WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound association problems

  1. Inverse problem of radiofrequency sounding of ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, E. N.; Yu. Grishentsev, A.; Korobeynikov, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem of vertical ionosphere sounding and a mathematical model of noise filtering are presented. An automated system for processing and analysis of spectrograms of vertical ionosphere sounding based on our algorithm is described. It is shown that the algorithm we suggest has a rather high efficiency. This is supported by the data obtained at the ionospheric stations of the so-called “AIS-M” type.

  2. Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kobolev, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the conference "Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems", dedicated to the memory of outstanding scientists - Vladimir Nikolaevich Shuman and Sergei Nikolaevich Kulik, who made a great contribution to the theory, methodology and geological interpretation of deep electromagnetic electromagnetic sounding of the Earth.

  3. Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A

    2013-11-01

    Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.

  4. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.

  5. The block Gauss-Seidel method in sound transmission problems

    OpenAIRE

    Poblet-Puig, Jordi; Rodríguez Ferran, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Sound transmission through partitions can be modelled as an acoustic fluid-elastic structure interaction problem. The block Gauss-Seidel iterative method is used in order to solve the finite element linear system of equations. The blocks are defined in a natural way, respecting the fluid and structural domains. The convergence criterion (spectral radius of iteration matrix smaller than one) is analysed and interpreted in physical terms by means of simple one-dimensional problems. This anal...

  6. Association of Sound movements in space to Takete and Maluma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De

    2014-01-01

    the association is not cross-modal since both the stimuli are in the auditory domain, but the connection between words and sound movements is not trivial. A significant preference (twelve out of thirteen subjects) associated “takete” with the jagged sound movement and “maluma” with the round one. Colored noise...

  7. Remembering that big things sound big: Sound symbolism and associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Melissa A; Coane, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    According to sound symbolism theory, individual sounds or clusters of sounds can convey meaning. To examine the role of sound symbolic effects on processing and memory for nonwords, we developed a novel set of 100 nonwords to convey largeness (nonwords containing plosive consonants and back vowels) and smallness (nonwords containing fricative consonants and front vowels). In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants rated the size of the 100 nonwords and provided definitions to them as if they were products. Nonwords composed of fricative/front vowels were rated as smaller than those composed of plosive/back vowels. In Experiment 2, participants studied sound symbolic congruent and incongruent nonword and participant-generated definition pairings. Definitions paired with nonwords that matched the size and participant-generated meanings were recalled better than those that did not match. When the participant-generated definitions were re-paired with other nonwords, this mnemonic advantage was reduced, although still reliable. In a final free association study, the possibility that plosive/back vowel and fricative/front vowel nonwords elicit sound symbolic size effects due to mediation from word neighbors was ruled out. Together, these results suggest that definitions that are sound symbolically congruent with a nonword are more memorable than incongruent definition-nonword pairings. This work has implications for the creation of brand names and how to create brand names that not only convey desired product characteristics, but also are memorable for consumers.

  8. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  9. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  10. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and...

  11. Tool-use-associated sound in the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz

    2015-09-01

    Proponents of the motor theory of language evolution have primarily focused on the visual domain and communication through observation of movements. In the present paper, it is hypothesized that the production and perception of sound, particularly of incidental sound of locomotion (ISOL) and tool-use sound (TUS), also contributed. Human bipedalism resulted in rhythmic and more predictable ISOL. It has been proposed that this stimulated the evolution of musical abilities, auditory working memory, and abilities to produce complex vocalizations and to mimic natural sounds. Since the human brain proficiently extracts information about objects and events from the sounds they produce, TUS, and mimicry of TUS, might have achieved an iconic function. The prevalence of sound symbolism in many extant languages supports this idea. Self-produced TUS activates multimodal brain processing (motor neurons, hearing, proprioception, touch, vision), and TUS stimulates primate audiovisual mirror neurons, which is likely to stimulate the development of association chains. Tool use and auditory gestures involve motor processing of the forelimbs, which is associated with the evolution of vertebrate vocal communication. The production, perception, and mimicry of TUS may have resulted in a limited number of vocalizations or protowords that were associated with tool use. A new way to communicate about tools, especially when out of sight, would have had selective advantage. A gradual change in acoustic properties and/or meaning could have resulted in arbitrariness and an expanded repertoire of words. Humans have been increasingly exposed to TUS over millions of years, coinciding with the period during which spoken language evolved. ISOL and tool-use-related sound are worth further exploration.

