WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound broadcasting system

  1. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  2. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  3. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast station may, without specific authority from the FCC, transmit stereophonic (biphonic... broadcasting must measure the pilot subcarrier frequency as often as necessary to ensure that it is kept at all...

  4. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamasaki, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  5. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  6. Broadcast Communication by System Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi; Heussen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Load controllers available today can measure AC system frequency and react to frequency deviations. A system operator can communicate to frequency sensitive loads by changing the set-points of the system’s dispatchable frequency regulation resources. Explicitly signaling system state by generating...... off-nominal system frequency values is a novel narrowband broadcast communications channel between system operators and frequency sensitive distributed energy resources (FS-DER). The feasibility of the proposed system is evaluated on an existing island power system in Denmark. This study shows...... that within standard frequency quality constraints, 4 distinct symbols are feasible on the island. However, the overarching imperative of system stability prevents the symbols from having arbitrary meanings. Higher frequency values must translate into greater consumption from loads, and vice versa. Within...

  7. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  8. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  9. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  10. Effect Through Broadcasting System Access Point For Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Marlina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most universities are already implementing wired and wireless network that is used to access integrated information systems and the Internet. At present it is important to do research on the influence of the broadcasting system through the access point for video transmitter learning in the university area. At every university computer network through the access point must also use the cable in its implementation. These networks require cables that will connect and transmit data from one computer to another computer. While wireless networks of computers connected through radio waves. This research will be a test or assessment of how the influence of the network using the WLAN access point for video broadcasting means learning from the server to the client. Instructional video broadcasting from the server to the client via the access point will be used for video broadcasting means of learning. This study aims to understand how to build a wireless network by using an access point. It also builds a computer server as instructional videos supporting software that can be used for video server that will be emitted by broadcasting via the access point and establish a system of transmitting video from the server to the client via the access point.

  11. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  12. Bluetooth broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The wireless technology Bluetooth has rapidly become more commonly supported by electronic devices like mobile phones and PDAs. Several companies are currently developing Bluetooth broadcasting systems to use for marketing. This report is a result of researching the use of Bluetooth broadcasting for delivering information for more general purposes, how well Bluetooth actually works for broadcasting, and also on the topic of user privacy. Results: Broadcasting with Bluetooth did w...

  13. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical

  14. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  15. The prototype message broadcast system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1990-11-01

    A prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system. A simple version of this system is to be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) at the SSC site in 1991. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Architecture and Design of IP Broadcasting System Using Passive Optical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Sugawa, Jun; Ashi, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi

    We propose an IP broadcasting system architecture using passive optical networks (PON) utilizing the optical broadcast links of a PON with a downstream bandwidth allocation algorithm to provide a multi-channel IP broadcasting service to home subscribers on single broadband IP network infrastructures. We introduce the design and adaptation of the optical broadcast links to effectively broadcast video contents to home subscribers. We present a performance analysis that includes the downstream bandwidth utilization efficiency of the broadcast link and the bandwidth control of the IP broadcasting and Internet data. Our analysis and simulation results show that the proposed system can provide 100 HDTV channels to every user over fiber lines. We also propose an IPTV channel selection mechanism in an ONT by selecting a broadcast stream. We developed and evaluated a prototype that can achieve a 15-msec IPTV channel selection speed.

  17. The prototype message broadcast system for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system

  18. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical broadcasting method over cellular network, is inefficient in terms of radio resource usage. To solve this problem, the audience-driven live TV scheduling (ADTVS) framework is proposed, to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting services over LTE networks. ADTVS, a system-level scheduling framework, considers both available radio resources and audience preferences, in order to dynamically schedule TV channels for broadcasting at various time and locations. By conducting a simulation using real-life data and scenarios, it is shown that ADTVS significantly outperforms the static broadcast method. Numerical results indicate that, on average, ADTVS enables substantial improvement to broadcast efficiency and conserves considerable amount of radio resources, while forgoing less than 5% of user services compared to the benchmark system.

  19. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  20. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The availability and flexibility of audio services on various digital platforms have created a high demand for a large range of sound systems. The fundamental components of sound systems such as docking stations, sound bars and wireless mobile speakers consists of a power supply, amplifiers and transducers. Due to historical reasons the design of each of these components are commonly handled separately which are indeed limiting the full performance potential of such systems. To state some exa...

  1. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  2. Composite Broadcasting and Ranging via a Satellite Dual-Frequency MPPSK System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since digital video broadcasting via satellite (DVB-S signals are “inefficient”, regarding the amount of information they convey on the bandwidth they occupy, a joint broadcasting and ranging system would constitute a unique platform for future digital video broadcasting satellite services effecting the essential tasks of satellite navigation system and direct to home (DTH services, in terms of both spectrum efficiency and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the design of dual frequency M-ary position phase shift keying (MPPSK system which is suitable for, respectively, performing both data transmission and range measurement is proposed. The approach is based on MPPSK modulation waveforms utilized in digital video broadcasting. In particular, requirements that allow for employing such signals for range measurements with high accuracy and high range are investigated. Also, the relationship between the frequency difference of dual frequency MPPSK system and range accuracy is discussed. Moreover, the selection of MPPSK modulation parameter for data rate and ranging is considered. In addition to theoretical considerations, the paper presents system simulations and measurement results of new systems, demonstrating the high spectral utilization of integrated broadcasting and ranging applications.

  3. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  4. Synchronous Design and Test of Distributed Passive Radar Systems Based on Digital Broadcasting and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xianrong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital broadcasting and television are important classes of illuminators of opportunity for passive radars. Distributed and multistatic structure are the development trends for passive radars. Most modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on a network, which not only provides a natural condition to distributed passive radar but also puts forward higher requirements on the design of passive radar systems. Among those requirements, precise synchronization among the receivers and transmitters as well as among multiple receiving stations, which mainly involves frequency and time synchronization, is the first to be solved. To satisfy the synchronization requirements of distributed passive radars, a synchronization scheme based on GPS is presented in this paper. Moreover, an effective scheme based on the China Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting signal is proposed to test the system synchronization performance. Finally, the reliability of the synchronization design is verified via the distributed multistatic passive radar experiments.

  5. New Generation of Broadcasting Satellite Systems: New Markets and Business Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Bruno; Michel, Cyril; Villaret, Stéfanie

    2002-01-01

    Since the deployment of the first Digital Broadcasting Satellite Systems, European satellite operators and service providers have been faced with the continuously increasing demand for Digital Broadcasting Services. Their success is built on the availability of the MPEG and DVB standards. Undoubtedly, conventional digital television broadcasting is today the `Killer' application. Various service providers already offer multimedia applications through DVB-S systems based upon the `Push' technology. Although these services do not currently represent the core business for broadcasting satellite operators, their percentage is increasing. `Push' technology services include Data Carousel, Webcasting, Turbo Internet, File casting and so on. Such technology can support the implementation of different emerging multimedia services scenarios from Newsgroups, Network collaborative learning, and tele-medicine, to others that may be invented in the near future. The penetration rate of multi-channel television reception is still increasing. Broadcasting satellites benefit both from the development of new, more segmented and sophisticated offers and from the development of Internet services. Satellite is likely to enter these new markets at different levels of the value chain: Even if the satellite has demonstrated its capacity to fully serve the television, combinations with other networks may be necessary to address the new markets: at the consumer premises, Internet-related services will require a return path; at the backbone level, satellite becomes a component of a full telecommunications solution. This article focuses on the European market and proposes:

  6. Stochastic resonances in a distributed genetic broadcasting system: the NFκB/IκB paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Potoyan, Davit A; Wolynes, Peter G

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks must relay information from extracellular signals to downstream genes in an efficient, timely and coherent manner. Many complex functional tasks such as the immune response require system-wide broadcasting of information not to one but to many genes carrying out distinct functions whose dynamical binding and unbinding characteristics are widely distributed. In such broadcasting networks, the intended target sites are also often dwarfed in number by the even more numerous non-functional binding sites. Taking the genetic regulatory network of NF κ B as an exemplary system we explore the impact of having numerous distributed sites on the stochastic dynamics of oscillatory broadcasting genetic networks pointing out how resonances in binding cycles control the network's specificity and performance. We also show that active kinetic regulation of binding and unbinding through molecular stripping of DNA bound transcription factors can lead to a higher coherence of gene-co-expression and synchronous clearance. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN

    2009-09-08

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  8. Sound transmission reduction with intelligent panel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Chris R.; Clark, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed of the use of intelligent panel systems to control the sound transmission and radiation. An intelligent structure is defined as a structural system with integrated actuators and sensors under the guidance of an adaptive, learning type controller. The system configuration is based on the Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) concept where control inputs are applied directly to the structure to minimize an error quantity related to the radiated sound field. In this case multiple piezoelectric elements are employed as sensors. The importance of optimal shape and location is demonstrated to be of the same order of influence as increasing the number of channels of control.

  9. System Level Evaluation of Innovative Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems for Broadcasting Digital TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nasser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-frequency networks (SFNs for broadcasting digital TV is a topic of theoretical and practical interest for future broadcasting systems. Although progress has been made in the characterization of its description, there are still considerable gaps in its deployment with MIMO technique. The contribution of this paper is multifold. First, we investigate the possibility of applying a space-time (ST encoder between the antennas of two sites in SFN. Then, we introduce a 3D space-time-space block code for future terrestrial digital TV in SFN architecture. The proposed 3D code is based on a double-layer structure designed for intercell and intracell space time-coded transmissions. Eventually, we propose to adapt a technique called effective exponential signal-to-noise ratio (SNR mapping (EESM to predict the bit error rate (BER at the output of the channel decoder in the MIMO systems. The EESM technique as well as the simulations results will be used to doubly check the efficiency of our 3D code. This efficiency is obtained for equal and unequal received powers whatever is the location of the receiver by adequately combining ST codes. The 3D code is then a very promising candidate for SFN architecture with MIMO transmission.

  10. Asynchronous broadcast for ordered delivery between compute nodes in a parallel computing system where packet header space is limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer

    2010-06-15

    Disclosed is a mechanism on receiving processors in a parallel computing system for providing order to data packets received from a broadcast call and to distinguish data packets received at nodes from several incoming asynchronous broadcast messages where header space is limited. In the present invention, processors at lower leafs of a tree do not need to obtain a broadcast message by directly accessing the data in a root processor's buffer. Instead, each subsequent intermediate node's rank id information is squeezed into the software header of packet headers. In turn, the entire broadcast message is not transferred from the root processor to each processor in a communicator but instead is replicated on several intermediate nodes which then replicated the message to nodes in lower leafs. Hence, the intermediate compute nodes become "virtual root compute nodes" for the purpose of replicating the broadcast message to lower levels of a tree.

  11. A system for heart sounds classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    Full Text Available The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability.

  12. Load sharing in distributed real-time systems with state-change broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Chang, Yi-Chieh

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized dynamic load-sharing (LS) method based on state-change broadcasts is proposed for a distributed real-time system. Whenever the state of a node changes from underloaded to fully loaded and vice versa, the node broadcasts this change to a set of nodes, called a buddy set, in the system. The performance of the method is evaluated with both analytic modeling and simulation. It is modeled first by an embedded Markov chain for which numerical solutions are derived. The model solutions are then used to calculate the distribution of queue lengths at the nodes and the probability of meeting task deadlines. The analytical results show that buddy sets of 10 nodes outperform those of less than 10 nodes, and the incremental benefit gained from increasing the buddy set size beyond 15 nodes is insignificant. These and other analytical results are verified by simulation. The proposed LS method is shown to meet task deadlines with a very high probability.

  13. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  14. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  15. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik

    to intelligent control and protection functionality and so on. In this work different strategies towards improvements of sound systems by electrical means was investigated considering the interfaces between each component and the performance of the full system. The strategies can be categorized by improvements...... reduction in the best case. This technology is very promising since it compensates for most distortion mechanisms of the transducer such as non-linearities, production variation, wear-n-tear, temperature changes and so on. Furthermore the accelerometer output can be used for protection purposes. The only...... of the bended copper foils to optimize the DC resistance. The DC resistance was reduced by 30 % compared to the starting point for a 10 turn toroidal inductor using this method. The combined work indicate that large sound system improvements are in reach by use of electrical means. Innovative solutions have...

  16. System optimization for peer-to-peer multi hop video broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedeoglu, V.; Atici, C.; Salman, F.S.; Sunay, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    We consider peer-to-peer video broadcasting using cooperation among peers in an ad hoc wireless network. As opposed to the traditional single hop broadcasting, multiple hops cause an increase in broadcast video quality while creating interference and increasing transmission delay. We develop

  17. Broadcasting house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change.......Regarding the transformation of the Danish Broadcasting Hq. (1934-1945) in Frederiksberg by Vilhelm Lauritzen into the Royal Danish Academy of Music. Analysis, principles, flexibility and change....

  18. Downlink Cooperative Broadcast Transmission Based on Superposition Coding in a Relaying System for Future Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Guangjie; Shi, Sulong; Li, Zhengquan

    2018-06-20

    This study investigates the superiority of cooperative broadcast transmission over traditional orthogonal schemes when applied in a downlink relaying broadcast channel (RBC). Two proposed cooperative broadcast transmission protocols, one with an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, and the other with a repetition-based decode-and-forward (DF) relay, are investigated. By utilizing superposition coding (SupC), the source and the relay transmit the private user messages simultaneously instead of sequentially as in traditional orthogonal schemes, which means the channel resources are reused and an increased channel degree of freedom is available to each user, hence the half-duplex penalty of relaying is alleviated. To facilitate a performance evaluation, theoretical outage probability expressions of the two broadcast transmission schemes are developed, based on which, we investigate the minimum total power consumption of each scheme for a given traffic requirement by numerical simulation. The results provide details on the overall system performance and fruitful insights on the essential characteristics of cooperative broadcast transmission in RBCs. It is observed that better overall outage performances and considerable power gains can be obtained by utilizing cooperative broadcast transmissions compared to traditional orthogonal schemes.

  19. TV Recommendation and Personalization Systems: Integrating Broadcast and Video On demand Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Digital Television and the convergence between conventional broadcasting and television over IP contributed to the gradual increase of the number of available channels and on demand video content. Moreover, the dissemination of the use of mobile devices like laptops, smartphones and tablets on everyday activities resulted in a shift of the traditional television viewing paradigm from the couch to everywhere, anytime from any device. Although this new scenario enables a great improvement in viewing experiences, it also brings new challenges given the overload of information that the viewer faces. Recommendation systems stand out as a possible solution to help a watcher on the selection of the content that best fits his/her preferences. This paper describes a web based system that helps the user navigating on broadcasted and online television content by implementing recommendations based on collaborative and content based filtering. The algorithms developed estimate the similarity between items and users and predict the rating that a user would assign to a particular item (television program, movie, etc.. To enable interoperability between different systems, programs? characteristics (title, genre, actors, etc. are stored according to the TV-Anytime standard. The set of recommendations produced are presented through a Web Application that allows the user to interact with the system based on the obtained recommendations.

  20. Two-dimensional block-based reception for differentially encoded OFDM systems : a study on improved reception techniques for digital audio broadcasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital audio broadcast (DAB), DAB+ and Terrestrial-Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) systems use multi-carrier modulation (MCM). The principle of MCM in the DAB-family is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), for which every subcarrier is modulated by p 4 differentially

  1. Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

  2. CERN alerter-RSS based system for information broadcast to all CERN offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R

    2008-01-01

    Nearly every large organization uses a tool to broadcast messages and information across the internal campus (messages like alerts announcing interruption in services or just information about upcoming events). These tools typically allow administrators (operators) to send 'targeted' messages which are sent only to specific groups of users or computers, e/g only those located in a specified building or connected to a particular computing service. CERN has a long history of such tools: CERNVMS's SPM q uotMESSAGE command, Zephyr [2] and the most recent the NICE Alerter based on the NNTP protocol. The NICE Alerter used on all Windows-based computers had to be phased out as a consequence of phasing out NNTP at CERN. The new solution to broadcast information messages on the CERN campus continues to provide the service based on cross-platform technologies, hence minimizing custom developments and relying on commercial software as much as possible. The new system, called CERN Alerter, is based on RSS (Really Simple Syndication) [9] for the transport protocol and uses Microsoft SharePoint as the backend for database and posting interface. The windows-based client relies on Internet Explorer 7.0 with custom code to trigger the window pop-ups and the notifications for new events. Linux and Mac OS X clients could also rely on any RSS readers to subscribe to targeted notifications. The paper covers the architecture and implementation aspects of the new system

  3. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  4. Nationwide survey, assessment, and replacement designs of tank systems at 430 emergency broadcast stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraj, R.; Whitaker-Sheppard, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), acting on behalf of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), undertook a program to bring into compliance federally-owned underground storage tanks (USTs) at radio and television stations, which are part of the Broadcast Station Protection Program (BSPP) of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS). These USTs supply fuel (diesel and gasoline) to emergency generators and are located on private property. Woodward-Clyde Federal Services is under contract with FEMA to provide assistance in all phases of the program. The BSPP is designed to protect selected stations that are participants in the EBS, which support emergency preparedness and response operations. Technical standards for installation, spill and overfill protection, corrosion protection, and leak detection for underground storage tanks (UST) were promulgated by the EPA, as described in 53 Federal Register 37082 (September 23, 1988). December 1998 was established as a compliance data for corrosion protection and spill/overfill protection. A compliance period of December 1989 to December 1993 was established for leak detection devices, depending on the UST installation date. Several states have promulgated underground storage tank regulations that are more stringent than the federal requirements. Local agencies in several states may have additional UST requirements. All federal, state, and local UST requirements must be satisfied under a compliance program. The approach and methodology employed by FEMA are presented

  5. Digital terrestrial experimental television broadcasting studio system; Chijo digital jikken hoso soshutsu kiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Ahead of the start of the full digital terrestrial broadcasting scheduled for fiscal 2003, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications structured experimental systems in seven areas over the nation's land. The Company has received orders for four areas, and developed and supplied the pieces of equipment and devices. The system consists mainly of the following components: (1) an encoder to compress image signals into the moving picture experts Group 2 (MPEG2) signals; (2) a rate-free matrix to select signals for images and MPEG2 signals (an assembly of changeover switches); (3) a multiplexing device to multiplex MPEG2 signals; (4) a multi-rate server to accumulate and regenerate the MPEG2 signals; (5) an orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) modulator to modulate the multiplexed MPEG2 signals; (6) a splicer to switch the MPEG2 signals without interruption; and (7) an integrated control system to control MPEG2 devices. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  7. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both

  8. High data-rate video broadcasting over 3G wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atici, C.; Sunay, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    In cellular environments, video broadcasting is a challenging problem in which the number of users receiving the service and the average successfully decoded video data-rate have to be intelligently optimized. When video is broadcasted using the 3G packet data standard, 1xEV-DO, the code space may

  9. PERFORMANCE OF THE ZERO FORCING PRECODING MIMO BROADCAST SYSTEMS WITH CHANNEL ESTIMATION ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Liu Zhanli; Wang Yan; You Xiaohu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of channel estimation errors upon the Zero Forcing (ZF) precoding Multiple Input Multiple Output Broadcast (MIMO BC) systems was studied. Based on the two kinds of Gaussian estimation error models, the performance analysis is conducted under different power allocation strategies. Analysis and simulation show that if the covariance of channel estimation errors is independent of the received Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), imperfect channel knowledge deteriorates the sum capacity and the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance severely. However, under the situation of orthogonal training and the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) channel estimation, the sum capacity and BER performance are consistent with those of the perfect Channel State Information (CSI)with only a performance degradation.

  10. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation...

  11. Portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiev, Rustam; Glazova, Anna; Olyinik, Valery; Makarenkova, Anastasiia; Makarenkov, Anatolii; Rakhimov, Abdulvosid; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    A portable system for auscultation and lung sound analysis has been developed, including the original electronic stethoscope coupled with mobile devices and special algorithms for the automated analysis of pulmonary sound signals. It's planned that the developed system will be used for monitoring of health status of patients with various pulmonary diseases.

  12. The natural horn as an efficient sound radiating system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the locally made horn are efficient sound radiating systems and are therefore excellent for sound production in local musical renditions. These findings, in addition to the portability and low cost of the horns qualify them to be highly recommended for use in music making and for other purposes ...

  13. Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kobolev, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the conference "Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems", dedicated to the memory of outstanding scientists - Vladimir Nikolaevich Shuman and Sergei Nikolaevich Kulik, who made a great contribution to the theory, methodology and geological interpretation of deep electromagnetic electromagnetic sounding of the Earth.

  14. 40 CFR 205.54-2 - Sound data acquisition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound data acquisition system. 205.54-2 Section 205.54-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54-2 Sound...

  15. [A focused sound field measurement system by LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhan; Bai, Jingfeng; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, according to the requirement of the focused sound field measurement, a focused sound field measurement system was established based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument platform. The system can automatically search the focus position of the sound field, and adjust the scanning path according to the size of the focal region. Three-dimensional sound field scanning time reduced from 888 hours in uniform step to 9.25 hours in variable step. The efficiency of the focused sound field measurement was improved. There is a certain deviation between measurement results and theoretical calculation results. Focal plane--6 dB width difference rate was 3.691%, the beam axis--6 dB length differences rate was 12.937%.

  16. Heart Sound Biometric System Based on Marginal Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhidong; Shen, Qinqin; Ren, Fangqin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis, which is a new feature extraction technique for identification purposes. This heart sound identification system is comprised of signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, training, and identification. Experiments on the selection of the optimal values for the system parameters are conducted. The results indicate that the new spectrum coefficients result in a significant increase in the recognition rate of 94.40% compared with that of the traditional Fourier spectrum (84.32%) based on a database of 280 heart sounds from 40 participants. PMID:23429515

  17. Spatial aspects of sound quality - and by multichannel systems subjective assessment of sound reproduced by stereo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain

    the fidelity with which sound reproduction systems can re-create the desired stereo image, a laser pointing technique was developed to accurately collect subjects' responses in a localization task. This method is subsequently applied in an investigation of the effects of loudspeaker directivity...... on the perceived direction of panned sources. The second part of the thesis addresses the identification of auditory attributes which play a role in the perception of sound reproduced by multichannel systems. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to evoke various...

  18. Analysis of Damped Mass-Spring Systems for Sound Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of synthesizing sound on a computer. The method that we consider, called a mass-spring system, synthesizes sound by simulating the vibrations of a network of interconnected masses, springs, and dampers. Numerical methods are required to approximate the differential equation of a mass-spring system. The standard numerical method used in implementing mass-spring systems for use in sound synthesis is the symplectic Euler method. Implementers and users of mass-spring systems should be aware of the limitations of the numerical methods used; in particular we are interested in the stability and accuracy of the numerical methods used. We present an analysis of the symplectic Euler method that shows the conditions under which the method is stable and the accuracy of the decay rates and frequencies of the sounds produced.

  19. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  20. CATV and the Broadcasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Bill

    Competition between cable television systems (CATV) and regular broadcast stations concerns pay-TV and distant signal importation. The pay-TV that CATV provides competes with the networks by "siphoning" away sports and feature films, while the distant signals that CATV imports to a local market "fragment" the local audience and…

  1. Research on the Integration of IT Network Technology and TV Production and Broadcasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqing

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, based on the development of China’s economy and the progress of science and technology, China’s TV industry has made great progress and provided a new platform for residents to understand the social situation. In this situation, in order to protect the efficiency of the TV system and the steady improvement on quality, technical staff have strengthened the rational use of IT technology, and as a basis to promote the sound of television production system. Based on this, this paper focuses on the connotation of IT network technology, and discusses the integration of the design and TV production system, hoping to realize the sustainable development of China’s TV industry.

  2. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network Broadcast System: A user friendly GUI to broadcast earthquake messages, to generate shakemaps and to update catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, J.; Huerfano, V.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) has historically provided locations and magnitudes for earthquakes in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) region. PRSN is the reporting authority for the region bounded by latitudes 17.0N to 20.0N, and longitudes 63.5W to 69.0W. The main objective of the PRSN is to record, process, analyze, provide information and research local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, providing high quality data and information to be able to respond to the needs of the emergency management, academic and research communities, and the general public. The PRSN runs Earthworm software (Johnson et al, 1995) to acquire and write waveforms to disk for permanent archival. Automatic locations and alerts are generated for events in Puerto Rico, the Intra America Seas, and the Atlantic by the EarlyBird system (Whitmore and Sokolowski, 2002), which monitors PRSN stations as well as some 40 additional stations run by networks operating in North, Central and South America and other sites in the Caribbean. PRDANIS (Puerto Rico Data Analysis and Information System) software, developed by PRSN, supports manual locations and analyst review of automatic locations of events within the PRSN area of responsibility (AOR), using all the broadband, strong-motion and short-period waveforms Rapidly available information regarding the geographic distribution of ground shaking in relation to the population and infrastructure at risk can assist emergency response communities in efficient and optimized allocation of resources following a large earthquake. The ShakeMap system developed by the USGS provides near real-time maps of instrumental ground motions and shaking intensity and has proven effective in rapid assessment of the extent of shaking and potential damage after significant earthquakes (Wald, 2004). In Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the states of Utah and Nevada, ShakeMaps are used for emergency planning and response, loss

  3. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  4. Between Mediation and Mediatisation: Identity Dynamics at Play in Online Self-Publishing [Self-Broadcasting] Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle KLEIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on research conducted in Belgium for ten years on the identity dynamics within online self-publishing, self-broadcasting systems, this paper examines the extent to which the ongoing age of self-publishing follows a twofold logic of Self-Mediation and Self-Mediatization. After proposing a specific definition of the latter two concepts, the concept of “extimacy” will be implemented to shed light on the dynamics of Self-Mediation and Self-Mediatisation.

