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Sample records for sound clinical judgment

  1. Clinical versus actuarial judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, R M; Faust, D; Meehl, P E

    1989-03-31

    Professionals are frequently consulted to diagnose and predict human behavior; optimal treatment and planning often hinge on the consultant's judgmental accuracy. The consultant may rely on one of two contrasting approaches to decision-making--the clinical and actuarial methods. Research comparing these two approaches shows the actuarial method to be superior. Factors underlying the greater accuracy of actuarial methods, sources of resistance to the scientific findings, and the benefits of increased reliance on actuarial approaches are discussed.

  2. The tacit dimension of clinical judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct views of the nature of clinical judgment are identified and contrasted. The dominant view that clinical judgment is a fully explicit process is compared to the relatively neglected view that tacit knowledge plays a substantial role in the clinician's mental operations. The tacit dimension of medical thinking is explored at length. The discussion suggests severe limits when applying decision analysis, expert systems, and computer-aided cost-benefit review to medicine. The goals and practices of postgraduate medical education are also examined from this perspective, as are various other implications for the clinician. The paper concludes that it is valuable to explore the nature of medical thinking in order to improve clinical practice and education. Such explorations should, however, take cognizance of the often overlooked tacit dimension of clinical judgment. Possible constraints on the medical applicability of both formal expert systems and heavily didactic instructional programs are considered. PMID:2356625

  3. Critical thinking versus clinical reasoning versus clinical judgment: differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor-Chmil, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Concepts of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment are often used interchangeably. However, they are not one and the same, and understanding subtle difference among them is important. Following a review of the literature for definitions and uses of the terms, the author provides a summary focused on similarities and differences in the processes of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment and notes suggested methods of measuring each.

  4. Reflective journaling for clinical judgment development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasater, Kathie; Nielsen, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Reflective journaling is a strategy used often in clinical education to gain insight into students' clinical thinking; however, studies indicate that students may benefit from guided reflections. Numerous tools have been used to structure student reflection with varying results. This article describes the outcomes from using the Guide for Reflection based on Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, created from the Model, is used to evaluate development of clinical judgment and provides language to communicate about clinical thinking with students. Senior immersion course competencies, also developed with language from Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model,offer a comprehensive package that fosters students' clinical judgment development, faculty-student communication about clinical judgment, and evaluation of students' clinical thinking.

  5. Thinking like a nurse: a research-based model of clinical judgment in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Christine A

    2006-06-01

    This article reviews the growing body of research on clinical judgment in nursing and presents an alternative model of clinical judgment based on these studies. Based on a review of nearly 200 studies, five conclusions can be drawn: (1) Clinical judgments are more influenced by what nurses bring to the situation than the objective data about the situation at hand; (2) Sound clinical judgment rests to some degree on knowing the patient and his or her typical pattern of responses, as well as an engagement with the patient and his or her concerns; (3) Clinical judgments are influenced by the context in which the situation occurs and the culture of the nursing care unit; (4) Nurses use a variety of reasoning patterns alone or in combination; and (5) Reflection on practice is often triggered by a breakdown in clinical judgment and is critical for the development of clinical knowledge and improvement in clinical reasoning. A model based on these general conclusions emphasizes the role of nurses' background, the context of the situation, and nurses' relationship with their patients as central to what nurses notice and how they interpret findings, respond, and reflect on their response.

  6. A comparison of sound quality judgments for monaural and binaural hearing aid processed stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, P B; Hawkins, D B

    1992-10-01

    Fifteen adults with bilaterally symmetrical mild and/or moderate sensorineural hearing loss completed a paired-comparison task designed to elicit sound quality preference judgments for monaural/binaural hearing aid processed signals. Three stimuli (speech-in-quiet, speech-in-noise, and music) were recorded separately in three listening environments (audiometric test booth, living room, and a music/lecture hall) through hearing aids placed on a Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustics Research. Judgments were made on eight separate sound quality dimensions (brightness, clarity, fullness, loudness, nearness, overall impression, smoothness, and spaciousness) for each of the three stimuli in three listening environments. Results revealed a distinct binaural preference for all eight sound quality dimensions independent of listening environment. Binaural preferences were strongest for overall impression, fullness, and spaciousness. Stimulus type effect was significant only for fullness and spaciousness, where binaural preferences were strongest for speech-in-quiet. After binaural preference data were obtained, subjects ranked each sound quality dimension with respect to its importance for binaural listening relative to monaural. Clarity was ranked highest in importance and brightness was ranked least important. The key to demonstration of improved binaural hearing aid sound quality may be the use of a paired-comparison format.

  7. [Clinical judgment is a schema. Conceptual proposals and training perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept.To overcome the obstacle and contribute to the theoretical effort, we will argue that clinical judgment must be analyzed as a schema. It presents all the characteristics : diagnosis and information necessary for reasoning, rational decision-making process, metacognitive control and evaluation of decision-making. Perspectives then open to better understand the nursing activity.In conclusion, recommendations for developing clinical judgment in training will be presented.

  8. Clinical judgment in reflective journals of prelicensure nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Michelle E

    2015-01-01

    Clinical judgment is an essential skill needed by RNs. Employers expect new graduate nurses to enter the work-force with established clinical judgment skills. Therefore, nurse educators must ensure that prelicensure nursing students develop clinical judgment before graduation. This qualitative, interpretive description study reviewed the reflective journals of 30 prelicensure nursing students who participated in four progressive high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios during a medical-surgical nursing course. Eight themes were identified in the reflective journals: (a) expectations about the patient, (b) recognition of a focused assessment, (c) interpretation of medications, laboratory data, and diagnostics, (d) communication with the patient, (e) collaboration and interprofessionalism, (f) prioritizing interventions, (g) skillfulness with interventions, and (h) incorporation of skills and information into real patient situations. This study indicated that reflective journaling following progressive HFS scenarios may be an effective teaching-learning strategy to assist prelicensure nursing students in the development of clinical judgment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Clinical judgment, moral anxiety, and the limits of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bradley

    2017-12-01

    It is common for clinicians working in psychiatry and related clinical disciplines to be called on to make diagnostic clinical judgments concerning moral anxiety, which is a kind of anxiety that is closely bound up with decisions individuals face as moral agents. To make such a judgment, it is necessary to make a moral judgment. Although it has been common to acknowledge that there are ways in which moral and clinical judgment interact, this type of interaction has remained unacknowledged. This raises questions as to the nature and limits of psychiatry-particularly concerning the extent to which psychiatric discourse ought to incorporate moral discourse, and the role of the clinician as an expert in identifying problematic anxiety.

  10. Assessment of moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: a comparison of clinical judgment and test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.

  11. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  12. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  13. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  14. [From clinical judgment to linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Pérez, Marcela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    When we think about mathematical models, such as linear regression model, we think that these terms are only used by those engaged in research, a notion that is far from the truth. Legendre described the first mathematical model in 1805, and Galton introduced the formal term in 1886. Linear regression is one of the most commonly used regression models in clinical practice. It is useful to predict or show the relationship between two or more variables as long as the dependent variable is quantitative and has normal distribution. Stated in another way, the regression is used to predict a measure based on the knowledge of at least one other variable. Linear regression has as it's first objective to determine the slope or inclination of the regression line: Y = a + bx, where "a" is the intercept or regression constant and it is equivalent to "Y" value when "X" equals 0 and "b" (also called slope) indicates the increase or decrease that occurs when the variable "x" increases or decreases in one unit. In the regression line, "b" is called regression coefficient. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) indicates the importance of independent variables in the outcome.

  15. Instructional Storytelling: Application of the Clinical Judgment Model in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the teaching and learning implications of instructional storytelling (IST) in nursing education or its potential connection to nursing theory. The literature establishes storytelling as a powerful teaching-learning method in the educational, business, humanities, and health sectors, but little exploration exists that is specific to nursing. An example of a story demonstrating application of the domains of Tanner's clinical judgment model links storytelling with learning outcomes appropriate for the novice nursing student. Application of Tanner's clinical judgment model offers consistency of learning experience while preserving the creativity inherent in IST. Further research into student learning outcomes achievement using IST is warranted as a step toward establishing best practices with IST in nursing education. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):305-308.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Electronic health record tools' support of nurses' clinical judgment and team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossman, Susan P; Bonney, Leigh Ann; Kim, Myoung Jin

    2013-11-01

    Nurses need to quickly process information to form clinical judgments, communicate with the healthcare team, and guide optimal patient care. Electronic health records not only offer potential for enhanced care but also introduce unintended consequences through changes in workflow, clinical judgment, and communication. We investigated nurses' use of improvised (self-made) and electronic health record-generated cognitive artifacts on clinical judgment and team communication. Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model provided a framework and basis for questions in an online survey and focus group interviews. Findings indicated that (1) nurses rated self-made work lists and medication administration records highest for both clinical judgment and communication, (2) tools aided different dimensions of clinical judgment, and (3) interdisciplinary tools enhance team communication. Implications are that electronic health record tool redesign could better support nursing work.

  17. Dual-task interference effects on cross-modal numerical order and sound intensity judgments: the more the louder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Walker, Alexander C; Nepon, Hillary; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C

    2017-09-01

    In the current study, cross-task interactions between number order and sound intensity judgments were assessed using a dual-task paradigm. Participants first categorized numerical sequences composed of Arabic digits as either ordered (ascending, descending) or non-ordered. Following each number sequence, participants then had to judge the intensity level of a target sound. Experiment 1 emphasized processing the two tasks independently (serial processing), while Experiments 2 and 3 emphasized processing the two tasks simultaneously (parallel processing). Cross-task interference occurred only when the task required parallel processing and was specific to ascending numerical sequences, which led to a higher proportion of louder sound intensity judgments. In Experiment 4 we examined whether this unidirectional interaction was the result of participants misattributing enhanced processing fluency experienced on ascending sequences as indicating a louder target sound. The unidirectional finding could not be entirely attributed to misattributed processing fluency, and may also be connected to experientially derived conceptual associations between ascending number sequences and greater magnitude, consistent with conceptual mapping theory.

  18. Self-Reflection of Video-Recorded High-Fidelity Simulations and Development of Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Michelle E

    2016-09-01

    Nurse educators are increasingly using high-fidelity simulators to improve prelicensure nursing students' ability to develop clinical judgment. Traditionally, oral debriefing sessions have immediately followed the simulation scenarios as a method for students to connect theory to practice and therefore develop clinical judgment. Recently, video recording of the simulation scenarios is being incorporated. This qualitative, interpretive description study was conducted to identify whether self-reflection on video-recorded high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios helped prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. Tanner's clinical judgment model was the framework for this study. Four themes emerged from this study: Confidence, Communication, Decision Making, and Change in Clinical Practice. This study indicated that self-reflection of video-recorded HFS scenarios is beneficial for prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):522-527.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. [Clinical research XXIII. From clinical judgment to meta-analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Noyola-Castillo, Maura E; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SR) are studies made in order to ask clinical questions based on original articles. Meta-analysis (MTA) is the mathematical analysis of SR. These analyses are divided in two groups, those which evaluate the measured results of quantitative variables (for example, the body mass index -BMI-) and those which evaluate qualitative variables (for example, if a patient is alive or dead, or if he is healing or not). Quantitative variables generally use the mean difference analysis and qualitative variables can be performed using several calculations: odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR) and hazard ratio (HR). These analyses are represented through forest plots which allow the evaluation of each individual study, as well as the heterogeneity between studies and the overall effect of the intervention. These analyses are mainly based on Student's t test and chi-squared. To take appropriate decisions based on the MTA, it is important to understand the characteristics of statistical methods in order to avoid misinterpretations.

  20. Factors Influencing Nursing Students' Clinical Judgment: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis in an Iranian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouralizadeh, Moluk; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ebadi, Abbas; Dalvandi, Asghar

    2017-05-01

    Clinical judgment is necessary for clinical decision making and enhancing it in nursing students improves health care quality. Since clinical judgment is an interactive phenomenon and dependent on context and culture, it can be affected by many different factors. To understand the experiences of Iranian nursing students and teachers about the factors influencing nursing students' clinical judgment. A qualitative study was conducted using a directed content analysis approach. In this study, purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were applied with seven nursing students, six faculty member teachers and four clinical instructors from Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Gilan, Iran. The factors influencing nursing students' clinical judgment consisted of five main categories including thoughtful behaviour, professional ethics, use of evidence based care, the context of learning environment and individual and professional features of clinical teachers. Relying on the results of this research, teachers can create an appropriate educational condition and a safe psychological atmosphere, use instructional strategies strengthening deep thought processes, applying professional ethics and scientific evidence and principles to establish clinical judgment in nursing students.

  1. A framework to support preceptors' evaluation and development of new nurses' clinical judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann; Lasater, Kathie; Stock, Mary

    2016-07-01

    In today's complex, fast-paced world of hospital nursing, new graduate nurses do not have well-developed clinical judgment skills. Nurse preceptors are charged with bridging the gap between new graduates' learning in school and their autonomous practice as RNs. In one large, urban medical center in the U.S., a clinical judgment model and rubric were used as a framework for a new evaluation and orientation process. Preceptors of new graduate nurses who had used the former and new processes described their experiences using the framework. The findings indicated that having a structured framework provided objective ways to evaluate and help develop new graduate nurses' clinical judgment. It is hypothesized that academic clinical supervisors may find such a framework useful to prepare students for transition to practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultivating Humility and Diagnostic Openness in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John R

    2017-10-01

    In this case, a physician rejects a patient's concerns that tainted water is harming the patient and her community. Stereotypes and biases regarding socioeconomic class and race/ethnicity, constraining diagnostic frameworks, and fixed first impressions could skew the physician's judgment. This paper narratively illustrates how cultivating humility could help the physician truly hear the patient's suggestions. The discussion builds on the multifaceted concept of cultural humility as a lifelong journey that addresses not only stereotypes and biases but also power inequalities and community inequities. Insurgent multiculturalism is a complementary concept. Through epistemic humility-which includes both intellectual and emotional components-and admitting uncertainty, physicians can enhance patients' and families' epistemic authority and health agency. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Physiotherapy Student Clinical Examinations: The Influence of Subjective Judgments on Observational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen A.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the role of subjective assessment in the evaluation of physiotherapy students in clinical programs. Clinical teachers, visiting lecturers, and students recorded perceptions of daily events and interactions in journals. Analysis suggests that assessors make subjective judgments about students that influence grades, and…

  4. Suicide in Children Younger than Age Fourteen: Clinical Judgment and Assessment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Amy J.; Spengler, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of accurate information about childhood suicide to prevent clinical judgment errors. Describes available methods for evaluating suicide risk in children. Looks at myths and misconceptions surrounding childhood suicide; risk factors, such as family dysfunction and distress; and evaluation techniques, such as interviews and…

  5. Perception versus reality: a comparative study of the clinical judgment skills of nurses during a simulated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Cynthia L; Harris, Margaret A; Aebersold, Michelle L; Hartman, Laurie S

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine how closely nurses' perceptions of their clinical judgment abilities matched their demonstrated clinical judgment skills during a simulation. Seventy-four registered nurses participated in a simulation using a video format. After the simulation, the nurses self-assessed their performance using the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric. This rubric was then used to rate the nurses' actual performance in the simulation activity. The study results showed a significant discrepancy between nurses' perceptions of their own clinical judgment abilities and their demonstrated clinical judgment skills. Age and length of nursing experience enhanced the difference between the findings of self-assessment and actual performance. Younger nurses and those with 1 year or less of nursing experience were significantly more likely to have self-assessed their abilities at a much higher level compared with their actual skills. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Challenges of assessing critical thinking and clinical judgment in nurse practitioner students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Karen L; Hayes, Janice

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment in nurse practitioner students. The study used a convenience, nonprobability sampling technique, engaging participants from across the United States. Correlational analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between critical thinking skills and examination-style questions, critical thinking skills and scores on the evaluation and reevaluation of consequences subscale of the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale, and critical thinking skills and the preceptor evaluation tool. The study found no statistically significant relationships between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment. Educators and practitioners could consider further research in these areas to gain insight into how critical thinking is and could be measured, to gain insight into the clinical decision making skills of nurse practitioner students, and to gain insight into the development and measurement of critical thinking skills in advanced practice educational programs. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. The Impact of Critical Thinking on Clinical Judgment During Simulation With Senior Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzell, Mary; Anderson, Mindi

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the impact of critical thinking (CT) on clinical judgment (CJ) during a pediatric Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) with 160 pre-licensure nursing students. Educators are called to transform teaching strategies to develop CJ but confusion exists over definitions. A descriptive correlational design was used to examine demographics and Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) scores. CJ was measured by scores on the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) from videotaped OSCEs. Participants were: 86 percent female, 42 percent Caucasian, median 23 years, with 49 percent having health care experience. Students averaged seven moves over minimum on the TOH. Average scores were: HSRT 25/38 and LCJR 31/44. Statistically significant predictors of CJ were gender, ethnicity, HSRT deduction, and analysis; 11 CT variables accounted for 17 percent of LCJR scores. Educators need to utilize/develop innovative teaching strategies addressing CJ predictors.

  8. Learning to think like a nurse: the development of clinical judgment in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jane; Stamp, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the clinical judgment and reasoning skills of nursing students in high-fidelity simulation. Two levels of students (N = 104), novices and those who are slightly more advanced, participated in individual videotaped simulations. Afterward, interviews were conducted to explore what the student was thinking and feeling during simulation. Five themes emerged from the interviews: thinking like a nurse, assessment, looking for answers, communication, and magical or reflective thinking. There was a clear distinction in the reasoning skills of the novice students compared with students with more clinical experience. Tanner's model of clinical judgment in nursing is used to understand the findings of the study. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Clinical judgment research on economic topics: Role of congruence of tasks in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttin, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses what can ensure the performance of judgment studies with an information design that integrates economics of medical systems, in the context of digitalization of healthcare. It is part of a series of 5 methodological papers on statistical procedures and problems to implement judgment research designs and decision models, especially to address cost of care, and ways to measure conversation on cost of care between physicians and patients, with unstructured data such as economic narratives to complement billing and financial information (e.g. cost cognitive cues in conjoint or reversed conjoint designs). The paper discusses how congruence of tasks can increase the reliability of data. It uses some results of two Meta reviews of judgment studies in different fields of applications: psychology, business, medical sciences and education. It compares tests for congruence in judgment studies and efficiency tests in econometric studies.

