data set. A database of snoring sounds is presented which are classified according to their sound excitation location based on objective criteria and verifiable video material. With the database, it could be demonstrated that machine classifiers can distinguish different excitation location of snoring sounds in the upper airway based on acoustic parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  12. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  13. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  14. The Sound of Being There

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    The concept “presence”—often defined as the sensation of “being there”—has received increasing attention in the last decades. Out of the many domains of application, presence is particularly relevant in relation to Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR). Despite the growing attention in the concept pres...... to illustrating how sound production and perception relate to the four constituents of the framework: immersion, illusions of place, illusions of plausibility, and virtual body ownership....

  15. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    prestigious institute. I am privileged to express my sincere thanks to JRF’s Roshin Sir, Bajish Sir, for training me both practically and theoretically about various techniques, without which my work would not have reached its completion. I am equally... wrote his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which included the first mathematical treatment of sound. The modern study of underwater acoustics can be considered to have started in early 19 th century. In 1826, on Lake Geneva, the speed...

  16. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.T.; Artiss, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author)

  17. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  18. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B K; Bradley, M T; Artiss, W G [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, NB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author) 3 refs.

  19. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  20. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  1. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  2. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  3. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  4. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  5. Selective attention to sound location or pitch studied with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerman, Alexander; Rinne, Teemu; Salmi, Juha; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2006-03-10

    We used 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain mechanisms underlying selective attention to sound location and pitch. In different tasks, the subjects (N = 10) attended to a designated sound location or pitch or to pictures presented on the screen. In the Attend Location conditions, the sound location varied randomly (left or right), while the pitch was kept constant (high or low). In the Attend Pitch conditions, sounds of randomly varying pitch (high or low) were presented at a constant location (left or right). Both attention to location and attention to pitch produced enhanced activity (in comparison with activation caused by the same sounds when attention was focused on the pictures) in widespread areas of the superior temporal cortex. Attention to either sound feature also activated prefrontal and inferior parietal cortical regions. These activations were stronger during attention to location than during attention to pitch. Attention to location but not to pitch produced a significant increase of activation in the premotor/supplementary motor cortices of both hemispheres and in the right prefrontal cortex, while no area showed activity specifically related to attention to pitch. The present results suggest some differences in the attentional selection of sounds on the basis of their location and pitch consistent with the suggested auditory "what" and "where" processing streams.

  6. Comparison of snoring sounds between natural and drug-induced sleep recorded using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Ho Byung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-08-01

    Snoring is an important clinical feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and recent studies suggest that the acoustic quality of snoring sounds is markedly different in drug-induced sleep compared with natural sleep. However, considering differences in sound recording methods and analysis parameters, further studies are required. This study explored whether acoustic analysis of drug-induced sleep is useful as a screening test that reflects the characteristics of natural sleep in snoring patients. The snoring sounds of 30 male subjects (mean age=41.8years) were recorded using a smartphone during natural and induced sleep, with the site of vibration noted during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE); then, we compared the sound intensity (dB), formant frequencies, and spectrograms of snoring sounds. Regarding the intensity of snoring sounds, there were minor differences within the retrolingual level obstruction group, but there was no significant difference between natural and induced sleep at either obstruction site. There was no significant difference in the F 1 and F 2 formant frequencies of snoring sounds between natural sleep and induced sleep at either obstruction site. Compared with natural sleep, induced sleep was slightly more irregular, with a stronger intensity on the spectrogram, but the spectrograms showed the same pattern at both obstruction sites. Although further studies are required, the spectrograms and formant frequencies of the snoring sounds of induced sleep did not differ significantly from those of natural sleep, and may be used as a screening test that reflects the characteristics of natural sleep according to the obstruction site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  8. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  9. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm 2 and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [de

  10. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  11. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  12. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  13. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  14. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  15. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  16. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    First part of this work examines the concept of musical parameter theory and discusses its methodical use. Second part is an annotated catalogue of 33 different students' compositions, presented in their totality with English translations, created between 1985 and 2006 as part of the subject...... Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  17. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...