  5. Wearable Eating Habit Sensing System Using Internal Body Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.

  6. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision......Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...

  7. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  8. The sound bases of systemic silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Following recent critiques on systemic silviculture, the author examines the principles, scientific consequences and practical implications of this theory. Systemic silviculture is based on the assumption that the forest is a complex biological system. This means abandoning the reductive, mechanistic and deterministic paradigm that has characterized forest science until the last century. If the forest is a complex biological system then its properties cannot be reduced to those of its components. According to this assumption, the author analyzes the concepts of forest structure, predictability and unpredictability of forest ecosystem processes, intrinsic value and rights of the forest. Systemic silviculture is characterized by an adaptive approach which has the flexibility and the capacity to respond to environmental retroactions which are fundamental for the governance of complex and adaptive systems. The author concludes that the bases of systemic silviculture are unassailable and surely much sounder than those of “naturalistic” silviculture, or at least of that type of silviculture which, trying to define “natural structural models” for forest ecosystems, is still anchored to the old, classic, paradigm of natural resource management and conservation.

  9. Gossip-Based Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Pereira, José; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip, or epidemic, protocols have emerged as a powerful strategy to implement highly scalable and resilient reliable broadcast primitives on large scale peer-to-peer networks. Epidemic protocols are scalable because they distribute the load among all nodes in the system and resilient because they have an intrinsic level of redundancy that masks node and network failures. This chapter provides an introduction to gossip-based broadcast on large-scale unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks: it surveys the main results in the field, discusses techniques to build and maintain the overlays that support efficient dissemination strategies, and provides an in-depth discussion and experimental evaluation of two concrete protocols, named HyParView and Plumtree.

  10. System complexity and (im)possible sound changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seinhorst, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    In the acquisition of phonological patterns, learners tend to considerably reduce the complexity of their input. This learning bias may also constrain the set of possible sound changes, which might be expected to contain only those changes that do not increase the complexity of the system. However,

  11. Planning alternative organizational frameworks for a large scale educational telecommunications system served by fixed/broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkmeyer, J.

    1973-01-01

    This memorandum explores a host of considerations meriting attention from those who are concerned with designing organizational structures for development and control of a large scale educational telecommunications system using satellites. Part of a broader investigation at Washington University into the potential uses of fixed/broadcast satellites in U.S. education, this study lays ground work for a later effort to spell out a small number of hypothetical organizational blueprints for such a system and for assessment of potential short and long term impacts. The memorandum consists of two main parts. Part A deals with subjects of system-wide concern, while Part B deals with matters related to specific system components.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  13. Economic Theory and Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    Focusing on access to audience through broadcast time, this paper examines the status of research into the economics of broadcasting. The paper first discusses the status of theory in the study of broadcast economics, both as described directly and as it exists in the statement of the basic assumptions generated by prior work and general…

  14. Theme Issue: European Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this document separate articles deal with the following topics: recommendations for future British broadcasting policies that recently were proposed to the British Parliament by the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting; specific media goals set by the Swedish Committee on Broadcasting; communications policy making in Austria; a new…

  15. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  16. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  17. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  18. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  19. Responsividade do Sistema Sancionatório da Radiodifusão Brasileira / Responsiveness of the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory system of sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barros da Cunha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the responsiveness of the system of sanctions applicable to broadcasting concessionaires in Brazil. Methodology/approach/design – The research considered the theory of responsive regulation proposed by Ayres and Braithwaite as parameter for the critical analysis of the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory system of sanctions. Findings – The research concluded that the system of sanctions does not encourage concessionaires to comply with its legal, contractual and regulatory obligations, as penalties do not promote dialogue between regulator and regulated firms. There are legal obstacles for the application of the maximum penalty of revocation of concession, and some fines imposed on concessionaires in the past could not be collected as they were barred by statute of limitations. Practical implications – The findings of this research may be considered by Brazilian regulators on the development of a more responsive and effective system of sanctions for broadcasting. Originality/value (optional – The research introduces the discussion on responsiveness regarding the Brazilian broadcasting regulatory model.

  20. Virtual Reality System with Integrated Sound Field Simulation and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Assenmacher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time audio rendering system is introduced which combines a full room-specific simulation, dynamic crosstalk cancellation, and multitrack binaural synthesis for virtual acoustical imaging. The system is applicable for any room shape (normal, long, flat, coupled, independent of the a priori assumption of a diffuse sound field. This provides the possibility of simulating indoor or outdoor spatially distributed, freely movable sources and a moving listener in virtual environments. In addition to that, near-to-head sources can be simulated by using measured near-field HRTFs. The reproduction component consists of a headphone-free reproduction by dynamic crosstalk cancellation. The focus of the project is mainly on the integration and interaction of all involved subsystems. It is demonstrated that the system is capable of real-time room simulation and reproduction and, thus, can be used as a reliable platform for further research on VR applications.

  1. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  2. Metadata for the description of broadcast assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis N.; Mai, Jens Erik; Burrows, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and public broadcasters consider Media Asset Management (MAM) of critical importance since without a concerted and cooperative plan to manage their vast library of content, broadcasters are unable to reach their potential for service in the digital age....... The concerns for Media Asset Management, human and technical, are myriad. Media Asset Management is the framework upon which many of the largest technology projects will be built, including the future interconnection system between and among CPB member stations. It is CPB's hope that its licensees...... and their partners in university, museum, and library communities, will work together to contribute to Media Asset Management solutions. These issues are not unique to Public Broadcasters. Similar issues are faced by all networks at different levels of complexity. This panel will present efforts by broadcasters...

  3. CAPITALISM VS BUSINESS ETHICS IN INDONESIA’S TELEVISION BROADCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in every country, there is supervision of the television broadcasting system. In Indonesia, all television broadcasting is supervised by the Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia/KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission. This commission oversees broadcast television, to ensure all TV broadcasts in Indonesia comply with government regulations. Often the KPI imposes sanctions, but frequent violations still occur. This article describes the results of research on the contradiction between business interests and ethics in the television industry in Indonesia. This study uses the method of evaluation research, where researchers analyze data, here in the form of sanctions documents released by broadcasting commissions. The results reveal that all national private television stations often violate regulations. They prioritize their business interests rather than follow broadcasting guidelines, especially since KPI does not have the full authority to grant and revoke a broadcasting license. The granting and revocation of permits remains under the authority of the government, where political lobbying plays a more significant role.

  4. Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Rademacher, Holger; Huesgen, Silke; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.

  5. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  6. Small Delay and High Performance AD/DA Converters of Lease Circuit System for AM&FM Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takato, Kenji; Suzuki, Dai; Ishii, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masato; Yamada, Hirokazu; Amano, Shigeru

    Many AM&FM broadcasting stations in Japan are connected by the leased circuit system of NTT. Small delay and high performance AD/DA converter was developed for the system. The system was designed based on ITU-T J.41 Recommendation (384kbps), the transmission signal is 11bit-32 kHz where the Gain-frequency characteristics between 40Hz to 15kHz have to be quite flat. The ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs for audio application in the market today realize very high performance. However the performance is not enough for the leased circuit system. We found that it is not possible to meet the delay and Gain-frequency requirements only by using ΔΣAD/DA converter LSI in normal operation, because 15kHz the highest frequency and 16kHz Nyquist frequency are too close, therefore there are aliasing around Nyquist frequency. In this paper, we designed AD/DA architecture having small delay (1msec) and sharp cut off LPF (100dB attenuation at 16kHz, and 1500dB/Oct from 15kHz to 16kHz) by operating ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs over-sampling rate such as 128kHz and by adding custom LPF designed Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. The IIR filter is a 16th order elliptic type and it is consist of eight biquad filters in series. We described how to evaluate the stability of IIR filter theoretically by calculating frequency response, Pole and Zero Layout and impulse response of each biquad filter, and experimentally by adding overflow detection circuit on each filters and input overlord signal.

  7. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  8. Co-existence of TV Broadcast and Wireless Systems for Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety ... medical emergencies, threats to public order and a host of other ..... Predition for Primary Multi-Transmitter Networks Operating in the TV ...

  9. Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo

    As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles. This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound absorbing materials), usually in the form of a thin panel with small holes, and an air backing may be one of the preferred solutions. These panels can be designed in many ways, and usually feature many small (sub-millimeter) holes and typically surface porosities on the order of 1 percent. The detailed acoustical properties of MPPs depend on their hole shape, the hole diameter, the thickness of the panel, the overall porosity of the perforated film, the film's mass per unit area, and the depth of the backing air cavity. Together, these parameters control the absorption peak location and the magnitude of the absorption coefficient (and the magnitude of the transmission loss in barrier applications). By an appropriate choice of these parameters good absorption performance can be achieved in a frequency range one or two octaves wide. That kind of solution may be adequate when it is necessary to control sound only in a specified frequency range (in the speech interference range, for example). However, in order to provide appropriate noise control solutions over a broader range of frequencies, it is necessary to design systems featuring multiple-layers of MPPs, thus creating what amounts to a multi-degree-of-freedom system and so expanding the range over which good absorption can be obtained. In this research

  10. Co-existence of TV broadcast and wireless systems for public safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety Networks (PSNs) is presented in this article. The networks to be deployed within Television White Space (TVWS) in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State operate on a secondary basis spatially, without causing harmful interference to ...

  11. Exploiting the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast System via False Target Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IEEE Xplore . 8. Hal Stoen. (2001) VFR Flight. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://stoenworks.com/vfr%20flight.html 9. Cohen, B., & Smith, A...7. Gilbert, G. (1973). Historical development of the air traffic control system. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 364-375. Retrieved from...1998. Proceedings., 17th DASC. the AIAA/ IEEE /SAE,2 F44/1- F44/8 vol.2. 10. Livack, G. S., McDaniel, J. I., Battiste, V., & Johnson, W. W. (2000

  12. The MIT Lincoln Laboratory RT-04F Diarization Systems: Applications to Broadcast Audio and Telephone Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    this paper we describe the systems developed by MITLL and used in DARPA EARS Rich Transcription Fall 2004 (RT-04F) speaker diarization evaluation...many types of audio sources, the focus if the DARPA EARS project and the NIST Rich Transcription evaluations is primarily speaker diarization ...present or samples of any of the speakers . An overview of the general diarization problem and approaches can be found in [1]. In this paper, we

  13. Sound Transduction in the Auditory System of Bushcrickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Manuela; Udayashankar, Arun Palghat; Weber, Melanie; Hummel, Jennifer; Kössl, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    Place based frequency representation, called tonotopy,is a typical property of hearing organs for the discrimination of different frequencies. Due to its coiled structure and secure housing, it is difficult access the mammalian cochlea. Hence, our knowledge about in vivo inner-ear mechanics is restricted to small regions. In this study, we present in vivo measurements that focus on the easily accessible, uncoiled auditory organs in bushcrickets, which are located in their foreleg tibiae. Sound enters the body via an opening at the lateral side of the thorax and passes through a horn-shaped acoustic trachea before reaching the high frequency hearing organ called crista acustica. In addition to the acoustic trachea as structure that transmits incoming sound towards the hearing organ, bushcrickets also possess two tympana, specialized plate-like structures, on the anterior and posterior side of each tibia. They provide a secondary path of excitation for the sensory receptors at low frequencies. We investigated the mechanics of the crista acustica in the tropical bushcricket Mecopoda elongata. The frequency-dependent motion of the crista acustica was captured using a laser-Doppler-vibrometer system. Using pure tone stimulation of the crista acustica, we could elicit traveling waves along the length of the hearing organ that move from the distal high frequency to the proximal low frequency region. In addition, distinct maxima in the velocity response of the crista acustica could be measured at ˜7 and ˜17 kHz. The travelling-wave-based tonotopy provides the basis for mechanical frequency discrimination along the crista acustica and opens up new possibility to investigate traveling wave mechanics in vivo.

  14. The Influence of Sanskrit on the Japanese Sound Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, James H.

    The Japanese syllabary of today would probably not exist in its present arrangement had it not been for Sanskrit studies in Japan. Scholars of ancient Japan extracted from the Devanagari those sounds which corresponded to sounds in Japanese and arranged the Japanese syllabary in the devanagari order. First appearing in a document dated 1204, this…

  15. Prezygotic barriers to hybridization in marine broadcast spawners: reproductive timing and mating system variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Monteiro

    Full Text Available Sympatric assemblages of congeners with incomplete reproductive barriers offer the opportunity to study the roles that ecological and non-ecological factors play in reproductive isolation. While interspecific asynchrony in gamete release and gametic incompatibility are known prezygotic barriers to hybridization, the role of mating system variation has been emphasized in plants. Reproductive isolation between the sibling brown algal species Fucus spiralis, Fucus guiryi (selfing hermaphrodite and Fucus vesiculosus (dioecious was studied because they form hybrids in parapatry in the rocky intertidal zone, maintain species integrity over a broad geographic range, and have contrasting mating systems. We compared reproductive synchrony (spawning overlap between the three species at several temporal scales (yearly/seasonal, semilunar/tidal, and hourly during single tides. Interspecific patterns of egg release were coincident at seasonal (single peak in spring to early summer to semilunar timescales. Synthesis of available data indicated that spawning is controlled by semidiurnal tidal and daily light-dark cues, and not directly by semilunar cycles. Importantly, interspecific shifts in timing detected at the hourly scale during single tides were consistent with a partial ecological prezygotic hybridization barrier. The species displayed patterns of gamete release consistent with a power law distribution, indicating a high degree of reproductive synchrony, while the hypothesis of weaker selective constraints for synchrony in selfing versus outcrossing species was supported by observed spawning in hermaphrodites over a broader range of tidal phase than in outcrossers. Synchronous gamete release is critical to the success of external fertilization, while high-energy intertidal environments may offer only limited windows of reproductive opportunity. Within these windows, however, subtle variations in reproductive timing have evolved with the potential to

  16. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  17. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis.

  18. 75 FR 27199 - Promoting Diversification of Ownership in the Broadcasting Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...'' in explaining the requirements for broadcasters to certify that their advertising contracts do not... for the Commission to require broadcasters renewing their licenses to certify that their advertising... broadcast licensee, cable television system, daily newspaper, or other media outlet subject to the broadcast...

  19. Live broadcast from the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    La tête au carréTuesday, 17 June 2008 between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.“La tête au carré”, a France Inter radio programme devoted to science, will set up its sound booth at CERN for a special broadcast on the LHC.The journalist Mathieu Vidard will interview the following guests: - Pierre Van Hove, an experimental physicist working on CMS. He is a CNRS research scientist from the Institut Hubert Curien in Strasbourg, France.- Abdelhak Djouadi is a theoretical physicist. He is a research director at the CNRS’s Laboratoire de physique théorique at Orsay, France and holder of the CNRS silver medal.- Magali Gruwe, one of the engineers in charge of LHC operations at CERN.» To take part in this live broadcast, which is open to the public, come to the Globe at 1:30 p.m. The number of places is limited.» No specialist knowledge required.» See the programme's homepage

  20. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges exist when it comes to understanding and compensating for hearing impairment. Traditional methods, such as pure tone audiometry and speech intelligibility tests, offer insight into the deficiencies of a hearingimpaired listener, but can only partially reveal the mechanisms...... that underlie the hearing loss. An alternative approach is to investigate the statistical representation of sounds for hearing-impaired listeners along the auditory pathway. Using models of the auditory periphery and sound synthesis, we aimed to probe hearing impaired perception for sound textures – temporally...

  1. Olympic Broadcast Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Žižka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Title: Olympic Broadcast Rights Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyse the revenue derived from the sale of the broadcasting rights to the Olympics by Olympic Movement. In the thesis are analysed the total sum of revenue, selected territory and compared the proportion that belongs to the International Olympic Committee and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The secondary objective is to adapt and calculation of the conversion mechanism for the transfer of amou...

  2. Analysis and Implement of Broadcast Program Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the radio and TV industry and the implementation of INT (the integration of telecommunications networks, cable TV networks and the Internet, the contents of programs and advertisements is showing massive, live and interactive trends. In order to meet the security of radio and television, the broadcast of information have to be controlled and administered. In order to master the latest information of public opinion trends through radio and television network, it is necessary research the specific industry applications of broadcast program monitoring. In this paper, the importance of broadcast monitoring in public opinion analysis is firstly analysed. The monitoring radio and television programs broadcast system architecture is proposed combining with the practice, focusing on the technical requirements and implementation process of program broadcast, advertisement broadcast and TV station broadcast monitoring. The more efficient information is generated through statistical analysis, which provides data analysis for radio and television public opinion analysis.

  3. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound. 164.43 Section 164.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004, each...

  4. Broadcast scheduling for mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...

  5. Heart sounds analysis via esophageal stethoscope system in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Bae, Jin Ho; Kwon, Eun Jung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Shin, Ji-Yun; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Gyeong-Deuk; Kim, Myoung hwan

    2013-10-01

    Esophageal stethoscope is less invasive and easy to handling. And it gives a lot of information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of blood pressure and heart sound as measured by esophageal stethoscope. Four male beagles weighing 10 to 12 kg were selected as experimental subjects. After general anesthesia, the esophageal stethoscope was inserted. After connecting the microphone, the heart sounds were visualized and recorded through a self-developed equipment and program. The amplitudes of S1 and S2 were monitored real-time to examine changes as the blood pressure increased and decreased. The relationship between the ratios of S1 to S2 (S1/S2) and changes in blood pressure due to ephedrine was evaluated. The same experiment was performed with different concentration of isoflurane. From S1 and S2 in the inotropics experiment, a high correlation appeared with change in blood pressure in S1. The relationship between S1/S2 and change in blood pressure showed a positive correlation in each experimental subject. In the volatile anesthetics experiment, the heart sounds decreased as MAC increased. Heart sounds were analyzed successfully with the esophageal stethoscope through the self-developed program and equipment. A proportional change in heart sounds was confirmed when blood pressure was changed using inotropics or volatile anesthetics. The esophageal stethoscope can achieve the closest proximity to the heart to hear sounds in a non-invasive manner.

  6. Performance of active feedforward control systems in non-ideal, synthesized diffuse sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The acoustic performance of passive or active panel structures is usually tested in sound transmission loss facilities. A reverberant sending room, equipped with one or a number of independent sound sources, is used to generate a diffuse sound field excitation which acts as a disturbance source on the structure under investigation. The spatial correlation and coherence of such a synthesized non-ideal diffuse-sound-field excitation, however, might deviate significantly from the ideal case. This has consequences for the operation of an active feedforward control system which heavily relies on the acquisition of coherent disturbance source information. This work, therefore, evaluates the spatial correlation and coherence of ideal and non-ideal diffuse sound fields and considers the implications on the performance of a feedforward control system. The system under consideration is an aircraft-typical double panel system, equipped with an active sidewall panel (lining), which is realized in a transmission loss facility. Experimental results for different numbers of sound sources in the reverberation room are compared to simulation results of a comparable generic double panel system excited by an ideal diffuse sound field. It is shown that the number of statistically independent noise sources acting on the primary structure of the double panel system depends not only on the type of diffuse sound field but also on the sample lengths of the processed signals. The experimental results show that the number of reference sensors required for a defined control performance exhibits an inverse relationship to control filter length.

  7. Development of an Amplifier for Electronic Stethoscope System and Heart Sound Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. J.; Kang, D. K. [Chongju University, Chongju (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    The conventional stethoscope can not store its stethoscopic sounds. Therefore a doctor diagnoses a patient with instantaneous stethoscopic sounds at that time, and he can not remember the state of the patient's stethoscopic sounds on the next. This prevent accurate and objective diagnosis. If the electronic stethoscope, which can store the stethoscopic sound, is developed, the auscultation will be greatly improved. This study describes an amplifier for electronic stethoscope system that can extract heart sounds of fetus as well as adult and allow us hear and record the sounds. Using the developed stethoscopic amplifier, clean heart sounds of fetus and adult can be heard in noisy environment, such as a consultation room of a university hospital, a laboratory of a university. Surprisingly, the heart sound of a 22-week fetus was heard through the developed electronic stethoscope. Pitch detection experiments using the detected heart sounds showed that the signal represents distinct periodicity. It can be expected that the developed electronic stethoscope can substitute for conventional stethoscopes and if proper analysis method for the stethoscopic signal is developed, a good electronic stethoscope system can be produced. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Sound dispersion in a spin-1 Ising system near the second-order phase transition point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, Ryza; Keskin, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Sound dispersion relation is derived for a spin-1 Ising system and its behaviour near the second-order phase transition point or the critical point is analyzed. The method used is a combination of molecular field approximation and Onsager theory of irreversible thermodynamics. If we assume a linear coupling of sound wave with the order parameter fluctuations in the system, we find that the dispersion which is the relative sound velocity change with frequency behaves as ω 0 ε 0 , where ω is the sound frequency and ε the temperature distance from the critical point. In the ordered region, one also observes a frequency-dependent velocity or dispersion minimum which is shifted from the corresponding attenuation maxima. These phenomena are in good agreement with the calculations of sound velocity in other magnetic systems such as magnetic metals, magnetic insulators, and magnetic semiconductors

  9. Analysis, Design and Implementation of an Embedded Realtime Sound Source Localization System Based on Beamforming Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Djajadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is intended to analyze, design and implement a realtime sound source localization system by using a mobile robot as the media. The implementated system uses 2 microphones as the sensors, Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller system with ATMega328p as the microprocessor, two permanent magnet DC motors as the actuators for the mobile robot and a servo motor as the actuator to rotate the webcam directing to the location of the sound source, and a laptop/PC as the simulation and display media. In order to achieve the objective of finding the position of a specific sound source, beamforming theory is applied to the system. Once the location of the sound source is detected and determined, the choice is either the mobile robot will adjust its position according to the direction of the sound source or only webcam will rotate in the direction of the incoming sound simulating the use of this system in a video conference. The integrated system has been tested and the results show the system could localize in realtime a sound source placed randomly on a half circle area (0 - 1800 with a radius of 0.3m - 3m, assuming the system is the center point of the circle. Due to low ADC and processor speed, achievable best angular resolution is still limited to 25o.

  10. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  11. Broadcasting of inseparability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Satyabrata; Choudhury, B S; Chakrabarty, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    Suppose we are given an entangled pair and asked how well we can produce two entangled pairs starting from a given entangled pair using only local operations. To respond to this question, we study broadcasting of entanglement using a state-dependent quantum cloning machine as a local copier. We show that the length of the interval for probability-amplitude-squared α 2 for broadcasting of entanglement using a state-dependent cloner can be made larger than the length of the interval for probability-amplitude-squared for broadcasting entanglement using a state-independent cloner. Further we show that there exists a local state-dependent cloner which gives better quality copy (in terms of average fidelity) of an entangled pair than the local universal cloner

  12. Acoustic Performance of a Real-Time Three-Dimensional Sound-Reproduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kenneth J., II; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    The Exterior Effects Room (EER) is a 39-seat auditorium at the NASA Langley Research Center and was built to support psychoacoustic studies of aircraft community noise. The EER has a real-time simulation environment which includes a three-dimensional sound-reproduction system. This system requires real-time application of equalization filters to compensate for spectral coloration of the sound reproduction due to installation and room effects. This paper describes the efforts taken to develop the equalization filters for use in the real-time sound-reproduction system and the subsequent analysis of the system s acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of the compensated and uncompensated sound-reproduction system is assessed for its crossover performance, its performance under stationary and dynamic conditions, the maximum spatialized sound pressure level it can produce from a single virtual source, and for the spatial uniformity of a generated sound field. Additionally, application examples are given to illustrate the compensated sound-reproduction system performance using recorded aircraft flyovers

  13. A new system for rating impact sound insulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The rating of impact sound insulation on the basis of tapping machine measurements with the ISO reference values has proved to be unsatisfactory in practice. This is mainly due to the differences in spectrum shape of tapping machine noise and real life impact noises, such as walking. The problem can

  14. Classification of Normal Subjects and Pulmonary Function Disease Patients using Tracheal Respiratory Sound Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Joong; Yi, Young Ju; Jeon, Young Ju [Chonbuk National University (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    A new auscultation system for the detection of breath sound from trachea was developed in house. Small size microphone(panasonic pin microphone) was encapsuled in a housing for resonant effect, and hardware for the sound detection was fabricated. Pulmonary function test results were compared with the parameters extracted from frequency spectrum of breath sound obtained from the developed system. Results showed that the peak frequency and relative ratio of integral values between low(80-400Hz) and high(400-800Hz) frequency ranges revealed the significant differences. Developed system could be used for distinguishing normal subject and the patients who have pulmonary disease. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Data broadcasting: merging digital broadcasting with the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    , and for what means it can be used. It also analyses data broadcasting from the perspectives of both the medium and business. * Features the latest developments in electronic media * Discusses the major media opportunities of data broadcasting * Shows how data broadcasting can overcome many notorious problems...... and developers in the telecommunications, software, hardware and media industries of the main commercial, editorial and technical opportunities of data broadcasting....