  10. Development and validation of Dutch version of Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric in hospital practice: An instrument design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Jettie; Spek, Bea

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reasoning in patient care is a skill that cannot be observed directly. So far, no reliable, valid instrument exists for the assessment of nursing students' clinical reasoning skills in hospital practice. Lasater's clinical judgment rubric (LCJR), based on Tanner's model "Thinking like a

  11. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  12. Admission to intensive care can be reliably predicted using only clinical judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Not all patients in need of critical care arrive in clinical distress and some deteriorate after arrival. Identifying these patients early in their clinical course could potentially improve outcome. The present study was performed with the aim of assessing whether nursing and physician...... staffwere able to identify patients in need of critical care using only clinical judgment and to compare this with the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). Methods This was a prospective cohort study of all adult patients with a first-time admission to a medical admission unit at a 450-bed regional teaching...... hospital over a 3-month period in 2010. All subspecialties of internal medicine are present as well as a level 2 ICU. Upon first contact with the patient after arrival, nursing staffand physicians were asked to report their estimation of the probability of ICU admission (0 to 100%). Survival status...

  13. Comparison of clinical judgment and diagnostic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, H; Mathiesen, F K; Neckelmann, K

    1997-01-01

    , and diagnostic aids are desirable to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Diagnostic US performed poorly as a routine procedure. Application of an up to date scoring system might be of some help to patients with a high or low probability of acute appendicitis, but any conclusion about its clinical......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical judgment and diagnostic ultrasonography (US) used routinely and to create a scoring system to aid diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind study. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 222 Consecutive patients suspected...... of having acute appendicitis admitted between 0800 and midnight from June 1990 to June 1992. INTERVENTIONS: 148 Patients (67%) underwent appendicectomy and the remaining 74 patients were observed. 193 Patients (87%) had a diagnostic US examination. 21 Predictive variables were collected prospectively...

  14. The Relationship of Critical-Thinking Skills and the Clinical-Judgment Skills of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Nursing graduates (n=65) completed a critical thinking instrument and clinical decision-making scale. The critical thinking subscales of inference and inductive reasoning were positively correlated to clinical judgment. A significant relationship was found between critical thinking score and grade point average in nursing. (SK)

  15. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  16. A Sound Therapy-Based Intervention to Expand the Auditory Dynamic Range for Loudness among Persons with Sensorineural Hearing Losses: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Hawley, Monica L.; Sherlock, LaGuinn P.; Gold, Susan; Payne, JoAnne; Brooks, Rebecca; Parton, Jason M.; Juneau, Roger; Desporte, Edward J.; Siegle, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the validity, efficacy, and generalization of principles underlying a sound therapy–based treatment for promoting expansion of the auditory dynamic range (DR) for loudness. The basic sound therapy principles, originally devised for treatment of hyperacusis among patients with tinnitus, were evaluated in this study in a target sample of unsuccessfully fit and/or problematic prospective hearing aid users with diminished DRs (owing to their elevated audiometric thresholds and reduced sound tolerance). Secondary aims included: (1) delineation of the treatment contributions from the counseling and sound therapy components to the full-treatment protocol and, in turn, the isolated treatment effects from each of these individual components to intervention success; and (2) characterization of the respective dynamics for full, partial, and control treatments. Thirty-six participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing losses and reduced DRs, which affected their actual or perceived ability to use hearing aids, were enrolled in and completed a placebo-controlled (for sound therapy) randomized clinical trial. The 2 × 2 factorial trial design was implemented with or without various assignments of counseling and sound therapy. Specifically, participants were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (nine participants per group), including: (1) group 1—full treatment achieved with scripted counseling plus sound therapy implemented with binaural sound generators; (2) group 2—partial treatment achieved with counseling and placebo sound generators (PSGs); (3) group 3—partial treatment achieved with binaural sound generators alone; and (4) group 4—a neutral control treatment implemented with the PSGs alone. Repeated measurements of categorical loudness judgments served as the primary outcome measure. The full-treatment categorical-loudness judgments for group 1, measured at treatment termination, were

  17. Fall prediction according to nurses' clinical judgment: differences between medical, surgical, and geriatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisen, Koen; Coussement, Joke; Flamaing, Johan; Vlaeyen, Ellen; Schwendimann, René; Dejaeger, Eddy; Surmont, Kurt; Boonen, Steven

    2012-06-01

    To assess the value of nurses' clinical judgment (NCJ) in predicting hospital inpatient falls. Prospective multicenter study. Six Belgian hospitals. Two thousand four hundred seventy participants (mean age 67.6 ± 18.3; female, 55.7%) on four surgical (n = 812, 32.9%), eight geriatric (n = 666, 27.0%), and four general medical wards (n = 992, 40.1%) were included upon admission. All participants were hospitalized for at least 48 hours. Within 24 hours after admission, nurses gave their judgment on the question "Do you think your patient is at high risk for falling?" Nurses were not trained in assessing fall risk. Falls were documented on a standardized incident report form. During hospitalization, 143 (5.8%) participants experienced one or more falls, accounting for 202 falls and corresponding to an overall rate of 7.9 falls per 1,000 patient days. NCJ of participant's risk of falling had high sensitivity (78-92%) with high negative predictive value (94-100%) but low positive predictive value (4-17%). Although false-negative rates were low (8-22%) for all departments and age groups, false-positive rates were high (55-74%), except on surgical and general medical wards and in participants younger than 75. This analysis, based on multicenter data and a large sample size, suggests that NCJ can be recommended on surgical and general medical wards and in individuals younger than 75, but on geriatric wards and in participants aged 75 and older, NCJ overestimates risk of falling and is thus not recommended because expensive comprehensive fall-prevention measures would be implemented in a large number of individuals who do not need it. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Risk stratification in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: Risk scores, biomarkers and clinical judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corcoran

    2015-09-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy in higher risk NSTE-ACS. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE risk score is a validated risk stratification tool which has incremental prognostic value for risk stratification compared with clinical assessment or troponin testing alone. In emergency medicine, there has been a limited adoption of the GRACE score in some countries (e.g. United Kingdom, in part related to a delay in obtaining timely blood biochemistry results. Age makes an exponential contribution to the GRACE score, and on an individual patient basis, the risk of younger patients with a flow-limiting culprit coronary artery lesion may be underestimated. The future incorporation of novel cardiac biomarkers into this diagnostic pathway may allow for earlier treatment stratification. The cost-effectiveness of the new diagnostic pathways based on high-sensitivity troponin and copeptin must also be established. Finally, diagnostic tests and risk scores may optimize patient care but they cannot replace patient-focused good clinical judgment.

  19. Development of a simulation evaluation tool for assessing nursing students' clinical judgment in caring for children with dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim, Sunghee; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Jina; Lee, Myung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    The lack of reliable and valid tools to evaluate learning outcomes during simulations has limited the adoption and progress of simulation-based nursing education. This study had two aims: (a) to develop a simulation evaluation tool (SET(c-dehydration)) to assess students' clinical judgment in caring for children with dehydration based on the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) and (b) to examine its reliability and validity. Undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in South Korea participated in this study from March 3 through June 10, 2014. The SET(c-dehydration) was developed, and 120 nursing students' clinical judgment was evaluated. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, Cohen's kappa coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to analyze the data. A 41-item version of the SET(c-dehydration) with three subscales was developed. Cohen's kappa (measuring inter-observer reliability) of the sessions ranged from .73 to .95, and Cronbach's alpha was .87. The mean total rating of the SET(c-dehydration) by the instructors was 1.92 (±.25), and the mean scores for the four LCJR dimensions of clinical judgment were as follows: noticing (1.74±.27), interpreting (1.85±.43), responding (2.17±.32), and reflecting (1.79±.35). CFA, which was performed to test construct validity, showed that the four dimensions of the SET(c-dehydration) was an appropriate framework. The SET(c-dehydration) provides a means to evaluate clinical judgment in simulation education. Its reliability and validity should be examined further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of high-fidelity simulation on the development of clinical judgment and motivation among Lebanese nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Mirna A; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2016-11-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes and motivate the new generation of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using high-fidelity simulation on the development of clinical judgment and motivation among Lebanese nursing students. A post-test, quasi-experimental design was used. Two private universities in Lebanon were targeted to implement the intervention. A convenience sample of 56 nursing students from two private universities in Lebanon were recruited. Data were collected using the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric and the Motivated Strategies for Learning questionnaires. Nursing students exhibited significant improvement in clinical judgment and motivation due to exposure to HFS. There was a significant difference post HFS between the intervention group and the control group in clinical judgment intervention (t=5.23, pmotivation for academic achievement (t=-6.71, pstudents had higher mean scores of motivation (198.6, SD=10.5) in the intervention group than in the control group (161.6, SD=20). The analysis related to differences between the intervention and control groups in motivation and clinical judgment; controlling for previous experience in health care services, the analysis showed no significant difference (Wilk's lambda =0.77, F=1.09, p=0.374). There is a need for nursing educators to implement HFS in nursing curricula, where its integration can bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and nursing practice and enhance critical thinking and motivation among nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aspiration in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia: comparison of clinical judgment and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sabrina; Hartlieb, Till; Müller, Arnd; Granel, Michael; Staudt, Martin

    2014-12-01

    A total of 30 children and adolescents with dysphagia due to various chronic neurological disorders were assessed for their risk of aspiration. This assessment was performed clinically by experienced speech and swallowing therapists, and verified thereafter by fiberoptic endoscopy. We found the clinical judgment to be correct in only 70% (for aspiration of saliva), 55% (of puree), and 67% (of thin liquids). We conclude that, because of this unacceptably high error rate of clinical assessment, a fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing is a necessary diagnostic step both for the planning of therapy and for the development of feeding strategies in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. [Clinical research XXIV. From clinical judgment to ethics in research on humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.

  3. Throwing the baby out with the bath water: is it time for clinical judgment to supplement actuarial risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Brian R

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the potential for sexual violence is one of three prongs that must be met to satisfy the requirements for civil confinement of dangerous sex offenders in the 21 U.S. jurisdictions that have these laws. In a recent issue of The Journal, Sreenivasan et al. argued that, because of a host of methodological problems, actuarial risk assessment methods in general and the Static-99 and its progeny in particular are insufficient for accurate assessment of risk for dangerous sex offenders. They propose using a combination of clinical judgment with actuarial science as a solution. This analysis and review of Sreenivasan et al. reveals and corrects flaws in the arguments they employed to support their position and shows how the combination of actuarial science with clinical judgment is more error prone than the actuarial approach only, and cannot be forensically defended in court. Recommendations on reporting Static-99R data in expert testimony are provided, taking into account the limitations of the instrument.

  4. The Effect of Learning Styles, Critical Thinking Disposition, and Critical Thinking on Clinical Judgment in Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students during Human Patient Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kiyan

    2014-01-01

    Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…

  5. Development and validation of Dutch version of Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric in hospital practice: An instrument design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Jettie; Spek, Bea

    2018-03-01

    Clinical reasoning in patient care is a skill that cannot be observed directly. So far, no reliable, valid instrument exists for the assessment of nursing students' clinical reasoning skills in hospital practice. Lasater's clinical judgment rubric (LCJR), based on Tanner's model "Thinking like a nurse" has been tested, mainly in academic simulation settings. The aim is to develop a Dutch version of the LCJR (D-LCJR) and to test its psychometric properties when used in a hospital traineeship context. A mixed-model approach was used to develop and to validate the instrument. Ten dedicated educational units in a university hospital. A well-mixed group of 52 nursing students, nurse coaches and nurse educators. A Delphi panel developed the D-LCJR. Students' clinical reasoning skills were assessed "live" by nurse coaches, nurse educators and students who rated themselves. The psychometric properties tested during the assessment process are reliability, reproducibility, content validity and construct validity by testing two hypothesis: 1) a positive correlation between assessed and self-reported sum scores (convergent validity) and 2) a linear relation between experience and sum score (clinical validity). The obtained D-LCJR was found to be internally consistent, Cronbach's alpha 0.93. The rubric is also reproducible with intraclass correlations between 0.69 and 0.78. Experts judged it to be content valid. The two hypothesis were both tested significant, supporting evidence for construct validity. The translated and modified LCJR, is a promising tool for the evaluation of nursing students' development in clinical reasoning in hospital traineeships, by students, nurse coaches and nurse educators. More evidence on construct validity is necessary, in particular for students at the end of their hospital traineeship. Based on our research, the D-LCJR applied in hospital traineeships is a usable and reliable tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reflections on Self-Reflection: Contemplating Flawed Self-Judgments in the Clinic, Classroom, and Office Cubicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, David; Heath, Chip; Suls, Jerry M

    2018-03-01

    We reflect back on our 2004 monograph reviewing the implications of faulty self-judgment for health, education, and the workplace. The review proved popular, no doubt because the importance of accurate self-assessment is best reflected in just how broad the literature is that touches on this topic. We discuss opportunities and challenges to be found in the future study of self-judgment accuracy and error, and suggest that designing interventions aimed at improving self-judgments may prove to be a worthwhile but complex and nuanced task.

  7. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine how well various methodologic textwords, Medical Subject Headings, and their Boolean combinations retrieve methodologically sound literature on the prognosis of health disorders in MEDLINE. Methods An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for candidate search terms and combinations. Six research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. All articles were rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of prognosis and other clinical topics. Candidate search strategies were developed for prognosis and run in MEDLINE – the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 12% of studies classified as prognosis met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 90%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 25.2% (absolute increase, and increased specificity, but by a much smaller amount (1.1% when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize both sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities of approximately 83% for each. Conclusion Empirically derived

  8. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  9. Clinicians' Judgments of the Clinical Utility of Personality Disorder Trait Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Cristina; Sleep, Chelsea E; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) was a five-domain, 25-dimensional trait model that would have constituted a significant part of the diagnostic criteria for each personality disorder. A primary concern with respect to the proposal was that clinicians might find such an approach to be unacceptable. This study provides results from three independent data collections that compared clinicians' clinical utility ratings for each iteration of the DSM-5 dimensional trait assignments, along with an alternative list of traits derived from the Five Factor Form (FFF). The clinicians considered the final trait assignments that were posted for the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizoid personality disorders to be significantly less acceptable than the original assignments. They also considered the FFF trait assignments to be preferable to the DSM-5 final postings with respect to the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders. The implications of these results for future editions of the diagnostic manual are discussed.

  10. The new vestibular stimuli: sound and vibration-anatomical, physiological and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S

    2017-04-01

    The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae. Specifically, receptors in a specialized band of cells, the striola, are predominantly type I receptors, with short, stiff hair bundles and looser attachment to the overlying otoconial membrane than extrastriolar receptors. At the striola the hair bundles project into holes in the otolithic membrane, allowing for fluid displacement to deflect the hair bundles and activate the cell. This review shows the anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that fluid displacement, generated by sound or vibration, deflects the short stiff hair bundles of type I receptors at the striola, resulting in neural activation of the irregular afferents innervating them. So these afferents are activated by sound or vibration and show phase-locking to individual cycles of the sound or vibration stimulus up to frequencies above 2000 Hz, underpinning the use of sound and vibration for clinical tests of vestibular function.

  11. Assessment of mental capacity to consent to treatment in anorexia nervosa: A comparison of clinical judgment and MacCAT-T and consequences for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzakkers, Isis F F M; Danner, Unna N; Grisso, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    Informed consent requires adequate mental capacity to consent to treatment. Mental capacity (MC) to consent to treatment refers to the ability to make medical decisions. MC is assessed in a general psychiatric interview, but this clinical assessment is known to overestimate mental capacity in patients and the inter rater reliability is low. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) has emerged as the gold standard to assess mental capacity to consent to treatment. The MacCAT-T is a semi-structured interview designed to aid clinicians in this assessment and has shown good inter rater reliability in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders, but has hardly been studied in patients with anorexia nervosa. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) regularly avoid treatment, even when severely ill and discussion includes assessing MC to consent to treatment. The aim of this study is to compare clinical judgment and the MacCAT-T in evaluating MC in patients with AN which in turn may influence use of the MacCAT-T in daily practice. In a sample of 70 consecutively referred severely ill patients with AN with a mean BMI of 15.5 kg/m 2 and a mean duration of illness of 8.6 years, clinical assessment of MC by experienced psychiatrists and the outcome of the MacCAT-T interview were compared. Agreement (κ-value) was calculated. Agreement between clinical assessment and outcome of the MacCAT-T was questionable (κ 0.23). Unlike in other psychiatric populations, clinicians judged a high proportion of patients with AN as having diminished MC. The MacCAT-T can be useful in assessing MC in AN when used in addition to clinical judgment to aid clinicians in complex cases. Why clinicians judge a relatively high proportion of patients with AN as having diminished MC, in contrast to lower proportions in other psychiatric disorders, is an area in need of further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sound as a supportive design intervention for improving health care experience in the clinical ecosystem: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2017-11-01

    Most prior hospital noise research usually deals with sound in its noise facet and is based merely on sound level abatement, rather than as an informative or orientational element. This paper stimulates scientific research into the effect of sound interventions on physical and mental health care in the clinical environment. Data sources comprised relevant World Health Organization guidelines and the results of a literature search of ISI Web of Science, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR and Google Scholar. Noise induces stress and impedes the recovery process. Pleasant natural sound intervention which includes singing birds, gentle wind and ocean waves, revealed benefits that contribute to perceived restoration of attention and stress recovery in patients and staff. Clinicians should consider pleasant natural sounds perception as a low-risk non-pharmacological and unobtrusive intervention that should be implemented in their routine care for speedier recovery of patients undergoing medical procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) to 15 years: a study of growth and asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of grammaticality judgments of questions. Three groups of children participated: 20 SLI, 20 age controls, and 18 language-matched controls, followed from ages 6-15 years. An experimental grammaticality judgment task was administered with BE copula/auxiliary and DO auxiliary in wh- and yes/no questions for 9 times of measurement. Predictors were indices of vocabulary, nonverbal intelligence, and maternal education. Growth curve analyses show that the affected group performed below the younger controls at each time of measurement, for each variable. Growth analyses show linear and quadratic effects for both groups across variables, with the exception of BE acquisition, which was flat for both groups. The control children reached ceiling levels; the affected children reached a lower asymptote. The results suggest an ongoing maturational lag in finiteness marking for affected children with promise as a clinical marker for language impairment in school-aged and adolescent children and probably adults as well.