  18. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  19. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  20. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  1. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  2. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. Four Principles to Consider Before Advising Women on Screening Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, John D; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews four important screening principles applicable to screening mammography in order to facilitate informed choice. The first principle is that screening may help, hurt, or have no effect. In order to reduce mortality and mastectomy rates, screening must reduce the rate of advanced...... of a screening intervention. Disease-specific mortality is biased due to difficulties in attribution of cause of death and to increased mortality due to overdiagnosis and the resulting overtreatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To enhance participation, the benefit from screening is often presented...... in relative instead of absolute terms. Third, some screening statistics must be interpreted with caution. Increased survival time and the percentage of early-stage tumors at detection sound plausible, but are affected by lead-time and length biases. In addition, analyses that only include women who attend...

  4. Monitoring Hospitalized Adult Patients for Opioid-Induced Sedation and Respiratory Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungquist, Carla R; Smith, Kirsten; Nicely, Kelly L Wiltse; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2017-03-01

    : Opioid analgesics are commonly administered to hospitalized patients to treat acute pain, but these drugs put patients at risk for serious adverse events, such as unintended advancing sedation, respiratory depression, and death. Nurses play an important role in keeping patients safe by making clinical decisions about the frequency and intensity with which patients receiving IV and epidural opioids should be monitored. To make sound clinical judgments, nurses must be aware of the factors that place patients at elevated risk for adverse opioid-related effects and know how to screen and assess patients for these risks. The authors review the literature on unintended advancing sedation and respiratory depression associated with opioid administration and present evidence-based recommendations for clinical decision making and patient monitoring, using both nursing assessments and electronic technologies.

  5. New Technologies in Screening for Disease Risk: Implications for the Worksite and for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    The screening of workers for health problems has been ubiquitous in the worksite for many years. These screening procedures may have ethical and policy implications. Three common types of screening in use include pre-employment, early identification of health problems, and employee monitoring. Pre-employment screening may be used to screen out…

  6. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  7. Cortical representations of communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.

  8. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  9. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  10. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  11. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  12. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  13. First and second sound in He films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.G.; Um, C.I.; Kahng, W.H.; Isihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In consideration of a collision integral in the Boltzmann equation and with use of kinetic and hydrodynamical equations, the velocities of the first and second sound in liquid 4 He films are evaluated as functions of temperature, and the attenuation coefficients are obtained. The second sound is 2/sup -1/2/ times the first-sound velocity in the low-temperature and low-frequency limit

  14. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  15. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The availability and flexibility of audio services on various digital platforms have created a high demand for a large range of sound systems. The fundamental components of sound systems such as docking stations, sound bars and wireless mobile speakers consists of a power supply, amplifiers and transducers. Due to historical reasons the design of each of these components are commonly handled separately which are indeed limiting the full performance potential of such systems. To state some exa...

  16. Application of semi-supervised deep learning to lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Daniel; Kodgule, Rahul; Ganelin, Daniela; Miglani, Vivek; Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of lung sounds, collected through auscultation, is a fundamental component of pulmonary disease diagnostics for primary care and general patient monitoring for telemedicine. Despite advances in computation and algorithms, the goal of automated lung sound identification and classification has remained elusive. Over the past 40 years, published work in this field has demonstrated only limited success in identifying lung sounds, with most published studies using only a small numbers of patients (typically Ndeep learning algorithm for automatically classify lung sounds from a relatively large number of patients (N=284). Focusing on the two most common lung sounds, wheeze and crackle, we present results from 11,627 sound files recorded from 11 different auscultation locations on these 284 patients with pulmonary disease. 890 of these sound files were labeled to evaluate the model, which is significantly larger than previously published studies. Data was collected with a custom mobile phone application and a low-cost (US$30) electronic stethoscope. On this data set, our algorithm achieves ROC curves with AUCs of 0.86 for wheeze and 0.74 for crackle. Most importantly, this study demonstrates how semi-supervised deep learning can be used with larger data sets without requiring extensive labeling of data.