  16. Seafloor environments in the Long Island Sound estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.; Signell, R.P.; Rendigs, R. R.; Poppe, L.J.; List, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Four categories of modern seafloor sedimentary environments have been identified and mapped across the large, glaciated, topographically complex Long Island Sound estuary by means of an extensive regional set of sidescan sonographs, bottom samples, and video-camera observations and supplemental marine-geologic and modeled physical-oceanographic data. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition contain sediments which range from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands and appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated reflections (caused by outcrops of glacial drift and bedrock) or as patterns of strong backscatter (caused by coarse lag deposits). Areas of erosion or nondeposition were found across the rugged seafloor at the eastern entrance of the Sound and atop bathymetric highs and within constricted depressions in other parts of the basin. (2) Environments of bedload transport contain mostly coarse-to-fine sand with only small amounts of mud and are depicted by sonograph patterns of sand ribbons and sand waves. Areas of bedload transport were found primarily in the eastern Sound where bottom currents have sculptured the surface of a Holocene marine delta and are moving these sediments toward the WSW into the estuary. (3) Environments of sediment sorting and reworking comprise variable amounts of fine sand and mud and are characterized either by patterns of moderate backscatter or by patterns with patches of moderate-to-weak backscatter that reflect a combination of erosion and deposition. Areas of sediment sorting and reworking were found around the periphery of the zone of bedload transport in the eastern Sound and along the southern nearshore margin. They also are located atop low knolls, on the flanks of shoal complexes, and within segments of the axial depression in the western Sound. (4) Environments of deposition are blanketed by muds and muddy fine sands that produce patterns of uniformly weak backscatter. Depositional areas occupy

  17. Probabilistic broadcasting of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvjun; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the non-broadcasting theorem proved by Barnum et al is a fundamental principle of quantum communication. As we are aware, optimal broadcasting (OB) is the only method to broadcast noncommuting mixed states approximately. In this paper, motivated by the probabilistic cloning of quantum states proposed by Duan and Guo, we propose a new way for broadcasting noncommuting mixed states-probabilistic broadcasting (PB), and we present a sufficient condition for PB of mixed states. To a certain extent, we generalize the probabilistic cloning theorem from pure states to mixed states, and in particular, we generalize the non-broadcasting theorem, since the case that commuting mixed states can be exactly broadcast can be thought of as a special instance of PB where the success ratio is 1. Moreover, we discuss probabilistic local broadcasting (PLB) of separable bipartite states

  18. The quandry of benchmarking broadcasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonis, N T; Supinski, B R

    1999-01-01

    A message passing library's implementation of broadcast communication can significantly affect the performance of applications built with that library. In order to choose between similar implementations or to evaluate available libraries, accurate measurements of broadcast performance are required. As we demonstrate, existing methods for measuring broadcast performance are either inaccurate or inadequate. Fortunately, we have designed an accurate method for measuring broadcast performance. Measuring broadcast performance is not simple. Simply sending one broadcast after another allows them to proceed through the network concurrently, thus resulting in accurate per broadcast timings. Existing methods either fail to eliminate this pipelining effect or eliminate it by introducing overheads that are as difficult to measure as the performance of the broadcast itself. Our method introduces a measurable overhead to eliminate the pipelining effect

  19. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2018-01-12

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation directivity in far fields. The strong directivity formed in the presence of the enclosure is attributed to interference of sources under degenerate Mie resonances in the enclosure of anisotropic property. Our numerical simulations of sound emission from the sources demonstrate the radiation of a highly directed sound beam of unidirectional or bidirectional patterns, depending on how the sources are configured inside the enclosure. Our scheme, if achieved, can solve the challenging problem of poor directivity of a subwavelength sound system, and can guide beam forming and collimation by miniaturized devices.

  20. Validating a perceptual distraction model using a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user's perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music targets and interferers using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two...... sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. The results show that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech- on-music and music-on-speech stimuli...

  1. From Broadcast to Podcast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper will present the development from broadcasted educational television up to the actual use of streaming video and mobile units in eLearning. The paper will discuss the following topics: what can we learn from history? – and what are the new challenges and possibilities in mobile...

  2. Virtue Broadcasting - directorate change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Virtue Broadcasting Plc ("Virtue") have announced the appointment of Mr. Klaus Ackerstaff as the CEO of the main Board. He began his professional career at CERN, where he was responsible for the IT infrastructure of the OPAL (particle physics) project (1/2 page).

  3. Restricted broadcast process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Ghassemi; W.J. Fokkink (Wan); A. Movaghar; A. Cerone; S. Gruner

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a process algebra for modeling and reasoning about Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and their protocols. In our algebra we model the essential modeling concepts of ad hoc networks, i.e. local broadcast, connectivity of nodes and connectivity changes. Connectivity and

  4. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis presents an integrated auditory system for a humanoid robot, currently under development, that will, among other things, learn to localize normal, everyday sounds in a realistic environment...

  5. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  6. Satellite broadcasting - The European experience and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    1991-11-01

    The use of satellites is considered as a means for developing a European transnational broadcasting system with attention given to the control of technology. A tension is described between maintaining technology as the property of one nation when the DBSs are developed for multinational program broadcasting. The simultaneous development of satellite systems is theorized to lead eventually to a single merged program for a particular nation, and the effect is considered of the regulation of cross-holding and cross-selling systems by investors.

  7. An integrated system for dynamic control of auditory perspective in a multichannel sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Jason Andrew

    An integrated system providing dynamic control of sound source azimuth, distance and proximity to a room boundary within a simulated acoustic space is proposed for use in multichannel music and film sound production. The system has been investigated, implemented, and psychoacoustically tested within the ITU-R BS.775 recommended five-channel (3/2) loudspeaker layout. The work brings together physical and perceptual models of room simulation to allow dynamic placement of virtual sound sources at any location of a simulated space within the horizontal plane. The control system incorporates a number of modules including simulated room modes, "fuzzy" sources, and tracking early reflections, whose parameters are dynamically changed according to sound source location within the simulated space. The control functions of the basic elements, derived from theories of perception of a source in a real room, have been carefully tuned to provide efficient, effective, and intuitive control of a sound source's perceived location. Seven formal listening tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm design choices. The tests evaluated: (1) loudness calibration of multichannel sound images; (2) the effectiveness of distance control; (3) the resolution of distance control provided by the system; (4) the effectiveness of the proposed system when compared to a commercially available multichannel room simulation system in terms of control of source distance and proximity to a room boundary; (5) the role of tracking early reflection patterns on the perception of sound source distance; (6) the role of tracking early reflection patterns on the perception of lateral phantom images. The listening tests confirm the effectiveness of the system for control of perceived sound source distance, proximity to room boundaries, and azimuth, through fine, dynamic adjustment of parameters according to source location. All of the parameters are grouped and controlled together to

  8. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  9. Digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver in the U.K; Eikoku chijoha digital hoso jushinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Digital terrestrial broadcasting is broadcasted in parallel with existing UHF analog broadcasting, whereas each of allocated channel frequencies can transmit five to six programs simultaneously. Each home can receive a number of programs with the existing antenna without a need of installing a new satellite antenna or cable. Among the countries of the world running forward to digitization of broadcasting all at once, the U.K. develops advancing movements and leads the world by starting the digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition to the digitized broadcasting of conventional analog broadcasting programs, the `Ondigitals` (broadcasting operators) have started newly the pay broadcasting. Toshiba has been selected as one of the six developers and manufacturers of digital terrestrial broadcasting receivers, and has developed the digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver DTB2000. For the modulation system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) was chosen as a system being strong against ghost and most suitable for digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition, the receiver is equipped with software download function by using the broadcasting waves, and the common interface being the communication specification specified in the DVB (digital video broadcasting) to provide future function expandability. (translated by NEDO)

  10. A neurally inspired musical instrument classification system based upon the sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michael J; Smith, Leslie S

    2012-06-01

    Physiological evidence suggests that sound onset detection in the auditory system may be performed by specialized neurons as early as the cochlear nucleus. Psychoacoustic evidence shows that the sound onset can be important for the recognition of musical sounds. Here the sound onset is used in isolation to form tone descriptors for a musical instrument classification task. The task involves 2085 isolated musical tones from the McGill dataset across five instrument categories. A neurally inspired tone descriptor is created using a model of the auditory system's response to sound onset. A gammatone filterbank and spiking onset detectors, built from dynamic synapses and leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, create parallel spike trains that emphasize the sound onset. These are coded as a descriptor called the onset fingerprint. Classification uses a time-domain neural network, the echo state network. Reference strategies, based upon mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, evaluated either over the whole tone or only during the sound onset, provide context to the method. Classification success rates for the neurally-inspired method are around 75%. The cepstral methods perform between 73% and 76%. Further testing with tones from the Iowa MIS collection shows that the neurally inspired method is considerably more robust when tested with data from an unrelated dataset.

  11. How to take absorptive surfaces into account when designing outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten bo

    1996-01-01

    When sound reinforcement systems are used outdoors, absorptive surfaces are usually present along the propagation path of the sound. This may lead to a very significant colouration of the spectrum received by the audience. The colouration depends on the location and directivity of the loudspeaker......, the nature of the absorptive surface (eg grass) and the location of the audience. It is discussed how this effect may be calculated and numerical examples are shown. The results show a significant colouration and attenuation of the sound due to grass-covered surfaces....

  12. Development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R. B.; Taylor, J. P.; Honecker, H. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket vehicle through the first flight test at NASA-Wallops Station is described. Design and development of a 15 in. diameter, dual thrust, solid propellant motor demonstrating several new technology features provided the basis for the flight vehicle. The 'F' motor test program described demonstrated the following advanced propulsion technology: tandem dual grain configuration, low burning rate HTPB case-bonded propellant, and molded plastic nozzle. The resultant motor integrated into a flight vehicle was successfully flown with extensive diagnostic instrumentation.-

  13. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization.

  14. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung

    2009-01-01

    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  15. Fish protection at water intakes using a new signal development process and sound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffelman, P.H.; Klinect, D.A.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    American Electric Power Company, Inc., is exploring the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and sound system to guide aquatic animals with underwater sound. Sounds from animals such as chinook salmon, steelhead trout, striped bass, freshwater drum, largemouth bass, and gizzard shad can be used to synthesize a new signal to stimulate the animal in the most sensitive portion of its hearing range. AEP's field tests during its research demonstrate that adult chinook salmon, steelhead trout and warmwater fish, and steelhead trout and chinook salmon smolts can be repelled with a properly-tuned system. The signal development process and sound system is designed to be transportable and use animals at the site to incorporate site-specific factors known to affect underwater sound, e.g., bottom shape and type, water current, and temperature. This paper reports that, because the overall goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using sound to divert fish, it was essential that the approach use a signal development process which could be customized to animals and site conditions at any hydropower plant site

  16. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  17. Stage separation study of Nike-Black Brant V Sounding Rocket System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new Sounding Rocket System has been developed. It consists of a Nike Booster and a Black Brant V Sustainer with slanted fins which extend beyond its nozzle exit plane. A cursory look was taken at different factors which must be considered when studying a passive separation system. That is, one separation system without mechanical constraints in the axial direction and which will allow separation due to drag differential accelerations between the Booster and the Sustainer. The equations of motion were derived for rigid body motions and exact solutions were obtained. The analysis developed could be applied to any other staging problem of a Sounding Rocket System.

  18. Design of Efficient Sound Systems for Low Voltage Battery Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Oortgiesen, Rien; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of portable battery driven sound systems is crucial as it relates to both the playback time and cost of the system. This paper presents design considerations when designing such systems. This include loudspeaker and amplifier design. Using a low resistance voice coil realized...

  19. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  20. Implications of Internet on Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    One of the main challenges within broadcasting research in the recent years has been to understand the evolution from traditional broadcasting to digital broadcasting. The aim of this paper is to step further and give an analysis of Internet’s influence on traditional broadcasting services....... In this analysis an inter-disciplinary approach is used, where technological, economic, political and cultural drivers and barriers in this development are identified. It is then shown to what degree these parameters and the inter-relation between them influence this development....

  1. What Types of Policies Are Required for a Constitutionally Sound, Efficient Educational System of Common Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Brecque, Richard

    This paper clarifies core concepts in a Kentucky judge's decision that the State General Assembly has failed to provide an efficient system of common schools. Connecting "efficiency" of educational systems to "equality of educational opportunity," the paper argues that the realization of a constitutionally sound, efficient…

  2. Low frequency sound field enhancement system for rectangular rooms using multiple low frequency loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2006-01-01

    an enhancement system with extra loudspeakers the sound pressure level distribution along the listening area presents a significant improvement in the subwoofer frequency range. The system is simulated and implemented on the three different rooms and finally verified by measurements on the real rooms.......Rectangular rooms have strong influence on the low frequency performance of loudspeakers. Simulations of three different room sizes have been carried out using finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) in order to predict the behaviour of the sound field at low frequencies. By using...

  3. Research of Control System and Fault Diagnosis of the Sound-absorbing Board Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controller is the core of the control system of the sound- absorbing board production line and the design of fault diagnosis is an essential modules in the sound- absorbing board production line. The article discourses the application of PLC in the control system of the production line, and designs the methods of grading treatment and prevention of troubles, which makes use of PLC’S logic functions. The method has good expansibility, and has good guidance to the fault diagnosis in other automation equipments.

  4. Data Analysis of the TK-1G Sounding Rocket Installed with a Satellite Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesong Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an in-depth analysis of the experimental data of the TK-1G sounding rocket installed with the satellite navigation system. It turns out that the data acquisition rate of the rocket sonde is high, making the collection of complete trajectory and meteorological data possible. By comparing the rocket sonde measurements with those obtained by virtue of other methods, we find that the rocket sonde can be relatively precise in measuring atmospheric parameters within the scope of 20–60 km above the ground. This establishes the fact that the TK-1G sounding rocket system is effective in detecting near-space atmospheric environment.

  5. Research on the Safe Broadcasting of Television Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing way of broadcasting and television monitoring has a lot of problems in China. On the basis of the signal technical indicators monitoring in the present broadcasting and television monitoring system, this paper further extends the function of the monitoring network in order to broaden the services of monitoring business and improve the effect and efficiency of monitoring work. The problem of identifying video content and channel in television and related electronic media is conquered at a low cost implementation way and the flexible technology mechanism. The coverage for video content and identification of the channel is expanded. The informative broadcast entries are generated after a series of video processing. The value of the numerous broadcast data is deeply excavated by using big data processing in order to realize a comprehensive, objective and accurate information monitoring for the safe broadcasting of television program.

  6. Stochastic Signal Processing for Sound Environment System with Decibel Evaluation and Energy Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real sound environment system, a specific signal shows various types of probability distribution, and the observation data are usually contaminated by external noise (e.g., background noise of non-Gaussian distribution type. Furthermore, there potentially exist various nonlinear correlations in addition to the linear correlation between input and output time series. Consequently, often the system input and output relationship in the real phenomenon cannot be represented by a simple model using only the linear correlation and lower order statistics. In this study, complex sound environment systems difficult to analyze by using usual structural method are considered. By introducing an estimation method of the system parameters reflecting correlation information for conditional probability distribution under existence of the external noise, a prediction method of output response probability for sound environment systems is theoretically proposed in a suitable form for the additive property of energy variable and the evaluation in decibel scale. The effectiveness of the proposed stochastic signal processing method is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data in sound environment systems.

  7. Feasibility of an electronic stethoscope system for monitoring neonatal bowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jasmine; Hill, Krista M; Adrezin, Ronald S; Alba, Jorge; Curry, Raquel; Campagna, Eric; Fernandes, Cecilia; Lamba, Vineet; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2013-09-01

    Bowel dysfunction remains a major problem in neonates. Traditional auscultation of bowel sounds as a diagnostic aid in neonatal gastrointestinal complications is limited by skill and inability to document and reassess. Consequently, we built a unique prototype to investigate the feasibility of an electronic monitoring system for continuous assessment of bowel sounds. We attained approval by the Institutional Review Boards for the investigational study to test our system. The system incorporated a prototype stethoscope head with a built-in microphone connected to a digital recorder. Recordings made over extended periods were evaluated for quality. We also considered the acoustic environment of the hospital, where the stethoscope was used. The stethoscope head was attached to the abdomen with a hydrogel patch designed especially for this purpose. We used the system to obtain recordings from eight healthy, full-term babies. A scoring system was used to determine loudness, clarity, and ease of recognition comparing it to the traditional stethoscope. The recording duration was initially two hours and was increased to a maximum of eight hours. Median duration of attachment was three hours (3.75, 2.68). Based on the scoring, the bowel sound recording was perceived to be as loud and clear in sound reproduction as a traditional stethoscope. We determined that room noise and other noises were significant forms of interference in the recordings, which at times prevented analysis. However, no sound quality drift was noted in the recordings and no patient discomfort was noted. Minimal erythema was observed over the fixation site which subsided within one hour. We demonstrated the long-term recording of infant bowel sounds. Our contributions included a prototype stethoscope head, which was affixed using a specially designed hydrogel adhesive patch. Such a recording can be reviewed and reassessed, which is new technology and an improvement over current practice. The use of this

  8. A review of intelligent systems for heart sound signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih-Ali, Mohammed; El-Dahshan, El-Sayed A; Yahia, Ashraf S

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. CAD systems could provide physicians with a suggestion about the diagnostic of heart diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the recent published preprocessing, feature extraction and classification techniques and their state of the art of phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis. Published literature reviewed in this paper shows the potential of machine learning techniques as a design tool in PCG CAD systems and reveals that the CAD systems for PCG signal analysis are still an open problem. Related studies are compared to their datasets, feature extraction techniques and the classifiers they used. Current achievements and limitations in developing CAD systems for PCG signal analysis using machine learning techniques are presented and discussed. In the light of this review, a number of future research directions for PCG signal analysis are provided.

  9. Vehicle engine sound design based on an active noise control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M. [Siemens VDO Automotive, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A study has been carried out to identify the types of vehicle engine sounds that drivers prefer while driving at different locations and under different driving conditions. An active noise control system controlled the sound at the air intake orifice of a vehicle engine's first sixteen orders and half orders. The active noise control system was used to change the engine sound to quiet, harmonic, high harmonic, spectral shaped and growl. Videos were made of the roads traversed, binaural recording of vehicle interior sounds, and vibrations of the vehicle floor pan. Jury tapes were made up for day driving, nighttime driving and driving in the rain during the day for each of the sites. Jurors used paired comparisons to evaluate the vehicle interior sounds while sitting in a vehicle simulator developed by Siemens VDO that replicated videos of the road traversed, binaural recording of the vehicle interior sounds and vibrations of the floor pan and seat. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Studie wurden Typen von Motorgeraeuschen identifiziert, die von Fahrern unter verschiedenen Fahrbedingungen als angenehm empfunden werden. Ein System zur aktiven Geraeuschbeeinflussung am Ansauglufteinlass im Bereich des Luftfilters modifizierte den Klang des Motors bis zur 16,5ten Motorordnung, und zwar durch Bedaempfung, Verstaerkung und Filterung der Signalfrequenzen. Waehrend der Fahrt wurden Videoaufnahmen der befahrenen Strassen, Stereoaufnahmen der Fahrzeuginnengeraeusche und Aufnahmen der Vibrationsamplituden des Fahrzeugbodens erstellt; dies bei Tag- und Nachtfahrten und bei Tagfahrten im Regen. Zur Beurteilung der aufgezeichneten Geraeusche durch Versuchspersonen wurde ein Fahrzeug-Laborsimulator mit Fahrersitz, Bildschirm, Lautsprecher und mechanischer Erregung der Bodenplatte aufgebaut, um die aufgenommenen Signale moeglichst wirklichkeitsgetreu wiederzugeben. (orig.)

  10. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  11. Sound transmission through pipe systems and into plate structures in buildings. A simplified sea model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron-van der Jagt, G.S.

    2007-01-01

    In the study presented, it has been investigated whether Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) could be applied in a simplified way as a framework for a prediction model regarding noise due to service equipment, specifically sound transmission within (plastic wastewater) pipe systems and between these

  12. Modelling of horn-type loudspeakers for outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    -type loudspeakers is made. The agreement between measured and calculated results is very good provided that a sufficient number of modes is included in the simulation. Simulation models of this kind represent one of the first steps towards a CAD tool for outdoor sound reinforcement systems....

  13. Numerical Model of the Human Cardiovascular System-Korotkoff Sounds Simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana; Brož, Z.; Štembera, V.

    Vol.4, č. 2 (2004), s. 193-199 ISSN 1432-9077 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiovascular system * Korotkoff sounds * numerical simulation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Validation of a Perceptual Distraction Model in a Complex Personal Sound Zone System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Marsh, Steven; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates a previously proposed perceptual model predicting user’s perceived distraction caused by interfering audio programmes. The distraction model was originally trained using a simple sound reproduction system for music-on-music interference situations and it has not been formally...

  15. An Analog I/O Interface Board for Audio Arduino Open Sound Card System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    AudioArduino [1] is a system consisting of an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver and corresponding microcontroller code; that can demonstrate full-duplex, mono, 8-bit, 44.1 kHz soundcard behavior on an FTDI based Arduino. While the basic operation as a soundcard can...

  16. Broadcasting, Reacting, Engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Symmetric communication and relationship building are core principles of public relations, which have been highlighted for CSR communication. In this paper three different communication strategies for CSR communication in Twitter are developed, of which each contributes differently...... to the ideals of symmetric communication and relationship building. The framework is then applied to analyze how companies use the micro-blogging service Twitter for CSR communication. Design/methodology/approach - Social network analysis is used to identify the 30 most central corporate accounts in a CSR...... Twitter-Network. From these accounts over 40´000 tweets are extracted and manually coded. Anova is applied to investigate differences in the weighting of CSR topics between the different strategies. Findings - The analysis reveals that corporations adhere to a broadcasting strategy or a reactive strategy...

  17. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  18. A Resource Curriculum in Broadcast Media. Bulletin No. 8025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Roger; Moen, Mary

    A resource for teachers who design instructional programs in broadcast media, this curriculum guide consists of eight units which deal with the nature of broadcast media, broadcast programming and public interest, broadcast advertising, broadcast regulation, societal effects of broadcasting, broadcasting and future technology, radio broadcasting,…

  19. Prospective Freshman English Teachers’ Knowledge of the English Sound System

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL, Kadir Vefa

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language teachers use the spoken form of the target language when they teach. One of their professional responsibilities while teaching is to form a good model of pronunciation for their students. In Turkey, English is the primary foreign language taught in all educational institutions. Prospective English teachers in the English Teacher Education departments in Faculties of Education are the products of that system, and they come to their universities having been taught English for y...

  20. On-Chip electric power generation system from sound of portable music plyers and smartphones towerd portable uTAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naito, T.; Kaji, N.; le Gac, Severine; Tokeshi, M.; van den Berg, Albert; Baba, Y.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates electric generation from sound to minimize and integrate microfluidic systems for point of care testing or in-situ analysis. In this work, 5.4 volts and 50 mW DC was generated from sound through an earphone cable, which is a versatile system and able to actuate small size and

  1. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Commission its Notice of Intent to establish an open video system. (m) Sports broadcast... notices unless they receive notice within a reasonable time from the appropriate programming provider that... Office of Management and Budget. ...

  2. TV Broadcast Efficiency in 5G Networks from Subscriber Prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    measuring the efficiency of a system. These metrics assess the net bitrate for a unit of spectrum bandwidth. However, there is a lack of measurement, quantifying the effectiveness of a broadcasting strategy from the user perspective. In this paper, we

  3. Advances in the development of an integrated data assimilation and sounding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabberdt, W.F.; Parsons, D.; Kuo, Y.H.; Dudhia, J.; Guo, Y.R.; Van Baelen, J.; Martin, C.; Oncley, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System (IDASS) provides continuous high-resolution tropospheric profiles. The measurement system (Integrated Sounding System, or ISS) is developed around a suite of in situ and active and passive remote sensors. Observations from ISS networks provide a high-resolution description of atmospheric structure on the mesoscale. Measurements are coupled with a state-of-the-art mesoscale modeling system. The mesoscale data assimilation scheme is the Newtonian nudging technique. In the mesoscale data assimilation process, observations of wind, temperature, and humidity are used to nudge or relax the time-dependent model variables to the observed values. The end product is a highly resolved four-dimensional meteorological data set (including three components of wind, temperature, humidity, cloud water, and integrated moisture)

  4. TV Broadcast Efficiency in 5G Networks from Subscriber Prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2015-12-06

    The flexibility of radio access network facilitated by 5G networks opens the gateway of deploying dynamic strategies for broadcasting TV channels in an efficient way. Currently, spectrum efficiency and bandwidth efficiency are the two common metrics measuring the efficiency of a system. These metrics assess the net bitrate for a unit of spectrum bandwidth. However, there is a lack of measurement, quantifying the effectiveness of a broadcasting strategy from the user perspective. In this paper, we introduce a novel measurement approach, called broadcast efficiency which considers the mobile user as a main reference. Broadcast efficiency is calculated as the number of served audiences per unit of radio resource. From numerical analysis, we show that broadcasting unpopular TV channels dramatically decreases the broadcast efficiency. This finding is evaluated by employing multiple distributions on the size of audience among TV channels. Furthermore, by conducting a real-life simulation, we discover that a high broadcast efficiency may result in a low percentage of served audiences if the audiences of TV channels are quite evenly distributed.

  5. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  6. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  7. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  8. Broadcast Services. Information Bulletin No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Radio and television broadcasting is authorized and regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Following a brief description of the development of broadcasting, broadcast regulations, and the Commission, this report examines various aspects of the subject pertaining to the fairness doctrine, political broadcasting, advertising, sale…

  9. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  10. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Akira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using "scope" (an available area of location-dependent data and "mobility specification" (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  11. Broadcasted Location-Aware Data Cache for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Sato

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems. Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include traffic information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communication methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication, and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to effectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using “scope” (an available area of location-dependent data and “mobility specification” (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves. We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the traffic road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.