  14. Evidence for the treatment of co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder: A clinical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Rachael; Hewat, Sally; Spencer, Elizabeth; Harrison, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    There is a paucity of evidence to guide treatment for children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder. Some guidelines suggest treating the two disorders simultaneously using indirect treatment approaches; however, the research supporting these recommendations is over 20 years old. In this clinical case series, we investigate whether these co-occurring disorders could be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches supported by up-to-date, high-level evidence, and whether this could be done in an efficacious, safe and efficient manner. Five pre-school-aged participants received individual concurrent, direct intervention for both stuttering and speech sound disorder. All participants used the Lidcombe Program, as manualised. Direct treatment for speech sound disorder was individualised based on analysis of each child's sound system. At 12 months post commencement of treatment, all except one participant had completed the Lidcombe Program, and were less than 1.0% syllables stuttered on samples gathered within and beyond the clinic. These four participants completed Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program in between 14 and 22 clinic visits, consistent with current benchmark data for this programme. At the same assessment point, all five participants exhibited significant increases in percentage of consonants correct and were in alignment with age-expected estimates of this measure. Further, they were treated in an average number of clinic visits that compares favourably with other research on treatment for speech sound disorder. These preliminary results indicate that young children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder may be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches. This method of service delivery may have implications for cost and time efficiency and may also address the crucial need for early intervention in both disorders. These positive findings highlight the need for further research in the area and contribute to

  15. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  16. [Effect of Debriefing Based on the Clinical Judgment Model on Simulation Based Learning Outcomes of End-of-Life Care for Nursing Students: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung In; Choi, Ja Yun

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify effects of debriefing based on the clinical judgment model for nursing students on their knowledge, skill performance, clinical judgment, self-confidence and learner satisfaction during simulation based end-of-life care (ELC) education. Simulation based ELC education was developed in six steps as follows: selection of learning subjects and objects, development of learning tools, a trial run of simulation-based education, students' skill training, and evaluators' training. Forty-eight senior nursing students (25 in the experimental group and 23 in the control group) participated in the simulation-based ELC education using a high-fidelity simulator. Debriefing based on the clinical judgment was compared with the usual debriefing. ANCOVA showed that there were differences in knowledge (F=4.81, p=.034), skill performance (F=68.33, psatisfaction (t=-0.38, p=.704) between the experimental and control groups. This study found that debriefing based on the clinical judgement model is effective for supporting nursing students for reflecting on clinical judgment and improving their diverse competencies in complex clinical settings such as ELC. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  17. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  18. Emotion and moral judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramova, Y.R.; Inbar, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychology and cognitive science has consistently demonstrated the importance of emotion in a wide range of everyday judgments, including moral judgment. Most current accounts of moral judgment hold that emotion plays an important role, but the nature and extent of this role are still

  19. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  20. Combining clinical judgment with guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes: overall standards of comprehensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Tamer G

    2014-05-01

    The rising toll of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on patients and society has resulted in a wide variety of guidelines and therapies to address the need to combat this trend. Given the heterogeneity of T2DM and the different responses patients have to therapies, as well as the continued need for patients to institute lifestyle changes, guidelines published by the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology have in recent years increased the focus on personalized and patient-centered care. How to best assimilate the overall standards of care for T2DM into clinical practice remains a challenge. The 4 pillars of effective diabetes management are a unifying framework and approach to clinical practice that can be integrated with the latest diabetes guidelines. These 4 pillars are lifestyle modifications involving (1) diet, (2) exercise, (3) a system to monitor preprandial and postprandial blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, and (4) pharmacologic intervention when required. This article reviews the overall standards of care for T2DM, focusing on the first 3 nonpharmacologic pillars, and provides suggestions for integrating this approach with the current American Diabetes Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology guidelines. Barriers to effective implementation of exercise programs, diets, and monitoring of blood glucose levels are discussed along with clinical strategies to overcome these barriers and achieve effective glycemic control and lifestyle changes for patients with T2DM. Personalized approaches to the management of T2DM are also reviewed.

  1. Customized Versus Noncustomized Sound Therapy for Treatment of Tinnitus: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Haidar, Yarah M; Kiumehr, Saman; Ziai, Kasra; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a customized sound therapy and compare its effectiveness to that of masking with broadband noise. Subjects were randomized to receive either customized sound therapy or broadband noise for 2 hours per day for 3 months and then switched to the other treatment after a washout period. The outcome variables were tinnitus loudness (scored 0-10), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), minimum masking levels (MML), and residual inhibition (RI). Eighteen subjects completed the study. Mean age was 53 ± 11 years, and mean tinnitus duration was 118 ± 99 months. With customized sound therapy, mean loudness decreased from 6.4 ± 2.0 to 4.9 ± 1.9 ( P = .001), mean THI decreased from 42.8 ± 21.6 to 31.5 ± 20.3 ( P tinnitus patients, and the results may be superior to broadband noise.

  2. Mistaking Judgments of the Agreeable and Judgments of Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Raven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant develops a rigorous formulation of aesthetic judgments, in which he makes a sharp distinction between judgments of taste and judgments of the agreeable (both of which are, I claim, types of aesthetic judgments if only to dismiss judgments of the agreeable as worthy objects of study. Kant is primarily concerned with judgments of taste, the main example of which is judging something to be beautiful (whether it be a work of art or a natural object. He asserts that such judgments are subjective, universal, necessary, disinterested, and do not presuppose a purpose. The other type of aesthetic judgment are judgments of the agreeable, “which are the kind of judgment expressed by saying simply that one likes something or finds it pleasing.” These are judgments of what, in Kant’s words, please “the senses in sensation” as opposed to pleasing ourcognition in reflection.

  3. Letter-speech sound learning in children with dyslexia : From behavioral research to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravena, S.

    2017-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, learning to associate speech-sounds with unfamiliar characters is a critical step in becoming a proficient reader. This dissertation aimed at expanding our knowledge of this learning process and its relation to dyslexia, with an emphasis on bridging the gap between

  4. Speech Sound Disorders in Preschool Children: Correspondence between Clinical Diagnosis and Teacher and Parent Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to assess the level of correspondence between parent and teacher report of concern about young children's speech and specialist assessment of speech sound disorders (SSD). A sample of 157 children aged 4-5 years was recruited in preschools and long day care centres in Victoria and New South Wales (NSW). SSD was assessed…

  5. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  6. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  7. Social trait judgment and affect recognition from static faces and video vignettes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Park, Sohee

    2014-09-01

    Social impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, present from the pre-morbid stage and predictive of outcome, but the etiology of this deficit remains poorly understood. Successful and adaptive social interactions depend on one's ability to make rapid and accurate judgments about others in real time. Our surprising ability to form accurate first impressions from brief exposures, known as "thin slices" of behavior has been studied very extensively in healthy participants. We sought to examine affect and social trait judgment from thin slices of static or video stimuli in order to investigate the ability of schizophrenic individuals to form reliable social impressions of others. 21 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 matched healthy participants (HC) were asked to identify emotions and social traits for actors in standardized face stimuli as well as brief video clips. Sound was removed from videos to remove all verbal cues. Clinical symptoms in SZ and delusional ideation in both groups were measured. Results showed a general impairment in affect recognition for both types of stimuli in SZ. However, the two groups did not differ in the judgments of trustworthiness, approachability, attractiveness, and intelligence. Interestingly, in SZ, the severity of positive symptoms was correlated with higher ratings of attractiveness, trustworthiness, and approachability. Finally, increased delusional ideation in SZ was associated with a tendency to rate others as more trustworthy, while the opposite was true for HC. These findings suggest that complex social judgments in SZ are affected by symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  9. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Judgment, but Were Afraid to Ask!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Simon

    1990-01-01

    Outdoor leaders with sound judgment can gather many specific experiences, induce them into a collection of general concepts, store these as memory maps in the mind, later recall the general concepts as needed, and deduce a specific prediction from them. Proposes that evaluative reflection after a judgment is made is the component missing from most…

  10. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then...... to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  11. Sharing Privacy Protected and Statistically Sound Clinical Research Data Using Outsourced Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geontae Noh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to scientific progress to share clinical research data stored in outsourced generally available cloud computing services. Researchers are able to obtain valuable information that they would not otherwise be able to access; however, privacy concerns arise when sharing clinical data in these outsourced publicly available data storage services. HIPAA requires researchers to deidentify private information when disclosing clinical data for research purposes and describes two available methods for doing so. Unfortunately, both techniques degrade statistical accuracy. Therefore, the need to protect privacy presents a significant problem for data sharing between hospitals and researchers. In this paper, we propose a controlled secure aggregation protocol to secure both privacy and accuracy when researchers outsource their clinical research data for sharing. Since clinical data must remain private beyond a patient’s lifetime, we take advantage of lattice-based homomorphic encryption to guarantee long-term security against quantum computing attacks. Using lattice-based homomorphic encryption, we design an aggregation protocol that aggregates outsourced ciphertexts under distinct public keys. It enables researchers to get aggregated results from outsourced ciphertexts of distinct researchers. To the best of our knowledge, our protocol is the first aggregation protocol which can aggregate ciphertexts which are encrypted with distinct public keys.

  12. Hermeneutics, evidence ad judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes several topics of the judicial process from the point of view of the important contributions offered by the hermeneutical philosophy. It deals mainly with the construction of factual narratives, the presentation of evidence and the discovery of truth made by the judge in his final judgment based upon the evidence.

  13. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  14. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...

  15. THE MEMORY OF JUDGMENT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Lawrence Douglas' book1, The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History ... film that is not amenable to cross-examination— in a manner that advances his ... willed by more, and tolerated by all”.7 Although the height of the war .... forum that assists in the assessment of the question of guilt or innocence in an.

  16. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  17. Judgment, Probability, and Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Aristotle's five means of making judgments: intelligence, "episteme" (scientific knowledge), "sophia" (theoretical wisdom), "techne" (art), and "phronesis" (practical wisdom). Sets Aristotle's theory of rhetorical argument within the context of his overall view of human judgment. Notes that…

  18. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters vaptured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bruden, D.L.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical analyses were performed on sea otter blood samples collected from 31 adult males, 63 adult females, and 42 pups captured in western Prince William Sound (oiled area), and 12 adult males, 40 adult females, and 15 pups captured in eastern Prince William Sound (unoiled area) in 1989 and 1990. Hematologic differences between eastern and western adult males were minimal. Both hematocrits and hemoglobins were higher in western than eastern otters but the biological significance of this is equivocal. Western males had higher absolute eosinophil counts, suggesting possible systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Western males had higher serum protein and serum globulin levels than eastern males, suggesting greater antigenic stimulation (more inflammatory and/or infectious conditions). There were no differences in hematologic parameters between eastern and western female otters. Some chemistry changes were present, but the degree of difference was small. Total protein and serum globulin levels were slightly higher in western females, a finding also seen in adult males. Mean levels of liver enzymes for western females were somewhat higher than for the eastern otters, suggesting the possibility of subclinical liver disease. As a group, western pup hematocrits, hemoglobins, and red cell counts were significantly lower than those of eastern pups. From a biological perspective, these reductions were minimal but supported by individual animal data. The red cell data suggest a mild anemia in western pups; however, the degree of anemia was minimal, so that biological significance was equivocal. Other hematologic and clinical chemical differences between eastern and western pups were not striking and were also of equivocal biological significance.

  19. Nano-hydroxyapatite and calcium-enriched mixture for pulp capping of sound primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Asgary, Saeed; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Montazeri Hedeshi, Roshanak

    2015-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) has been used for regeneration of osseous defects. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is also used for various dental treatments. This trial compared the efficacy of NHA and CEM cement for direct pulp capping (DPC) of sound primary teeth. In this randomized clinical trial with split-mouth design, after attaining informed consent, 20 sound primary canines scheduled for orthodontic extraction, were selected. After mechanical pulp exposure, the exposed site was capped with either NHA or CEM cement and then immediately restored with glass-ionomer and resin composite. The teeth were extracted after two months and examined histologically. Parameters of hard tissue bridge (HTB) formation, its type and quality as well as pulpal inflammation scores were compared between the two experimental groups. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U and Fisher's exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.001. All CEM specimens showed inflammation score of 0 (less than 10%). However, in NHA group, inflammation scores of 0 (less than 10%), 1 (10%-30%) and 2 (30%-50%) were observed in 2 (20%), 4 (40%) and 4 (40%) specimens, respectively (P<0.001). HTB was formed in all CEM specimens while it was developed in 2 specimens of NHA (20%; P<0.001). All CEM specimens showed normal pulp; only two cases in NHA group (20%) demonstrated uninflamed normal pulp. CEM cement was superior to NHA as a DPC agent in terms of HTB formation and pulp inflammation scores. It is a suitable material for the DPC of primary teeth.

  20. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  1. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  2. Judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, B A; Schwartz, A; Cooke, A D

    1998-01-01

    For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive that previously thought. For example, "rule following." Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are "good enough," though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.

  3. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  4. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  5. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  6. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  7. Children's developing metaethical judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Ivan; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right. We found that 9-year-olds, but not younger children, were more likely to judge that both parties could be right when a normative ingroup judge disagreed with an antinormative extraterrestrial judge (with different preferences and background) than when the antinormative judge was another ingroup individual. This effect was not found in a comparison case where parties disagreed about the possibility of different physical laws. These findings suggest that although young children often exhibit moral objectivism, by early school age they begin to temper their objectivism with culturally relative metaethical judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Futility and the varieties of medical judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, D P

    1997-01-01

    Pellegrino has argued that end-of-life decisions should be based upon the physician's assessment of the effectiveness of the treatment and the patient's assessment of its benefits and burdens. This would seem to imply that conditions for medical futility could be met either if there were a judgment of ineffectiveness, or if the patient were in a state in which he or she were incapable of a subjective judgment of the benefits and burdens of the treatment. I argue that a theory of futility according to Pellegrino would deny that latter but would permit some cases of the former. I call this the "circumspect" view. I show that Pellegrino would adopt the circumspect view because he would see the medical futility debate in the context of a system of medical ethics based firmly upon a philosophy of medicine. The circumspect view is challenged by those who would deny that one can distinguish objective from subjective medical judgments. I defend the circumspect view on the basis of a previously neglected aspect of the philosophy of medicine-an examination of varieties of medical judgment. I then offer some practical applications of this theory in clinical practice.

  9. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  10. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  11. A STUDY OF ESTHETIC JUDGMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILD, IRVIN L.

    THE ABILITY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TO RECOGNIZE DEGREES OF ESTHETIC MERIT IN OBJECTS OF ART WAS STUDIED. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE BY EXPERIMENTATION SOME OF THE FACTORS WHICH MAY BE IMPORTANT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTHETIC JUDGMENT. A SAMPLE OF MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS WAS GIVEN SEVERAL TESTS OF ESTHETIC JUDGMENT. FROM THESE SUBJECTS WERE CHOSEN…

  12. Pitfalls in Teaching Judgment Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Koch, Erika J.

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrations of judgment heuristics typically focus on how heuristics can lead to poor judgments. However, exclusive focus on the negative consequences of heuristics can prove problematic. We illustrate the problem with the representativeness heuristic and present a study (N = 45) that examined how examples influence understanding of the…

  13. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  14. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ratio-scaling of listener preference of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian

    2005-01-01

    -trivial assumption in the case of complex spatial sounds. In the present study the Bradley-Terry-Luce (BTL) model was employed to investigate the unidimensionality of preference judgments made by 40 listeners on multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts played back in eight reproduction modes (mono...... music). As a main result, the BTL model was found to predict the choice frequencies well. This implies that listeners were able to integrate the complex nature of the sounds into a unidimensional preference judgment. It further implies the existence of a preference scale on which the reproduction modes...

  16. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  17. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  18. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  19. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  20. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  1. Judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2010-09-01

    The study of judgment and decision making entails three interrelated forms of research: (1) normative analysis, identifying the best courses of action, given decision makers' values; (2) descriptive studies, examining actual behavior in terms comparable to the normative analyses; and (3) prescriptive interventions, helping individuals to make better choices, bridging the gap between the normative ideal and the descriptive reality. The research is grounded in analytical foundations shared by economics, psychology, philosophy, and management science. Those foundations provide a framework for accommodating affective and social factors that shape and complement the cognitive processes of decision making. The decision sciences have grown through applications requiring collaboration with subject matter experts, familiar with the substance of the choices and the opportunities for interventions. Over the past half century, the field has shifted its emphasis from predicting choices, which can be successful without theoretical insight, to understanding the processes shaping them. Those processes are often revealed through biases that suggest non-normative processes. The practical importance of these biases depends on the sensitivity of specific decisions and the support that individuals have in making them. As a result, the field offers no simple summary of individuals' competence as decision makers, but a suite of theories and methods suited to capturing these sensitivities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  3. Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a “System 1” generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a “System 2” fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory—associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency—give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors. PMID:20696611

  4. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  5. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  6. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  7. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  8. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in audiovisual temporal order judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available After repeated exposures to two successive audiovisual stimuli presented in one frequent order, participants eventually perceive a pair separated by some lag time in the same order as occurring simultaneously (lag adaptation. In contrast, we previously found that perceptual changes occurred in the opposite direction in response to tactile stimuli, conforming to bayesian integration theory (bayesian calibration. We further showed, in theory, that the effect of bayesian calibration cannot be observed when the lag adaptation was fully operational. This led to the hypothesis that bayesian calibration affects judgments regarding the order of audiovisual stimuli, but that this effect is concealed behind the lag adaptation mechanism. In the present study, we showed that lag adaptation is pitch-insensitive using two sounds at 1046 and 1480 Hz. This enabled us to cancel lag adaptation by associating one pitch with sound-first stimuli and the other with light-first stimuli. When we presented each type of stimulus (high- or low-tone in a different block, the point of simultaneity shifted to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "light-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. These results are consistent with lag adaptation. In contrast, when we delivered each type of stimulus in a randomized order, the point of simultaneity shifted to "light-first" for the pitch associated with sound-first stimuli, and to "sound-first" for the pitch associated with light-first stimuli. The results clearly show that bayesian calibration is pitch-specific and is at work behind pitch-insensitive lag adaptation during temporal order judgment of audiovisual stimuli.

  9. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  10. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...