  17. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  18. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  19. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  20. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  1. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  2. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  3. Results of time-domain electromagnetic soundings in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Prinos, Scott T.

    2011-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties to aid in mapping the landward extent of saltwater in the Biscayne aquifer. A total of 79 soundings were collected in settings ranging from urban to undeveloped land, with some of the former posing problems of land access and interference from anthropogenic features. TEM soundings combined with monitoring-well data were used to determine if the saltwater front had moved since the last time it was mapped, to provide additional spatial coverage where existing monitoring wells were insufficient, and to help interpret a previously collected helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey flown in the southernmost portion of the study area. TEM soundings were interpreted as layered resistivity-depth models. Using information from well logs and water-quality data, the resistivity of the freshwater saturated Biscayne aquifer is expected to be above 30 ohm-meters, and the saltwater-saturated aquifer will have resistivities of less than 10 ohm-meters allowing determination of water quality from the TEM interpretations. TEM models from 29 soundings were compared to electromagnetic induction logs collected in nearby monitoring wells. In general, the agreement of these results was very good, giving confidence in the use of the TEM data for mapping saltwater encroachment.

  4. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  5. Sound Art and Spatial Practices: Situating Sound Installation Art Since 1958

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounian, Gascia

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the emergence and development ofsound installation art, an under-recognized tradition that hasdeveloped between music, architecture, and media art practicessince the late 1950s. Unlike many musical works, which are concernedwith organizing sounds in time, sound installations organize sounds inspace; they thus necessitate new theoretical and analytical modelsthat take into consideration the spatial situated-ness of sound. Existingdiscourses on “spatial sound” privile...

  6. CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Skvortsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  7. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Jesse A; Wallace, James C; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2012-01-01

    Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads) were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp.), γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used to guide initial

  8. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Port

    Full Text Available Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp., γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used

  9. Say what? Coral reef sounds as indicators of community assemblages and reef conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T. A.; Kaplan, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs host some of the highest diversity of life on the planet. Unfortunately, reef health and biodiversity is declining or is threatened as a result of climate change and human influences. Tracking these changes is necessary for effective resource management, yet estimating marine biodiversity and tracking trends in ecosystem health is a challenging and expensive task, especially in many pristine reefs which are remote and difficult to access. Many fishes, mammals and invertebrates make sound. These sounds are reflective of a number of vital biological processes and are a cue for settling reef larvae. Biological sounds may be a means to quantify ecosystem health and biodiversity, however the relationship between coral reef soundscapes and the actual taxa present remains largely unknown. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the soundscape of multiple reefs, naturally differing in benthic cover and fish diversity, in the U.S. Virgin Islands National Park. Using multiple recorders per reef we characterized spacio-temporal variation in biological sound production within and among reefs. Analyses of sounds recorded over 4 summer months indicated diel trends in both fish and snapping shrimp acoustic frequency bands with crepuscular peaks at all reefs. There were small but statistically significant acoustic differences among sites on a given reef raising the possibility of potentially localized acoustic habitats. The strength of diel trends in lower, fish-frequency bands were correlated with coral cover and fish density, yet no such relationship was found with shrimp sounds suggesting that fish sounds may be of higher relevance to tracking certain coral reef conditions. These findings indicate that, in spite of considerable variability within reef soundscapes, diel trends in low-frequency sound production reflect reef community assemblages. Further, monitoring soundscapes may be an efficient means of establishing and monitoring reef conditions.

  10. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  11. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    .93-4.11). Statistically significant differences were found across models. Reference sound levels determined in the uncontrolled group are comparable to the values obtained in the controlled group. This validates the use of biological calibration in the uncontrolled group for determining the predefined reference sound level for new devices. Moreover, due to a relatively small deviation of the reference sound level for devices of the same model, it is feasible to conduct hearing screening on devices calibrated with the predefined reference sound level.