  12. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...

  13. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  14. Design and qualification of an UHV system for operation on sounding rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Jens, E-mail: jens.grosse@dlr.de; Braxmaier, Claus [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), University of Bremen, Bremen, 28359, Germany and German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bremen, Bremen, 28359 (Germany); Seidel, Stephan Tobias; Becker, Dennis; Lachmann, Maike Diana [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover, 30167 (Germany); Scharringhausen, Marco [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bremen, Bremen, 28359 (Germany); Rasel, Ernst Maria [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover, 30167, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The sounding rocket mission MAIUS-1 has the objective to create the first Bose–Einstein condensate in space; therefore, its scientific payload is a complete cold atom experiment built to be launched on a VSB-30 sounding rocket. An essential part of the setup is an ultrahigh vacuum system needed in order to sufficiently suppress interactions of the cooled atoms with the residual background gas. Contrary to vacuum systems on missions aboard satellites or the international space station, the required vacuum environment has to be reached within 47 s after motor burn-out. This paper contains a detailed description of the MAIUS-1 vacuum system, as well as a description of its qualification process for the operation under vibrational loads of up to 8.1 g{sub RMS} (where RMS is root mean square). Even though a pressure rise dependent on the level of vibration was observed, the design presented herein is capable of regaining a pressure of below 5 × 10{sup −10} mbar in less than 40 s when tested at 5.4 g{sub RMS}. To the authors' best knowledge, it is the first UHV system qualified for operation on a sounding rocket.

  15. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  16. Sound creation and artistic language hybridization through the use of the collaborative creation system: Soundcool

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel-Gómez, Noemy; Murillo-Ribes, Adolf; Sastre-Martínez, Jorge; Riaño Galán, María Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: We submit the development of a collaborative sound creation proposal made reality using the Soundcool system from its initial design phase to the scenic performance at the International Festival of Contemporary Music ENSEMS, Valencia (Spain). The "interstellar machine", a transdisciplinary piece whose linking thread is a story, is characterized by hybridization of languages and artistic fusion.It's a piece made possible by the joint work between students of Primary and Secondary Edu...

  17. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development as well as the on-ground and the in-flight evaluation of a low cost Global Positioning System (GPS) system for real-time tracking of sounding rockets. The flight unit comprises a modified ORION GPS receiver and a newly designed switchable antenna system composed of a helical antenna in the rocket tip and a dual-blade antenna combination attached to the body of the service module. Aside from the flight hardware a PC based terminal program has been developed to monitor the GPS data and graphically displays the rocket's path during the flight. In addition an Instantaneous Impact Point (IIP) prediction is performed based on the received position and velocity information. In preparation for ESA's Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, Kiruna, on 19 Feb. 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. In addition to the ORION receiver, an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver and a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver, both connected to a wrap-around antenna, have been flown on the same rocket as part of an independent experiment provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center. This allows an in-depth verification and trade-off of different receiver and antenna concepts.

  18. Time coded distribution via broadcasting stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschiutta, S.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of standard time signals via AM and FM broadcasting stations presents the distinct advantages to offer a wide area coverage and to allow the use of inexpensive receivers, but the signals are radiated a limited number of times per day, are not usually available during the night, and no full and automatic synchronization of a remote clock is possible. As an attempt to overcome some of these problems, a time coded signal with a complete date information is diffused by the IEN via the national broadcasting networks in Italy. These signals are radiated by some 120 AM and about 3000 FM and TV transmitters around the country. In such a way, a time ordered system with an accuracy of a couple of milliseconds is easily achieved.

  19. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU\\'s interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  20. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia; Eltawil, Ahmed M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU's interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  1. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  2. Cue Reliability Represented in the Shape of Tuning Curves in the Owl's Sound Localization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazettes, Fanny; Fischer, Brian J; Peña, Jose L

    2016-02-17

    Optimal use of sensory information requires that the brain estimates the reliability of sensory cues, but the neural correlate of cue reliability relevant for behavior is not well defined. Here, we addressed this issue by examining how the reliability of spatial cue influences neuronal responses and behavior in the owl's auditory system. We show that the firing rate and spatial selectivity changed with cue reliability due to the mechanisms generating the tuning to the sound localization cue. We found that the correlated variability among neurons strongly depended on the shape of the tuning curves. Finally, we demonstrated that the change in the neurons' selectivity was necessary and sufficient for a network of stochastic neurons to predict behavior when sensory cues were corrupted with noise. This study demonstrates that the shape of tuning curves can stand alone as a coding dimension of environmental statistics. In natural environments, sensory cues are often corrupted by noise and are therefore unreliable. To make the best decisions, the brain must estimate the degree to which a cue can be trusted. The behaviorally relevant neural correlates of cue reliability are debated. In this study, we used the barn owl's sound localization system to address this question. We demonstrated that the mechanisms that account for spatial selectivity also explained how neural responses changed with degraded signals. This allowed for the neurons' selectivity to capture cue reliability, influencing the population readout commanding the owl's sound-orienting behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362101-10$15.00/0.

  3. Performance Analysis of Reuse Distance in Cooperative Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi Grönkvist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative broadcasting is a promising technique for robust broadcast with low overhead and delay in mobile ad hoc networks. The technique is attractive for mission-oriented mobile communication, where a majority of the traffic is of broadcast nature. In cooperative broadcasting, all nodes simultaneously retransmit packets. The receiver utilizes cooperative diversity in the simultaneously received signals. The retransmissions continue until all nodes are reached. After the packet has traveled a specific number of hops out from the source, denoted as reuse distance, the source node transmits a new broadcast packet in the time slot used for the previous broadcast packet. If the reuse distance is too small, interference causes packet loss in intermediate nodes. In the literature, a reuse distance of three is common. With an analysis based on a realistic interference model and real terrain data, we show that a reuse distance of at least four is necessary to avoid packet loss in sparsely connected networks, especially for high spectral efficiencies. For frequency hopping, widely used in military systems, we propose a novel method. This method almost eliminates interference for a reuse distance of three, increasing the throughput by 33% compared to systems with a reuse distance of four.

  4. A data-assimilative ocean forecasting system for the Prince William sound and an evaluation of its performance during sound Predictions 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrara, John D.; Chao, Yi; Li, Zhijin; Wang, Xiaochun; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Hongchun; Li, Peggy; Vu, Quoc; Olsson, Peter Q.; Schoch, G. Carl; Halverson, Mark; Moline, Mark A.; Ohlmann, Carter; Johnson, Mark; McWilliams, James C.; Colas, Francois A.

    2013-07-01

    The development and implementation of a three-dimensional ocean modeling system for the Prince William Sound (PWS) is described. The system consists of a regional ocean model component (ROMS) forced by output from a regional atmospheric model component (the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, WRF). The ROMS ocean model component has a horizontal resolution of 1km within PWS and utilizes a recently-developed multi-scale 3DVAR data assimilation methodology along with freshwater runoff from land obtained via real-time execution of a digital elevation model. During the Sound Predictions Field Experiment (July 19-August 3, 2009) the system was run in real-time to support operations and incorporated all available real-time streams of data. Nowcasts were produced every 6h and a 48-h forecast was performed once a day. In addition, a sixteen-member ensemble of forecasts was executed on most days. All results were published at a web portal (http://ourocean.jpl.nasa.gov/PWS) in real time to support decision making.The performance of the system during Sound Predictions 2009 is evaluated. The ROMS results are first compared with the assimilated data as a consistency check. RMS differences of about 0.7°C were found between the ROMS temperatures and the observed vertical profiles of temperature that are assimilated. The ROMS salinities show greater discrepancies, tending to be too salty near the surface. The overall circulation patterns observed throughout the Sound are qualitatively reproduced, including the following evolution in time. During the first week of the experiment, the weather was quite stormy with strong southeasterly winds. This resulted in strong north to northwestward surface flow in much of the central PWS. Both the observed drifter trajectories and the ROMS nowcasts showed strong surface inflow into the Sound through the Hinchinbrook Entrance and strong generally northward to northwestward flow in the central Sound that was exiting through the Knight

  5. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    OpenAIRE

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Hourari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in \\cite{SaidKasi_2011}, the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (\\cite{HKa06}, \\cite%b{IK08}, \\cite{KK09}) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the pr...

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  7. Is the Speech Transmission Index (STI) a robust measure of sound system speech intelligibility performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Although RaSTI is a good indicator of the speech intelligibility capability of auditoria and similar spaces, during the past 2-3 years it has been shown that RaSTI is not a robust predictor of sound system intelligibility performance. Instead, it is now recommended, within both national and international codes and standards, that full STI measurement and analysis be employed. However, new research is reported, that indicates that STI is not as flawless, nor robust as many believe. The paper highlights a number of potential error mechanisms. It is shown that the measurement technique and signal excitation stimulus can have a significant effect on the overall result and accuracy, particularly where DSP-based equipment is employed. It is also shown that in its current state of development, STI is not capable of appropriately accounting for a number of fundamental speech and system attributes, including typical sound system frequency response variations and anomalies. This is particularly shown to be the case when a system is operating under reverberant conditions. Comparisons between actual system measurements and corresponding word score data are reported where errors of up to 50 implications for VA and PA system performance verification will be discussed.

  8. The effects of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in middle school physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stu

    2009-04-01

    The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using a portable sound-field amplification system. Managerial time is defined as the cumulative amount of time that students spend on organizational, transitional, and nonsubject matter tasks in a lesson. The findings showed that the amount of managerial time at the beginning of class clearly decreased when the teacher used sound-field amplification feedback to physical education students. Findings indicate an immediate need for administrators to determine the most appropriate, cost-effective procedure to support sound-field amplification systems in existing physical education settings.

  9. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  10. Interface for Barge-in Free Spoken Dialogue System Based on Sound Field Reproduction and Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinamoto Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A barge-in free spoken dialogue interface using sound field control and microphone array is proposed. In the conventional spoken dialogue system using an acoustic echo canceller, it is indispensable to estimate a room transfer function, especially when the transfer function is changed by various interferences. However, the estimation is difficult when the user and the system speak simultaneously. To resolve the problem, we propose a sound field control technique to prevent the response sound from being observed. Combined with a microphone array, the proposed method can achieve high elimination performance with no adaptive process. The efficacy of the proposed interface is ascertained in the experiments on the basis of sound elimination and speech recognition.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Acoustic Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Active Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, L. Marcos; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Rage, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Free-hanging horizontal and vertical sound absorbers are commonly used in buildings for room acoustic control; however, when these sound absorbers are used in combination with Thermally Active Building Systems, they will decrease the cooling performance of Thermally Active Building Systems...... and this will affect the thermal indoor environment in that space. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to quantify and model these effects in the design phase. This study quantifies experimentally the effects of horizontal and vertical free-hanging sound absorbers on the cooling performance of Thermally Active......%, respectively. With vertical sound absorbers, the decrease in cooling performance was 8%, 12%, and 14% for the corresponding cases, respectively. The numerical model predicted closely the cooling performance reduction, air temperatures and ceiling surface temperatures in most cases, while there were differences...

  12. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  13. Broadcast and Aggregation in BBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a process calculus BBC that has both forms of communication. For both many-to-one and one-to-many communication, it is often a natural assumption that communication is bounded; this reflects two distinct aspects of the limitations of a medium. In the case of broadcast, ...

  14. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  15. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  16. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  17. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun; Jadhali, Rasha Al; Zhang, Likun; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation

  18. Alternative Paths to Hearing (A Conjecture. Photonic and Tactile Hearing Systems Displaying the Frequency Spectrum of Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Hara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hearing process is considered from a system engineering perspective. For those with total hearing loss, a cochlear implant is the only direct remedy. It first acts as a spectrum analyser and then electronically stimulates the neurons in the cochlea with a number of electrodes. Each electrode carries information on the separate frequency bands (i.e., spectrum of the original sound signal. The neurons then relay the signals in a parallel manner to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. Photonic and tactile hearing systems displaying the spectrum of sound are proposed as alternative paths to the section of the brain that processes sound. In view of the plasticity of the brain, which can rewire itself, the following conjectures are offered. After a certain period of training, a person without the ability to hear should be able to decipher the patterns of photonic or tactile displays of the sound spectrum and learn to ‘hear’. This is very similar to the case of a blind person learning to ‘read’ by recognizing the patterns created by the series of bumps as their fingers scan the Braille writing. The conjectures are yet to be tested. Designs of photonic and tactile systems displaying the sound spectrum are outlined.

  19. Beyond the Staff: “Alternative” Systems in the Graphical Representation of Organized Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cámara de Landa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a reflection on the limits of the staff in the representation of organized sound is briefly presented, followed by the consideration of the proposals that some ethnomusicologists have developed to highlight particular aspects of music. Some antecedents are provided, such as the synoptic transcription (Constantin Brăiloiu and the paradigmatic transcription (Nicolas Ruwet. Other proposals will be discussed, like the graphical representation of musical structure (Bernard Lortat-Jacob, Hugo Zemp or the use of spectrograms (Charles Seeger, Mireille Hellfer, Lortat-Jacob, Grazia Tuzi, graphic devices (Charles Adams, musemes (Philip Tagg, sonograms (Enrique Cámara, frame by frame musical transcription (Gerhard Kubik, and local systems of notation. According to these proposals, the graphical representation of music beyond the staff maintains its efficiency in current ethnomusicology (with different objectives and even different targets. Moreover, I will argue that it is necessary to take into consideration the place occupied by the use of these tools in the tensions and interactions between etic and emic perspectives, and the need to reconcile the internal consistency required for any system of visual representation of sound, with the need to make permanently flexible proposals based on intercultural dialogue.

  20. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in subjects with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvik P. Mehta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS, a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered preexposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i temporary threshold shift (TTS, defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  1. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in Subjects with Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P; Mattson, Sara L; Kappus, Brian A; Seitzman, Robin L

    2015-06-11

    The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS), a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered pre-exposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i) temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii) presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire) followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  2. Subband Approach to Bandlimited Crosstalk Cancellation System in Spatial Sound Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R.; Lee, Chih-Chung

    2006-12-01

    Crosstalk cancellation system (CCS) plays a vital role in spatial sound reproduction using multichannel loudspeakers. However, this technique is still not of full-blown use in practical applications due to heavy computation loading. To reduce the computation loading, a bandlimited CCS is presented in this paper on the basis of subband filtering approach. A pseudoquadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank is employed in the implementation of CCS filters which are bandlimited to 6 kHz, where human's localization is the most sensitive. In addition, a frequency-dependent regularization scheme is adopted in designing the CCS inverse filters. To justify the proposed system, subjective listening experiments were undertaken in an anechoic room. The experiments include two parts: the source localization test and the sound quality test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is applied to process the data and assess statistical significance of subjective experiments. The results indicate that the bandlimited CCS performed comparably well as the fullband CCS, whereas the computation loading was reduced by approximately eighty percent.

  3. Unsupervised Speaker Change Detection for Broadcast News Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a speaker change detection system for news broadcast segmentation based on a vector quantization (VQ) approach. The system does not make any assumption about the number of speakers or speaker identity. The system uses mel frequency cepstral coefficients and change detection...

  4. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  5. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  6. The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts. West European Television Channels and Polish Audiences during the System Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Wasiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows symbolized by Tutti Frutti and music video available with MTV Europe.

  7. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Young; Seo, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2018-01-04

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.

  8. Emission of Biophotons and Adjustable Sounds by the Fascial System: Review and Reflections for Manual Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, Fabiola; Morabito, Bruno; Sacconi, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Every body structure is wrapped in connective tissue or fascia, creating a structural continuity that gives form and function to every tissue and organ. The fascial tissue is uniformly distributed throughout the body, enveloping, interacting with and permeating blood vessels, nerves, viscera, meninges, bones and muscles, creating various layers at different depths and forming a tridimensional metabolic and mechanical matrix. This article reviews the literature on the emission of biophotons and adjustable sounds by the fascial system, because these biological changes could be a means of local and systemic cellular communication and become another assessment tool for manual (therapy) practitioners. This is the first article that discusses these topics in a single text, attempting to bring such information into an area of application that is beneficial to osteopaths, chiropractors, and manual therapists.

  9. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  10. Development of radio acoustic sounding system (RASS with Gadanki MST radar – first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsuda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-power acoustic exciter was designed and developed for the Gadanki MST Radar to facilitate observations in the Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS mode. Sweep range of acoustic signal frequencies was set to 94–125 Hz so as to satisfy Bragg matching condition for temperature range of −90°–40°C between surface and the tropopause (about 17 km. Raytracing of acoustic wave propagation was used to predict the antenna beam directions along which optimum RASS echoes could be obtained. During the RASS observation period of about 18 h on 23–24 July 2006 height profiles of atmospheric virtual temperature were obtained between 1.5 km and 10 km and occasionally up to 14 km. In comparison with the three simultaneous radiosonde launches, RASS derived temperature profiles had the r.m.s. discrepancy of about 1 K, although deviation of the RASS results sometimes appeared when the radial wind velocity was not fully available for the correction of apparent sound speed. This study has successfully demonstrated capability of the RASS application with the Gadanki MST radar, which will be used for continuous monitoring of the temperature profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere region in the tropics.

  11. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  12. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the ways used for minimizing the cost of maintenance and repairs of rotating industrial equipment is condition monitoring using acoustic analysis. One of the most important problems which always have been under consideration in industrial equipment application is confidence possibility. Each dynamic, electrical, hydraulic or thermal system has certain characteristics which show the normal condition of the machine during function. Any changes of the characteristics can be a signal of a problem in the machine. The aim of condition monitoring is system condition determination using measurements of the signals of characteristics and using this information for system impairment prognostication. There are a lot of ways for condition monitoring of different systems, but sound analysis is accepted and used extensively as a method for condition investigation of rotating machines. The aim of this research is the design and construction of considered gearbox and using of obtaining data in frequency and time spectrum in order to analyze the sound and diagnosis. Materials and Methods This research was conducted at the department of mechanical biosystem workshop at Aboureihan College at Tehran University in February 15th.2015. In this research, in order to investigate the trend of diagnosis and gearbox condition, a system was designed and then constructed. The sound of correct and damaged gearbox was investigated by audiometer and stored in computer for data analysis. Sound measurement was done in three pinions speed of 749, 1050 and 1496 rpm and for correct gearboxes, damage of the fracture of a tooth and a tooth wear. Gearbox design and construction: In order to conduct the research, a gearbox with simple gearwheels was designed according to current needs. Then mentioned gearbox and its accessories were modeled in CATIA V5-R20 software and then the system was constructed. Gearbox is a machine that is used for mechanical power transition

  13. Unified broadcast in sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Jurdak, Raja; Kusy, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    of the network stack. UB is implemented as a transparent layer between the link and network layers, where it delays, schedules, and combines broadcasts from upper layer protocols before transmission on the wireless channel. Our empirical results in simulation and on a testbed show that UB can decrease...... the overall packet transmissions in the network by more than 60%, corresponding to more than 40% energy savings, without requiring new interfaces or affecting the correctness of the upper layer protocols....

  14. Development of sound absorption measuring system with acoustic chamber; Kogata kyuon koka sokutei sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, M.; Noba, M. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In order to measure sound absorption performance necessary to develop sound absorption materials, development was made on a device consisting of a small sound box capable of measurement inexpensively and easily, as a measure against the reverberation chamber method. In order to obtain stabilized diffusion sound internally, the sound box has a shape of asymmetric seven-side body in which sides do not face squarely with each other. The box was so sized that a large number of resonant vibration postures can be constituted at the targeted frequency simultaneously in the box. The box has a commercially available cone speaker with good acoustic output characteristics in frequency range of higher than 500 Hz installed on an inner side of the box. The sound source uses a method to derive sound absorption rate from difference of sound pressure levels. In order to eliminate need of averaging treatment by using a multi-point measurement inside the box, a discussion was given to provide an opening on part of the box to place the sound receiving point outside the opening. A square test piece is placed on the floor 0.5 meter or more away from the speaker in the box. As a result of the experiment, it was verified that the sound absorption rate obtained by this device corresponds well with that by the reverberation chamber method. The size of the test piece was also found adequate. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  16. How Should Children with Speech Sound Disorders be Classified? A Review and Critical Evaluation of Current Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R.; Knight, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) form a heterogeneous group who differ in terms of the severity of their condition, underlying cause, speech errors, involvement of other aspects of the linguistic system and treatment response. To date there is no universal and agreed-upon classification system. Instead, a number of…

  17. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-01-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling

  18. Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) for the investigation of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Qiao, Lei; Gong, Wanlin

    2018-03-01

    An upgrade of Wuhan Ionospheric Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) was developed in 2015. Based on the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a high performance FPGA, the newly designed WIOBSS has a completely digital structure, which makes it portable and flexible. Two identical WIOBSSs, which were situated at Mile (24.31°N, 103.39°E) and Puer (22.74°N, 101.05°E) respectively, were used to investigate the ionospheric irregularities. The comparisons of group distance, Doppler shift and width between Mile-Puer and Puer-Mile VHF ionospheric propagation paths indicate that the reciprocity of the irregularities is satisfied at midlatitude region. The WIOBSS is robust in the detection of ionospheric irregularities.

  19. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  20. Static analysis of topology-dependent broadcast networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    changing network topology is a crucial ingredient. In this paper, we develop a static analysis that automatically constructs an abstract transition system, labelled by actions and connectivity information, to yield a mobility-preserving finite abstraction of the behaviour of a network expressed......Broadcast semantics poses significant challenges over point-to-point communication when it comes to formal modelling and analysis. Current approaches to analysing broadcast networks have focused on fixed connectivities, but this is unsuitable in the case of wireless networks where the dynamically...... in a process calculus with asynchronous local broadcast. Furthermore, we use model checking based on a 3-valued temporal logic to distinguish network behaviour which differs under changing connectivity patterns. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  2. Climate Matters: Increasing Climate Literacy Through Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. J.; Placky, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Broadcast meteorologists are among the most trusted members of the media landscape and they have a unique opportunity to reach the broad public with information about climate change. A recent survey by Maibach, et al. (2015) has shown that more than 90% of TV weathercasters think that their audience is at least somewhat interested in learning about the local impacts of climate change and 7 in 10 think that it is appropriate for them to report the science of climate change to their audience. But about half of these TV weathercasters have experienced obstacles to reporting climate change - citing lack of time to research and produce material, in addition to lack of access to appropriate visuals/graphics and access to trusted scientific information. Climate Matters is an NSF funded program that partners with broadcast meteorologists to deliver scientifically sound climate change information to the public that is local and relevant. A team of climate scientists, meteorologists, data analysts, journalists, and multimedia artists analyze and prepare content on a weekly basis so that it may be readily included in a broadcast weather segment, online or during community outreach. The program started as a pilot project with just one meteorologist in 2010 before Climate Central launched a full-time, nationwide program in 2012. Since then, Climate Matters has grown to include over 250 meteorologists strong and in more than 100 markets across the country, including Spanish language TV stations.

  3. Influence of visual stimuli on the sound quality evaluation of loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to hearing and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order...... to quantify the bias that the image of a loudspeaker has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, loudspeaker sounds of varied degradation are coupled with positively or negatively biasing visual input of actual loudspeakers, and in a separate experiment by pictures of the same loudspeakers....

  4. Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-11-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.

  5. Vibrometry Assessment of the External Thermal Composite Insulation Systems Influence on the Façade Airborne Sound Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Urbán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper verifies the impact of the use of an external thermal composite system (ETICS on air-borne sound insulation. For optimum accuracy over a wide frequency range, classical microphone based transmission measurements are combined with accelerometer based vibrometry measurements. Consistency is found between structural resonance frequencies and bending wave velocity dispersion curves determined by vibrometry on the one hand and spectral features of the sound reduction index, the ETICS mass-spring-mass resonance induced dip in the acoustic insulation spectrum, and the coincidence induced dip on the other hand. Scanning vibrometry proves to be an effective tool for structural assessment in the design phase of ETICS systems. The measured spectra are obtained with high resolution in wide frequency range, and yield sound insulation values are not affected by the room acoustic features of the laboratory transmission rooms. The complementarity between the microphone and accelerometer based results allows assessing the effect of ETICS on the sound insulation spectrum in an extended frequency range from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. The modified engineering ΔR prediction model for frequency range up to coincidence frequency of external plaster layer is recommended. Values for the sound reduction index obtained by a modified prediction method are consistent with the measured data.

  6. THE SOUNDNESS OF THE BANKING SYSTEM DURING THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iuliana TOMULEASA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic world is currently under the sign of profound changes, determined, in a significant extent, by the mutations in financial markets, the regulatory and institutional changes, illustrating its powerful impact on the financial system actors. The paper’s main purpose is to provide a comparative analysis of the performance and efficiency of commercial banks in seven European Union countries and an empirical analysis regarding the soundness of the Romanian banking system. The analysis undertaken in the paper highlights the need for banks to apply essential adjustments in their activity, such as the orientation to a new banking model, or the gearing to the latest regulations and tighter conditions of supervision on the financial sector. There were pointed out a series of issues which captured the overwhelming implications of the global financial crisis on the “health” of the financial system in EU, noticing the need for further measures that have as a main goal the avoidance of a financial system collapse.