  11. Feminist Judgments as Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hunter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses feminist judgments as a specific vehicle for teaching students to think critically about law. The analysis of appellate judgments forms a central plank of Anglo-Commonwealth and US jurisprudence and legal education. While academic scholarship generally offers various forms of commentary on decided cases, feminist judgment-writing projects have recently embarked on a new form of critical scholarship. Rather than critiquing judgments from a feminist perspective in academic essays, the participants in these projects have set out instead to write alternative judgments, as if they had been one of the judges sitting on the court at the time. After introducing the UK Feminist Judgments Project and describing what is ‘different’ about the judgments it has produced, the paper explains some of the ways in which these judgments have been used in UK law schools to teach critical thinking. The paper finally speculates on the potential production and application of feminist judgments or their equivalents beyond the common law context. Este artículo analiza las sentencias feministas como un vehículo específico para enseñar a los estudiantes a analizar el derecho desde un punto de vista crítico. El análisis de las sentencias de apelación constituye un elemento central de la jurisprudencia y la enseñanza del derecho en los países angloamericanos y de la Commonwealth. Mientras la comunidad académica ofrece generalmente diversas formas de comentario de casos resueltos, los proyectos de literatura judicial feminista se han embarcado recientemente en un nuevo sistema de crítica académica. En lugar de redactar ensayos académicos criticando las sentencias judiciales desde una perspectiva feminista, los participantes de estos proyectos se han propuesto redactar sentencias alternativas, como si hubieran sido uno de los jueces del tribunal en cuestión. Después de presentar el Proyecto de Sentencias Feministas del Reino Unido y

  12. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  13. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  14. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  15. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  16. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  17. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  18. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  19. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  20. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  1. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    p. 4i). This hy- pothesis was studied in several contexts, including intuitive statisti- cal judgments and the prediction of professional choice (Kahneman... professional choice . Here, X is representative of M either because it is frequently associated with M (e.g., high fever commonly accompanies pneumonia

  2. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people

  3. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  4. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  5. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  6. Do physician outcome judgments and judgment biases contribute to inappropriate use of treatments? Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many examples of physicians using treatments inappropriately, despite clear evidence about the circumstances under which the benefits of such treatments outweigh their harms. When such over- or under- use of treatments occurs for common diseases, the burden to the healthcare system and risks to patients can be substantial. We propose that a major contributor to inappropriate treatment may be how clinicians judge the likelihood of important treatment outcomes, and how these judgments influence their treatment decisions. The current study will examine the role of judged outcome probabilities and other cognitive factors in the context of two clinical treatment decisions: 1 prescription of antibiotics for sore throat, where we hypothesize overestimation of benefit and underestimation of harm leads to over-prescription of antibiotics; and 2 initiation of anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF, where we hypothesize that underestimation of benefit and overestimation of harm leads to under-prescription of warfarin. Methods For each of the two conditions, we will administer surveys of two types (Type 1 and Type 2 to different samples of Canadian physicians. The primary goal of the Type 1 survey is to assess physicians' perceived outcome probabilities (both good and bad outcomes for the target treatment. Type 1 surveys will assess judged outcome probabilities in the context of a representative patient, and include questions about how physicians currently treat such cases, the recollection of rare or vivid outcomes, as well as practice and demographic details. The primary goal of the Type 2 surveys is to measure the specific factors that drive individual clinical judgments and treatment decisions, using a 'clinical judgment analysis' or 'lens modeling' approach. This survey will manipulate eight clinical variables across a series of sixteen realistic case vignettes. Based on the survey responses, we will be

  7. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  8. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  9. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  10. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  11. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether...

  12. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  13. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  14. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  15. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  16. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  18. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  19. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  20. On judgment and judgmentalism: how counselling can make people better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S

    2005-10-01

    Counsellors, like other members of the caring professions, are required to practise within an ethical framework, at least in so far as they seek professional accreditation. As such, the counsellor is called upon to exercise her moral agency. In most professional contexts this requirement is, in itself, unproblematic. It has been suggested, however, that counselling practice does present a problem in this respect, in so far as the counsellor is expected to take a non-judgemental stance and an attitude of "unconditional positive regard" toward the client. If, as might appear to be the case, this stance and attitude are at odds with the making of moral judgments, the possibility of an adequate ethics of counselling is called into question. This paper explores the nature and extent of the problem suggesting that, understood in a Kantian context, non-judgmentalism can be seen to be at odds with neither the moral agency of the counsellor nor that of the client. Instead, it is argued, the relationship between the non-judgmental counsellor and her client is a fundamentally moral relationship, based on respect for the client's unconditional worth as a moral agent.

  1. Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a ?System 1? generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a ?System 2? fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory?associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency?give...

  2. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Jiménez-Rodríguez; José Manuel Feria-Domínguez; Alonso Sebastián-Lacave

    2018-01-01

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identificati...

  3. Sound improves diminished visual temporal sensitivity in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Schellekens, L.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; Maes, J.P.; van Gool, A.R.; Vroomen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Visual temporal processing and multisensory integration (MSI) of sound and vision were examined in individuals with schizophrenia using a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Compared to a non-psychiatric control group, persons with schizophrenia were less sensitive judging the temporal order

  4. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Feria-Domínguez, José Manuel; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-03-30

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData ® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls.

  5. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jiménez-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE. The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs. Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC, in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls.

  6. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-01-01

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls. PMID:29601529

  7. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  8. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical pathology reference intervals for an in-water population of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; McNeill, Joanne Braun; Avens, Larisa; Hall, April Goodman; Goshe, Lisa R; Hohn, Aleta A; Godfrey, Matthew H; Mihnovets, A Nicole; Cluse, Wendy M; Harms, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is found throughout the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It is a protected species throughout much of its range due to threats such as habitat loss, fisheries interactions, hatchling predation, and marine debris. Loggerheads that occur in the southeastern U.S. are listed as "threatened" on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and receive state and federal protection. As part of an on-going population assessment conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, samples were collected from juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in Core Sound, North Carolina, between 2004 and 2007 to gain insight on the baseline health of the threatened Northwest Atlantic Ocean population. The aims of the current study were to establish hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for this population, and to assess variation of the hematologic and plasma biochemical analytes by season, water temperature, and sex and size of the turtles. Reference intervals for the clinical pathology parameters were estimated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Season, water temperature, sex, and size of the turtles were found to be significant factors of variation for parameter values. Seasonal variation could be attributed to physiological effects of decreasing photoperiod, cooler water temperature, and migration during the fall months. Packed cell volume, total protein, and albumin increased with increasing size of the turtles. The size-related differences in analytes documented in the present study are consistent with other reports of variation in clinical pathology parameters by size and age in sea turtles. As a component of a health assessment of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in North Carolina, this study will serve as a baseline aiding in evaluation of trends for this population and as a diagnostic tool for assessing the health and prognosis for loggerhead sea turtles undergoing rehabilitation.

  11. Clinical pathology reference intervals for an in-water population of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta is found throughout the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It is a protected species throughout much of its range due to threats such as habitat loss, fisheries interactions, hatchling predation, and marine debris. Loggerheads that occur in the southeastern U.S. are listed as "threatened" on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and receive state and federal protection. As part of an on-going population assessment conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, samples were collected from juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in Core Sound, North Carolina, between 2004 and 2007 to gain insight on the baseline health of the threatened Northwest Atlantic Ocean population. The aims of the current study were to establish hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for this population, and to assess variation of the hematologic and plasma biochemical analytes by season, water temperature, and sex and size of the turtles. Reference intervals for the clinical pathology parameters were estimated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Season, water temperature, sex, and size of the turtles were found to be significant factors of variation for parameter values. Seasonal variation could be attributed to physiological effects of decreasing photoperiod, cooler water temperature, and migration during the fall months. Packed cell volume, total protein, and albumin increased with increasing size of the turtles. The size-related differences in analytes documented in the present study are consistent with other reports of variation in clinical pathology parameters by size and age in sea turtles. As a component of a health assessment of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in North Carolina, this study will serve as a baseline aiding in evaluation of trends for this population and as a diagnostic tool for assessing the health and prognosis for loggerhead sea turtles undergoing

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...... of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...

  14. A subjective utilitarian theory of moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J; Ahn, Minwoo

    2016-10-01

    Current theories hypothesize that moral judgments are difficult because rational and emotional decision processes compete. We present a fundamentally different theory of moral judgment: the Subjective Utilitarian Theory of moral judgment. The Subjective Utilitarian Theory posits that people try to identify and save the competing item with the greatest "personal value." Moral judgments become difficult only when the competing items have similar personal values. In Experiment 1, we estimate the personal values of 104 items. In Experiments 2-5, we show that the distributional overlaps of the estimated personal values account for over 90% of the variance in reaction times (RTs) and response choices in a moral judgment task. Our model fundamentally restructures our understanding of moral judgments from a competition between decision processes to a competition between similarly valued items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  16. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  17. Normative Judgments and Individual Essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Tobia, Kevin P; Newman, George E; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time-that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do appear to play an important role in people's beliefs about persistence. Specifically, people are more likely to judge that the identity of a given entity (e.g., a hypothetical nation) remains the same when its features improve (e.g., the nation becomes more egalitarian) than when its features deteriorate (e.g., the nation becomes more discriminatory). Study 1 provides a basic demonstration of this effect. Study 2 shows that this effect is moderated by individual differences in normative beliefs. Study 3 examines the underlying mechanism, which is the belief that, in general, various entities are essentially good. Study 4 directly manipulates beliefs about essence to show that the positivity bias regarding essences is causally responsible for the effect. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Victimological aspects of court judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the review of the results of the research: „Analysis of judgments form the victimological aspect“ of the Basic court Skopje I in Skopje. It is the first research of it’s kind in the Republic of Macedonia, conducted by the project team of the Faculty of Security in Skopje in the period from January to April 2011. By using the content analysis (for this purpose a special instrument was developed 172 irrevocable court judgment brought in the period 2005-2010 were analyzed, for the following criminal offences: murder, crimes against sexual freedom and sexual morality (sexual assault, severe bodily injuries and insult. The aim of the research was to highlight the victimological dimensions of mentioned criminal offences, while special attention was paid to the role of a victim in a crime, victim‘ s interaction with the perpetrator, individual characteristics of the victim, as well as the characteristics of the time when and the space where the crime occurred.

  19. Who makes utilitarian judgments? The influences of emotions on utilitarian judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Choe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.

  20. Towards a Kantian Theory of Judgment : the power of judgment in its practical and aesthetic employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    During, D.K.; Duwell, M.

    2015-01-01

    Human beings orient themselves in the world via judgments; factual, moral, prudential, aesthetic, and all kinds of mixed judgments. Particularly for normative orientation in complex and contested contexts of action, it can be challenging to form judgments. This paper explores what one can reasonably

  1. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim for...

  2. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... experts (by name and employer) involved in any expert judgment elicitation processes used to support the... judgment elicitation processes and the reasoning behind those results. Documentation of interviews used to...

  3. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  4. Aging and Confidence Judgments in Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…

  5. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  6. People's Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Karpoff, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    People's judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people's judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people's judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.

  7. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  8. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  9. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  10. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  11. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  12. Influence of Immersive Human Scale Architectural Representation on Design Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Rebecca L.

    Unrealistic visual representation of architecture within our existing environments have lost all reference to the human senses. As a design tool, visual and auditory stimuli can be utilized to determine human's perception of design. This experiment renders varying building inputs within different sites, simulated with corresponding immersive visual and audio sensory cues. Introducing audio has been proven to influence the way a person perceives a space, yet most inhabitants rely strictly on their sense of vision to make design judgments. Though not as apparent, users prefer spaces that have a better quality of sound and comfort. Through a series of questions, we can begin to analyze whether a design is fit for both an acoustic and visual environment.

  13. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  14. Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C; Pizarro, David A; Crockett, M J

    2016-06-01

    Moral judgments play a critical role in motivating and enforcing human cooperation, and research on the proximate mechanisms of moral judgments highlights the importance of intuitive, automatic processes in forming such judgments. Intuitive moral judgments often share characteristics with deontological theories in normative ethics, which argue that certain acts (such as killing) are absolutely wrong, regardless of their consequences. Why do moral intuitions typically follow deontological prescriptions, as opposed to those of other ethical theories? Here, we test a functional explanation for this phenomenon by investigating whether agents who express deontological moral judgments are more valued as social partners. Across 5 studies, we show that people who make characteristically deontological judgments are preferred as social partners, perceived as more moral and trustworthy, and are trusted more in economic games. These findings provide empirical support for a partner choice account of moral intuitions whereby typically deontological judgments confer an adaptive function by increasing a person's likelihood of being chosen as a cooperation partner. Therefore, deontological moral intuitions may represent an evolutionarily prescribed prior that was selected for through partner choice mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. FRAMING EFFECTS ON PHYSICIANS' JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh C; Krieger, Heather A; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicians' susceptibility to framing effects in clinical judgment and decision making. A survey was administered online to 159 general internists in the United States. Participants were randomized into two groups, in which clinical scenarios varied in their framings: frequency vs percentage, with cost information vs without, female patient vs male patient, and mortality vs survival. Results showed that physicians' recommendations for patients in hypothetical scenarios were significantly different when the predicted probability of the outcomes was presented in frequency versus percentage form and when it was presented in mortality rate vs survival rate of the same magnitude. Physicians' recommendations were not different for other framing effects.

  16. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  17. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  18. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  20. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  1. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  2. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  3. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  4. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  5. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  6. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  7. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  8. ‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ‘utilitarian’ judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ‘utilitarian’ judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of ‘utilitarian’ judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that ‘utilitarian’ judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between ‘utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in ‘utilitarian’ judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

  9. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark; Roeser, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of “emotional” responses to technological risk as opposed to their own “rational” judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias. By contrast, cognitivists argue that emotions are judgments

  10. Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical Implications: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher

    2017-06-01

    At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation). The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.

  11. Judgment sampling: a health care improvement perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P

    2012-01-01

    Sampling plays a major role in quality improvement work. Random sampling (assumed by most traditional statistical methods) is the exception in improvement situations. In most cases, some type of "judgment sample" is used to collect data from a system. Unfortunately, judgment sampling is not well understood. Judgment sampling relies upon those with process and subject matter knowledge to select useful samples for learning about process performance and the impact of changes over time. It many cases, where the goal is to learn about or improve a specific process or system, judgment samples are not merely the most convenient and economical approach, they are technically and conceptually the most appropriate approach. This is because improvement work is done in the real world in complex situations involving specific areas of concern and focus; in these situations, the assumptions of classical measurement theory neither can be met nor should an attempt be made to meet them. The purpose of this article is to describe judgment sampling and its importance in quality improvement work and studies with a focus on health care settings.

  12. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  13. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  14. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  15. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  16. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  17. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  18. Pengaruh Gender dan Pengalaman Audit terhadap Audit Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Pasanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of gender and audit experience toward audit judgment and to examine gender and audit experience towards audit judgment when moderated by client credibility. The research was conducted on auditors who worked on KAP in Makassar South Sulawesi using survey. Sampling technique in this study was random sampling based on judgment. Data collected and then analyzed by employing regression method and Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA. The result indicates that gender does not significantly influence audit judgment while audit experience significantly influences audit judgment. Client credibility does not moderate the influence of gender and audit experience on the audit judgment.

  19. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  20. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-10-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition.

  1. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  2. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  3. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  4. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  5. ASL or Contact Signing: Issues of Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil; Valli, Clayton

    1991-01-01

    Reports on one aspect of an ongoing study of language contact in the American deaf community. The ultimate goal of the study is a linguistic description of contact signing and a reexamination of claims that it is a pidgin. Patterns of language use are reviewed and the role of demographic information in judgments is examined. (29 references) (GLR)

  6. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at "best" probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of "best" estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity.

  7. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  8. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  9. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  10. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  11. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  12. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Ladinig, O.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening

  13. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare AM Sutherland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers’ faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1,000 highly varying ‘ambient image’ face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  14. Exemplary Goods: Exemplars as Judgment Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dekker (Erwin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this article the notion of exemplars is developed to study valuation processes. It argues that exemplary goods are an important ‘judgment device’ on markets of singular goods, which has so far been ignored in the literature. The article draws on Hannah Arendt’s theory of exemplars, as

  15. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48

  16. The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, M.; Slovic, P.; Johnson, S.M.; Alhakami, A.

    1998-01-01

    The role of affect in judgment of risks and benefits is examined in two studies. Despite using different methodologies the two studies suggest that risk and benefit are linked somehow in people's perception, consequently influencing their judgments. Short paper

  17. Psychophysical evaluation of image quality : from judgment to impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    Designs of imaging systems, image processing algorithms etc. usually take for granted that methods for assessing perceived image quality produce unbiased estimates of the viewers' quality impression. Quality judgments, however, are affected by the judgment strategies induced by the experimental

  18. Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2009). Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Paper presented at the International Center for Learning, Education and Performance Systems (ICLEPS). Talahassee, Florida: Florida State

  19. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  20. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  1. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  2. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  3. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  4. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  5. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  6. Involvement of right piriform cortex in olfactory familiarity judgments. : Familiarity judgment in olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Plailly , Jane; Bensafi , Moustafa; Pachot-Clouard , Mathilde; Delon-Martin , Chantal; Kareken , David ,; Rouby , Catherine; Segebarth , Christoph; Royet , Jean ,

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Previous studies have shown activation of right orbitofrontal cortex during judgments of odor familiarity. In the present study, we sought to extend our knowledge about the neural circuits involved in such a task by exploring the involvement of the right prefrontal areas and limbic/primary olfactory structures. Fourteen right-handed male subjects were tested using fMRI with a single functional run of two olfactory conditions (odor detection and familiarity judgments). ...

  7. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    playing a role in sound quality evaluation. Eight selected attributes are quantified by a panel of 39 listeners using paired-comparison judgments and probabilistic choice models, and related to overall preference. A multiple-regression model predicts preference well, and some similarities are observed......Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...

  8. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  9. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  10. Changes in Emotional-Social Intelligence, Caring, Leadership and Moral Judgment during Health Science Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Helene; Benson, Gerry; Wessel, Jean; Martin, Lynn; Ploeg, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In addition to having academic knowledge and clinical skills, health professionals need to be caring, ethical practitioners able to understand the emotional concerns of their patients and to effect change. The purpose of this study was to determine whether emotional-social intelligence, caring, leadership and moral judgment of health science…

  11. 'To Think Representatively': Arendt on Judgment and the Imagination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the standpoint of the spectator, I go on to examine their most distinctive features, in particular, the link between judgment, the imagination, and the ability to think 'representatively'. I also examine the philosophical sources of Arendt's theory of judgment, namely, Kant's theory of aesthetic judgment and its criteria of validity.

  12. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment shall...

  13. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments of...

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  15. Principal Holistic Judgments and High-Stakes Evaluations of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek C.; Dadey, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Results from a sample of 1,013 Georgia principals who rated 12,617 teachers are used to compare holistic and analytic principal judgments with indicators of student growth central to the state's teacher evaluation system. Holistic principal judgments were compared to mean student growth percentiles (MGPs) and analytic judgments from a formal…

  16. Sensory suppression of brain responses to self-generated sounds is observed with and without the perception of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; Schröger, Erich; SanMiguel, Iria

    2016-07-01

    Stimuli caused by our own movements are given special treatment in the brain. Self-generated sounds evoke a smaller brain response than externally generated ones. This attenuated response may reflect a predictive mechanism to differentiate the sensory consequences of one's own actions from other sensory input. It may also relate to the feeling of being the agent of the movement and its effects, but little is known about how sensory suppression of brain responses to self-generated sounds is related to judgments of agency. To address this question, we recorded event-related potentials in response to sounds initiated by button presses. In one condition, participants perceived agency over the production of the sounds, whereas in another condition, participants experience an illusory lack of agency caused by changes in the delay between actions and effects. We compared trials in which the timing of button press and sound was physically identical, but participants' agency judgment differed. Results show reduced amplitudes of the auditory N1 component in response to self-generated sounds irrespective of agency experience, whilst P2 effects correlate with the perception of agency. Our findings suggest that suppression of the auditory N1 component to self-generated sounds does not depend on adaptation to specific action-effect time delays, and does not determine agency judgments, however, the suppression of the P2 component might relate more directly to the experience of agency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Judgments of Word Production Accuracy in Acquired Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie; Shuster, Linda; Bailey, Dallin J; Mauszycki, Shannon; Kean, Jacob; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra; Brunsvold, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    The ability to recognize one's own speech errors has long been considered a clinical feature of acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) despite limited empirical data supporting this notion. This study was designed to (a) investigate the ability of speakers with AOS to self-judge the accuracy of their own word productions and (b) examine the test-retest stability of a measure to quantify the self-judgments of speakers with AOS. Twenty-four speakers with AOS and aphasia repeated mono- and multisyllabic words. After each word, they indicated whether their production was correct or incorrect. This procedure was repeated 1 week later to examine performance stability. Percentage of incorrect word productions was stable for the group across times. Accuracy of judgments ranged from 64% to 100% at Time 1 and from 56% to 100% at Time 2. Inaccurate judgments of error productions (false positives) occurred much more frequently than inaccurate judgments of correct productions (false negatives). Error production was remarkably stable in our participants. As a group, the participants failed to detect almost one third of words produced erroneously. However, accuracy and stability of judgments over sampling times varied across participants. Findings suggest that error awareness might be a worthwhile target for treatment in some individuals with AOS.