  12. Analytical Lie-algebraic solution of a 3D sound propagation problem in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, P.S., E-mail: petrov@poi.dvo.ru [Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43 Baltiyskaya str., Vladivostok, 690041 (Russian Federation); Prants, S.V., E-mail: prants@poi.dvo.ru [Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43 Baltiyskaya str., Vladivostok, 690041 (Russian Federation); Petrova, T.N., E-mail: petrova.tn@dvfu.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Sukhanova str., 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-21

    The problem of sound propagation in a shallow sea with variable bottom slope is considered. The sound pressure field produced by a time-harmonic point source in such inhomogeneous 3D waveguide is expressed in the form of a modal expansion. The expansion coefficients are computed using the adiabatic mode parabolic equation theory. The mode parabolic equations are solved explicitly, and the analytical expressions for the modal coefficients are obtained using a Lie-algebraic technique. - Highlights: • A group-theoretical approach is applied to a problem of sound propagation in a shallow sea with variable bottom slope. • An analytical solution of this problem is obtained in the form of modal expansion with analytical expressions of the coefficients. • Our result is the only analytical solution of the 3D sound propagation problem with no translational invariance. • This solution can be used for the validation of the numerical propagation models.

  13. Sound attenuation and preferred music in the treatment of problem behavior maintained by escape from noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Tracy L; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; LaRue, Robert H

    2018-06-06

    We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Overcoming The Problem Of English Sound System Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to examine important issues in teaching phonetics. These are the interference problem that can affect one's speech during communication and how the teacher through the use of appropriate techniques and methods can assist the second language learner overcome these problems. Journal of Technology ...

  15. Neural dynamics of learning sound-action associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam McNamara

    Full Text Available A motor component is pre-requisite to any communicative act as one must inherently move to communicate. To learn to make a communicative act, the brain must be able to dynamically associate arbitrary percepts to the neural substrate underlying the pre-requisite motor activity. We aimed to investigate whether brain regions involved in complex gestures (ventral pre-motor cortex, Brodmann Area 44 were involved in mediating association between novel abstract auditory stimuli and novel gestural movements. In a functional resonance imaging (fMRI study we asked participants to learn associations between previously unrelated novel sounds and meaningless gestures inside the scanner. We use functional connectivity analysis to eliminate the often present confound of 'strategic covert naming' when dealing with BA44 and to rule out effects of non-specific reductions in signal. Brodmann Area 44, a region incorporating Broca's region showed strong, bilateral, negative correlation of BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent response with learning of sound-action associations during data acquisition. Left-inferior-parietal-lobule (l-IPL and bilateral loci in and around visual area V5, right-orbital-frontal-gyrus, right-hippocampus, left-para-hippocampus, right-head-of-caudate, right-insula and left-lingual-gyrus also showed decreases in BOLD response with learning. Concurrent with these decreases in BOLD response, an increasing connectivity between areas of the imaged network as well as the right-middle-frontal-gyrus with rising learning performance was revealed by a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. The increasing connectivity therefore occurs within an increasingly energy efficient network as learning proceeds. Strongest learning related connectivity between regions was found when analysing BA44 and l-IPL seeds. The results clearly show that BA44 and l-IPL is dynamically involved in linking gesture and sound and therefore provides evidence that one of