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  8. Developments in the Regulation of Broadcasting Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Yvonne; Randle, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This Intervention provides a review of developments in the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece focuses on the implications of media convergence on broadcast advertising, and provides a brief history and analysis of the regulation of broadcast advertising within the UK. The piece also reviews Advertising Codes and provides an overview of regulatory bodies such as OFCOM and the ASA, and their respective roles.

  9. Resource development and experiments in automatic SA broadcast news transcription

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamper, H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available development purposes: a 20 hour corpus of South African English (SAE) broadcast news, a 109M word corpus of South African newspaper text collected for language modelling purposes, and a 60k word SAE pronunciation dictionary. The development of our system...

  10. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  11. 76 FR 62642 - Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Characteristic,'' (July 6, 2010), as listed below: (i) A/53, Part 1:2007, ``Digital Television System'' (January... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-1432] Digital Broadcast Television..., Radio, Television. Accordingly, 47 CFR part 73 is corrected by making the following correcting...

  12. Selective epidemic broadcast algorithm to suppress broadcast storm in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chitra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is the best way to spread emergency messages all over the network. With the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks, simple broadcast or flooding faces the problem called as Broadcast Storm Problem (BSP. The issue of the BSP will degrade the performance of a message broadcasting process like increased overhead, collision and dissemination delay. The paper is motivated to solve the problems in the existing Broadcast Strom Suppression Algorithms (BSSAs like p-Persistence, TLO, VSPB, G-SAB and SIR. This paper proposes to suppress the Broadcast Storm Problem and to improve the Emergency Safety message dissemination rate through a new BSSA based on Selective Epidemic Broadcast Algorithm (SEB. The simulation results clearly show that the SEB outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of ESM Delivery Ratio, Message Overhead, Collision Ratio, Broadcast Storm Ratio and Redundant Rebroadcast Ratio with decreased Dissemination Delay.

  13. Low frequency sound field enhancement system for rectangular rooms, using multiple loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this PhD dissertation is within the performance of loudspeakers in rooms at low frequencies. The research concentrates on the improvement of the sound level distribution in rooms produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies. The work focuses on seeing the problem acoustically...... and solving it in the time domain. Loudspeakers are the last link in the sound reproduction chain, and they are typically placed in small or medium size rooms. When low frequency sound is radiated by a loudspeaker the sound level distribution along the room presents large deviations. This is due...... to the multiple reflection of sound at the rigid walls of the room. This may cause level differences of up to 20 dB in the room. Some of these deviations are associated with the standing waves, resonances or anti resonances of the room. The understanding of the problem is accomplished by analyzing the behavior...

  14. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  15. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  16. 47 CFR 73.6011 - Protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6011... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6011 Protection of TV broadcast stations. Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes...

  17. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  19. Piloting Telepresence-Enabled Education and Outreach Programs from a UNOLS Ship - Live Interactive Broadcasts from the R/V Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Coleman, D.; Donovan, S.; Sanders, R.; Gingras, A.; DeCiccio, A.; Bilbo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The University of Rhode Island's R/V Endeavor was recently equipped with a new satellite telecommunication system and a telepresence system to enable live ship-to-shore broadcasts and remote user participation through the Inner Space Center. The Rhode Island Endeavor Program, which provides state-funded ship time to support local oceanographic research and education, funded a 5-day cruise off the Rhode Island coast that involved a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers, students, educators and video producers. Using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, several dives were conducted to explore various shipwrecks including the German WWII submarine U-853. During the cruise, a team of URI ocean engineers supported ROV operations and performed engineering tests of a new manipulator. Colleagues from the United States Coast Guard Academy operated a small ROV to collect imagery and environmental data around the wreck sites. Additionally, a team of engineers and oceanographers from URI tested a new acoustic sound source and small acoustic receivers developed for a fish tracking experiment. The video producers worked closely with the participating scientists, students and two high school science teachers to communicate the oceanographic research during live educational broadcasts streamed into Rhode Island classrooms, to the public Internet, and directly to Rhode Island Public Television. This work contributed to increasing awareness of possible career pathways for the Rhode Island K-12 population, taught about active oceanographic research projects, and engaged the public in scientific adventures at sea. The interactive nature of the broadcasts included live responses to questions submitted online and live updates and feedback using social media tools. This project characterizes the power of telepresence and video broadcasting to engage diverse learners and exemplifies innovative ways to utilize social media and the Internet to draw a varied audience.

  20. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  1. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  2. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  3. 8 CFR 204.13 - How can the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Broadcasting Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the job to be performed; and (ii) The broadcasting expertise held by the alien, including how... broadcasts; hosts for news broadcasts, news analysis, editorial and other broadcast features; or a news analysis specialist. The term broadcaster does not include individuals performing purely technical or...

  4. Population planning broadcasts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S A

    1982-06-01

    Bangladesh's growth rate of 2.36%/year is one of the highest in the world and, if present population trends continue, Bangladesh will have 153 million people by the year 2000. The Government adopted a comprehensive population policy in 1976 and seeks to reduce the population growth rate to 0 by 1992. Bangladesh's population control program further aims to raise the contraceptive acceptance rate from the current level of 14% of eligible couples to 38% by 1985, to raise the number of current contraceptive users from 2.4 to 7.3 million couples, and to achieve a sterilization level of 3.4 million people. Radio Bangladesh, which has been broadcasting programs on family planning since 1965, is playing an important motivational role in this effort. A Population Planning Cell was established within Radio Bangladesh in 1975 and 5 subcells located throughout the country broadcast independent programs on family planning 6 days/week. Evaluative surveys have confirmed the belief that radio is the most popular form of mass communication in rural areas. 47% of respondents in 1 survey identified radio as their main source of information about family planning, although only 12% reported contraceptive usage. An important task for radio in Bangladesh is to convince listeners that family planning practice is not incompatible with Islamic ideals and to overcome other superstitions and misconceptions about contraception.

  5. Influence of visual stimuli in the sound quality evaluation of loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    There is currently an increasing demand to evaluate sound quality attributes of products and understand to what extend they influence a user's overall impression, since there is usually more than one modality stimulating this evaluation. The present study uses the loudspeakers as an example...... and evaluates the overall impression in relation to hearing and vision.In order to quantify the bias that the image of a loudspeaker has on the sound quality evaluation done by a naive listening panel, loudspeaker sounds of varied degradation are coupled with positively or negatively biasing visual input...

  6. History of Satellite TV Broadcasting and Satellite Broadcasting Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the satellite broadcasting that is the first important development that emerged as a result of digitalization in communication technologies and its reflections in Turkey. As the first milestone in the globalization of television broadcasting, satellite broadcasting provided substantial contribution towards the development of the media. Satellite bro adcasting both increased the broadcasting quality and geographical coverage of the television media. A conceptual study was carried out in the first part of the study in connection with the history of satellite broadcasting in Turkey and across the world. In the research part of the study, an analysis was performed on 160 television channels that broadcast in Turkey via Turksat Satellite. Economic structure of the television channels broadcasting in Turkey via satellite was studied and an analysis was perfo rmed on the operational structure of the channels. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the television channels broadcasting via satellite platform also use other platforms for the purpose of spreading their broadcasts and television channel ow ners make investments in different branches of the media, too. Capital owners invest in different business areas other than the media although television channels broadcasting via Turksat mostly focus on thematic broadcasting and make effort to generate ec onomic income from advertisements. Delays are encountered in the course of the convergence between the new media and television channels that broadcast only from the satellite platform and such television channels experience more economic problems than the other channels. New media and many TV broadcasting platforms emerged as a result of the developments in the communication technologies. In television broadcasting, satellite platform is not an effective platform on its own. Channels make effort to reach t o more people by using other platforms in addition to

  7. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    Localizing sounds with different frequency and time domain characteristics in a dynamic listening environment is a challenging task that has not been explored in the field of robotics as much as other perceptual tasks...

  8. Perceptions of Advertising Influence on Broadcast News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that while students (studying broadcast journalism or advertising) and practitioners (station news directors and agency media directors) were in agreement on the majority of opinion statements discussing advertising's influence on broadcast news content, except students were less bothered by advertising's influence on news content than were…

  9. Beyond the Anchor: Students and Broadcasting Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the author taught a class (called "Editing for Broadcasting") for 19 neophyte newspeople through total immersion: students learned how to run a newsroom while operating one. Notes that students learned the principles and fundamentals of broadcast journalism, including news judgment, writing, editing, reporting, and…

  10. Management Theories and Broadcasting: A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J. Robert; Hindmarsh, Wayne A.

    Today's contemporary management and motivation theories, as applied to the business of broadcasting, are the focus of the first section of this paper. It deals with the kinds and reactions of employees in broadcasting stations in relation to 11 motivational theories: (1) Theories X and Y, (2) Immaturity-Maturity Theory, (3) V Theory, (4) Z Theory,…

  11. 47 CFR 73.1217 - Broadcast hoaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast station shall broadcast false information concerning a crime or a catastrophe if: (a) The licensee... harm would occur. A “crime” is any act or omission that makes the offender subject to criminal punishment by law. A “catastrophe” is a disaster or imminent disaster involving violent or sudden event...

  12. Broadcast Copywriting and Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, William L.

    The teaching of broadcast copywriting can be enhanced by computer assisted instruction, especially in screening students' writing for adherence to classic "formulas" or "rules" for broadcast writing. Such rules might include avoiding cliches or not beginning a sentence with a subordinate clause. Other rules the computer can…

  13. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S.K. [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  14. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Panda, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. → The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. → The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. → Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T c cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  15. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S K [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  16. Detection System of Sound Noise Level (SNL) Based on Condenser Microphone Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Juniastel; Eka Sari, Nurdieni

    2018-03-01

    The research aims to know the noise level by using the Arduino Uno as data processing input from sensors and called as Sound Noise Level (SNL). The working principle of the instrument is as noise detector with the show notifications the noise level on the LCD indicator and in the audiovisual form. Noise detection using the sensor is a condenser microphone and LM 567 as IC op-amps, which are assembled so that it can detect the noise, which sounds are captured by the sensor will turn the tide of sinusoida voice became sine wave energy electricity (altering sinusoida electric current) that is able to responded to complaints by the Arduino Uno. The tool is equipped with a detector consists of a set indicator LED and sound well as the notification from the text on LCD 16*2. Work setting indicators on the condition that, if the measured noise > 75 dB then sound will beep, the red LED will light up indicating the status of the danger. If the measured value on the LCD is higher than 56 dB, sound indicator will be beep and yellow LED will be on indicating noisy. If the noise measured value <55 dB, sound indicator will be quiet indicating peaceful from noisy. From the result of the research can be explained that the SNL is capable to detecting and displaying noise level with a measuring range 50-100 dB and capable to delivering the notification noise in audiovisual.

  17. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  18. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  19. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  20. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...

  1. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  2. Measuring the vertical electrical field above an oceanic convection system using a meteorological sounding balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. B.; Chiu, C.; Lai, S.; Chen, C.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical electric field above thundercloud plays an important role in the generation and modeling of transient luminous events. For example, Pasko [1995] proposed that the high quasi-static E-field following the positive cloud-to-ground lightning could accelerate and input energy to ambient electrons; as they collide and excite nitrogen and oxygen molecules in upper atmosphere, sprites may be induced. A series of balloon experiments led by Holzworth have investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the electric field and conductivity in the upper atmosphere at different sites [Holzworth 2005, and references in]. But the strength and variation of the vertical electric field above thundercloud, especially oceanic ones, are not well documented so far. A lightweight, low-cost measurement system including an electric field meter and the associated aviation electronics are developed to carry out the in-situ measurement of the vertical electric field and the inter-cloud charge distribution. Our measuring system was first deployed using a meteorological sounding balloon from Taitung, Taiwan in May 2012. The measured electric field below 3km height shows an exponential decay and it is consistent with the expected potential gradient variation between ionosphere and the Earth surface. But the background strength of the measured E-field grows up exponentially and a violent fluctuations is also observed when the balloon flew over a developing oceanic convection cell. The preliminary results from this flight will be reported and discussed. This low-cost electric field meter is developed within one year. In the coming months, more flights will be performed with the aim to measure the rapid variation of the electric field above thundercloud as well as the E-field that may induce transient luminous events. Our ground campaigns show that the occurrence rates of blue and gigantic jet are relatively high in the vicinity of Taiwan. Our experiment can be used to diagnose

  3. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  4. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. An Investigation into the Passive Detection of Point Targets Using FM Broadcasts or White Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindstrom, Chadwick

    1998-01-01

    Over the past three years, researchers at the University of Washington have been developing a multistatic radar system that uses commercial FM radio broadcasts to detect plasma waves in the ionosphere...

  6. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  7. New developments in the surveillance and diagnostics technology for vibration, structure-borne sound and leakage monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloth, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnostic systems are of main importance for a safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. The author describes new developments with respect to vibration monitoring with a functional extension in the time domain for den secondary circuit, the development of a local system for the surveillance of rotating machines, the structure-borne sound monitoring with improvement of event analysis, esp. the loose part locating, leakage monitoring with a complete system for humidity measurement, and the development of a common platform for all monitoring and diagnostic systems, that allows an efficient access for comparison and cross references.

  8. The Design of Operational Amplifier for Low Voltage and Low Current Sound Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liew Hui; Rahim, Rosemizi Bin Abd; Isa, Muzamir; Idris Syed Hassan, Syed; Ismail, Baharuddin Bin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a combination of an operational amplifier (op-amp) with a rectifier used in an alternate current (ac) to direct current (dc) power conversion. The op-amp was designed to specifically work at low voltage and low current for a sound energy harvesting system. The goal of the op-amp design with adjustable gain was to control output voltage based on the objectives of the experiment conducted. The op-amp was designed for minimum power dissipation performance, with the means of increasing the output current when receiving a large amount of load. The harvesting circuits which designed further improved the power output efficiency by shortening the fully charged time needed by a supercapacitor bank. It can fulfil the long-time power demands for low power device. Typically, a small amount of energy sources were converted to electricity and stored in the supercapacitor bank, which was built by 10 pieces of capacitors with 0.22 F each, arranged in parallel connection. The highest capacitance was chosen based on the characteristic that have the longest discharging time to support the applications of a supercapacitor bank. Testing results show that the op-amp can boost the low input ac voltage (∼3.89 V) to high output dc voltage (5.0 V) with output current of 30 mA and stored the electrical energy in a big supercapacitor bank having a total of 2.2 F, effectively. The measured results agree well with the calculated results.

  9. Impact of sound production by wind instruments on the temporomandibular system of male instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Michael; Jakstat, Holger A; Ahlers, Oliver M

    2014-01-01

    Playing a wind instrument can be either a reason for overuse or a protecting factor against certain diseases. Some individuals have many findings but low morbidity while others have few findings but high morbidity. This contradictory phenomenon should be researched. The temporomandibular system (TMS) is a functional unit which comprises the mandible, associated muscles and bilateral joints with the temporal bone. The TMS is responsible for the generation of sound when wind instruments are played. Over the long-term and with intensive usage, this causes changes in the musculature and in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of wind musicians, often resulting in temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study is to examine evidence that TMD constitute an occupational disease in wind musicians. TMD patients and wind musicians were examined by dental clinical functional analysis. 102 male subjects were divided into three groups: "healthy" individuals, wind musicians, and patients with TMD. Dental Examination was carried out based on focused inclusion of the research diagnostic criteria - TMD [1,7]. Findings were evaluated for statistical significance by first transferring data into a digital database [2,15], then generating T-Test und Wilcoxon-Test when non-Gaussian distribution appears and applying the Mann-Whitney rank sum test using Sigmaplot Version 1.1 software (Systat Software Inc, Washington, USA). The evaluation revealed that wind instrument musicians show a high incidence of developing TMD as the researchers found almost 100% morbidity regarding parafunctional habits and preauricular muscle pain of each adult and highly active musician. The result is highly significant (pTMS.

  10. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Sensitivity of the regional ocean acidification and carbonate system in Puget Sound to ocean and freshwater inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While ocean acidification was first investigated as a global phenomenon, coastal acidification has received significant attention in recent years, as its impacts have been felt by different socio-economic sectors (e.g., high mortality of shellfish larvae in aquaculture farms. As a region that connects land and ocean, the Salish Sea (consisting of Puget Sound and the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgia receives inputs from many different sources (rivers, wastewater treatment plants, industrial waste treatment facilities, etc., making these coastal waters vulnerable to acidification. Moreover, the lowering of pH in the Northeast Pacific Ocean also affects the Salish Sea, as more acidic waters get transported into the bottom waters of the straits and estuaries. Here, we use a numerical ocean model of the Salish Sea to improve our understanding of the carbonate system in Puget Sound; in particular, we studied the sensitivity of carbonate variables (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, saturation state of aragonite to ocean and freshwater inputs. The model is an updated version of our FVCOM-ICM framework, with new carbonate-system and sediment modules. Sensitivity experiments altering concentrations at the open boundaries and freshwater sources indicate that not only ocean conditions entering the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but also the dilution of carbonate variables by freshwater sources, are key drivers of the carbonate system in Puget Sound.

  14. Soundness confirmation through cold test of the system equipment of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Shinohara, Masanori; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Tochio, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    HTTR was established at the Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for the purpose of the establishment and upgrading of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology infrastructure. Currently, it performs a safety demonstration test in order to demonstrate the safety inherent in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, it conducted confirmation test for the purpose of soundness survey of facilities and equipment, and it confirmed that the soundness of the equipment was maintained. After two years from the confirmation test, it has not been confirmed whether the function of dynamic equipment and the soundness such as the airtightness of pipes and containers are maintained after receiving the influence of damage or deterioration caused by aftershocks generated during two years or aging. To confirm the soundness of these facilities, operation under cold state was conducted, and the obtained plant data was compared with confirmation test data to evaluate the presence of abnormality. In addition, in order to confirm through cold test the damage due to aftershocks and degradation due to aging, the plant data to compare was supposed to be the confirmation test data, and the evaluation on abnormality of the plant data of machine starting time and normal operation data was performed. (A.O.)

  15. Ultrasonic study on ternary liquid systems by laser-sound interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behboudnia, M.; Necati Ecevit, F.; Aydin, R.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the ultrasound velocity in liquid mixtures an interferometer based on Raman-Nath diffraction of laser light by sound waves is described. Ultrasonic velocity measurements in water in dependence of temperature and in carboxylic acids with triethylamine in benzene of different mole fractions are presented. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV broadcast...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4102 - FAA communications, broadcast of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAA communications, broadcast of. 73.4102 Section 73.4102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4102 FAA communications...

  18. Modeling of Slovak Language for Broadcast News Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŠ Ján

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes recent progress in the development the Slovak language models for transcription of spontaneous speech such as broadcast news, educational talks and lectures, or meetings. This work extends previous research oriented on the automatic transcription of dictated speech and brings some new extensions for improving perplexity and robustness of the Slovak language models trained on the web-based and electronic language resources for being more precise in recognition of spontaneous speech. These improvements include better text preprocessing, document classification, class-based and filled pauses modeling, web-data augmentation and fast model adaptation to the target domain. Experiments have been performed on the four different evaluation data sets, including judicial and newspaper readings, broadcast news recordings and parliament proceedings with the Slovak transcription system. Preliminary results show significant decrease of the word error rate for multiple transcription system configurations of acoustic and language models.

  19. Political Broadcast Advertising and Primary Election Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, John

    1974-01-01

    Results of a research project which hypothisized that: Other things being equal, the heavier a candidate's usage of broadcast advertising in a primary election campaign, the greater will be his share of the votes in the election. (Author/HB)

  20. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  1. Automatic loudness control in short-form content for broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Leandro da S; Vieira, Maurílio N; Yehia, Hani C

    2017-03-01

    During the early years of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) loudness calculation standard for sound broadcasting [ITU-R (2006), Rec. BS Series, 1770], the need for additional loudness descriptors to evaluate short-form content, such as commercials and live inserts, was identified. This work proposes a loudness control scheme to prevent loudness jumps, which can bother audiences. It employs short-form content audio detection and dynamic range processing methods for the maximum loudness level criteria. Detection is achieved by combining principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction and support vector machines for binary classification. Subsequent processing is based on short-term loudness integrators and Hilbert transformers. The performance was assessed using quality classification metrics and demonstrated through a loudness control example.

  2. Effect of temperature on density, sound velocity, and their derived properties for the binary systems glycerol with water or alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negadi, Latifa; Feddal-Benabed, Badra; Bahadur, Indra; Saab, Joseph; Zaoui-Djelloul-Daouadji, Manel; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Negadi, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities (ρ) and sound velocities (u) for glycerol, +water, +methanol, or +ethanol systems were measured. • The derived properties (excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility and deviation in isentropic compressibility) were calculated. • The Redlich–Kister polynomial was used to fit the experimental results. - Abstract: Densities and sound velocities of three binary systems containing glycerol + (water, methanol, or ethanol) have been measured over the entire composition range at temperatures ranging from (283.15 to 313.15) K in 10 K intervals, at atmospheric pressure. A vibrating u-tube densimeter and sound velocity analyzer (Anton Paar DSA 5000M) was used for the measurements. Thermodynamic properties were derived from the measured data, viz. excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility, and deviation in isentropic compressibility. The property data were correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial. In all cases, the excess molar volumes and deviation in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range for all binary mixtures studied and become increasingly negative with an increase in the temperature. These properties provide important information about different interactions that take place between like-like, like-unlike and unlike-unlike molecules in the mixtures.

  3. On the analysis of human mobility model for content broadcasting in 5G networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2018-02-15

    Today\\'s mobile service providers aim at ensuring end-to-end performance guarantees. Hence, ensuring an efficient content delivery to end users is highly required. Currently, transmitting popular contents in modern mobile networks rely on unicast transmission. This result into a huge underutilization of the wireless bandwidth. The urban scale mobility of users is beneficial for mobile networks to allocate radio resources spatially and temporally for broadcasting contents. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis on a human activity/mobility model and the content broadcasting system in 5G mobile networks. The objective of this work is to describe how human daily activities could improve the content broadcasting efficiency. We achieve the objective by analyzing the transition probabilities of a user traveling over several places according to the change of states of daily human activities. Using a reallife simulation, we demonstrate the relationship between the human mobility and the optimization objective of the content broadcasting system.

  4. An Improved Ant Colony Broadcasting Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Rigui Zhou; Shuqun Yang; Qiulin Ding

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in nano-technology have made it possible to develop a large variety of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-miniaturized low-power devices that integrate sensing, special-purpose computing, and wireless communications capabilities. A sensor network is a collection of many small devices, each with sensing, computation, and communication capability. It has many potential applications, such as building surveillance and environmental monitoring. Broadcasting is defined that com...

  5. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  6. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  7. EBAA: An efficient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B communication based on IBS-MR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haomiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B systems can broadcast satellite-based aircraft position, identification, etc., periodically, and are now on track to replace radar to become the backbone of next-generation air traffic management (ATM systems. However, ADS-B systems suffer severe cyber-security problems due to the broadcast-type data link and the lack of designed-in security measures. Especially, since ADS-B messages are unauthenticated, it is easy to insert fake aircraft into a system via spoofing or insertion of false messages. Unfortunately, the authentication for ADS-B messages has not yet been well studied. In this paper, based on identity-based signature with message recovery (IBS-MR, an efficient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B messages is proposed. The security analysis demonstrates that the scheme can achieve authenticity and integrity of ADS-B broadcast messages, as well as adaptive evolution of broadcasters’ private keys. The performance evaluation shows that the scheme is computationally efficient for typical avionics devices with limited resources. Furthermore, the scheme achieves low communication overhead since broadcast messages can be recovered from signatures, and thus it is suitable for low-bandwidth ADS-B data link.

  8. The Calibration and error analysis of Shallow water (less than 100m) Multibeam Echo-Sounding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Multibeam echo-sounders(MBES) have been developed to gather bathymetric and acoustic data for more efficient and more exact mapping of the oceans. This gain in efficiency does not come without drawbacks. Indeed, the finer the resolution of remote sensing instruments, the harder they are to calibrate. This is the case for multibeam echo-sounding systems (MBES). We are no longer dealing with sounding lines where the bathymetry must be interpolated between them to engender consistent representations of the seafloor. We now need to match together strips (swaths) of totally ensonified seabed. As a consequence, misalignment and time lag problems emerge as artifacts in the bathymetry from adjacent or overlapping swaths, particularly when operating in shallow water. More importantly, one must still verify that bathymetric data meet the accuracy requirements. This paper aims to summarize the system integration involved with MBES and identify the various source of error pertaining to shallow water survey (100m and less). A systematic method for the calibration of shallow water MBES is proposed and presented as a set of field procedures. The procedures aim at detecting, quantifying and correcting systematic instrumental and installation errors. Hence, calibrating for variations of the speed of sound in the water column, which is natural in origin, is not addressed in this document. The data which used in calibration will reference International Hydrographic Organization(IHO) and other related standards to compare. This paper aims to set a model in the specific area which can calibrate the error due to instruments. We will construct a procedure in patch test and figure out all the possibilities may make sounding data with error then calculate the error value to compensate. In general, the problems which have to be solved is the patch test's 4 correction in the Hypack system 1.Roll 2.GPS Latency 3.Pitch 4.Yaw. Cause These 4 correction affect each others, we run each survey line

  9. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  10. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Ahmad [Rochester, MN

    2012-02-21

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together through a data communications network. Each compute node has a plurality of processors for use in collective parallel operations on the parallel computer. Broadcasting collective operation contributions throughout a parallel computer according to embodiments of the present invention includes: transmitting, by each processor on each compute node, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on that compute node using intra-node communications; and transmitting on a designated network link, by each processor on each compute node according to a serial processor transmission sequence, that processor's collective operation contribution to the other processors on the other compute nodes using inter-node communications.