  18. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  19. Insight in psychosis: Standards, science, ethics and value judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K S

    2017-06-01

    The clinical assessment of insight solely employs biomedical perspectives and criteria to the complete exclusion of context and culture and to the disregard of values and value judgments. The aim of this discussion article is to examine recent research from India on insight and explanatory models in psychosis and re-examine the framework of assessment, diagnosis and management of insight and explanatory models. Recent research from India on insight in psychosis and explanatory models is reviewed. Recent research, which has used longitudinal data and adjusted for pretreatment variables, suggests that insight and explanatory models of illness at baseline do not predict course, outcome and treatment response in schizophrenia, which seem to be dependent on the severity and quality of the psychosis. It supports the view that people with psychosis simultaneously hold multiple and contradictory explanatory models of illness, which change over time and with the trajectory of the illness. It suggests that insight, like all explanatory models, is a narrative of the person's reality and a coping strategy to handle with the varied impact of the illness. This article argues that the assessment of insight necessarily involves value entailments, commitments and consequences. It supports a need for a broad-based approach to assess awareness, attribution and action related to mental illness and to acknowledge the role of values and value judgment in the evaluation of insight in psychosis.

  20. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  1. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  2. Language as Context Modulates Social Judgments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Gao; Zhao Gao; Ting Gou

    2017-01-01

    Social judgments are usually made in the context of complex information including verbal cues. Here we investigated the impact of verbal statements on social judgments by biasing male and female neutral faces with descriptives of differentially-valenced behaviour (criticizing or praising) targeting others or objects. Results showed significant main effects of valence and target, such that critical individuals were rated lower in likeability than praising ones and those targeting others relative to objects were valued less. In particular, those who criticized others were the most unlikeable. Among critical individuals, men were less likeable than women. Similarly, men became less valued while targeting others. Overall these findings suggest that the negative impact of critical attributes may trigger avoidance in social interaction while the positive impact of praise may trigger approach.

  3. Public's perception and judgment on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Jong Seok; Lee, Byung Wook

    2000-01-01

    A public's perception and judgment model on nuclear power is developed to reveal the structure of public acceptance toward nuclear power in Korea. This is somewhat a verification of an earlier study by the author using two independent sets of survey data. A perception model makes it possible to construct two major exploratory variables, perceived risk and perceived benefit. The difference of perception is analyzed for different groups such as gender, education difference, and different information channels. A judgment model helps identify influential factors that improve the acceptance of nuclear energy. Estimates of model parameters from independent data sets were not significantly different, which implies the validity of the model. Methodologies of this study can be used as the basis for investigating the structure of public perception of technological risks and benefits, designing a public information and risk communication program, and developing remedial policy actions to improve public acceptance

  4. Neural correlates of moral judgment in pedophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Massau, Claudia; Kärgel, Christian; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Ponseti, Jorge; HC Krueger, Tillmann; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment ...

  5. Decisional Bias as Implicit Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Toni; Saltzstein, Herbert D.

    2017-01-01

    Decisional bias (false alarm rate) when judging the guilt/innocence of a suspect is offered as an implicit measure of moral judgment. Combining two data sets, 215 participants, ages 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 watched the visually identical film involving a person setting a fire, framed either as (1) intentional but not resulting in a fire (BI-NF),…

  6. Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Amber M.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Atkins, Sharona M.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Thomas, Rick P.; Lange, Nicholas; Abbs, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas et al., 2008) that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect the degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later probability judgment made under full attention. The effect of divided attention during encoding on judgment was completely mediated by the number of hypotheses participants generated, indicating that limitations in both encoding and recall can cascade into biases in judgments. PMID:21734897

  7. Moral Judgment as Information Processing: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eGuglielmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two fundamental questions: (1 What input information guides moral judgments?; and (2 What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework, critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds, outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and offers conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information processing perspective provides a useful theoretical framework for organizing extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  8. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  9. Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M Sprenger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas, Dougherty, Sprenger, & Harbison, 2008 that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later probability judgment made under full attention. The effect of divided attention at encoding on judgment was completely mediated by the number of hypotheses participants generated, indicating that limitations in both encoding and recall can cascade into biases in judgments.

  10. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Donald F.; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity “ups the ante” for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  11. TU Delft expert judgment data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Goossens, Louis L.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    We review the applications of structured expert judgment uncertainty quantification using the 'classical model' developed at the Delft University of Technology over the last 17 years [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991; Expert judgment study on atmospheric dispersion and deposition. Report Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No.01-81, Delft University of Technology; 1991]. These involve 45 expert panels, performed under contract with problem owners who reviewed and approved the results. With a few exceptions, all these applications involved the use of seed variables; that is, variables from the experts' area of expertise for which the true values are available post hoc. Seed variables are used to (1) measure expert performance, (2) enable performance-based weighted combination of experts' distributions, and (3) evaluate and hopefully validate the resulting combination or 'decision maker'. This article reviews the classical model for structured expert judgment and the performance measures, reviews applications, comparing performance-based decision makers with 'equal weight' decision makers, and collects some lessons learned

  12. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  13. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  14. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  15. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  16. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  17. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  18. The development of intent-based moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Fiery; Sheketoff, Rachel; Wharton, Sophie; Carey, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Between the ages of 4 and 8 children increasingly make moral judgments on the basis of an actor's intent, as opposed to the outcome that the actor brings about. Does this reflect a reorganization of concepts in the moral domain, or simply the development of capacities outside the moral domain such as theory of mind and executive function? Motivated by the past evidence that adults rely partially on outcome-based judgment for judgments of deserved punishment, but not for judgments of moral wrongness, we explore the same categories of judgment in young children. We find that intent-based judgments emerge first in children's assessments of naughtiness and that this subsequently constrains their judgments of deserved punishment. We also find that this developmental trajectory differs for judgments of accidental harm (a bad outcome with benign intent) and judgments of attempted harm (a benign outcome with bad intent). Our findings support a two process model derived from studies of adults: a mental-state based process of judging wrongness constrains an outcome-based process of assigning punishment. The emergence of this two-process architecture in childhood suggests that the developmental shift from outcome- to intent-based judgment involves a conceptual reorganization within the moral domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  20. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  1. Engineering Judgment and Natural Circulation Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Ferreri, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis performed to establish the validity of computer code results in the particular field of natural circulation flow stability calculations is presented in the light of usual engineering practice. The effects of discretization and closure correlations are discussed and some hints to avoid undesired mistakes in the evaluations performed are given. Additionally, the results are presented for an experiment relevant to the way in which a (small) number of skilled, nuclear safety analysts and researchers react when facing the solution of a natural circulation problem. These results may be also framed in the concept of Engineering Judgment and are potentially useful for Knowledge Management activities.

  2. The Contribution of Sound Intensity in Vocal Emotion Perception: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuhai; Yang, Jianfeng; Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies. PMID:22291928

  3. The contribution of sound intensity in vocal emotion perception: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhai Chen

    Full Text Available Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies.

  4. Religiosity and agency and communion: their relationship to religious judgmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, C D

    2000-05-01

    The present study is an introduction to the construct of religious judgmentalism, defined as a willingness to make religious or moral judgments of others based on a limited period of observation; the study offers a prediction about which individuals will engage in such judgmental behavior. It was predicted that agency motives would significantly predict religious judgmentalism in a religious population but that communion motives and intrinsic religiosity would moderate this effect. Overall, the findings supported these predictions. Agency motives were positively correlated with religious judgmentalism. Intrinsic religiosity predicted a general unwillingness to make religious evaluations of others. Both intrinsic religiosity and communion motives did moderate the effects of high agency motives. Specifically, increases in communion motive and intrinsic religiosity, at high levels of agency motives, significantly predicted lower scores for religious judgmentalism. These findings were conceptualized as preliminary evidence for the position that interpersonal motives, rather than religiousness or religious motivation, predict social intolerance and criticism in religious individuals.

  5. New Search Strategies Successfully Optimize Retrieval of Clinically Sound Treatment Studies in EMBASE. A review of: Wong, Sharon S‐L, Nancy L. Wilczynski, and R. Brian Haynes. “Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Clinically Sound Treatment Studies in EMBASE.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.1 (Jan. 2006: 41‐47. 14 May 2007 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1324770.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Loy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To develop and test the sensitivity and specificity, precision andaccuracy of search strategies to retrieve clinically sound treatment studies in the EMBASE database.Design – Analytical study.Setting – Methodologically sound studies of treatment from 55 journals indexed in EMBASE for the year 2000.Subjects – EMBASE and hand searches performed at the Health Information Research Unit of McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.Methods – The authors compare the results of EMBASE searches using their search strategies with the “gold standard” of articles retrieved by hand search. Research assistants initially hand searched each issue of 55 selected journals published in 2000 to identify articles detailing studies on healthcare treatment of humans. Subject coverage of the journals was wide ranging and included obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, oncology, neurology, surgery and general practice. Studies were then assessed to ensure they met the qualifying criteria: random allocation of participants to groups, outcome assessment of at least 80% of participants who began the study, and analysis consistent with study design. Initially, 3850 articles on treatment were identified, of which 1256 (32.6% were methodologically sound. To construct a comprehensive set of search terms, input was sought from librarians and researchers in the US and Canada. This initially produced a list of 5385 terms, of which 4843 were unique and 3524 produced hits. Individual search terms with sensitivity greater then 25% and specificity greater then 75% were incorporated into search strategies for use within the OVID interface for the EMBASE database to retrieve articles meeting the same criteria. These strategies were developed using all 27,769 articles published in the 55 journals in 2000. This all inclusive approach was used to test the search strategies’ ability to identify high quality treatment articles from a larger pool of material

  6. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  7. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  8. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  9. Subtyping Children with Speech Sound Disorders by Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined associations of 5 endophenotypes (i.e., measurable skills that are closely associated with speech sound disorders and are useful in detecting genetic influences on speech sound production), oral motor skills, phonological memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and speeded naming, with 3 clinical criteria…

  10. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of ‘emotional’ responses to technological risk as opposed to their own ‘rational’ judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias (e.g. Slovic et. al. 2004), and with the Kantian view of

  11. When psychopathy impairs moral judgments: neural responses during judgments about causing fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A; Cardinale, Elise M

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by reduced empathy, shallow affect and behaviors that cause victims distress, like threats, bullying and violence. Neuroimaging research in both institutionalized and community samples implicates amygdala dysfunction in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Reduced amygdala responsiveness may disrupt processing of fear-relevant stimuli like fearful facial expressions. The present study links amygdala dysfunction in response to fear-relevant stimuli to the willingness of individuals with psychopathic traits to cause fear in other people. Thirty-three healthy adult participants varying in psychopathic traits underwent whole-brain fMRI scanning while they viewed statements that selectively evoke anger, disgust, fear, happiness or sadness. During scanning, participants judged whether it is morally acceptable to make each statement to another person. Psychopathy was associated with reduced activity in right amygdala during judgments of fear-evoking statements and with more lenient moral judgments about causing fear. No group differences in amygdala function or moral judgments emerged for other emotion categories. Psychopathy was also associated with increased activity in middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) during the task. These results implicate amygdala dysfunction in impaired judgments about causing distress in psychopathy and suggest that atypical amygdala responses to fear in psychopathy extend across multiple classes of stimuli.

  12. Electrophysiological difference between the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Liang, Xiuling; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Causally related concepts like "virus" and "epidemic" and general associatively related concepts like "ring" and "emerald" are represented and accessed separately. The Evoked Response Potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory. Participants were required to remember a task cue (causal or associative) presented at the beginning of each trial, and assess whether the relationship between subsequently presented words matched the initial task cue. The ERP data showed that an N400 effect (250-450 ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, the N400 effect elicited by causal relations was more positive than for associative relations in causal cue condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the associative cue condition. The centrally distributed late ERP component (650-750 ms) elicited by the causal cue condition was more positive than for the associative cue condition. These results suggested that the processing of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory recruited different degrees of attentional and executive resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Van den Bosch, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009). Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Poster presented at the international conference on cognitive load theory. March, 2-4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. [Poster presentation

  14. Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Van den Bosch, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009). Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Poster presented at the international conference on cognitive load theory. March, 2-4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  15. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run…

  16. Judgments relative to patterns: how temporal sequence patterns affect judgments and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-12-01

    Six experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a first-run effect whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence and (b) a dissociation between judgments and recall; respondents may judge 1 event more likely than the other and yet recall more instances of the latter. Specifically, the distribution of recalled items does not correspond to the frequency estimates for the event categories, indicating that participants do not make frequency judgments by sampling their memory for individual items as implied by other accounts such as the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) and the availability process model (Hastie & Park, 1986). We interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns and offer an account for the relationship between memory and judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli.

  17. Can we use human judgments to determine the discount rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J

    2000-12-01

    It has been suggested that the long-term discount rate for environmental goods should decrease at longer delays. One justification for this suggestion is that human judgments support it. This article presents an experiment showing that judgments concerning discount rates are internally inconsistent. These results point to potential problems with the use of judgments referenda for determining discount rates in cost-benefit analyses.

  18. Error Parsing: An alternative method of implementing social judgment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal C. Hall; Daniel M. Oppenheimer

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method of judgment analysis called Error Parsing, based upon an alternative method of implementing Social Judgment Theory (SJT). SJT and Error Parsing both posit the same three components of error in human judgment: error due to noise, error due to cue weighting, and error due to inconsistency. In that sense, the broad theory and framework are the same. However, SJT and Error Parsing were developed to answer different questions, and thus use different m...

  19. Pengaruh Gender dan Pengalaman Audit terhadap Audit Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Erna Pasanda; Natalia Paranoan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of gender and audit experience toward audit judgment and to examine gender and audit experience towards audit judgment when moderated by client credibility. The research was conducted on auditors who worked on KAP in Makassar South Sulawesi using survey. Sampling technique in this study was random sampling based on judgment. Data collected and then analyzed by employing regression method and Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The result indicates tha...

  20. Process and representation in multiple-cue judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the cognitive processes and representations underlying human judgment in a multiple-cue judgment task. Several recent models assume that people have several qualitatively distinct and competing levels of knowledge representations (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Waldron, 1998; Erickson & Kruschke, 1998; Nosofsky, Palmeri, & McKinley, 1994; Sloman, 1996). The most successful cognitive models in categorization and multiple-cue judgment are, respectively, exe...

  1. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH OVER THE PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT OF THE FINANCIAL ANALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela ŞTEFAN-DUICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional judgment is emblematical at a decisional level. This paper aims to highlight the valences of the professional judgment of the financial analyst by describing the components of its activity and also through highlighting the typologies of the mechanisms involved. Within this paper we have presented the types of financial analysts, the responsibilities that guide the professional judgment and also the interdependent elements of their activity.

  2. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  3. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  4. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  5. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  6. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  7. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  8. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  9. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  10. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  11. Neural correlates of moral judgment in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massau, Claudia; Kärgel, Christian; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Ponseti, Jorge; Hc Krueger, Tillmann; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses.Scenarios depicting sexual offenses against children compared to those depicting adults were associated with higher pattern of activation in the left temporo-parietal-junction (TPJ) and left posterior insular cortex, the posterior cingulate gyrus as well as the precuneus in controls relative to pedophiles, and vice versa. Moreover, brain activation in these areas were positively associated with ratings of moral reprehensibility and negatively associated with decision durations, but only in controls. Brain activation, found in key areas related to the broad network of moral judgment, theory of mind and (socio-)moral disgust - point to different moral processing of sexual offenses in pedophilia in general. The lack of associations between brain activation and behavioral responses in pedophiles further suggest a biased response pattern or dissected implicit valuation processes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Anzures

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in socialization can lead to characteristic differences in how we perceive the world. Consistent with this influence of differential experience, our perception of faces (e.g., preference, recognition ability is shaped by our previous experience with different groups of individuals.Here, we examined whether cultural differences in social practices influence our perception of faces. Japanese, Chinese, and Asian-Canadian young adults made relative age judgments (i.e., which of these two faces is older? for East Asian faces. Cross-cultural differences in the emphasis on respect for older individuals was reflected in participants' latency in facial age judgments for middle-age adult faces--with the Japanese young adults performing the fastest, followed by the Chinese, then the Asian-Canadians. In addition, consistent with the differential behavioural and linguistic markers used in the Japanese culture when interacting with individuals younger than oneself, only the Japanese young adults showed an advantage in judging the relative age of children's faces.Our results show that different sociocultural practices shape our efficiency in processing facial age information. The impact of culture may potentially calibrate other aspects of face processing.

  13. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  14. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  15. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  17. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  18. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  19. Is 9 louder than 1? Audiovisual cross-modal interactions between number magnitude and judged sound loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Walker, Alexander C; Shaw, Joshua D M; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C

    2015-09-01

    The cross-modal impact of number magnitude (i.e. Arabic digits) on perceived sound loudness was examined. Participants compared a target sound's intensity level against a previously heard reference sound (which they judged as quieter or louder). Paired with each target sound was a task irrelevant Arabic digit that varied in magnitude, being either small (1, 2, 3) or large (7, 8, 9). The degree to which the sound and the digit were synchronized was manipulated, with the digit and sound occurring simultaneously in Experiment 1, and the digit preceding the sound in Experiment 2. Firstly, when target sounds and digits occurred simultaneously, sounds paired with large digits were categorized as loud more frequently than sounds paired with small digits. Secondly, when the events were separated, number magnitude ceased to bias sound intensity judgments. In Experiment 3, the events were still separated, however the participants held the number in short-term memory. In this instance the bias returned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  1. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  2. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  3. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  4. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  5. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  6. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  7. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  8. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  9. Can Knowledge of Client Birth Order Bias Clinical Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Allan E.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…

  10. Critical Thinking and Clinical Judgment in Novice Registered Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyne, Sheila L.