  12. Otolith research for Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Reisenbichler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Otoliths are hard structures located in the brain cavity of fish. These structures are formed by a buildup of calcium carbonate within a gelatinous matrix that produces light and dark bands similar to the growth rings in trees. The width of the bands corresponds to environmental factors such as temperature and food availability. As juvenile salmon encounter different environments in their migration to sea, they produce growth increments of varying widths and visible 'checks' corresponding to times of stress or change. The resulting pattern of band variations and check marks leave a record of fish growth and residence time in each habitat type. This information helps Puget Sound restoration by determining the importance of different habitats for the optimal health and management of different salmon populations. The USGS Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) provides otolith research findings directly to resource managers who put this information to work.

  13. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  14. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  15. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  16. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  17. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  18. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  3. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  4. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  6. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  7. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  8. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  9. Detecting change in stochastic sound sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Skerritt-Davis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to parse our acoustic environment relies on the brain's capacity to extract statistical regularities from surrounding sounds. Previous work in regularity extraction has predominantly focused on the brain's sensitivity to predictable patterns in sound sequences. However, natural sound environments are rarely completely predictable, often containing some level of randomness, yet the brain is able to effectively interpret its surroundings by extracting useful information from stochastic sounds. It has been previously shown that the brain is sensitive to the marginal lower-order statistics of sound sequences (i.e., mean and variance. In this work, we investigate the brain's sensitivity to higher-order statistics describing temporal dependencies between sound events through a series of change detection experiments, where listeners are asked to detect changes in randomness in the pitch of tone sequences. Behavioral data indicate listeners collect statistical estimates to process incoming sounds, and a perceptual model based on Bayesian inference shows a capacity in the brain to track higher-order statistics. Further analysis of individual subjects' behavior indicates an important role of perceptual constraints in listeners' ability to track these sensory statistics with high fidelity. In addition, the inference model facilitates analysis of neural electroencephalography (EEG responses, anchoring the analysis relative to the statistics of each stochastic stimulus. This reveals both a deviance response and a change-related disruption in phase of the stimulus-locked response that follow the higher-order statistics. These results shed light on the brain's ability to process stochastic sound sequences.

  10. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  11. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  12. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  14. Digital servo control of random sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakich, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is necessary to place number of sensors at different positions in sound field to determine actual sound intensities to which test object is subjected. It is possible to determine whether specification is being met adequately or exceeded. Since excitation is of random nature, signals are essentially coherent and it is impossible to obtain true average.

  15. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  16. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  17. On the usability of frequency distributions and source attribution of Cs-137 detections encountered in the IMS radio-nuclide network for radionuclide event screening and climate change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Wotawa, G.; Zähringer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), airborne radioactivity is measured by means of high purity Germanium gamma ray detectors deployed in a global monitoring network. Almost 60 of the scheduled 80 stations have been put in provisional operations by the end of 2008. Each station daily sends the 24 hour samples' spectroscopic data to the Vienna based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) for review for treaty-relevant nuclides. Cs-137 is one of these relevant isotopes. Its typical minimum detectable concentration is in the order of a few Bq/m3. However, this isotope is also known to occur in atmospheric trace concentrations, due to known non CTBT relevant processes and sources related to, for example, the re-suspension of cesium from historic nuclear tests and/or the Chernobyl reactor disaster, temporarily enhanced by bio-mass burning (Wotawa et al. 2006). Properly attributed cesium detections can be used as a proxy to detect Aeolian dust events (Igarashi et al, 2001) that potentially carry cesium from all aforementioned sources but are also known to play an important role for the radiative forcing in the atmosphere (shadow effect), at the surface (albedo) and the carbon dioxide cycle when interacting with oceanic phytoplankton (Mikami and Shi, 2005). In this context this paper provides a systematic attribution of recent Cs-137 detections in the PTS monitoring network in order to Characterize those stations which are regularly affected by Cs-137 Provide input for procedures that distinguish CTBT relevant detection from other sources (event screening) Explore on the capability of certain stations to use their Cs-137 detections as a proxy to detect aeolian dust events and to flag the belonging filters to be relevant for further investigations in this field (-> EGU-2009 Session CL16/AS4.6/GM10.1: Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change). References Igarashi, Y., M

  18. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  19. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  20. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....