  12. The role of the public service broadcasting in the european countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budacia Elisabeta Andreea

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in particular has seen remarkable change from the days of single-channel public broadcasting systems. The audiovisual “explosion” is a cultural, social and economic phenomenon of global dimension. The audiovisual sector forms an essential part of Europe’s economic and cultural influence in the world. The fundamental principle of the Union’s audiovisual policy is to provide for the free circulation of reception of trans frontier broadcasts. So the European audiovisual industry is likely to become a stronger and more competitive player on the global scene. The future of public service broadcasting in Europe is increasingly challenged by unfavorable external factors, such as intensifying competition from commercial media, media concentrations, political and economic interests adversary to independent media, and by internal difficulties, such as cost ineffectiveness.

  13. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  14. Broadcast Scheduling Strategy Based on the Priority of Real.Time Data in a Mobile Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJin-cait; LiuYun-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Data broadcast is an important data dissemination approach in mobile environment. On broadcast channel,scalability and efficiency of data transmission are satisfied. In a mobile environment, there exists a kind of real-time database application in which both the transactions and data can have their timing constraints and priorities of different levels.In order to meet the requirement of real-time data disseminaring and retrieving, a broadcast scheduling strategy HPF-ED F (Highest Priority First with Earlier Deadline and Frequency) is proposed under the BoD (Broadcast on Demand) model. Using the strategy, data items are scheduled according to their priority the transaction imposed on them or system set for them. The strategy also considers other characteristics of data items such as deadline and popularity of data. The extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results show that it can achieve excellent performance compared with existing strategies.

  15. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  16. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  17. Planning Alternative Organizational Frameworks For a Large Scale Educational Telecommunications System Served by Fixed/Broadcast Satellites. Memorandum Number 73/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkmeyer, John

    Considerations relating to the design of organizational structures for development and control of large scale educational telecommunications systems using satellites are explored. The first part of the document deals with four issues of system-wide concern. The first is user accessibility to the system, including proximity to entry points, ability…

  18. A Loudness Function for Analog and Digital Sound Systems based on Equal Loudness Level Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2016-01-01

    frequency balance will been changed both for LL lower or higher than ML. The differences in ELLC ask for a level based equalization using fractional-order filters. A designing technique for both analog and digital fractional-order filters was developed. The analog solution is based on OPAMs and the digital......A new and better loudness compensation has been designed based on the differences between the Equal Loudness Level Contours (ELLC) in ISO 226:2003. Sound productions are normally being mixed at a high mixing level (ML) but often played at lower listening level (LL) which mean that the perceived...

  19. Radio broadcasting: a conceptual challenge in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia R. Del Bianco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the partial results of research carried out by the Observatory of Public Radio Broadcasting of Latin America on the changes occurring in the public radio and TV systems in 10 Latin American countries, under the aspects of functioning models, management, financing, and social participation. After the rising to power of governments linked to parties from the left, we verified that communication policies are being established, which aim at closing the gap between traditional state broadcasting stations and the notion of public. This considers the principles that characterize the action of this media, determined by UNESCO (2001: universality, diversity, independence, and differentiation of content in the programming. A hundred and forty broadcasting stations were analyzed from the perspective of being public based on two criteria: those that are under the control of the State direct or indirectly, by means of concessions for use without profit for foundations, companies, and public universities; and those that receive public financing. Based on the analysis of the data, five trend tendencies were observed: the construction of a new regulatory framework; the creation of public companies instead of legal centralized state structures; the institution of relatively autonomous deliberative councils responsible for overseeing the management of the stations; the diversification of funding sources in an attempt to reverse the dependence on government resources; and the renewal of the programming with the opening for independent production.

  20. Analysis and Transceiver Design for the MIMO Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the optimization-based joint design of the transmit and receive filters in   MIMO broadcast channel in which the user terminals may be equipped with several antenna elements. Furthermore, the maximum performance of the system in the high power regime as well as the set of all feasible quality-of-service requirements is analyzed. First, a fundamental duality is derived that holds between the MIMO broadcast channel and virtual MIMO multiple access channel. This duality construct allows for the efficient solution of problems originally posed in the broadcast channel in the dual domain where a possibly hidden convexity can often be revealed. On the basis of the established duality result, the gradient-projection algorithm is introduced as a tool to solve constrained optimization problems to global optimality under certain conditions. The gradient-projection tool is then applied to solving the weighted sum rate maximization problem which is a central optimization that arises in any network u...

  1. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  2. Music and its Impact on Musicians in Broadcasting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Milani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound is an inseparable part of human life and provides us with lovely experiences such as listening to music. Musicians from classical orchestras to rock groups are exposed to high decibel of sounds. Musicians playing percussion musical instruments are exposed to high level of impact noise and players of Brass musical instruments are highly exposed to noise peaks higher than 100dB. Woodwind players are enduring the risk of posing directly in front of Brass players. Based on the above-mentioned risks for hearing loss clinical consideration of noise induced hearing loss in musicians is highly required. In the current study we were aimed at examining hearing stratus of classic and traditional musicians by means of pure tone audiometry in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. 33 subjects were evaluated aged between 22 to 59 years old. Their musical experience was variable between 6 to 45 years. The study demonstrated that most of the musicians in this study suffered bilateral high frequency hearing loss with a notch in the frequency range of 4-8 KHz.

  3. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  4. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  5. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  6. Energy-Efficient Broadcasting Scheme for Smart Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuangbin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs, sensor nodes usually adopt a programmable technology. These smart devices can obtain new or special functions by reprogramming: they upgrade their soft systems through receiving new version of program codes. If sensor nodes need to be upgraded, the sink node will propagate program code packets to them through “one-to-many” broadcasting, and therefore new capabilities can be obtained, forming the so-called Software Defined Network (SDN. However, due to the high volume of code packet, the constraint energy of sensor node, and the unreliable link quality of wireless network, rapidly broadcasting the code packets to all nodes in network can be a challenge issue. In this paper, a novel Energy-efficient Broadcast scheme with adjustable broadcasting radius is proposed aiming to improve the performance of network upgrade. In our scheme, the nonhotspots sensor nodes take full advantage of their residual energy caused in data collection period to improve the packet reception probability and reduce the broadcasting delay of code packet transmission by enlarging the broadcasting radius, that is, the transmitting power. The theoretical analyses and experimental results show that, compared with previous work, our approach can averagely reduce the Network Upgrade Delay (NUD by 14.8%–45.2% and simultaneously increase the reliability without harming the lifetime of network.

  7. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  8. Practical system for recording spatially lifelike 5.1 surround sound and 3D fully periphonic reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert E. (Robin)

    2005-04-01

    In acoustic spaces that are played as extensions of musical instruments, tonality is a major contributor to the experience of reality. Tonality is described as a process of integration in our consciousness over the reverberation time of the room of many sonic arrivals in three dimensions, each directionally coded in a learned response by the listeners unique head-related transfer function (HRTF). Preserving this complex 3D directionality is key to lifelike reproduction of a recording. Conventional techniques such as stereo or 5.1-channel surround sound position the listener at the apex of a triangle or the center of a circle, not the center of the sphere of lifelike hearing. A periphonic reproduction system for music and movie entertainment, Virtual Reality, and Training Simulation termed PerAmbio 3D/2D (Pat. pending) is described in theory and subjective tests that capture the 3D sound field with a microphone array and transform the periphonic signals into ordinary 6-channel media for either decoderless 2D replay on 5.1 systems, or lossless 3D replay with decoder and five additional speakers. PerAmbio 3D/2D is described as a practical approach to preserving the spatial perception of reality, where the listening room and speakers disappear, leaving the acoustical impression of the original venue.

  9. Performance analysis of an IMU-augmented GNSS tracking system on board the MAIUS-1 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Grillenberger, Andreas; Markgraf, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation receivers are adequate tracking sensors for range safety of both orbital launch vehicles and suborbital sounding rockets. Due to high accuracy and its low system complexity, satellite navigation is seen as well-suited supplement or replacement of conventional tracking systems like radar. Having the well-known shortcomings of satellite navigation like deliberate or unintentional interferences in mind, it is proposed to augment the satellite navigation receiver by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to enhance continuity and availability of localization. The augmented receiver is thus enabled to output at least an inertial position solution in case of signal outages. In a previous study, it was shown by means of simulation using the example of Ariane 5 that the performance of a low-grade microelectromechanical IMU is sufficient to bridge expected outages of some ten seconds, and still meeting the range safety requirements in effect. In this publication, these theoretical findings shall be substantiated by real flight data that were recorded on MAIUS-1, a sounding rocket launched from Esrange, Sweden, in early 2017. The analysis reveals that the chosen representative of a microelectromechanical IMU is suitable to bridge outages of up to thirty seconds.

  10. Speed of sound and photoacoustic imaging with an optical camera based ultrasound detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Guenther

    2017-07-01

    CCD camera based optical ultrasound detection is a promising alternative approach for high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging (PAI). To fully exploit its potential and to achieve an image resolution SOS) in the image reconstruction algorithm. Hence, in the proposed work the idea and a first implementation are shown how speed of sound imaging can be added to a previously developed camera based PAI setup. The current setup provides SOS-maps with a spatial resolution of 2 mm and an accuracy of the obtained absolute SOS values of about 1%. The proposed dual-modality setup has the potential to provide highly resolved and perfectly co-registered 3D photoacoustic and SOS images.

  11. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  12. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  13. WHO OWNS THE BROADCASTING TELEVISION NETWORK BUSINESS IN INDONESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting TV occupies a significant position in the community. Therefore, all the countries in the world give attention to TV broadcasting business. In Indonesia, the government requires TV stations to broadcast locally, except through networking. In this state, there are 763 private TV companies broadcasting free to air. Of these, some companies have many TV stations and build various broadcasting networks. In this article, the author reveals the substantial TV stations that control the market, based on literature studies. From the data analysis, there are 14 substantial free to network broadcast private TV broadcasters but owns by eight companies; these include the MNC Group, EMTEK, Viva Media Asia, CTCorp, Media Indonesia, Rajawali Corpora, and Indigo Multimedia. All TV stations are from Jakarta, which broadcasts in 22 to 32 Indonesian provinces.

  14. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  15. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  16. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  17. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R. Harding...

  18. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  19. An integrated experimental and computational approach to material selection for sound proof thermally insulted enclosure of a power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, R.; Tarar, W.; Saeed, H. A.

    2016-08-01

    Sound proof canopies for diesel power generators are fabricated with a layer of sound absorbing material applied to all the inner walls. The physical properties of the majority of commercially available sound proofing materials reveal that a material with high sound absorption coefficient has very low thermal conductivity. Consequently a good sound absorbing material is also a good heat insulator. In this research it has been found through various experiments that ordinary sound proofing materials tend to rise the inside temperature of sound proof enclosure in certain turbo engines by capturing the heat produced by engine and not allowing it to be transferred to atmosphere. The same phenomenon is studied by creating a finite element model of the sound proof enclosure and performing a steady state and transient thermal analysis. The prospects of using aluminium foam as sound proofing material has been studied and it is found that inside temperature of sound proof enclosure can be cut down to safe working temperature of power generator engine without compromise on sound proofing.

  20. Measurement of the speed of sound in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok-Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A new method for measuring the speed of sound (SOS) in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics (TRA) focusing system was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional pulse-transmission technique. The SOS measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the two methods was highly correlated each other, although the SOS measured by using the TRA focusing system was slightly lower by an average of 2.2 m/s. The SOS measured by using the two methods showed high correlation coefficients of r = 0.92 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone in vitro. These results prove the efficacy of the new method based on the principle of TRA to measure the SOS in trabecular bone.

  1. Hierarchical Broadcasting in the Future Mobile Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, E.H.; Fernandez, Milagros; Crnkovic, Ivica; Fohler, Gerhard; Griwodz, Carsten; Plagemann, Thomas; Gruenbacher, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We describe an architecture for the hierarchical distribution of multimedia broadcasts in the future mobile Internet. The architecture supports network as well as application-layer mobility solutions, and uses stream control functions that are influenced by available network resources, user-defined

  2. Broadcast Condom Advertising: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Herb; Houlberg, Rick

    1990-01-01

    Examines a San Francisco television station's decision to accept paid condom advertising. Notes that station leaders debated questions of public interest and public tastes in a city hard hit by AIDS. Finds that the station devised careful guidelines and began broadcasting the commercials on a trial basis. Notes that nearly all public and media…

  3. Broadcast Journalism Education and the Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Forde, Kathy Roberts; Besley, John C.; Weir, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the current state of the television news capstone experience in accredited journalism and mass communication programs in the United States. Specifically, the authors employed a mixed-methods approach, interviewing 20 television news capstone instructors and conducting an analysis of broadcast journalism curriculum information…

  4. Strategy and Space for Broadcasting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on results from an ongoing research project on space strategies and building values, which in-cludes a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been...

  5. Video Broadcasting Using Queue Proportional Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Toumpakaris

    2007-01-01

    using a Markov Chain approach leading to a method for approximating the packet delay distribution. Based on the resulting distribution, it is discussed how the video encoding rate can be chosen in order to reduce the expected distortion of streams transmitted through Broadcast Channels.

  6. A special broadcast of CERN's Video news

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A special edition of CERN's video news giving a complete update on the LHC project is to be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. After your lunch make a small detour to the Main Auditorium, where you see the big picture. On 14, 15 and 16 May, between 12:30 and 14:00, a special edition of CERN's video news bulletin will be broadcast in the Main Auditorium. You will have the chance get up-to-date on the LHC project and its experiments. With four years to go before the first collisions in the LHC, the LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans will present a status report on the construction of the accelerator. The spokesmen of the five LHC experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and TOTEM) will explain how the work is going and what the state of play will be in four years' time. This special video news broadcast is the result of collaboration between the CERN Audiovisual Service, the Photo Service and the External communication section. The broadcast will begin with a brand-new programme title sequence. And just as in the real c...

  7. Radio broadcasting for sustainable development in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick O. Waeber and Yvonne Orengo

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... ABSTRACT. The Millennium Development Goals have been written into the Madagascar Road Map (2007 - 2012) in order to improve the Malagasy social, economic and environmental situation. The Andrew Lees Trust Radio Broadcasting Project in southern. Madagascar has been set up to alleviate ...

  8. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  9. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  10. 77 FR 33098 - Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...] Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Correcting... matter of ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band Approval.'' This document contains corrections... of this correction relate to ``Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band Approval'' under Sec. 15...

  11. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  12. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  13. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chang, Ming-Lang; Yang, Jiun-Yue; Kuo, Dar; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2017-01-01

    Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18–22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (PT) than those from the right lung. The PT of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (RI/E) of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (FMPD) from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F50) from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the PT, FMPD, F50, and RI/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might account for the

  14. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Zern Tsai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18–22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (PT than those from the right lung. The PT of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (RI/E of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (FMPD from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F50 from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the PT, FMPD, F50, and RI/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might

  15. Left-Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chang, Ming-Lang; Yang, Jiun-Yue; Kuo, Dar; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2017-06-07

    Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18-22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (P T ) than those from the right lung. The P T of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (R I/E ) of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (F MPD ) from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F 50 ) from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the P T , F MPD , F 50 , and R I/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might

  16. The Use of Sound Absorbing Shading Systems for the Attenuation of Noise on Building Façades. An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Zuccherini Martello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solar irradiation in building façades with large windows is often solved with the use of external shading devices, such as brise-soleil systems, but their potential acoustic effects on building façades are usually neglected. The purpose of this work is a preliminary consideration of the acoustic behaviour of brise-soleil systems and, furthermore, the evaluation of the possibility to improve their performances, in terms of Sound Pressure Level (SPL abatement over glass surfaces. The paper reports the results of a study on two portions of the same office building, with shading devices installed in front of large windows. Both airborne sound insulation measurements and SPL measurements over the glass surfaces of the windows were carried out to compare different situations, with or without louvers, and with sound absorbing experimental louvers as well. Results show that the louvers' presence can produce an increase in the SPL over the glass surface as a consequence of the reflection of the sound. Results further show that sound absorbing louvers improve the noise protection of the system, in terms of the SPL reduction, over glass surfaces, cancelling out the negative effect of the standard shading devices.

  17. Histories of Public Service Broadcasters on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume details multiple and dynamic histories of relations between public service broadcasters and the World Wide Web. What does it mean to be a national broadcaster in a global communications environment? What are the commercial and public service pressures that were brought to bear...... when public service broadcasters implemented web services? How did “one- to-many” broadcasters adapt to the “many-to-many” medium of the internet? The thematic or- ganisation of this collection addresses such major issues, while each chapter offers a particular historical account of relations between...... public service broadcasters and the World Wide Web....

  18. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast...

  19. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  20. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  1. Concurrent Acoustic Activation of the Medial Olivocochlear System Modifies the After-Effects of Intense Low-Frequency Sound on the Human Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2015-12-01

    >Human hearing is rather insensitive for very low frequencies (i.e. below 100 Hz). Despite this insensitivity, low-frequency sound can cause oscillating changes of cochlear gain in inner ear regions processing even much higher frequencies. These alterations outlast the duration of the low-frequency stimulation by several minutes, for which the term 'bounce phenomenon' has been coined. Previously, we have shown that the bounce can be traced by monitoring frequency and level changes of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) over time. It has been suggested elsewhere that large receptor potentials elicited by low-frequency stimulation produce a net Ca(2+) influx and associated gain decrease in outer hair cells. The bounce presumably reflects an underdamped, homeostatic readjustment of increased Ca(2+) concentrations and related gain changes after low-frequency sound offset. Here, we test this hypothesis by activating the medial olivocochlear efferent system during presentation of the bounce-evoking low-frequency (LF) sound. The efferent system is known to modulate outer hair cell Ca(2+) concentrations and receptor potentials, and therefore, it should modulate the characteristics of the bounce phenomenon. We show that simultaneous presentation of contralateral broadband noise (100 Hz-8 kHz, 65 and 70 dB SPL, 90 s, activating the efferent system) and ipsilateral low-frequency sound (30 Hz, 120 dB SPL, 90 s, inducing the bounce) affects the characteristics of bouncing SOAEs recorded after low-frequency sound offset. Specifically, the decay time constant of the SOAE level changes is shorter, and the transient SOAE suppression is less pronounced. Moreover, the number of new, transient SOAEs as they are seen during the bounce, are reduced. Taken together, activation of the medial olivocochlear system during induction of the bounce phenomenon with low-frequency sound results in changed characteristics of the bounce phenomenon. Thus, our data provide experimental support

  2. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  3. Time-Zone-Pattern Satellite Broadcasting Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Victor; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Imbriale, William A.; Cohen, Herb; Cagnon, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-broadcast satellite antenna designs provide contoured beams to match four time zones in 48 contiguous states and spot beams for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico presented in 29-page report. Includes descriptions of procedures used to arrive at optimized designs. Arrangements, amplitudes, and phases of antenna feeds presented in tables. Gain contours shown graphically. Additional tables of performance data given for cities in service area of Eastern satellite.

  4. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-01-06

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper s CSI and not of its channel s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  5. Secure Broadcasting with Uncertain Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper\\'s CSI and not of its channel\\'s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1-a ) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  6. Sales plan generation problem on TV broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Cosgun; İlkay Gultas

    2016-01-01

    Major advertisers and/or advertisement agencies purchase hundreds of slots during a given broadcast period. Deterministic optimization approaches have been well developed for the problem of meeting client requests. The challenging task for the academic research currently is to address optimization problem under uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the sales plan generation problem when the audience levels of advertisement slots are random variables with known probability distributions. T...

  7. Cell broadcast trials in The Netherlands: Using mobile phone technology for citizens' alarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtman, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    In emergency situations authorities need to warn the public. The conventionally used method for warning citizens in The Netherlands is the use of a siren. Modern telecommunication technologies, especially the use of text-based features of mobile phones, have great potential for warning the public. In the years 2005-2007 cell broadcast was tested during several large-scale field trials with citizens in The Netherlands. One of the questions was to determine the penetration of cell broadcast for citizens' alarming. This article argues that the definition of penetration in the light of warning citizens in case of emergencies should include the citizens' responses to warning messages. In addition, the approach to determining the penetration, the data and validity issues regarding these data is discussed. The trials have shown cell broadcast has potential to become an effective citizens' alarming technology. This however requires the entire technological and organisational chain of the warning system to function correctly. Attention is required to network management, handset improvements and correct communication to the public about the conditions under which a cell broadcast message can be received. The latter includes managing realistic expectations including circumstances in which cell broadcast will not reach a citizen.

  8. Stochastic dynamics of genetic broadcasting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoyan, Davit A.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-11-01

    The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites. We demonstrate that this time-scale crisis for clearance in a large broadcasting network can be resolved by actively regulating residence times through molecular stripping. We illustrate these ideas by studying a model of the stochastic dynamics of the genetic network of the central eukaryotic master regulator NFκ B which broadcasts its signals to many downstream genes that regulate immune response, apoptosis, etc.

  9. Relation between 'no broadcasting' for noncommuting states and 'no local broadcasting' for quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan; Cao Xuelian

    2009-01-01

    The no-broadcasting theorem, first established by Barnum et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2818 (1996)], states that a set of quantum states can be broadcast if and only if it constitutes a commuting family. Quite recently, Piani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090502 (2008)] showed, by using an ingenious and sophisticated method, that the correlations in a single bipartite state can be locally broadcast if and only if the state is effectively a classical one (i.e., the correlations therein are classical). In this Brief Report, under the condition of nondegenerate spectrum, we provide an alternative and significantly simpler proof of the latter result based on the original no-broadcasting theorem and the monotonicity of the quantum relative entropy. This derivation motivates us to conjecture the equivalence between these two elegant yet formally different no-broadcasting theorems and indicates a subtle and fundamental issue concerning spectral degeneracy which also lies at the heart of the conflict between the von Neumann projection postulate and the Lueders ansatz for quantum measurements. This relation not only offers operational interpretations for commutativity and classicality but also illustrates the basic significance of noncommutativity in characterizing quantumness from the informational perspective.

  10. Wireless sound communication in a mine shaft using the example of the Merkury-F system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskiewicz, K; Wojaczek, A

    1990-01-01

    Discusses design and operation of the Merkury-F intrinsically safe communication system developed jointly by the EMAG center in Katowice and the Institute for Electrification and Automation of Mining of the Silesian Technical Institute in Gliwice. The system uses hoisting ropes for transmission of electromagnetic signals (long wave range) from a head frame station to a skip or a cage station. Wave propagation in the hoisting ropes, factors that influence wave propagation and effects of cage or skip position on wave propagation are analyzed. System parameters are the following: working frequency 100 Hz, sensitivity below 1 mV, output power more than 200 mV. Main elements of the system (head frame station, cage station, power supply, coupler with a coaxial cable, microphone, microphone transformer, etc.) are described. The Merkury-F communication system has been recommended for use in Polish underground coal mines. 3 refs.

  11. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation assisted by the CartoSound® system for outflow tract origin nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a severely deformed thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Onishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old man with a nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and a history of palpitations. He had a severely deformed thorax since childhood due to spinal caries. An integrated computed tomography image of the outflow tract region from the CartoSound® system revealed the detailed anatomical information around the origin of the tachycardia and that the left anterior descending coronary artery was very close (<10 mm to the target site. We carefully ablated that site with a 3.5-mm cooled-tip catheter while confirming it in the sound view, and succeeded without any complications.

  12. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  13. NOAA JPSS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Sounding Products from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains temperature and humidity profiles from the NOAA Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) using sensor data from the Advanced Technology...

  14. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, G [University of Colorado, Boulder/CIRES; Argrow, B [University of Colorado; Bland, G [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility; Elston, J [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lawrence, D [University of Colorado; Maslanik, J [University of Colorado; Palo, S [University of Colorado; Tschudi, M [NCAR

    2015-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific information is through routine measurement of atmospheric conditions, particularly properties related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation. Improved understanding of these topics at high latitudes, in particular, has become very relevant because of observed decreases in ice and snow in polar regions.

  15. An Intelligent Broadcasting Algorithm for Early Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihn-Han Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET has gained much attention recently to improve road safety, reduce traffic congestion, and enable efficient traffic management because of its many important applications in transportation. In this paper, an early warning intelligence broadcasting algorithm is proposed, EW-ICAST, to disseminate a safety message for VANETs. The proposed EW-ICAST uses not only the early warning system on the basis of time to collision (TTC but also the intelligent broadcasting algorithm on the basis of fuzzy logic. Thus, the EW-ICAST resolves effectively broadcast storm problem and meets time-critical requirement. The performance of EW-ICAST is evaluated through simulation and compared with that of other alert message dissemination algorithms. From the simulation results, we know that EW-ICAST is superior to Simple, P-persistence, and EDB algorithms.