    2018-01-01

    The health care field has become increasingly more complex, requiring new nurses to be prepared upon graduation to respond to a variety of complex situations. Unfortunately, many graduates from associate degree nursing (ADN) programs are not able to think critically upon entering the work force. This presents a major problem for the nurse and for…

  11. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  12. Measurement of habituation to noise using the method of continuous judgment by category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.

    1988-12-01

    Using "the method of continuous judgment by category", we examined the noisiness of sounds from public loudspeakers, and habituation to them. Subjects judged the noisiness of the sound at any moment of their choice by touching one of seven numbered keys on a computer keyboard, each corresponding to a noisiness category. At the same time, the subjects were required to complete a task as carefully and rapidly as possible. The duration of "no response" to sounds was an index of habituation. Both personality factors and physical factors were analyzed. It was found that the duration of "no response" is a good index to habituation to noise, and that there were wide differences in the "no response" time of different subjects. The reactions of individual subjects in sessions 1 and 2 and the questionnaire survey were, however, consistent. This suggests that there is a group that is relatively sensitive to noise and a group that is less sensitive to noise. It was also found that subjects had difficulty in becoming accustomed to intense noise.

  13. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  14. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others' behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  15. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  16. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  17. The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finucane, M.; Slovic, P.; Johnson, S.M. [Decision Research, 1201 Oak St, Eugene, Oregon (United States); Alhakami, A. [Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University Psychology Dept. (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-07-01

    The role of affect in judgment of risks and benefits is examined in two studies. Despite using different methodologies the two studies suggest that risk and benefit are linked somehow in people's perception, consequently influencing their judgments. Short paper.

  18. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  19. BCI and a User’s Judgment of Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, R.J.; Acken, J.P. van; Beurskens, E.; Roijendijk, L.M.M.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Grübler, G.; Hildt, E.

    2014-01-01

    Performing an action with the assistance of a BCI may affect a user’s judgment of agency, resulting in an illusion of control, or automatism. We analyze this possibility from a theoretical perspective and discuss various factors that might influence a user’s judgment of agency in a BCI context. We

  20. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment or...

  1. Similar Task Features Shape Judgment and Categorization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Janina A.; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between similarity-based and rule-based strategies has instigated a large body of research in categorization and judgment. Within both domains, the task characteristics guiding strategy shifts are increasingly well documented. Across domains, past research has observed shifts from rule-based strategies in judgment to…

  2. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  3. 'Errors of Judgment': The Case of Pain Sensations | Loonat | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill, in his paper 'Introspective Awareness of Sensations', argues that we do sometimes commit 'errors of judgment' and he draws on an example that involves the perception of pain to illustrate his point. I analyze Hill's example and draw on other examples of pain sensations to show how errors of judgment are not possible.

  4. Aspects of application of auditor’s judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Sherstiuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users should receive an adequate level of confidence in the possibility of its use for training, study and implementation of management decisions according to the results of audit of financial information. The source of this confidence is the audit report, based on the auditor's judgment, which is formed as the results of the procedures for obtaining and evaluating of audit evidence. Thus, the judgment of the auditor as a result of his work, has a leading role in forming of results of the audit. 517 The evaluative judgments have the special role among the auditor's judgment, which he creates and justifies in the tasks of the audit. Their content is to determine the set of parameters that determine the nature of the subject of judgment. Auditor’s judgements may be used for the purposes of identification (ID judgment. Identification is the process of definition of information, events, circumstances and other objects. Auditor's procedural judgment has content of the regarding procedures that can be used to obtain information and their volume. The classification makes it possible to identify the application targets of auditor’s professional judgment that in its turn, enables the optimization of measures to meet the tasks of auditing financial information.

  5. Attitude of Nigerian courts to the enforcement of foreign judgments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... serious need of reform. The study therefore called on the Nigerian Minister of Justice to do the needful so that the position of the law as it pertains to the enforcement of foreign judgment in Nigeria will be well settled and devoid of ambiguity. Keywords: Foreign Judgment, Enforcement, Registration, Recognition, Commerce ...

  6. Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Bethany House Publishers, 1998), 71. For a very good commentary on this subject, read the chapters entitled, “The Absolutism of Moral Relativism ...Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy by Lieutenant Colonel Greg Johnson Oregon Air...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy Policy 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Harmonic Frequency Lowering: Effects on the Perception of Music Detail and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  9. Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

    2013-06-01

    Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.

  10. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a greater good outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (yes decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say no. Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether yes or no constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent

  11. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  12. [Synchronous playing and acquiring of heart sounds and electrocardiogram based on labVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Chunmei; He, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Que, Xiaosheng

    2008-12-01

    In this paper is described a comprehensive system, which can acquire heart sounds and electrocardiogram (ECG) in parallel, synchronize the display; and play of heart sound and make auscultation and check phonocardiogram to tie in. The hardware system with C8051F340 as the core acquires the heart sound and ECG synchronously, and then sends them to indicators, respectively. Heart sounds are displayed and played simultaneously by controlling the moment of writing to indicator and sound output device. In clinical testing, heart sounds can be successfully located with ECG and real-time played.

  13. Encoding, storage and judgment of experienced frequency and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Betsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines conditions that do or do not lead to accurate judgments of frequency (JOF and judgments of duration (JOD. In three experiments, duration and frequency of visually presented stimuli are varied orthogonally in a within-subjects design. Experiment 1 reveals an asymmetric judgment pattern. JOFs reflected actual presentation frequency quite accurately and were unbiased by exposure duration. Conversely, JODs were almost insensitive to actual exposure duration and were systematically biased by presentation frequency. We show, however, that a tendency towards a symmetric judgment pattern can be obtained by manipulating encoding conditions. Sustaining attention during encoding (Experiment 2 or enhancing richness of the encoded stimuli (Experiment 3 increases judgment sensitivity in JOD and yields biases in both directions (JOF biased by exposure duration, JOD biased by presentation frequency. The implications of these findings for underlying memory mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Contrasting cue-density effects in causal and prediction judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Musca, Serban C; Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena

    2011-02-01

    Many theories of contingency learning assume (either explicitly or implicitly) that predicting whether an outcome will occur should be easier than making a causal judgment. Previous research suggests that outcome predictions would depart from normative standards less often than causal judgments, which is consistent with the idea that the latter are based on more numerous and complex processes. However, only indirect evidence exists for this view. The experiment presented here specifically addresses this issue by allowing for a fair comparison of causal judgments and outcome predictions, both collected at the same stage with identical rating scales. Cue density, a parameter known to affect judgments, is manipulated in a contingency learning paradigm. The results show that, if anything, the cue-density bias is stronger in outcome predictions than in causal judgments. These results contradict key assumptions of many influential theories of contingency learning.

  15. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  16. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  17. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  18. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  19. Medical Students' Development of Ethical Judgment - Exploring the Learners' Perspectives using a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Jazmati, Danny; Jung, Ole; Schulz, Christian; Schnell, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students' perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners' experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics. Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient's parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5). The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant's preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28%) over the study period. Participants' responses changed overtime. Accepting parents' autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%). On the contrary, not readily following the parents' decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%). Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor). Conclusions: Over the course of their medical training, the

  20. Medical Students’ Development of Ethical Judgment – Exploring the Learners’ Perspectives using a mixed methods approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Jazmati, Danny; Jung, Ole; Schulz, Christian; Schnell, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students’ perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners’ experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics. Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient’s parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5). The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant’s preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28%) over the study period. Participants’ responses changed overtime. Accepting parents’ autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%). On the contrary, not readily following the parents’ decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%). Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor). Conclusions: Over the course of their medical

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  3. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  4. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  5. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  6. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  7. Medical Judgments Across the Range of Reported Pain Severity: Clinician and Lay Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Chibnall, John T; House, Kylie; Biehl, Joann

    2016-07-01

    While increasing evidence suggests that observers discount high-severity chronic pain, factors that occasion such discounting are poorly understood, particularly regarding health provider vs lay perspectives. This study examined the effects of supporting medical evidence and comorbid psychological distress (pain behavior) on medical student and lay clinical judgments of increasingly severe patient pain reports. In a 2 × 2 × 2 × (7) mixed between- and within-subject design, participants (medical students vs lay) made clinical judgments after reading vignettes describing a hypothetical patient that varied in levels of medical evidence and pain behavior (low vs high) and pain severity (4/10-10/10). Fourth-year medical students (N = 115) and lay persons in the community (N = 300) participated in this research. While both medical student and lay judgments plateaued at high levels of pain severity, judgments regarding cause (medical vs psychological), treatment (opioid prescription), and disability showed growing divergence as levels of reported pain severity increased. Divergence relative to medical and psychological causes of pain was found irrespective of the level of supporting medical evidence; divergence relative to opioid treatment and support for a disability claim was found when supporting medical evidence was low. The results indicate differing expectations of chronic pain treatment for health care providers relative to the lay public that could impact clinical care, especially at high pain severity levels, where lay expectations diverge significantly from those of health professionals. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  9. Broadening the study of inductive reasoning: confirmation judgments with uncertain evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya

    2010-10-01

    Although evidence in real life is often uncertain, the psychology of inductive reasoning has, so far, been confined to certain evidence. The present study extends previous research by investigating whether people properly estimate the impact of uncertain evidence on a given hypothesis. Two experiments are reported, in which the uncertainty of evidence is explicitly (by means of numerical values) versus implicitly (by means of ambiguous pictures) manipulated. The results show that people's judgments are highly correlated with those predicted by normatively sound Bayesian measures of impact. This sensitivity to the degree of evidential uncertainty supports the centrality of inductive reasoning in cognition and opens the path to the study of this issue in more naturalistic settings.

  10. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  11. Deliberation's blindsight: how cognitive load can improve judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Janina A; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Multitasking poses a major challenge in modern work environments by putting the worker under cognitive load. Performance decrements often occur when people are under high cognitive load because they switch to less demanding--and often less accurate--cognitive strategies. Although cognitive load disturbs performance over a wide range of tasks, it may also carry benefits. In the experiments reported here, we showed that judgment performance can increase under cognitive load. Participants solved a multiple-cue judgment task in which high performance could be achieved by using a similarity-based judgment strategy but not by using a more demanding rule-based judgment strategy. Accordingly, cognitive load induced a shift to a similarity-based judgment strategy, which consequently led to more accurate judgments. By contrast, shifting to a similarity-based strategy harmed judgments in a task best solved by using a rule-based strategy. These results show how important it is to consider the cognitive strategies people rely on to understand how people perform in demanding work environments.

  12. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  13. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  14. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  15. The judgment on the phosphoethanolamine case and the jurisprudence of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebulum J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of the synthetic substance phosphoethanolamine, known as the cancer pill, was recently reported among patients with malignant neoplasm. However, the substance was not registered in the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency and the clinical studies necessary to guarantee its effectiveness and safety had not even been completed. Neverthe-less, the federal government enacted Law number 13.269/2016, authorizing provision by the Brazilian National Public Health System under certain conditions, and various injunctions were granted that forced the state to provide it. The question was considered by the Supreme Court in two important judgments in which the Court suspended all injunctions granted and suspended the effectiveness of the law based on evidence of unconstitutionality. In this article, we analyze the legal grounds of the decisions in the context of previous positions of the Court and the guidelines established in judgment of STA 175-AgR/CE.

  16. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  18. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  19. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  20. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  1. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  2. Gaze Bias in Preference Judgments by Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Saito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals’ gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults. Participants who had viewed two faces were instructed to choose the one that they liked/disliked or the one that they judged to be more/less similar to their own face. Their eye movements were tracked while they chose. The results show that the gaze bias effect occurred during the remaining time in both age groups irrespective of the decision type. However, no gaze bias effect was observed for the preference judgment during the first dwell time. Our study demonstrated that the gaze bias during the remaining time occurred regardless of decision-making task and age. Further study using diverse participants, such as clinic patients or infants, may help to generalize the gaze bias effect and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the gaze bias.

  3. FOREIGN JUDGMENTS PROJECT OF HAGUE CONFERENCE: FOR A GLOBAL REGIME OF INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATION OF JUDGMENTS ON CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia de Araujo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hague Conference on Private International Law is promoting the adoption of rules designed to circumvent usual obstacles to the international circulation of judgments. The Judgments Project initiated in the nineties aims at mitigating uncertainties and risks associated with the international commerce by setting forth a simple and safe system according to which foreign judgments may circulate from country to country. The purpose of this article is to preserve the historical moment of the negotiations taking place at the Hague, as well as to pinpoint some technical issues raised in the course of the project that may be of general interest to those involved in the subject of international jurisdiction.

  4. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  5. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  6. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  7. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... Keywords. Alcoholism; brain; fMRI; language processing; lexical; semantic judgment .... (English for all subjects) and hours spent reading one/both languages. ..... and alcoholism on verbal and visuospatial learning. J. Nerv.

  8. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  9. Twenty Years of Constitutional Court Judgments: What Lessons are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... about sentencing from its judgments during this time?2. 2 Overview of ... In short succession the Court declared unconstitutional the death penalty, in S v. Makwanyane,3 and corporal punishment for juvenile offenders, in S v.

  10. Low levels of empathic concern predict utilitarian moral judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht

    Full Text Available Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment. Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress. Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges.

  11. Low levels of empathic concern predict utilitarian moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges.

  12. Learning language with the wrong neural scaffolding: The cost of neural commitment to sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Finn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does tuning to one’s native language explain the sensitive period for language learning? We explore the idea that tuning to (or becoming more selective for the properties of one’s native-language could result in being less open (or plastic for tuning to the properties of a new language. To explore how this might lead to the sensitive period for grammar learning, we ask if tuning to an earlier-learned aspect of language (sound structure has an impact on the neural representation of a later-learned aspect (grammar. English-speaking adults learned one of two miniature artificial languages over 4 days in the lab. Compared to English, both languages had novel grammar, but only one was comprised of novel sounds. After learning a language, participants were scanned while judging the grammaticality of sentences. Judgments were performed for the newly learned language and English. Learners of the similar-sounds language recruited regions that overlapped more with English. Learners of the distinct-sounds language, however, recruited the Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG to a greater extent, which was coactive with the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG. Across learners, recruitment of IFG (but not STG predicted both learning success in tests conducted prior to the scan and grammatical judgment ability during the scan. Data suggest that adults’ difficulty learning language, especially grammar, could be due, at least in part, to the neural commitments they have made to the lower level linguistic components of their native language.

  13. Learning language with the wrong neural scaffolding: the cost of neural commitment to sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.; Ettlinger, Marc; Vytlacil, Jason; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Does tuning to one's native language explain the “sensitive period” for language learning? We explore the idea that tuning to (or becoming more selective for) the properties of one's native-language could result in being less open (or plastic) for tuning to the properties of a new language. To explore how this might lead to the sensitive period for grammar learning, we ask if tuning to an earlier-learned aspect of language (sound structure) has an impact on the neural representation of a later-learned aspect (grammar). English-speaking adults learned one of two miniature artificial languages (MALs) over 4 days in the lab. Compared to English, both languages had novel grammar, but only one was comprised of novel sounds. After learning a language, participants were scanned while judging the grammaticality of sentences. Judgments were performed for the newly learned language and English. Learners of the similar-sounds language recruited regions that overlapped more with English. Learners of the distinct-sounds language, however, recruited the Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) to a greater extent, which was coactive with the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG). Across learners, recruitment of IFG (but not STG) predicted both learning success in tests conducted prior to the scan and grammatical judgment ability during the scan. Data suggest that adults' difficulty learning language, especially grammar, could be due, at least in part, to the neural commitments they have made to the lower level linguistic components of their native language. PMID:24273497

  14. Are normative probabilty judgments a "system two"-operation?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlberg, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on human judgment and decision making has demonstrated systematic and predictable biases of judgment in experimental settings. One example of this is the tendency to intuitively violate the conjunction rule - a simple rule of probability. This was well illustrated in the famous Linda-problem. (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). According to the dual-process theory of reasoning, (Kahneman, 2011) reasoning fallacies such as the conjunction fallacy occurs when people fail to use an...

  15. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  16. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  17. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  18. Heart sound segmentation of pediatric auscultations using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana; Vinhoza, Tiago T V; Mattos, Sandra S; Coimbra, Miguel T

    2013-01-01

    Auscultation is widely applied in clinical activity, nonetheless sound interpretation is dependent on clinician training and experience. Heart sound features such as spatial loudness, relative amplitude, murmurs, and localization of each component may be indicative of pathology. In this study we propose a segmentation algorithm to extract heart sound components (S1 and S2) based on it's time and frequency characteristics. This algorithm takes advantage of the knowledge of the heart cycle times (systolic and diastolic periods) and of the spectral characteristics of each component, through wavelet analysis. Data collected in a clinical environment, and annotated by a clinician was used to assess algorithm's performance. Heart sound components were correctly identified in 99.5% of the annotated events. S1 and S2 detection rates were 90.9% and 93.3% respectively. The median difference between annotated and detected events was of 33.9 ms.

  19. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  20. Contingent capture effects in temporal order judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk; Pratt, Jay

    2015-08-01

    The contingent attentional capture hypothesis proposes that visual stimuli that do not possess characteristics relevant for the current task will not capture attention, irrespective of their bottom-up saliency. Typically, contingent capture is tested in a spatial cuing paradigm, comparing manual reaction times (RTs) across different conditions. However, attention may act through several mechanisms and RTs may not be ideal to disentangle those different components. In 3 experiments, we examined whether color singleton cues provoke cuing effects in temporal order judgments (TOJs) and whether they would be contingent on attentional control sets. Experiment 1 showed that color singleton cues indeed produce cuing effects in TOJs, even in a cluttered and dynamic target display containing multiple heterogeneous distractors. In Experiment 2, consistent with contingent capture, we observed reliable cuing effects only when the singleton cue matched participants' current attentional control set. Experiment 3 suggests that a sensory interaction account of the differences found in Experiment 2 is unlikely. Our results help to discern the attentional components that may play a role in contingent capture. Further, we discuss a number of other effects (e.g., reversed cuing effects) that are found in RTs, but so far have not been reported in TOJs. Those differences suggest that RTs are influenced by a multitude of mechanisms; however, not all of these mechanisms may affect TOJs. We conclude by highlighting how the study of attentional capture in TOJs provides valuable insights for the attention literature, but also for studies concerned with the perceived timing between stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Social Validation Influences Individuals’ Judgments about Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro; Faigenbaum, Gustavo; Chehtman, Alejandro; Sigman, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults (N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims. To achieve this aim, we designed variations of conflictive situations over property in which we manipulated details regarding the knowledge of the second agent of other third-parties about the first agent’s actions. In essence, our questions were: if an agent claims ownership of something which has a previous property claim on (1) does it matter whether said agent knew of the first’s agent actions or not? And (2) does it matter whether third parties were aware or notified of the first one’s claim? The results confirm that adults resolve the settling of property rights based not only on the nature of ownership claims but also on the social acknowledgment of such claims, in accordance with what is stipulated in legal systems worldwide. Participants considered the second character in the stories to hold a lesser right over the object under dispute when she knew of the first character’s claim. Participants also considered that the first character’s claim was reinforced when there were witnesses for her actions, but not when third parties were merely communicated of such actions. This is the first study to our knowledge that studies how social validation of ownership claims drives adults’ judgments on property claims. PMID:29440998

  2. The DUNDRUM-1 structured professional judgment for triage to appropriate levels of therapeutic security: retrospective-cohort validation study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Grainne

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of those presenting to prison in-reach and court diversion services and those referred for admission to mental health services is a triage decision, allocating the patient to the appropriate level of therapeutic security. This is a critical clinical decision. We set out to improve on unstructured clinical judgement. We collated qualitative information and devised an 11 item structured professional judgment instrument for this purpose then tested for validity.