  16. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-06-04

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo\\'s law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  17. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo's law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  18. Sound Problems in Interpreting: a Comparative Study of Undergraduate Program at Sebelas Maret State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Nur Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is to classify the problem triggers in consecutive interpreting especially in listening. The objectives of the research are to find out the relationship between listening skills and sound problem by comparing the test results of English student and non-English student and prove that students’ problem triggers are closely related to the writing and reading performances which are caused by listening skill problems such as domain in comprehension, similar word, etc. The method used in the research is descriptive qualitative. The participants are English Department and non English student. Technique of collecting data in the research uses questionnaire, test, and interview. The biggest problem faced by non-English student group is numbering and proper names. It is 34 % which occupy in first rank. Whereas the percentage of English student in comprehension is 27%, then the numbering and proper names, the last is similar word which has 20%. Meanwhile, the test result of English group is 84.5 and non-English group is 60. It represent the background knowledge factors are also play an important role in doing the test. In conclusion, there is relationship between students’ problem triggers, writing and reading performances, especially homophone errors. So, the hypothesis is accepted and it strengthens a currently underdeveloped theory that sounds problem play an important role in listening.

  19. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites.

  20. Chemical problems associated with reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the chemical problems raised by the reprocessing of oxide base fuels. Taking the reprocessing of slightly irradiated metallic fuels as a reference, for which long experience has been gained, a review is made of the various stages of the Purex process, in which the increase in mass and activity of the actinides and fission products engenders constraints related to the recovery of fissile materials, their purification, the release rate and, in general, the operation of the installations. The following subjects are discussed: dissolution from the standpoint of dissolution residues and iodine trapping, extraction cycles with respect to the behavior of ruthenium, neptunium, plutonium, technetium and palladium, the recycling of medium activity wastes

  1. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2013-01-01

    Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a role in driving

  2. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee Lillis

    Full Text Available Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica. Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a

  3. Prediction model for sound transmission from machinery in buildings: feasible approaches and problems to be solved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Prediction models for the airborne and impact sound transmission in buildings have recently been established (EN 12354- 1&2:1999). However, these models do not cover technical installations and machinery as a source of sound in buildings. Yet these can cause unacceptable sound levels and it is

  4. Design evaluation in technology assessment: Illustrated by auditory impedance and sound distribution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldane, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Technology is considered as a culture for changing a physical world and technology assessment questions the inherent cultural capability to modify power and material in support of living organisms. A comprehensive goal-parameter-synthesis-criterion specification is presented as a basis for a rational assessment of technology. The thesis queries the purpose of the assessed problems, the factors considered, the relationships between factors, and the values assigned those factors to accomplish the appropriate purpose. Stationary and sequential evaluation of enviro-organismic systems are delegated to the responsible personalities involved in design; from promoter/designer through contractor to occupant. Discussion includes design goals derived from organismic factors, definitions of human responses which establish viable criteria and relevant correlation models, linking stimulus parameters, and parallel problem-discipline centered design organization. A consistent concept of impedance, as a degradation in the performance of a specified parameter, is introduced to overcome the arbitrary inoperative connotations of terms like noise, discomfort, and glare. Applications of the evaluative specification are illustrated through design problems related to auditory impedance and sound distribution.

  5. Sound stream segregation: a neuromorphic approach to solve the "cocktail party problem" in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun M; Afshar, Saeed; Hamilton, Tara J; Tapson, Jonathan C; Shamma, Shihab A; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    The human auditory system has the ability to segregate complex auditory scenes into a foreground component and a background, allowing us to listen to specific speech sounds from a mixture of sounds. Selective attention plays a crucial role in this process, colloquially known as the "cocktail party effect." It has not been possible to build a machine that can emulate this human ability in real-time. Here, we have developed a framework for the implementation of a neuromorphic sound segregation algorithm in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This algorithm is based on the principles of temporal coherence and uses an attention signal to separate a target sound stream from background noise. Temporal coherence implies that auditory features belonging to the same sound source are coherently modulated and evoke highly correlated neural response patterns. The basis for this form of sound segregation is that responses from pairs of channels that are strongly positively correlated belong to the same stream, while channels that are uncorrelated or anti-correlated belong to different streams. In our framework, we have used a neuromorphic cochlea as a frontend sound analyser to extract spatial information of the sound input, which then passes through band pass filters that extract the sound envelope at various modulation rates. Further stages include feature extraction and mask generation, which is finally used to reconstruct the targeted sound. Using sample tonal and speech mixtures, we show that our FPGA architecture is able to segregate sound sources in real-time. The accuracy of segregation is indicated by the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the segregated stream (90, 77, and 55 dB for simple tone, complex tone, and speech, respectively) as compared to the SNR of the mixture waveform (0 dB). This system may be easily extended for the segregation of complex speech signals, and may thus find various applications in electronic devices such as for sound segregation and

  6. Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-07-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.