  16. High voltage interactions of a sounding rocket with the ambient and system-generated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharski, R.A.; Jongeward, G.A.; Wilcox, K.G.; Rankin, T.V.; Roche, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The high-power space systems will interact with their environment far more severely than the low-voltage, low-power space systems flown to date. As a minimum, these interactions will include ionization and bulk breakdown, plasma-induced surface flashover, oxygen erosion, meteor and debris damage, and radiation effects. The SPEAR program is addressing some of these issues through the development and testing of high-powered systems for the space environment. SPEAR III, the latest in the SPEAR program, is scheduled to fly in early 1991. It will test high-voltage designs in both ambient and system-generated environments. Two of the key questions that the experiment hopes to address are whether or not the Earth's magnetic field can cause the current that a high-voltage object draws from the plasma to be far less then the current that would be drawn in the absence of the magnetic field and under what neutral environment conditions a discharge from the high-voltage object to the plasma will occur. In this paper, the authors use EPSAT (the environment power system analysis tool) to baseline the design of SPEAR III. The authors' calculations indicate that the experiment will produce the conditions necessary to address these questions

  17. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  18. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leslie, Patrick [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Daitch, Charles [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Marshall, A. [Primus Power, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    As part of an ongoing study co-funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, under its Technology Innovation Grant Program, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an approach and modeling tool for assessing the net benefits of using energy storage located close to the customer in the distribution grid to manage demand. PNNL in collaboration with PSE and Primus Power has evaluated the net benefits of placing a zinc bromide battery system at two locations in the PSE system (Baker River / Rockport and Bainbridge Island). Energy storage can provide a number of benefits to the utility through the increased flexibility it provides to the grid system. Applications evaluated in the assessment include capacity value, balancing services, arbitrage, distribution deferral and outage mitigation. This report outlines the methodology developed for this study and Phase I results.

  19. Sound the alarm : monitoring system's real-time data reduces well downtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-10-15

    This article presented a new electrical heating element tool used to boost performance at low-producing wells. The down hole tool (DHT) was designed to generate steam underground in order to avoid the energy losses associated with above-ground equipment. The tool operates like an oven element but is connected to a computerized well-monitoring system in order to ensure that heat is evenly distributed. The DHT is equipped with an Optiview monitoring system designed to provide continuous readouts of near real time data. The system can also be customized to deliver messages to telephones, computers, or alarm systems. Changes in hydraulic torque, flow rates, tank levels, speeds, temperatures and hydraulic pressures can be set within ranges in order to optimize oil and gas well production by reducing operating costs and increasing equipment efficiencies. Use of the tool has during tests has minimized the need for well servicing. The patent pending technology is also being investigated for its use in water disposal and other pump-to-surface units. It was concluded that use of the technology will allow oil and gas managers to determine the status of wells in remote locations. 1 fig.

  20. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  1. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate...

  2. RSS based CERN Alerter. Information broadcast to all CERN offices.

    CERN Multimedia

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    Nearly every large organization uses a tool to broadcast messages and information across the internal campus (messages like alerts announcing interruption in services or just information about upcoming events). These tools typically allow administrators (operators) to send "targeted" messages which are sent only to specific groups of users or computers, e/g only those located in a specified building or connected to a particular computing service. CERN has a long history of such tools: CERNVMS€™s SPM_quotMESSAGE command, Zephyr and the most recent the NICE Alerter based on the NNTP protocol. The NICE Alerter used on all Windows-based computers had to be phased out as a consequence of phasing out NNTP at CERN. The new solution to broadcast information messages on the CERN campus continues to provide the service based on cross-platform technologies, hence minimizing custom developments and relying on commercial software as much as possible. The new system, called CERN Alerter, is based on RSS (Really Simpl...

  3. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  4. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  6. The perceptual influence of the cabin acoustics on the reproduced sound of a car audio system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2015-01-01

    -end car audio system was performed for different physical settings of the car's cabin. A novel spatial auralization methodology was then used, and participants were asked to describe verbally the perceived acoustical characteristics of the stimuli. The elicited attributes were then analyzed following...... a previous review [Kaplanis et al., in 55th Int. Conf. Aud. Eng. Soc. (2014)] and possible links to the acoustical properties of the car cabin are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation and Reverberation of Audio, Music, and Speech. EU-FP7 under agreement ITN-GA-2012-316969.]...

  7. Direct broadcast satellite-radio market, legal, regulatory, and business considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Des R.

    1991-03-01

    A Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) System offers the prospect of delivering high quality audio broadcasts to large audiences at costs lower than or comparable to those incurred using the current means of broadcasting. The maturation of mobile communications technologies, and advances in microelectronics and digital signal processing now make it possible to bring this technology to the marketplace. Heightened consumer interest in improved audio quality coupled with the technological and economic feasibility of meeting this demand via DBS-R make it opportune to start planning for implementation of DBS-R Systems. NASA-Lewis and the Voice of America as part of their on-going efforts to improve the quality of international audio broadcasts, have undertaken a number of tasks to more clearly define the technical, marketing, organizational, legal, and regulatory issues underlying implementation of DBS-R Systems. The results and an assessment is presented of the business considerations underlying the construction, launch, and operation of DBS-R Systems.

  8. Direct broadcast satellite-radio market, legal, regulatory, and business considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Des R.

    1991-01-01

    A Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) System offers the prospect of delivering high quality audio broadcasts to large audiences at costs lower than or comparable to those incurred using the current means of broadcasting. The maturation of mobile communications technologies, and advances in microelectronics and digital signal processing now make it possible to bring this technology to the marketplace. Heightened consumer interest in improved audio quality coupled with the technological and economic feasibility of meeting this demand via DBS-R make it opportune to start planning for implementation of DBS-R Systems. NASA-Lewis and the Voice of America as part of their on-going efforts to improve the quality of international audio broadcasts, have undertaken a number of tasks to more clearly define the technical, marketing, organizational, legal, and regulatory issues underlying implementation of DBS-R Systems. The results and an assessment is presented of the business considerations underlying the construction, launch, and operation of DBS-R Systems.

  9. Capacity of wireless ad-hoc broadcast networks under realistic channel models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atici, C.; Sunay, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    In a wireless broadcasting scenario, some of the nodes can help the source node by forwarding the received information. Due to the interference from multiple transmissions, selection of these nodes directly affects the performance of the system under a given total power and hop constraint. In this

  10. Relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting with random network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Sun, Fan; Xiao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting system using random network codes, where the focus is on devising efficient scheduling algorithms between relay and base stations. Two scheduling algorithms are proposed based on different feedback strategies; namely, a one-step scheduling...

  11. Towards reliable multi-hop broadcast in VANETs : An analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gholibeigi, M.; Baratchi, M.; Berg, J.L. van den; Heijenk, G.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems in the domain of vehicular networking, have recently been subject to rapid development. In vehicular ad hoc networks, data broadcast is one of the main communication types and its reliability is crucial for high performance applications. However, due to the lack of

  12. Towards Reliable Multi-Hop Broadcast in VANETs: An Analytical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gholibeigi, Mozhdeh; Baratchi, Mitra; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Heijenk, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems in the domain of vehicular networking, have recently been subject to rapid development. In vehicular ad hoc networks, data broadcast is one of the main communication types and its reliability is crucial for high performance applications. However, due to the lack of

  13. Improving the throughput of cognitive radio networks using the broadcast approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of adopting a multi layer coding (MLC) strategy, i.e., the so-called broadcast approach (BA) on the throughput of Cognitive Radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems for general fading channels. First, we consider a scenario where

  14. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  15. Progress report: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Kenneth S. Gage; Yong Han; Joseph A. Shaw; Jim H. Churnside

    1996-01-01

    From January 6 to February 28, 1993, the second phase of the Prototype Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) was conducted in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea. Data taken during PROBE included frequent radiosondes, 915 MHz Wind profiler/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) observations of winds and temperatures, and lidar measurements of cloud-base heights. In addition, a dual-channel Microwave Water Substance Radiometer (MWSR) at 23.87 and 31.65 GHz and a Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer (FTIR) were operated. The FTIR operated between 500 and 2000 cm(sup -1) and measured some of the first high spectral resolution (1 cm(sup -1)) radiation data taken in the tropics. The microwave radiometer provided continuous measurements with 30-second resolution of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated cloud liquid (ICL), the RASS measured virtual temperature profiles every 30 minutes, and the cloud lidar provided episodic measurements of clouds every minute. The RASS, MWSR, and FTIR data taken during PROBE were compared with radiosonde data. Broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance data and lidar data were used to identify the presence of cirrus clouds and clear conditions. Comparisons were made between measured and calculated radiance during clear conditions, using radiosonde data as input to a Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model. Comparisons of RASS-measured virtual temperature with radiosonde data revealed a significant cold bias below 500 m

  16. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  17. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2017-06-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  18. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  19. Equilibrium in a random viewer model of television broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...... number of channels. The authors derive properties of equilibrium in an oligopolistic market with private broadcasters and show that the number of firms has a negative effect on overall advertising and viewer satisfaction. If there is a public channel that also sells advertisements but does not maximize...... profits, this will have a positive effect on advertiser and viewer satisfaction....

  20. A broadcast engineering tutorial for non-engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzi, Skip

    2014-01-01

    A Broadcast Engineering Tutorial for Non-Engineers is the leading publication on the basics of broadcast technology. Whether you are new to the industry or do not have an engineering background, this book will give you a comprehensive primer of television, radio, and digital media relating to broadcast-it is your guide to understanding the technical world of radio and television broadcast engineering. It covers all the important topics such as DTV, IBOC, HD, standards, video servers, editing, electronic newsrooms, and more.

  1. Minimizing Broadcast Expenses in Clustered Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeeshan Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to minimize the broadcast expenses of routing protocols is to cluster the network. In clustered ad-hoc networks, all resources can be managed easily by resolving scalability issues. However, blind query broadcast is a major issue that leads to the broadcast storm problem in clustered ad-hoc networks. This query broadcast is done to carry out the route-search task that leads to the unnecessary propagation of route-query even after route has been found. Hence, this query propagation poses the problem of congestion in the network. In particular this motivates us to propose a query-control technique in such networks which works based on broadcast repealing. A huge amount of work has been devoted to propose the query control broadcasting techniques. However, such techniques used in traditional broadcasting mechanisms need to be properly extended for use in the cluster based routing architecture. In this paper, query-control technique is proposed for cluster based routing technique to reduce the broadcast expenses. Finally, we report some experiments which compare the proposed technique to other commonly used techniques including standard one-class AODV that follows TTL-sequence based broadcasting technique.

  2. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  3. Feed-forward adaptive system for vibration and sound radiation reduction phase I: architecture, definition, and specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concilio, Antonio; De Vivo, Luciano; Quaranta, V.

    1998-06-01

    Noise emission suppression problem is more and more absorbing mechanical designers' efforts, in the recent times. It is not only a matter of comfort, but also of people exposure noise limits. A significant step has been moved in Europe with the issue of the EU Green Paper: Future Noise Policy. Impact on external and internal environment is requested to be considered in industrial and civil design. Low frequency disturbances are hard to be treated by classical passive methods. Active noise control presents great potentialities. In the last years, significant improvements have been attained in the field of interior acoustics, with particular reference to aircraft. Microphones and loudspeakers - based active systems have been put on the market, while interesting alternatives have been proved to be effective, implementing Smart Materials and Structures related concepts. The authors of this paper and of its continuation have been working for a long time inside the themes related to the noise control in aircraft cabins. Thin-walled beams have a certain importance; they are representative of fuselage range. This document deals with the design and the specifications definition, concerning a system addressed to the minimization of the vibration level of, or the sound power level radiated by , a general structure; in the specific case, a thin-walled beam was selected as test article, fully representative of general complex elements. The structure is identified and characterized through its experimental response. The set-up for the active control measurements is then described in detail; the acquired transfer functions have been elaborated to predict the performance of the real active control system.

  4. Effect of ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating powered toothbrushing systems on surface roughness and wear of white spot lesions and sound enamel: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandé-Gatón, Patrícia; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Faraoni, Juliana Jendiroba; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Nelson Filho, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating powered toothbrushing systems on surface roughness and wear of white spot lesions and sound enamel. 40 tooth segments obtained from third molar crowns had the enamel surface divided into thirds, one of which was not subjected to toothbrushing. In the other two thirds, sound enamel and enamel with artificially induced white spot lesions were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10) : UT: ultrasonic toothbrush (Emmi-dental); ST1: sonic toothbrush (Colgate ProClinical Omron); ST2: sonic toothbrush (Sonicare Philips); and ROT: rotating-oscillating toothbrush (control) (Oral-B Professional Care Triumph 5000 with SmartGuide). The specimens were analyzed by confocal laser microscopy for surface roughness and wear. Data were analyzed statistically by paired t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test (α= 0.05). The different powered toothbrushing systems did not cause a significant increase in the surface roughness of sound enamel (P> 0.05). In the ROT group, the roughness of white spot lesion surface increased significantly after toothbrushing and differed from the UT group (Pspot lesion compared with sound enamel, and this group differed significantly from the ST1 group (Pspot lesion increased surface roughness and wear. None of the powered toothbrushing systems (ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating) tested caused significant alterations on sound dental enamel. However, conventional rotating-oscillating toothbrushing on enamel with white spot lesion increased surface roughness and wear. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  5. Broadcasting in America; Second Edition. A Survey of Television and Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Sydney W.

    The plan of this volume follows that of the first (1956) edition: a section on physical bases of broadcasting, one on the origin and growth of broadcasting, another on the economics of broadcasting, a fourth on the social control of broadcasting, and a final section for an assessment of the effects and influences of broadcasting. Special attention…

  6. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  7. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  8. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  9. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF FILMSTRIP SEQUENCE PHOTOGRAPHS AND SOUND REPRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PRESENTATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTINI, HARRY R.

    BLACK AND WHITE FILMSTRIPS THAT REPRODUCED STILL PICTURES AND SOUND TRACK FROM EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION BROADCASTS WERE USED TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ETV REPRODUCTIONS IN AIDING POOR ACHIEVERS. THE SPECIFIC ADVANTAGE OF SUCH A REPRODUCTION WAS THAT IT COULD BE PACED TO THE LEARNING TEMPO OF THE STUDENTS RATHER THAN USING THE TOO-FAST PACE OF A…

  11. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  12. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service... for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et...

  13. Loops of Spoken Language i Danish Broadcasting Corporation News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The tempo of Danish television news broadcasts has changed markedly over the past 40 years, while the language has essentially always been conservative, and remains so today. The development in the tempo of the broadcasts has gone through a number of phases from a newsreader in a rigid structure...

  14. The Use of Computer Simulation Gaming in Teaching Broadcast Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Louis C.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a broadcast economic computer simulation and to ascertain how a lecture-computer simulation game compared as a teaching method with a more traditional lecture and case study instructional methods. In each of three sections of a broadcast economics course, a different teaching methodology was employed: (1)…

  15. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2211; MB Docket No. 10-81; RM-11600] Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  16. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...

  17. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military intervention, broadcasting has emerged as a platform for expressing views and opinions that might ...

  18. Airborne evaluation/verification of antenna patterns of broadcasting stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method for airborne evaluation and verification of the antenna patterns of broadcasting stations. Although it is intended for governmental institutions and broadcasters it may be also of interest to anyone who wants to evaluate large radiating structures. An airborne

  19. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  20. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Family Broadcasting Group, Inc. (``Family Broadcasting''), the licensee of station KSBI(TV), channel 51, Oklahoma City... instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel...

  1. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  2. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2000; MB Docket No. 08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  3. 75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  4. 76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-96; MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...

  5. 75 FR 25119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically feasible. DATES: This... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  6. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137, RM-11637; DA 11-1414] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A...

  7. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-307; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  8. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  9. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-33, RM-11623; DA 11-406] Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  10. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  11. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-74; MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  12. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2426; MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  13. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  14. [Mechanism of the constant representation of the position of a sound signal source by the cricket cercal system neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, G I; Polishcuk, N A

    1976-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that some abdominal giant neurones of the cricket have constant preffered directions of sound stimulation in relation not to the cerci (the organs bearing sound receptors) but to the insect body (fig. 1) [1]. Now it is found that the independence of directional sensitivity of giant neurones on the cerci position disappears after cutting all structures connecting the cerci to the body (except cercal nerves) (fig 2). Therefore the constancy of directional sensitivity of the giant nerones is provided by proprioceptive signals about cerci position.

  15. Sound pressure level tools design used in occupational health by means of Labview software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: LabVIEW programming capabilities in the field of sound can be referred to the measurement of sound, frequency analysis, and sound control that actually the software acts like a sound level meter and sound analyzer. According to the mentioned features, we can use this software to analyze and process sound and vibration as a monitoring system.

  16. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  17. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  18. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  19. Method and apparatus for scheduling broadcasts in social networks

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad Ahmed

    2016-08-25

    A method, apparatus, and computer readable medium are provided for maximizing consumption of broadcasts by a producer. An example method includes receiving selection of a total number of time slots to use for scheduling broadcasts, and receiving information regarding the producer\\'s followers. The example method further 5 includes identifying, by a processor and based on the received information, discount factors associated with the producer\\'s followers, and calculating, by the processor and based on the received information, a predicted number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot of the total number of time slots. Finally, the example method includes determining, by the processor and based on the discount factors and the predicted 10 number of competitor broadcasts during each time slot, a number of broadcasts for the producer to transmit in each time slot of the total number of time slots.

  20. Adaptive Probabilistic Broadcasting over Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an idle probability-based broadcasting method, iPro, which employs an adaptive probabilistic mechanism to improve performance of data broadcasting over dense wireless ad hoc networks. In multisource one-hop broadcast scenarios, the modeling and simulation results of the proposed iPro are shown to significantly outperform the standard IEEE 802.11 under saturated condition. Moreover, the results also show that without estimating the number of competing nodes and changing the contention window size, the performance of the proposed iPro can still approach the theoretical bound. We further apply iPro to multihop broadcasting scenarios, and the experiment results show that within the same elapsed time after the broadcasting, the proposed iPro has significantly higher Packet-Delivery Ratios (PDR than traditional methods.

  1. Design and evaluation of a higher-order spherical microphone/ambisonic sound reproduction system for the acoustical assessment of concert halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Samuel W.

    Previous studies of the perception of concert hall acoustics have generally employed two methods for soliciting listeners' judgments. One method is to have listeners rate the sound in a hall while physically present in that hall. The other method is to make recordings of different halls and seat positions, and then recreate the environment for listeners in a laboratory setting via loudspeakers or headphones. In situ evaluations offer a completely faithful rendering of all aspects of the concert hall experience. However, many variables cannot be controlled and the short duration of auditory memory precludes an objective comparison of different spaces. Simulation studies allow for more control over various aspects of the evaluations, as well as A/B comparisons of different halls and seat positions. The drawback is that all simulation methods suffer from limitations in the accuracy of reproduction. If the accuracy of the simulation system is improved, then the advantages of the simulation method can be retained, while mitigating its disadvantages. Spherical microphone array technology has received growing interest in the acoustics community in recent years for many applications including beamforming, source localization, and other forms of three-dimensional sound field analysis. These arrays can decompose a measured sound field into its spherical harmonic components, the spherical harmonics being a set of spatial basis functions on the sphere that are derived from solving the wave equation in spherical coordinates. Ambisonics is a system for two- and three-dimensional spatialized sound that is based on recreating a sound field from its spherical harmonic components. Because of these shared mathematical underpinnings, ambisonics provides a natural way to present fully spatialized renderings of recordings made with a spherical microphone array. Many of the previously studied applications of spherical microphone arrays have used a narrow frequency range where the array

  2. Shannon Meets Fick on the Microfluidic Channel: Diffusion Limit to Sum Broadcast Capacity for Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, A Ozan; Lehtomaki, Janne J; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2018-03-01

    Molecular communication (MC) over a microfluidic channel with flow is investigated based on Shannon's channel capacity theorem and Fick's laws of diffusion. Specifically, the sum capacity for MC between a single transmitter and multiple receivers (broadcast MC) is studied. The transmitter communicates by using different types of signaling molecules with each receiver over the microfluidic channel. The transmitted molecules propagate through microfluidic channel until reaching the corresponding receiver. Although the use of different types of molecules provides orthogonal signaling, the sum broadcast capacity may not scale with the number of the receivers due to physics of the propagation (interplay between convection and diffusion based on distance). In this paper, the performance of broadcast MC on a microfluidic chip is characterized by studying the physical geometry of the microfluidic channel and leveraging the information theory. The convergence of the sum capacity for microfluidic broadcast channel is analytically investigated based on the physical system parameters with respect to the increasing number of molecular receivers. The analysis presented here can be useful to predict the achievable information rate in microfluidic interconnects for the biochemical computation and microfluidic multi-sample assays.

  3. Broadcast Scheduling Strategy Based on the Priority of Real- Time Data in a Mobile Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jin-cai; Liu Yun-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Data broadcast is an important data dissemina-tion approach in mobile environment. On broadcast channel,scalability and efficiency of data transmission are satisfied. In a mobile environment, there exists a kind of real-time data-base application in which both the transactions and data can have their timing constraints and priorities of different levels.In order to meet the requirement of real-time data dissemina-ting and retrieving, a broadcast scheduling strategy HPF-ED F(Highest Priority First with Earlier Deadline and Frequen-cy) is proposed under the BoD (Broadcast on Demand) mod-el. Using the strategy, data items are scheduled according to their priority the transaction imposed on them or system set for them. The strategy also considers other characteristics ofdata items such as deadline and popularity of data. The exten-sive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results show that it can achieve excellent performance compared with existing strategies.

  4. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  5. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  6. Sales plan generation problem on TV broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Cosgun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major advertisers and/or advertisement agencies purchase hundreds of slots during a given broadcast period. Deterministic optimization approaches have been well developed for the problem of meeting client requests. The challenging task for the academic research currently is to address optimization problem under uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the sales plan generation problem when the audience levels of advertisement slots are random variables with known probability distributions. There are several constraints the TV networks must meet including client budget, product category and demographic information, plan weighting by week, program mix requirements, and the lengths of advertisement slots desired by the client. We formulate the problem as a chance constrained goal program and we demonstrate that it provides a robust solution with a user specified level of reliability.

  7. User innovation in public service broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    and develop user innovations into professional content. This study follows a qualitative approach with a document study of Denmark's public service broadcast and two interviews. Findings indicate that the commitment to quality and professional content prevents managers of PSBs from outsourcing......This research aims to understand how public service media can encourage media entrepreneurship in the society to enrich user innovations as a source of ideas, products, contents, talent and creativity. The assumption is that media entrepreneurs turn users into sources of external creativity...... their production to media entrepreneurs, but they trust large media companies as external producers. This research contributes to the field by proposing that public service media can foster media entrepreneurship in a society indirectly and by creating demand for external sources of creativity. Large media...

  8. Standard practice for construction of a stepped block and its use to estimate errors produced by speed-of-sound measurement systems for use on solids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a means for evaluating both systematic and random errors for ultrasonic speed-of-sound measurement systems which are used for evaluating material characteristics associated with residual stress and which may also be used for nondestructive measurements of the dynamic elastic moduli of materials. Important features and construction details of a reference block crucial to these error evaluations are described. This practice can be used whenever the precision and bias of sound speed values are in question. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. 75 FR 16377 - Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings and Ephemeral Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Petitions to Participate were received from: Intercollegiate Broadcast System, Inc./ Harvard Radio...), respectively, and the references to January 1, 2009, have been deleted. Next, for the reasons stated above in... State. (j) Retention of records. Books and records of a Broadcaster and of the Collective relating to...

  10. Different Types of Sounds and Their Relationship With the Electrocardiographic Signals and the Cardiovascular System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio H. Idrobo-Ávila

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: For some time now, the effects of sound, noise, and music on the human body have been studied. However, despite research done through time, it is still not completely clear what influence, interaction, and effects sounds have on human body. That is why it is necessary to conduct new research on this topic. Thus, in this paper, a systematic review is undertaken in order to integrate research related to several types of sound, both pleasant and unpleasant, specifically noise and music. In addition, it includes as much research as possible to give stakeholders a more general vision about relevant elements regarding methodologies, study subjects, stimulus, analysis, and experimental designs in general. This study has been conducted in order to make a genuine contribution to this area and to perhaps to raise the quality of future research about sound and its effects over ECG signals.Methods: This review was carried out by independent researchers, through three search equations, in four different databases, including: engineering, medicine, and psychology. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and studies published between 1999 and 2017 were considered. The selected documents were read and analyzed independently by each group of researchers and subsequently conclusions were established between all of them.Results: Despite the differences between the outcomes of selected studies, some common factors were found among them. Thus, in noise studies where both BP and HR increased or tended to increase, it was noted that HRV (HF and LF/HF changes with both sound and noise stimuli, whereas GSR changes with sound and musical stimuli. Furthermore, LF also showed changes with exposure to noise.Conclusion: In many cases, samples displayed a limitation in experimental design, and in diverse studies, there was a lack of a control group. There was a lot of variability in the presented stimuli providing a wide overview of the effects they could

  11. Sound synthesis and evaluation of interactive footsteps and environmental sounds rendering for virtual reality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-09-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based on physical models. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the ability of subjects to recognize the surface they were exposed to was assessed. In the second experiment, the sound synthesis engine was enhanced with environmental sounds. Results show that, in some conditions, adding a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment.