  3. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  4. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-03-29

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations.

  5. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  6. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  7. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  8. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  9. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  10. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  11. Confidence judgment in depression and dysphoria: the depressive realism vs. negativity hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu-Ting Fu, Tiffany; Koutstaal, Wilma; Poon, Lucia; Cleare, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    According to the negativity hypothesis, depressed individuals are over-pessimistic due to negative self-concepts. In contrast, depressive realism suggests that depressed persons are realistic compared to their nondepressed controls. However, evidence supporting depressive realism predominantly comes from judgment comparisons between controls and nonclinical dysphoric samples when the controls showed overconfident bias. This study aimed to test the validity of the two accounts in clinical depression and dysphoria. Sixty-eight participants, including healthy controls (n = 32), patients with DSM-IV major depression (n = 20), and dysphoric participants with CDC-defined chronic fatigue syndrome (n = 16) performed an adjective recognition task and reported their item-by-item confidence judgments and post-test performance estimate (PTPE). Compared to realistic PTPE made by the controls, patients with major depression showed significant underconfidence. The PTPE of the dysphoric participants was relatively accurate. Both the depressed and dysphoric participants displayed less item-by-item overconfidence as opposed to significant item-by-item overconfidence shown by the controls. The judgment-accuracy patterns of the three groups need to be replicated with larger samples using non-memory task domains. The present study confirms depressive realism in dysphoric individuals. However, toward a more severe depressive emotional state, the findings did not support depressive realism but are in line with the prediction of the negativity hypothesis. It is not possible to determine the validity of the two hypotheses when the controls are overconfident. Dissociation between item-by-item and retrospective confidence judgments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noise detection in heart sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Mohammad K; Griffel, Benjamin; Fridman, Vladimir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although progression of CAD can be controlled using drugs and diet, it is usually detected in advanced stages when invasive treatment is required. Current methods to detect CAD are invasive and/or costly, hence not suitable as a regular screening tool to detect CAD in early stages. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive and cost-effective system to detect CAD using the acoustic approach. This method identifies sounds generated by turbulent flow through partially narrowed coronary arteries to detect CAD. The limiting factor of this method is sensitivity to noises commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Because the CAD sounds are faint, these noises can easily obscure the CAD sounds and make detection impossible. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and eliminate noise encountered in the clinical setting using a reference channel. We show that our method is effective in detecting noise, which is essential to the success of the acoustic approach.

  13. Laterality judgments in people with low back pain--A cross-sectional observational and test-retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Martin; Michaelson, Peter; Röijezon, Ulrik

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of cortical representation, or body schema, has been indicated as a factor in the persistence and recurrence of low back pain (LBP). This has been observed through impaired laterality judgment ability and it has been suggested that this ability is affected in a spatial rather than anatomical manner. We compared laterality judgment performance of foot and trunk movements between people with LBP with or without leg pain and healthy controls, and investigated associations between test performance and pain. We also assessed the test-retest reliability of the Recognise Online™ software when used in a clinical and a home setting. Cross-sectional observational and test-retest study. Thirty individuals with LBP and 30 healthy controls performed judgment tests of foot and trunk laterality once supervised in a clinic and twice at home. No statistically significant group differences were found. LBP intensity was negatively related to trunk laterality accuracy (p = 0.019). Intraclass correlation values ranged from 0.51 to 0.91. Reaction time improved significantly between test occasions while accuracy did not. Laterality judgments were not impaired in subjects with LBP compared to controls. Further research may clarify the relationship between pain mechanisms in LBP and laterality judgment ability. Reliability values were mostly acceptable, with wide and low confidence intervals, suggesting test-retest reliability for Recognise Online™ could be questioned in this trial. A significant learning effect was observed which should be considered in clinical and research application of the test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  15. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  16. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  17. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  18. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  19. The role of social comparison in social judgments of dental appearance: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Asimakopoulou, Koula; AlJabaa, AlJazi H; Newton, J Tim

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of social comparison on social judgments of dental malalignment in a sample of females. In a Repeated measures design, N=218 female participants of which N=128 were orthodontic patients (mean age 31.4) and N=90 controls (mean age 26.1) rated their satisfaction with their facial appearance after viewing stereotypically beautiful images of faces (experimental condition) or houses (neutral condition). After 4-6 weeks participants returned to view an image of a female with severe crowding and were asked to make judgments of social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA) and attractiveness (A). The comparison of social judgments between high comparers (High SocComp) and low comparers (Low SocComp) was not statistically significant; (SC (t (204)=0.30, p=0.76), IA (t (204)=0.14, p=0.89) PA (t (204)=0.004, p=0.996), A (t(204)=1.26, (p=0.209). However, dentally induced social judgments (DISJ) was statistically significant in the clinical sample than the non-clinical sample SC (t (204)=0.784, p=0.434), IA (t (204)=0.2.15, p=0.033) PA (t (204)=-0.003, p=0.997) A (t (204)=1.58, p=0.116). Social comparison has little impact on DISJ. However, there are differences in DISJs between individuals who seek treatment for their malocclusion versus the nonclinical population; the reason for this is unclear but does not appear to be the result of adoption of societal standards of beauty and instead suggests individual ranking of important 'beauty areas' may play a role. This paper uses social comparison theory to investigate the basis of judgments in regards to dental appearance. The findings of this research may help to identify individuals who are more susceptible to societal pressures towards non-ideal dentitions. This will help clinicians become more aware of the patient's comparison orientation, which seems to have an impact on satisfaction with treatment outcomes. This study may form the

  20. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  1. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  2. Heuristic reasoning and cognitive biases: Are they hindrances to judgments and decision making in orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, E Preston; Kluemper, G Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Studies show that our brains use 2 modes of reasoning: heuristic (intuitive, automatic, implicit processing) and analytic (deliberate, rule-based, explicit processing). The use of intuition often dominates problem solving when innovative, creative thinking is required. Under conditions of uncertainty, we default to an even greater reliance on the heuristic processing. In health care settings and other such environments of increased importance, this mode becomes problematic. Since choice heuristics are quickly constructed from fragments of memory, they are often biased by prior evaluations of and preferences for the alternatives being considered. Therefore, a rigorous and systematic decision process notwithstanding, clinical judgments under uncertainty are often flawed by a number of unwitting biases. Clinical orthodontics is as vulnerable to this fundamental failing in the decision-making process as any other health care discipline. Several of the more common cognitive biases relevant to clinical orthodontics are discussed in this article. By raising awareness of these sources of cognitive errors in our clinical decision making, our intent was to equip the clinician to take corrective action to avoid them. Our secondary goal was to expose this important area of empirical research and encourage those with expertise in the cognitive sciences to explore, through further research, the possible relevance and impact of cognitive heuristics and biases on the accuracy of orthodontic judgments and decision making. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss and persistence of implicit memory for sound: evidence from auditory stream segregation context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S; Weintraub, David M

    2013-07-01

    An important question is the extent to which declines in memory over time are due to passive loss or active interference from other stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent to which implicit memory effects in the perceptual organization of sound sequences are subject to loss and interference. Toward this aim, we took advantage of two recently discovered context effects in the perceptual judgments of sound patterns, one that depends on stimulus features of previous sounds and one that depends on the previous perceptual organization of these sounds. The experiments measured how listeners' perceptual organization of a tone sequence (test) was influenced by the frequency separation, or the perceptual organization, of the two preceding sequences (context1 and context2). The results demonstrated clear evidence for loss of context effects over time but little evidence for interference. However, they also revealed that context effects can be surprisingly persistent. The robust effects of loss, followed by persistence, were similar for the two types of context effects. We discuss whether the same auditory memories might contain information about basic stimulus features of sounds (i.e., frequency separation), as well as the perceptual organization of these sounds.

  4. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers Imagem por tomografia computadorizada dos linfonodos axilares e mediastinais de cães rottweilers clinicamente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  5. Segmentation of heart sound recordings by a duration-dependent hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S E; Graff, C; Toft, E; Struijk, J J; Holst-Hansen, C

    2010-01-01

    Digital stethoscopes offer new opportunities for computerized analysis of heart sounds. Segmentation of heart sound recordings into periods related to the first and second heart sound (S1 and S2) is fundamental in the analysis process. However, segmentation of heart sounds recorded with handheld stethoscopes in clinical environments is often complicated by background noise. A duration-dependent hidden Markov model (DHMM) is proposed for robust segmentation of heart sounds. The DHMM identifies the most likely sequence of physiological heart sounds, based on duration of the events, the amplitude of the signal envelope and a predefined model structure. The DHMM model was developed and tested with heart sounds recorded bedside with a commercially available handheld stethoscope from a population of patients referred for coronary arterioangiography. The DHMM identified 890 S1 and S2 sounds out of 901 which corresponds to 98.8% (CI: 97.8–99.3%) sensitivity in 73 test patients and 13 misplaced sounds out of 903 identified sounds which corresponds to 98.6% (CI: 97.6–99.1%) positive predictivity. These results indicate that the DHMM is an appropriate model of the heart cycle and suitable for segmentation of clinically recorded heart sounds

  6. Latent Fairness in Adults' Relationship-Based Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous

  7. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the

  8. Cortical regions activated by the subjective sense of perceptual coherence of environmental sounds: a proposal for a neuroscience of intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Rübsamen, Rudolf; von Cramon, D Yves

    2008-09-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." In other words, people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. The result is a vague perception of coherence, which subsequently biases thought and behavior accordingly. Within the visual domain, research using paradigms with difficult recognition has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) serves as a fast detector and predictor of potential content that utilizes coarse facets of the input. To investigate whether the OFC is crucial in biasing task-specific processing, and hence subserves intuitive judgments in various modalities, we used a difficult-recognition paradigm in the auditory domain. Participants were presented with short sequences of distorted, nonverbal, environmental sounds and had to perform a sound categorization task. Imaging results revealed rostral medial OFC activation for such auditory intuitive coherence judgments. By means of a conjunction analysis between the present results and those from a previous study on visual intuitive coherence judgments, the rostral medial OFC was shown to be activated via both modalities. We conclude that rostral OFC activation during intuitive coherence judgments subserves the detection of potential content on the basis of only coarse facets of the input.

  9. Simultaneous perceptual and response biases on sequential face attractiveness judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegors, Teresa K.; Mattar, Marcelo G.; Bryan, Peter B.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Face attractiveness is a social characteristic that we often use to make first-pass judgments about the people around us. However, these judgments are highly influenced by our surrounding social world, and researchers still understand little about the mechanisms underlying these influences. In a series of three experiments, we used a novel sequential rating paradigm that enabled us to measure biases on attractiveness judgments from the previous face and the previous rating. Our results revealed two simultaneous and opposing influences on face attractiveness judgments that arise from our past experience of faces: a response bias in which attractiveness ratings shift towards a previously given rating, and a stimulus bias in which attractiveness ratings shift away from the mean attractiveness of the previous face. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the contrastive stimulus bias (but not the assimilative response bias) is strengthened by increasing the duration of the previous stimulus, suggesting an underlying perceptual mechanism. These results demonstrate that judgments of face attractiveness are influenced by information from our evaluative and perceptual history and that these influences have measurable behavioral effects over the course of just a few seconds. PMID:25867223

  10. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  11. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  12. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  13. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura F. Mega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an ‘intuitive group,’ instructed to rely on their “gut feeling” for the authenticity judgments, and a ‘deliberative group,’ instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the “gestalt” of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  16. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Laura F; Volz, Kirsten G

    2017-01-01

    Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the "gestalt" of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  17. Modeling Music Emotion Judgments Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh N. Vempala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion judgments and five channels of physiological data were obtained from 60 participants listening to 60 music excerpts. Various machine learning (ML methods were used to model the emotion judgments inclusive of neural networks, linear regression, and random forests. Input for models of perceived emotion consisted of audio features extracted from the music recordings. Input for models of felt emotion consisted of physiological features extracted from the physiological recordings. Models were trained and interpreted with consideration of the classic debate in music emotion between cognitivists and emotivists. Our models supported a hybrid position wherein emotion judgments were influenced by a combination of perceived and felt emotions. In comparing the different ML approaches that were used for modeling, we conclude that neural networks were optimal, yielding models that were flexible as well as interpretable. Inspection of a committee machine, encompassing an ensemble of networks, revealed that arousal judgments were predominantly influenced by felt emotion, whereas valence judgments were predominantly influenced by perceived emotion.

  18. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  19. Current status of clinical education in paramedic programs: a descriptive research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, K C

    1997-01-01

    Development of competence in exercising therapeutic judgment skills represents the goal of clinical education. Time (clock hours) is not a valid predictor of attainment of competence in paramedic clinical education. Quantity of patient contact experiences facilitates development of judgment skills, and offers a valid measure of progress toward competence. This project uses national survey data from accredited programs to describe the availability and accessibility of patient contact experiences within paramedic clinical education. Data from this local program supplements the national survey results. The components of clinical judgment are enumerated, and strategies to teach and evaluate clinical judgment skills are discussed.

  20. Usefulness of bowel sound auscultation: a prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Seth; Margel, David; Murrell, Zuri; Fleshner, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Although the auscultation of bowel sounds is considered an essential component of an adequate physical examination, its clinical value remains largely unstudied and subjective. The aim of this study was to determine whether an accurate diagnosis of normal controls, mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO), or postoperative ileus (POI) is possible based on bowel sound characteristics. Prospectively collected recordings of bowel sounds from patients with normal gastrointestinal motility, SBO diagnosed by computed tomography and confirmed at surgery, and POI diagnosed by clinical symptoms and a computed tomography without a transition point. Study clinicians were instructed to categorize the patient recording as normal, obstructed, ileus, or not sure. Using an electronic stethoscope, bowel sounds of healthy volunteers (n = 177), patients with SBO (n = 19), and patients with POI (n = 15) were recorded. A total of 10 recordings randomly selected from each category were replayed through speakers, with 15 of the recordings duplicated to surgical and internal medicine clinicians (n = 41) blinded to the clinical scenario. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and intra-rater variability were determined based on the clinician's ability to properly categorize the bowel sound recording when blinded to additional clinical information. Secondary outcomes were the clinician's perceived level of expertise in interpreting bowel sounds. The overall sensitivity for normal, SBO, and POI recordings was 32%, 22%, and 22%, respectively. The positive predictive value of normal, SBO, and POI recordings was 23%, 28%, and 44%, respectively. Intra-rater reliability of duplicated recordings was 59%, 52%, and 53% for normal, SBO, and POI, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the surgical and internal medicine clinicians for sensitivity, positive predictive value, or intra-rater variability. Overall, 44% of clinicians reported that they rarely listened

  1. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  2. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  3. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  4. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  5. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  6. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  7. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  9. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał

    2017-06-01

    It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments - though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments - are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Are emotions necessary and sufficient for making moral judgments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Sousa Alves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n1p113 Jesse Prinz (2006, 2007 claimed that emotions are necessary and sufficient for moral judgments. First of all, I clarify what this claim amounts to. The view that he labels emotionism will then be critically assessed. Prinz marshals empirical findings to defend a series of increasingly strong theses about how emotions are essential for moral judgments. I argue that the empirical support upon which his arguments are based is not only insufficient, but it even suggests otherwise, if properly interpreted. My criticism is then extended to his sentimentalist theory, that accounts for how emotions are integrated into moral judgments. The central problem is that Prinz’s view fails to capture the rational aspect of moral evaluation. I make this failure explicit and defend that some version or other of neosentimentalism is a more promising route.

  12. A judgment and decision-making model for plant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard; Orrock, John L

    2018-06-12

    Recently plant biologists have documented that plants, like animals, engage in many activities that can be considered as behaviors, although plant biologists currently lack a conceptual framework to understand these processes. Borrowing the well-established framework developed by psychologists, we propose that plant behaviors can be constructively modeled by identifying four distinct components: 1) a cue or stimulus that provides information, 2) a judgment whereby the plant perceives and processes this informative cue, 3) a decision whereby the plant chooses among several options based on their relative costs and benefits, and 4) action. Judgment for plants can be determined empirically by monitoring signaling associated with electrical, calcium, or hormonal fluxes. Decision-making can be evaluated empirically by monitoring gene expression or differential allocation of resources. We provide examples of the utility of this judgment and decision-making framework by considering cases in which plants either successfully or unsuccessfully induced resistance against attacking herbivores. Separating judgment from decision-making suggests new analytical paradigms (i.e., Bayesian methods for judgment and economic utility models for decision-making). Following this framework, we propose an experimental approach to plant behavior that explicitly manipulates the stimuli provided to plants, uses plants that vary in sensory abilities, and examines how environmental context affects plant responses. The concepts and approaches that follow from the judgment and decision-making framework can shape how we study and understand plant-herbivore interactions, biological invasions, plant responses to climate change, and the susceptibility of plants to evolutionary traps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptual Computing Aiding People in Making Subjective Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Explains for the first time how "computing with words" can aid in making subjective judgments. Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase "computing with words" (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a "Perceptual Computer"—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judg

  14. Effects of Meaning and Symmetry on Judgments of Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T.; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we...... showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts...

  15. A note on the statistical analysis of point judgment matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Kabera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Analytic Hierarchy Process is a multicriteria decision making technique developed by Saaty in the 1970s. The core of the approach is the pairwise comparison of objects according to a single criterion using a 9-point ratio scale and the estimation of weights associated with these objects based on the resultant judgment matrix. In the present paper some statistical approaches to extracting the weights of objects from a judgment matrix are reviewed and new ideas which are rooted in the traditional method of paired comparisons are introduced.