  7. Cross-Modal Associations between Sounds and Drink Tastes/Textures: A Study with Spontaneous Production of Sound-Symbolic Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-03-01

    Many languages have a word class whose speech sounds are linked to sensory experiences. Several recent studies have demonstrated cross-modal associations (or correspondences) between sounds and gustatory sensations by asking participants to match predefined sound-symbolic words (e.g., "maluma/takete") with the taste/texture of foods. Here, we further explore cross-modal associations using the spontaneous production of words and semantic ratings of sensations. In the experiment, after drinking liquids, participants were asked to express their taste/texture using Japanese sound-symbolic words, and at the same time, to evaluate it in terms of criteria expressed by adjectives. Because the Japanese language has a large vocabulary of sound-symbolic words, and Japanese people frequently use them to describe taste/texture, analyzing a variety of Japanese sound-symbolic words spontaneously produced to express taste/textures might enable us to explore the mechanism of taste/texture categorization. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on the relationship between linguistic sounds and taste/texture evaluations revealed the structure of sensation categories. The results indicate that an emotional evaluation like pleasant/unpleasant is the primary cluster in gustation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Patterns and risk factors associated with speech sounds and language disorders in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, H.; Ghayas, M.S.; Madiha, A.

    2013-01-01

    To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)

  9. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    commending or reproving the person or thing to which it is applied, and often containing some ... association or the comparison of two things. 2. Figures of ..... to absorb the club while the peacemaker says he is as hard (difficult) as a piece of ...

  10. Problems associated with basic oral surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatkin, A.S.; Marretta, S.M.; Schloss, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The veterinarian must be able to diagnose several types of dental problems. History, physical examination, clinical pathology, and radiography are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Basic oral surgery includes various extraction techniques and management of their associated complications. Knowledge of dental anatomy and proper surgical technique can make an extraction curative rather than a frustrating procedure with multiple complications

  11. Sounding-derived parameters associated with large hail and tornadoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenemeijer, P.H.; van Delden, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072670703

    2007-01-01

    A study is presented focusing on the potential value of parameters derived from radiosonde data or data from numerical atmospheric models for the forecasting of severe weather associated with convective storms. Parameters have been derived from soundings in the proximity of large hail, tornadoes

  12. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  13. Combined 2D inversion of electrotomographic and audio-magnetotellurgic sounding data to solve mining problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Куликов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical methods of exploration are widely applied in prospecting and estimation of ore mineral resources. It is not always that geoelectrical models obtained in the course of interpretation of different types of electric and electromagnetic sounding are in line with each other. This leads to difficulties in geological interpretation of electrical exploration results. In single cases a geological model can be built that with great precision satisfies data from different electrical explorations, for instance, results of geometric and inductive electromagnetic soundings. For this purpose an algorithm of combined inversion of electrotomographic and audio-megnetotellurgic sounding data has been developed and implemented by A.E.Kaminskii in software ZondRes2D. Advantage of combined inversion has been shown for investigation of sections up till 400-500 m deep on synthetic models and actual field data.

  14. Problems associated with domestic LWR technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watamori, Tikara

    1975-01-01

    To cope with the future energy problem in Japan, the enhancement of her own technology is continuing in the nuclear power field. Developments in the past, current state, and problems for the future are described regarding LWR power plants. The technology introduced from overseas countries cannot be used as it is. The domestic technology thus consists of the conversion of nuclear power technology so as to meet Japan's own condition and the domestic manufacture of machinery. In the former category, there are the aspects of aseismatic design, waste disposal, software, etc. In the latter, there are the productions of reactor vessels, steam generators, large valves, piping, etc. As the problems for the future, there are reliability and safety and the associated standardization. (Mori, K.)