  12. The Auditory System of the Minke Whale (Balaenoptera Acutorostrata): A Potential Fatty Sound Reception Pathway in a Mysticete Cetacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Rolland RM, Parks SE, Hunt KE, Castellote M, Corkeron PJ, Nowacek DP, Wasser SK, Kraus SD. 2012. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right...In odontocetes, which receive sound under water , the air-filled ear canal has been replaced by multiple lobes of fatty tissues leading to the tympano...heads: comparison with odontocete acoustic fats. In: Sixth Triennial Conference on Secondary Adaptations of Tetrapods to Life in Water . San Diego, CA

  13. National association of broadcasters engineering handbook NAB engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Graham A; Osenkowsky, Thomas G; Williams, Edmund A

    2013-01-01

    The NAB Engineering Handbook provides detailed information on virtually every aspect of the broadcast chain, from news gathering, program production and postproduction through master control and distribution links to transmission, antennas, RF propagation, cable and satellite. Hot topics covered include HD Radio, HDTV, 2 GHz broadcast auxiliary services, EAS, workflow, metadata, digital asset management, advanced video and audio compression, audio and video over IP, and Internet broadcasting. A wide range of related topics that engineers and managers need to understand are also covered, includ

  14. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  15. Audio podcasts in practical courses in biochemistry ? cost-efficient e-learning in a well-proven format from radio broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    M?nch-Harrach, Dieter; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Audio podcasts are an e-learning format that may help to motivate students to deal with the contents of medical education more intensely. We adopted a well-proven format from radio broadcasting, the radio documentary, to direct the listeners? attention to information about practical courses in biochemistry over a period of 20 minutes at most. Information, original sounds, and a specific atmosphere allow listeners to perceive the contents intensely. Method: In order to organise t...

  16. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  17. A modeling study of tidal energy extraction and the associated impact on tidal circulation in a multi-inlet bay system of Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-12-01

    Previous tidal energy projects in Puget Sound have focused on major deep channels such as Admiralty Inlet that have a larger power potential but pose greater technical challenges than minor tidal channels connecting to small sub-basins. This paper focuses on the possibility of extracting energy from minor tidal channels by using a hydrodynamic model to quantify the power potential and the associated impact on tidal circulation. The study site is a multi-inlet bay system connected by two narrow inlets, Agate Pass and Rich Passage, to the Main Basin of Puget Sound. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the study site and calibrated for tidal elevations and currents. We examined three energy extraction scenarios in which turbines were deployed in each of the two passages and concurrently in both. Extracted power rates and associated changes in tidal elevation, current, tidal flux, and residence time were examined. Maximum instantaneous power rates reached 250 kW, 1550 kW, and 1800 kW, respectively, for the three energy extraction scenarios. The model suggests that with the proposed level of energy extraction, the impact on tidal circulation is very small. It is worth investigating the feasibility of harnessing tidal energy from minor tidal channels of Puget Sound.

  18. Applying the EBU R128 loudness standard in live-streaming sound sculptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.; Rothmann, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    to preserve a natural sounding dynamic image from the varying sound sources that can be played back under varying conditions, an adaptation of the EBU R128 loudness measurement recommendation, originally developed for levelling non-real-time broadcast material, has been applied. The paper describes the Pure......This paper describes the development of a loudness-based compressor for live audio streams. The need for this device arose while developing the public sound art project The Overheard, which involves mixing together several live audio streams through a web based mixing interface. In order...

  19. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  20. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  1. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  2. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  3. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  4. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  5. 75 FR 8070 - Closed Auction of Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for July 20, 2010; Auction 88...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... to support their claims with valuation analyses and suggested amounts or formulas for reserve prices... seek comment on factors that could reasonably have an impact on valuation of the broadcast spectrum..., Inc. Arkansas Valley Broadcasting, LLC BBK Broadcasting Big Sky Company Birach Broadcasting...

  6. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and... SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1204 Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations. (a) An application for an FM translator station will not be...

  7. 47 CFR 73.6026 - Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television stations. 73.6026 Section 73.6026 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6026 Broadcast regulations applicable to Class A television stations. The following rules are applicable to Class A...

  8. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  9. 78 FR 12010 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... (``Petitioner''), licensee of FM Station KSAG, Channel 277A, Pearsall, Texas. Petitioner proposes to amend the... be allotted at Pearsall, Texas, in compliance with the Commission's minimum distance separation...

  10. Poland's Press and Broadcasting Under the Gierek Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanor, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Reports that the Polish press and broadcasting have been carrying more news and less propaganda since the 1970 Baltic upheavel and that the Polish media are generally allowed more freedom than media in other Communist nations. (RB)

  11. Compressive sensing for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza Talesh

    2014-01-01

    In multi-antenna broadcast networks, the base stations (BSs) rely on the channel state information (CSI) of the users to perform user scheduling and downlink transmission. However, in networks with large number of users, obtaining CSI from all users

  12. 77 FR 46631 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  13. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  14. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  15. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  16. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  17. Reliable Multihop Broadcast Protocol with a Low-Overhead Link Quality Assessment for ITS Based on VANETs in Highway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been identified as a key technology to enable intelligent transport systems (ITS, which are aimed to radically improve the safety, comfort, and greenness of the vehicles in the road. However, in order to fully exploit VANETs potential, several issues must be addressed. Because of the high dynamic of VANETs and the impairments in the wireless channel, one key issue arising when working with VANETs is the multihop dissemination of broadcast packets for safety and infotainment applications. In this paper a reliable low-overhead multihop broadcast (RLMB protocol is proposed to address the well-known broadcast storm problem. The proposed RLMB takes advantage of the hello messages exchanged between the vehicles and it processes such information to intelligently select a relay set and reduce the redundant broadcast. Additionally, to reduce the hello messages rate dependency, RLMB uses a point-to-zone link evaluation approach. RLMB performance is compared with one of the leading multihop broadcast protocols existing to date. Performance metrics show that our RLMB solution outperforms the leading protocol in terms of important metrics such as packet dissemination ratio, overhead, and delay.

  18. How we use online broadcasting - Web TV - for community engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Conway, F. M.; Matti, J.; Palmer, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Arizona Geological Survey uses online broadcasting (Webcast or 'Web TV') to help fulfill our statutory mission to 'Inform, advise and assist the public in matters concerning the geological processes, materials and landscapes and the development and use of the mineral resources of this state.' We launched a monthly online broadcast called 'Arizona Mining Review' via Livestream, a low-cost or free video streaming service. The show provides news, interviews, and discussions about mining and mineral resources topics of interest in Arizona, the nation's second largest non-fuel mining state. The costs to set up and broadcast are minor. Interviews with local guests are held in a corner of the AZGS conference room with easy chairs and a couch; long-distance interviews are held via Skype. The broadcast originates from a desktop computer with a webcam, a $60 microphone, three sets of earbud headphones and a powered amplifier. During broadcasts, we supplement interview footage with slides, photos, or video clips that we have or are provided by guests. Initial broadcasts were live; recordings of these were later uploaded to our YouTube channel. Because scheduling and executing a live Internet broadcast is stressful and demanding for both the production team and guests, we recently elected to record and produce episodes prior to broadcasting them. This allows us more control over supplementary materials used during the broadcast; it also permits us to record the broadcast using a high-definition digital video camera that cannot be used for streaming video. In addition to the Arizona Mining Review, we record conferences and workshops and special presentations on topical issues. A video on the recently discovered Little Chino fault has drawn over 3,000 views. Our latest presentations are short 1-2 minute 'video abstracts' delivered by authors of new publications released by the Survey. These include maps and graphics from the reports to help illustrate the topics and their

  19. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  20. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  1. Broadcast Abstraction in a Stochastic Calculus for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    topology constraint. We allow continuous time stochastic behavior of processes running at network nodes, e.g. in order to be able to model randomized protocols. The introduction of group broadcast and an operator to help avoid flooding allows us to define a novel notion of broadcast abstraction. Finally......, we define a weak bisimulation congruence and apply our theory on an example of a leader election protocol....

  2. A dynamic analysis of consolidation in the broadcast television industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica C. Stahl

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a dynamic oligopoly model in order to separately identify the demand-side and cost-side advantages of consolidation in the broadcast television industry. I exploit an exogenous change in regulation that led to significant industry consolidation. Using revenue and ownership data for broadcast stations over the past ten years, I estimate the effect of ownership changes on revenue. I recover costs by examining patterns in ownership changes that are left unexplained by revenu...

  3. Productivity and its Decomposition in the Japanese Broadcasting Market

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Sumiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to calculate the total factor productivity (TFP) as well as scale economies of Japanese terrestrial broadcasters and examine the industry’s characteristics through the decomposition of TFP growth. In order to calculate TFP growth rate, a variable cost function is estimated using data on twenty-five broadcasters for the period 1997–2002, and the TFP growth rate is decomposed into three sources: output effect, capital adjustment and technical change. Calculation rev...

  4. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi; Naser Mirsepasi; Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990) [Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked ...

  5. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richey, Jeff [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taira, Randal Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Constans, Michael [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Van Cleve, Frances B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tesfa, Teklu K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  6. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  7. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  8. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    for fulfilment of their work task at hand.  Subsequently to identification of appropriate access points, we consider indexing approaches for construction of the access point in surrogate records.  The primary focus is on exploitation of information in readily available external sources, namely television...... builds upon the fundamental conception that concurrent consideration of research in information seeking and IR is advantageous for Library and Information Science research.  Further, the framework contests that in order to create an effective broadcast retrieval system, it is important to gather......The present doctoral work concerns the investigation of three aspects of scholars’ and students’ information seeking behaviour in a television broadcast context, and the associated implications for design and construction of metadata elements in surrogate records in future broadcast retrieval...

  9. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  10. THE INTONATION AND SOUND CHARACTERISTICS OF ADVERTISING PRONUNCIATION STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyavskaya Elena Sergeevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at describing the intonation and sound characteristics of advertising phonetic style. On the basis of acoustic analysis of transcripts of radio advertising tape recordings, broadcasted at different radio stations, as well as in the result of processing the representative part of phrases with the help of special computer programs, the author determines the parameters of superfix means. The article proves that the stylistic parameters of advertising phonetic style are oriented on modern orthoepy, and that the originality of radio advertising sounding is determined by two tendencies – the reduction of stressed vowels duration in the terminal and non-terminal word and the increase of pre-tonic and post-tonic vowels duration of non-terminal word in a phrase. The article also shows that the peculiarity of rhythmic structure of terminal and non-terminal word in radio advertising is formed by means of leveling stressed and unstressed sounds in length. The specificity of intonational structure of an advertising text consists in the following peculiarities: matching of syntactic and syntagmatic division, which allows to denote the blocks of semantic models, forming the text of radio advertising; the allocation of keywords into separate syntagmas; the design of informative parts of advertising text by means of symmetric length correlation of minimal speech segments; the combination of interstyle prosodic elements in the framework of sounding text. Thus, the conducted analysis allowed to conclude, that the texts of sounding advertising are designed using special pronunciation style, marked by sound duration.

  11. Prediction of the vapor–liquid equilibria and speed of sound in binary systems of 1-alkanols and n-alkanes with the simplified PC-SAFT equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Thomsen, Kaj; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    (or other derivative properties) with satisfactory accuracy over wide temperature, pressure and composition conditions. This work presents the prediction of the vapor–liquid equilibria and speed of sound in binary mixtures of 1-alkanols and n-alkanes using the simplified PC-SAFT equation of state...... of sound with a satisfactory accuracy for 1-alkanols and n-alkanes binary systems within the PC-SAFT framework....

  12. Study on moving target detection to passive radar based on FM broadcast transmitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Target detection by a noncooperative illuminator is a topic of general interest in the electronic warfare field.First of all,direct-path interference(DPI)suppression which is the technique of bottleneck of moving target detection by a noncooperative frequency modulation(FM) broadcast transmitter is analyzed in this article;Secondly,a space-time-frequency domain synthetic solution to this problem is introduced:Adaptive nulling array processing is considered in the space domain,DPI cancellation based on adaptive fractional delay interpolation(AFDI)technique is used in planned time domain,and long-time coherent integration is utilized in the frequency domain;Finally,an experimental system is planned by considering FM broadcast transmitter as a noncooperative illuminator,Simulation results by real collected data show that the proposed method has a better performance of moving target detection.

  13. Toward a Model of Strategic Influence, International Broadcasting, and Global Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Hacker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how strategic communication, public diplomacy, international governmental broadcasting, and social media networking can be brought together in a system of strategic influence and global engagement. The analysis offers a contrasting approach to various views of public diplomacy or strategic communication which privilege one form of governmental influence over others and treat partial aspects of national persuasion as complete pictures of government communication aimed at foreign audiences. Because so much of public diplomacy literature today emphasizes social media, it is necessary to determine how specific tools of influence such as international broadcasting, can be used in ways that fit new thinking in public diplomacy as well as continuously emerging new media ecologies.

  14. Unconstrained Capacities of Quantum Key Distribution and Entanglement Distillation for Pure-Loss Bosonic Broadcast Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P; Wilde, Mark M

    2017-10-13

    We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.

  15. Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of SoftCast Wireless Video Broadcast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless video broadcast plays an imp ortant role in multimedia communication with the emergence of mobile video applications. However, conventional video broadcast designs suffer from a cliff effect due to separated source and channel encoding. The newly prop osed SoftCast scheme employs a cross-layer design, whose reconstructed video quality is prop ortional to the channel condition. In this pap er, we provide the p erformance evaluation and the parameter optimization of the SoftCast system. Optimization principles on parameter selection are suggested to obtain a b etter video quality, o ccupy less bandwidth and/or utilize lower complexity. In addition, we compare SoftCast with H.264 in the LTE EPA scenario. The simulation results show that SoftCast provides a b etter p erformance in the scalability to channel conditions and the robustness to packet losses.

  16. Optimizing Energy and Modulation Selection in Multi-Resolution Modulation For Wireless Video Broadcast/Multicast

    KAUST Repository

    She, James

    2009-11-01

    Emerging technologies in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks and video coding have enabled high-quality wireless video broadcast/multicast services in metropolitan areas. Joint source-channel coded wireless transmission, especially using hierarchical/superposition coded modulation at the channel, is recognized as an effective and scalable approach to increase the system scalability while tackling the multi-user channel diversity problem. The power allocation and modulation selection problem, however, is subject to a high computational complexity due to the nonlinear formulation and huge solution space. This paper introduces a dynamic programming framework with conditioned parsing, which significantly reduces the search space. The optimized result is further verified with experiments using real video content. The proposed approach effectively serves as a generalized and practical optimization framework that can gauge and optimize a scalable wireless video broadcast/multicast based on multi-resolution modulation in any BWA network.

  17. Unconstrained Capacities of Quantum Key Distribution and Entanglement Distillation for Pure-Loss Bosonic Broadcast Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.

  18. Optimizing Energy and Modulation Selection in Multi-Resolution Modulation For Wireless Video Broadcast/Multicast

    KAUST Repository

    She, James; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2009-01-01

    Emerging technologies in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks and video coding have enabled high-quality wireless video broadcast/multicast services in metropolitan areas. Joint source-channel coded wireless transmission, especially using hierarchical/superposition coded modulation at the channel, is recognized as an effective and scalable approach to increase the system scalability while tackling the multi-user channel diversity problem. The power allocation and modulation selection problem, however, is subject to a high computational complexity due to the nonlinear formulation and huge solution space. This paper introduces a dynamic programming framework with conditioned parsing, which significantly reduces the search space. The optimized result is further verified with experiments using real video content. The proposed approach effectively serves as a generalized and practical optimization framework that can gauge and optimize a scalable wireless video broadcast/multicast based on multi-resolution modulation in any BWA network.

  19. Integrating Communication and Navigation: Next Generation Broadcast Service (NGBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    NASA Goddard has been investing in technology demonstrations of a beacon service, now called Next Generation Broadcast Services (NGBS). NGBS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). NGBS will provide an S-band beacon messaging source and radio navigation available to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below, increasing the autonomy and resiliency of onboard communication and navigation. NGBS will deliver both one-way radiometric (Doppler and pseudorange) and fast forward data transport services to users. Portions of the overall forward data volume will be allocated for fixed message types while the remaining data volume will be left for user forward command data. The NGBS signal will reside within the 2106.43 MHz spectrum currently allocated for the Space Networks multiple access forward (MAF) service and a live service demonstration is currently being planned via the 2nd and 3rd generation TDRS satellites.

  20. Sound Surfing Network (SSN): Mobile Phone-based Sound Spatialization with Audience Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saebyul; Ban, Seonghoon; Hong, Dae Ryong; Yeo, Woon Seung

    2013-01-01

    SSN (Sound Surfing Network) is a performance system that provides a new musicalexperience by incorporating mobile phone-based spatial sound control tocollaborative music performance. SSN enables both the performer and theaudience to manipulate the spatial distribution of sound using the smartphonesof the audience as distributed speaker system. Proposing a new perspective tothe social aspect music appreciation, SSN will provide a new possibility tomobile music performances in the context of in...

  1. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  2. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  3. A Novel Geo-Broadcast Algorithm for V2V Communications over WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Anaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The key for enabling the next generation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS, the cooperative systems, is the availability of vehicular communication technologies, whose mandatory installation in cars is foreseen in the next few years. The definition of the communications is in the final step of development, with great efforts on standardization and some field operational tests of network devices and applications. However, some inter-vehicular communications issues are not sufficiently developed and are the target of research. One of these challenges is the construction of stable networks based on the position of the nodes of the vehicular network, as well as the broadcast of information destined to nodes concentrated in a specific geographic area without collapsing the network. In this paper, a novel algorithm for geo-broadcast communications is presented, based on the evolution of previous results in vehicular mesh networks using wireless sensor networks with IEEE 802.15.4 technology. This algorithm has been designed and compared with the IEEE 802.11p algorithms, implemented and validated in controlled conditions and tested on real vehicles. The results suggest that the characteristics of the designed broadcast algorithm can improve any vehicular communications architecture to complement a geo-networking functionality that supports a variety of ADAS.

  4. Satellite single-axis attitude determination based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixing; Sun, Xiucong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Xinsheng; Ren, Guangwei

    2017-10-01

    The space-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) is a new technology for air traffic management. The satellite equipped with spaceborne ADS-B system receives the broadcast signals from aircraft and transfers the message to ground stations, so as to extend the coverage area of terrestrial-based ADS-B. In this work, a novel satellite single-axis attitude determination solution based on the ADS-B receiving system is proposed. This solution utilizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of the broadcast signals from aircraft to determine the boresight orientation of the ADS-B receiving antenna fixed on the satellite. The basic principle of this solution is described. The feasibility study of this new attitude determination solution is implemented, including the link budget and the access analysis. On this basis, the nonlinear least squares estimation based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method is applied to estimate the single-axis orientation. A full digital simulation has been carried out to verify the effectiveness and performance of this solution. Finally, the corresponding results are processed and presented minutely.

  5. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  6. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  7. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, S.; Evengaard, K.; Barrozo, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    later in the same way as exposure to the sex pheromone itself. The observed behavioral modification is accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of olfactory neurons in the antennal lobe. Our data provide thus evidence for cross-modal experience-dependent plasticity not only on the behavioral level...... at the behavioral and central nervous level. Here we show that this effect is not confined to the same sensory modality: the sensitivity of olfactory neurons can also be modulated by exposure to a different sensory stimulus, i.e., a pulsed stimulus mimicking echolocating sounds from attacking insectivorous bats. We...... tested responses of preexposed male moths in a walking bioassay and recorded from neurons in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe. We show that brief exposure to a bat call, but not to a behaviorally irrelevant tone, increases the behavioral sensitivity of male moths to sex pheromone 24 h...

  8. Scenarios and business models for mobile network operators utilizing the hybrid use concept of the UHF broadcasting spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yrjölä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and presents scenarios and business models for mobile network operators (MNOs in the novel hybrid use spectrum sharing concept of the Ultra High Frequency broadcasting spectrum (470-790 MHz used for Digital Terrestrial TV (DTT and Mobile Broadband (MBB. More flexible use of the band could lead to higher efficiency in delivering fast growing and converging MBB, media and TV content to meet changing consumer needs. On one hand, this could be beneficial for broadcasters (BC, e.g., by preserving the spectrum, by providing additional revenues, or by lowering cost of the spectrum and, on the other hand, for MNOs to gain faster access to new potentially lower cost, licensed, below 1GHz spectrum to cope with booming data traffic. As a collaborative benefit, the concept opens up new business opportunities for delivering TV and media content using MBB network with means to introduce this flexibly. This paper highlights the importance of developing sound business models for the new spectrum use concept, as they need to provide clear benefits to the key stakeholders to be adopted in real life. The paper applies a future and action oriented approach to the MBB using the concept to derive scenarios and business models for MNOs for accessing hybrid UHF bands. In order to address the convergence and transformation coming with the concept, business models are first developed for the current situation with separate exclusive spectrum bands. Novel business scenarios are then developed for the introduction of the new flexible hybrid UHF spectrum concept. The created business model indicates that the MNOs could benefit significantly from the new UHF bands, which would enable them to cope with increasing data traffic asymmetry, and to offer differentiation through personalized broadcasting and new media services. Moreover, it could significantly re-shape the business ecosystem around both the broadcasting and the mobile broadband by introducing

  9. SURVEI PENANGANAN BROADCAST STORM PROBLEM PADA PROTOKOL ROUTING AODV DI MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Zainul Muttaqien

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Komunikasi multi-hop pada lingkungan MANET dapat melibatkan broadcast paket dalam proses route discovery. Protokol routing pada MANET akan melakukan broadcast paket RREQ dan menjalarkannya ke node tujuan secepat dan seefisien mungkin, dimana paket RREQ dari rute yang optimal adalah paket RREQ yang terlebih dahulu sampai ke tujuan. Aktifitas broadcast yang tidak terkontrol dapat menyebabkan suatu kondisi yang disebut broadcast storm problem. Broadcast storm problem dapat berdampak pada terganggunya kinerja dari protokol routing akibat adanya packet redundancy, contention, dan collision. Broadcast storm problem dapat ditangani dengan membatasi jumlah node yang dapat melakukan broadcast. Tujuan utama dari pembuatan makalah ini adalah merangkum beberapa mekanisme terbaru yang telah diakukan oleh para peneliti untuk menangani broadcast storm problem. Kami juga menyajikan perbandingan dari mekanisme tersebut berdasarkan karakteristik dari mekanisme ditinjau dari kesesuaian dengan beberapa skema penanganan broadcast storm problem yang diajukan oleh peneliti sebelumnya, kebutuhan informasi tertentu antar node, lingkungan uji coba dan apakah mekanisme ini dapat diterapkan pada protokol routing lainnya.

  10. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  11. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  12. Obstacles to broadcasting for national integration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amienyi, O P

    1989-01-01

    In Nigeria, the media is the major government vehicle to achieve national integration. The problems arise from the approximately 250 ethnic groups speaking many languages. Television and radio have caused disintegration by emphasizing alienation and polarization rather than unity. With more than 178 languages there are major problems for radio and television. The government leaders have promoted a strong interest in creating a unified society through broadcasting, but at the same time have allowed media managers to operate towards goals of ethnic protection. Religion is also a factor that hinders broadcasting for national unity, since there are Hausa and Muslim in the north, Catholic in the south-east, and in the south-west there are many African ethnic religions. More than 60% of the local programming on television is keyed to local religious subjects. Illiteracy is also a problem in the use of broadcasting in the goal of national integration. Only through education of a socially conscious people can the religious fanaticism, ethnocentrism, and tribalism be overcome to form a united nation. Broadcasting can play an important role consistent with the needs of society as a whole. Managers in broadcasting must be well educated, well trained and understand the needs and ambitions of society. They need to support these needs and ambitions, and be constructively critical when necessary for the betterment of society.

  13. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  14. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  15. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  16. Characterization of the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression Water in the Space Launch System Mobile Launcher Using Volume of Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Vehicle consists of a Core Stage with four RS-25 engines and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). This vehicle is launched from the Launchpad using a Mobile Launcher (ML) which supports the SLS vehicle until its liftoff from the ML under its own power. The combination of the four RS-25 engines and two SRBs generate a significant Ignition Over-Pressure (IOP) and Acoustic Sound environment. One of the mitigations of these environments is the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression (IOP/SS) subsystem installed on the ML. This system consists of six water nozzles located parallel to and 24 inches downstream of each SRB nozzle exit plane as well as 16 water nozzles located parallel to and 53 inches downstream of the RS-25 nozzle exit plane. During launch of the SLS vehicle, water is ejected through each water nozzle to reduce the intensity of the transient pressure environment imposed upon the SLS vehicle. While required for the mitigation of the transient pressure environment on the SLS vehicle, the IOP/SS subsystem interacts (possibly adversely) with other systems located on the Launch Pad. One of the other systems that the IOP/SS water is anticipated to interact with is the Hydrogen Burn-Off Igniter System (HBOI). The HBOI system's purpose is to ignite the unburned hydrogen/air mixture that develops in and around the nozzle of the RS-25 engines during engine start. Due to the close proximity of the water system to the HBOI system, the presence of the IOP/SS may degrade the effectiveness of the HBOI system. Another system that the IOP/SS water may interact with adversely is the RS-25 engine nozzles and the SRB nozzles. The adverse interaction anticipated is the wetting, to a significant degree, of the RS-25 nozzles resulting in substantial weight of ice forming and water present to a significant degree upstream of the SRB nozzle exit plane inside the nozzle itself, posing significant additional blockage of the effluent that exits the nozzle

  17. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  18. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  19. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  20. 75 FR 17874 - Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Their Impact on the Terrestrial Radio Broadcast Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... power (ERP), and implements interference mitigation and remediation procedures to resolve promptly... ERP increase undertaken pursuant to the procedures adopted. The increase in FM hybrid digital ERP will... increases in FM digital ERP do not adversely affect existing FM analog operations. These rule changes...