  16. The Contrabassist and the CEO: Moral Judgment and Collective Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How much is a moral judgment on a single act influenced by circumstances which have little to do with the nature of the act itself? How much have certain moral judgments to do with the common history and shared experience of a certain group of individuals? Using two cases taken from life (a German musician and a German CEO behaving both in a morally wrong way but with very different consequences from the point of view of moral judgement and with very different reactions from the German public, the article tries to give an answer to these questions, touching issues like: guilt, moral responsibility, collective responsibility, and collective identity.

  17. Some problems in use of the moral judgment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas de Posada, Cristina

    2005-06-01

    The Moral Judgment Test has been widely used in evaluation of moral development; however, it presents some problems related to the trait measured, reliability, and validity of its summary score (C-index). This index reflects consistency in moral judgment, but this construct is different from moral development as stated by Kohlberg. Therefore, users interested in the latter evaluation should refer to other indexes derived from the test. Some of the analyzed problems could be partially corrected with more theory and research on moral consistency as a component of moral competence.

  18. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish from the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, D.; Hart, S.A.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro explant cultures identified Ichthyophonus in 10.9% of 302 Puget Sound rockfish Sebastes emphaeus sampled from five sites in the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, in 2003. None of the infected fish exhibited visible lesions and only a single fish was histologically positive. Significantly more females were infected (12.4%) than males (6.8%), and while infected males were only detected at two of the five sites, infected females were identified at all sites, with no significant differences in infection prevalence. Genomic sequences of Ichthyophonus isolates obtained from Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, and Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were identical in both the A and B regions of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA but were different from Ichthyophonus sequences previously isolated from four different species of rockfish from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish may not have been previously detected because the infection is subclinical in this species and earlier investigators did not utilize in vitro techniques for diagnosis of ichthyophoniasis. However, since clinical ichthyophoniasis has recently been identified in several other species of northeast Pacific rockfishes, it is hypothesized that this either is an emerging disease resulting from changing marine conditions or the result of introduction by infected southern species that appear during periodic El Nin??o events. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  20. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  1. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  2. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  3. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTITUTE; Littrup, Peter [KARMONOS CANCER INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pclinically, sound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis.

  5. A Hearing-Based, Frequency Domain Sound Quality Model for Combined Aerodynamic and Power Transmission Response with Application to Rotorcraft Interior Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondkar, Pravin B.

    The severity of combined aerodynamics and power transmission response in high-speed, high power density systems such as a rotorcraft is still a major cause of annoyance in spite of recent advancement in passive, semi-active and active control. With further increase in the capacity and power of this class of machinery systems, the acoustic noise levels are expected to increase even more. To achieve further improvements in sound quality, a more refined understanding of the factors and attributes controlling human perception is needed. In the case of rotorcraft systems, the perceived quality of the interior sound field is a major determining factor of passenger comfort. Traditionally, this sound quality factor is determined by measuring the response of a chosen set of juries who are asked to compare their qualitative reactions to two or more sounds based on their subjective impressions. This type of testing is very time-consuming, costly, often inconsistent, and not useful for practical design purposes. Furthermore, there is no known universal model for sound quality. The primary aim of this research is to achieve significant improvements in quantifying the sound quality of combined aerodynamic and power transmission response in high-speed, high power density machinery systems such as a rotorcraft by applying relevant objective measures related to the spectral characteristics of the sound field. Two models have been proposed in this dissertation research. First, a classical multivariate regression analysis model based on currently known sound quality metrics as well some new metrics derived in this study is presented. Even though the analysis resulted in the best possible multivariate model as a measure of the acoustic noise quality, it lacks incorporation of human judgment mechanism. The regression model can change depending on specific application, nature of the sounds and types of juries used in the study. Also, it predicts only the averaged preference scores and

  6. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  7. Comparative processes in personal and group judgments : Resolving the discrepancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Young, H

    The judgment mechanisms underlying personal- and group-level ratings of discrimination and privilege were investigated in high- and lour-status groups. PI consistent personal-group discrepancy is found for discrimination and privilege: but is not due to personal differentiation from the group.

  8. Teleological judgment and instrumental reason in Kant and Horkheimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2006-01-01

    Early in his career, Max Horkheimer occupied himself twice with Kant's "Critique of judgment". In both cases he focussed on Kant's teleology, not his aesthetics. The article takes at the question, whether there is a connection between Horkheimer's early occupation with "the critique of teleological...

  9. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results

  10. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  11. Research on Teachers Pedagogical Thoughts, Judgments, Decisions and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Stern, Paula

    1981-01-01

    Based on research done in the past decade, the authors formulated a "schema" of teachers' judgments, planning and interactive decisions. Recommendations for future research included development of a taxonomy of critical teaching decisions, intervention, and alteration of teachers' plans and decisions to improve teaching, and implementation of…

  12. The spatial frequencies influence the aesthetic judgment of buildings transculturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Gori, Simone; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that buildings designed to be high-ranking, according to the Western architectural decorum, have more impact on the minds of their beholders than low-ranking buildings. Here we investigated whether and how the aesthetic judgment for high- and low-ranking buildings was affected by differences in cultural expertise and by power spectrum differences. A group of Italian and Japanese participants performed aesthetic judgment tasks, with line drawings of high- and low-ranking buildings and with their random-phase versions (an image with the exact power spectrum of the original one but non-recognizable anymore). Irrespective of cultural expertise, high-ranking buildings and their relative random-phase versions received higher aesthetic judgments than low-ranking buildings and their random-phase versions. These findings indicate that high- and low-ranking buildings are differentiated for their aesthetic value and they show that low-level visual processes influence the aesthetic judgment based on differences in the stimuli power spectrum, irrespective of the influence of cultural expertise.

  13. False consensus in situational judgment tests : What would others do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Köbis, N.C.; Ronay, R.; Cremers, M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an alternative response instruction to reduce the fakability of situational judgment tests. This novel instruction is based on the false consensus effect, a robust social psychological bias whereby people infer that the majority of other people’s thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors are

  14. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  15. [Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; E Reichman, Marsha; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data,we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  16. Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; Reichman, Marsha E; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data, we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  17. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  18. Emotional Value Judgment and Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine emotional value judgment on student achievement in Basic Science. The study was carried out in Ijebu-North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Data were collected through valid questionnaire sent to five secondary schools within the local Government. One Hundred Junior Secondary II ...

  19. Context Effects in Valuation, Judgment and Choice: A Neuroscientific Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hytönen (Kaisa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt is well known that our choices and judgments depend on the context. For instance, prior experiences can influence subsequent decisions. People tend to make riskier decisions if they have a chance to win back a previous loss or if they can gamble with previously won money. Another

  20. Credibility judgments of narratives: language, plausibility, and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahari, Galit; Glicksohn, Joseph; Nachson, Israel

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to find out whether textual features of narratives differentially affect credibility judgments made by judges having different levels of absorption (a disposition associated with rich visual imagination). Participants in both experiments were exposed to a textual narrative and requested to judge whether the narrator actually experienced the event he described in his story. In Experiment 1, the narrative varied in terms of language (literal, figurative) and plausibility (ordinary, anomalous). In Experiment 2, the narrative varied in terms of language only. The participants' perceptions of the plausibility of the story described and the extent to which they were absorbed in reading were measured. The data from both experiments together suggest that the groups applied entirely different criteria in credibility judgments. For high-absorption individuals, their credibility judgment depends on the degree to which the text can be assimilated into their own vivid imagination, whereas for low-absorption individuals it depends mainly on plausibility. That is, high-absorption individuals applied an experiential mental set while judging the credibility of the narrator, whereas low-absorption individuals applied an instrumental mental set. Possible cognitive mechanisms and implications for credibility judgments are discussed.

  1. A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Early studies of intuitive judgment and decision making conducted with the late Amos Tversky are reviewed in the context of two related concepts: an analysis of accessibility, the ease with which thoughts come to mind; a distinction between effortless intuition and deliberate reasoning. Intuitive thoughts, like percepts, are highly accessible.…

  2. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  4. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  5. Judgments of Risk Frequencies: Tests of Possible Cognitive Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Pachur, Thorsten; Kurzenhauser, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    How do people judge which of 2 risks claims more lives per year? The authors specified 4 candidate mechanisms and tested them against people's judgments in 3 risk environments. Two mechanisms, availability by recall and regressed frequency, conformed best to people's choices. The same mechanisms also accounted well for the mapping accuracy of…

  6. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  7. Dysarthria of Motor Neuron Disease: Clinician Judgments of Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikel, J. Anthony; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the temporal-acoustic parameters of the speech of 15 adults with motor neuron disease. Differences in predictions of the progression of the disease and clinician judgments of dysarthria severity were found to relate to the linguistic systems of both speaker and judge. (Author/JDD)

  8. Job Status Differences In Employees' Judgment Of Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to examine employees' status differences on their judgment of organizational restructuring policy effectiveness. The survey research was carried out in three companies in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The companies were restructuring their operations by adopting a Total Quality Management Policy.

  9. Temporal Order Judgment Reveals How Number Magnitude Affects Visuospatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Marco; Michielin, Marika; Zorzi, Marco; Umilta, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The existence of spatial components in the mental representation of number magnitude has raised the question regarding the relation between numbers and spatial attention. We present six experiments in which this relation was examined using a temporal order judgment task to index attentional allocation. Results demonstrate that one important…

  10. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  11. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  12. Do Judgments of Learning Predict Automatic Influences of Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Monika; Böhm, Simon; Cüpper, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Current memory theories generally assume that memory performance reflects both recollection and automatic influences of memory. Research on people's predictions about the likelihood of remembering recently studied information on a memory test, that is, on judgments of learning (JOLs), suggests that both magnitude and resolution of JOLs are linked…

  13. Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments for Beatles songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2012-04-01

    Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments of different tempos were demonstrated in three experiments using Beatles songs. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explored how listening to versions of the same song that were played at different tempos affected tempo and pleasantness ratings. In both experiments, contrast effects were found on judgments of tempo, with target tempos rated faster when context tempos were slow than when they were fast. In both experiments, we also showed that the peak of the pleasantness rating function shifted toward the values of the context tempos, reflecting disordinal context effects on pleasantness relationships. Familiarity with the songs did not moderate these effects, and shifts in tempo ratings did not correlate with shifts in most pleasant target tempos when context was manipulated within subjects. In Experiment 3, we examined how manipulations of context tempos for one song affected judgments of the same song as compared with judgments of other more or less similar songs. For tempo ratings, contrast effects transferred to ratings of a similar song, but for pleasantness ratings, assimilative shifts of ideals were found only for the same song and not for similar songs. This pattern of results was supportive of independent bases for the two context effects.

  14. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  15. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  16. Culture and Probability Judgment Accuracy: The Influence of Holistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Wiebe, John S

    2011-08-01

    A well-established phenomenon in the judgment and decision-making tradition is the overconfidence one places in the amount of knowledge that one possesses. Overconfidence or probability judgment accuracy varies not only individually but also across cultures. However, research efforts to explain cross-cultural variations in the overconfidence phenomenon have seldom been made. In Study 1, the authors compared the probability judgment accuracy of U.S. Americans (N = 108) and Mexican participants (N = 100). In Study 2, they experimentally primed culture by randomly assigning English/Spanish bilingual Mexican Americans (N = 195) to response language. Results of both studies replicated the cross-cultural variation of probability judgment accuracy previously observed in other cultural groups. U.S. Americans displayed less overconfidence when compared to Mexicans. These results were then replicated in bilingual participants, when culture was experimentally manipulated with language priming. Holistic reasoning did not account for the cross-cultural variation of overconfidence. Suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  17. Source v. Content Effects of Judgments of News Believability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Dong, Qingwen

    1994-01-01

    Finds that three indices combining measures of source credibility and message apparent reality emerge from a factor analysis, comprising undergraduate students' judgments of source truthfulness and message accuracy; source expertise and message representativeness; and source bias and personal perspective. Concludes that some publics base judgments…

  18. 25 CFR 75.19 - Distribution of judgment funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.19 Distribution of judgment funds. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina will be brought up to... shall be in accordance with regulations in this part 75, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b...

  19. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  20. Teacher Judgment, Student Motivation, and the Mediating Effect of Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Based on Weiner's attributional theory of intrapersonal motivation, the mediating effect of attributions between teacher judgment and student motivation was examined. In two studies, 144 German and 272 Chinese fourth-grade elementary school students were tested on their mathematical achievement, causal ascriptions for success and failure,…

  1. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  2. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valnea Žauhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II and III according to Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961. The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar.

  3. New Pathways for Teaching Chemistry: Reflective Judgment in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The reflective judgment model offers a rich context for analysis of science and science teaching. It provides deeper understanding of the scientific process and its critical thinking and reveals fundamental connections between science and the other liberal arts. Classroom techniques from a college chemistry course illustrate the utility of the…

  4. Moral Judgment Development across Cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg's Universality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.; Snarey, John R.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits Kohlberg's cognitive developmental claims that stages of moral judgment, facilitative processes of social perspective-taking, and moral values are commonly identifiable across cultures. Snarey [Snarey, J. (1985). "The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research."…

  5. Judgments of widely held beliefs about psychological phenomena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lay understandings of human cognition, affect, and behaviour often diverge from the findings of scientific investigations. The present study examined South African fourth year psychology students' judgments about the factual correctness of statements of psychological phenomena that have been demonstrated to be ...

  6. Public judgments of information in a diazepam patient package insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S; Mansbridge, B; Lankford, D A

    1982-06-01

    As part of a larger study of the effects of giving patients written take-home information with prescription medications, a "patient package insert" (PPI) for diazepam was prepared based on content determined by "experts." This report compares the experts' judgments of what information should be included with judgments obtained from the public. Information judged to be most important for inclusion in a PPI was identified by having subjects sort cards containing facts about diazepam. Subjects who had previously used diazepam were no different in their judgments than inexperienced subjects. In general, there was a high degree of concordance between public and expert judgments and also a remarkably strong consensus across very different demographic samples. In those few instances of disagreement, the public attached even greater importance to warnings and "bad news" about diazepam than to information providing reassurances, benign general education, and "good news." To what extent patients would effectively use this information--whether conveyed by PPIs or alternative educational routes--must await empirical evaluation.

  7. Does seeing an Asian face make speech sound more accented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared. By including unambiguous items along with the original ambiguous items, we introduced a contrast bias and actually reversed the shift, with the Asian-face videos yielding lower judgments of accentedness than the Caucasian-face videos. By changing to a mixed rather than blocked design, so that the ethnicity of the videos varied from trial to trial, we eliminated the difference in accentedness rating. Finally, we tested participants' perception of accented speech using the selective adaptation paradigm. After establishing that an auditory-only accented adaptor shifted the perception of how accented test words are, we found that no such adaptation effect occurred when the adapting sounds relied on visual information (Asian vs. Caucasian videos) to influence the accentedness of an ambiguous auditory adaptor. Collectively, the results demonstrate that visual information can affect the interpretation, but not the perception, of accented speech.

  8. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  9. The effects of 5.1 sound presentations on the perception of stereoscopic imagery in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Brian; Galperin, Daniel; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2013-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content in games, film and other audio-visual media has been steadily increasing over the past number of years. However, there are still open, fundamental questions regarding its implementation, particularly as it relates to a multi-modal experience that involves sound and haptics. Research has shown that sound has considerable impact on our perception of 2D phenomena, but very little research has considered how sound may influence stereoscopic 3D. Here we present the results of an experiment that examined the effects of 5.1 surround sound (5.1) and stereo loudspeaker setups on depth perception in relation to S3D imagery within a video game environment. Our aim was to answer the question: "can 5.1 surround sound enhance the participant's perception of depth in the stereoscopic field when compared to traditional stereo sound presentations?" In addition, our study examined how the presence or absence of Doppler frequency shift and frequency fall-off audio effects can also influence depth judgment under these conditions. Results suggest that 5.1 surround sound presentations enhance the apparent depth of stereoscopic imagery when compared to stereo presentations. Results also suggest that the addition of audio effects such as Doppler shift and frequency fall-off filters can influence the apparent depth of S3D objects.

  10. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  11. Self-serving bias in attitude judgments : The use of person versus issue implicated language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, C; van der Pligt, J; Spears, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examines participants' perceptions of the appropriateness of judgmental language to describe own, similar, and dissimilar attitudes. The judgmental language consisted of pre-tested adjectives that varied in terms of their descriptive content, evaluative connotation and type of

  12. Does ADHD in adults affect the relative accuracy of metamemory judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Laura E; Paradise, Matthew J; Dunlosky, John

    2006-11-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with ADHD overestimate their performance across domains despite performing more poorly in these domains. The authors introduce measures of accuracy from the larger realm of judgment and decision making--namely, relative accuracy and calibration--to the study of self-evaluative judgment accuracy in adults with ADHD. Twenty-eight adults with ADHD and 28 matched controls participate in a computer-administered paired-associate learning task and predict their future recall using immediate and delayed judgments of learning (JOLs). Retrospective confidence judgments are also collected. Groups perform equally in terms of judgment magnitude and absolute judgment accuracy as measured by discrepancy scores and calibration curves. Both groups benefit equally from making their JOL at a delay, and the group with ADHD show higher relative accuracy for delayed judgments. Results suggest that under certain circumstances, adults with ADHD can make accurate judgments about their future memory.

  13. The Effects Of Feedback And Selected Personality Variables On Aesthetic Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This present study is an attempt to investigate the extent to which knowledge of results in various forms (true, none, and false) may modify aesthetic judgment in "typical" (with respect to aesthetic judgment) students. (Author)

  14. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  15. Stability in the metamemory realism of eyewitness confidence judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Sandra; Allwood, Carl Martin; Johansson, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    The stability of eyewitness confidence judgments over time in regard to their reported memory and accuracy of these judgments is of interest in forensic contexts because witnesses are often interviewed many times. The present study investigated the stability of the confidence judgments of memory reports of a witnessed event and of the accuracy of these judgments over three occasions, each separated by 1 week. Three age groups were studied: younger children (8-9 years), older children (10-11 years), and adults (19-31 years). A total of 93 participants viewed a short film clip and were asked to answer directed two-alternative forced-choice questions about the film clip and to confidence judge each answer. Different questions about details in the film clip were used on each of the three test occasions. Confidence as such did not exhibit stability over time on an individual basis. However, the difference between confidence and proportion correct did exhibit stability across time, in terms of both over/underconfidence and calibration. With respect to age, the adults and older children exhibited more stability than the younger children for calibration. Furthermore, some support for instability was found with respect to the difference between the average confidence level for correct and incorrect answers (slope). Unexpectedly, however, the younger children's slope was found to be more stable than the adults. Compared to the previous research, the present study's use of more advanced statistical methods provides a more nuanced understanding of the stability of confidence judgments in the eyewitness reports of children and adults.

  16. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  17. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  18. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  19. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  20. The Effect of Information Analysis Automation Display Content on Human Judgment Performance in Noisy Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein

    2012-01-01

    Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noi...