  15. Combined 2D inversion of electrotomographic and audio-magnetotellurgic sounding data to solve mining problems

    OpenAIRE

    В. А. Куликов; А. Е. Каминский; А. Г. Яковлев

    2017-01-01

    Electrical methods of exploration are widely applied in prospecting and estimation of ore mineral resources. It is not always that geoelectrical models obtained in the course of interpretation of different types of electric and electromagnetic sounding are in line with each other. This leads to difficulties in geological interpretation of electrical exploration results. In single cases a geological model can be built that with great precision satisfies data from different electrical...

  16. Problems in Nonlinear Acoustics: Parametric Receiving Arrays, Focused Finite Amplitude Sound, & Noncollinear Tone-Noise Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    fields (see also Chapter 4 of Ref. 22). Like our investigation, theirs is based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov ( KZK ) equa- tion [23,24...25,26], also based on the KZK e(iualiou, is limited to weakly nonlinear systems. However, the practical case of a focused circular source with gain of...iment. The demonstrated abihty of the KZK equation to accurately model focused sound fields from reahstic sources [i.e., having abrupt edges and

  17. The English ( and ( Vowel Sounds as Fossilized Pronunciation Errors for the Turkish Teachers of English and Solutions to the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DEMİREZEN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fossilized pronunciation errors constitute a great problem in the mastery of L2in second or foreign language learning and teaching (Odlin 1989; Demirezen, 2003;Demirezen, 2004; Johnson, 2001. One of such errors, which is committed by a greatmajority of Turkish teachers of English and student teachers, is the acquisition of ƒËƒÁƒÍ andƒËƒµƒÍ vowel sounds of the English language. There has been no specific material or lessonplan encountered so far in the literature to rehabilitate the pronunciation difficulty, createdby ƒËƒÁƒÍ and ƒËƒµƒÍ vowel sounds of the English language. Therefore, this article aims toprovide pronunciation teaching material and a sample lesson on two difficult sounds forTurks, like ƒËƒÁƒÍ and ƒËƒµƒÍ, to the Turkish teachers-on-the-job and student teachers ofEnglish.

  18. Problems associated with localised skin exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    The possible sources of localised skin exposure include small commercial sources (for radiotherapy, for example), radiopharmaceuticals, collimated microbeams, and both fission and activation products from nuclear reactors, neutron generators and associated facilities. Each of these sources has its own particular characteristics and associated problems. Recommendations and regulations relating to limits on skin dose for such exposures have been constrained by inadequate radiobiological data and the limitations inherent in personal dosimetric techniques. A growing body of data is now available for beta-emitters which allows a preliminary reassessment of some aspects of the currently recommended dose limits for localised skin exposures. How the skin dose is measured is particularly important for such exposures, as doses often have to be averaged over a specific area. The area chosen for dose measurement and the depth at which the measurement is made are crucial to understanding the possible biological consequences and for formulating appropriate protection criteria. (author)

  19. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  20. CNTNAP2 Is Significantly Associated With Speech Sound Disorder in the Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jing; Wang, Yue-Ping; Yang, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Hong-Wei; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Ru

    2015-11-01

    Speech sound disorder is the most common communication disorder. Some investigations support the possibility that the CNTNAP2 gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of speech-related diseases. To investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CNTNAP2 gene, 300 unrelated speech sound disorder patients and 200 normal controls were included in the study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were amplified and directly sequenced. Significant differences were found in the genotype (P = .0003) and allele (P = .0056) frequencies of rs2538976 between patients and controls. The excess frequency of the A allele in the patient group remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P = .0280). A significant haplotype association with rs2710102T/+rs17236239A/+2538976A/+2710117A (P = 4.10e-006) was identified. A neighboring single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs10608123, was found in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2538976, and the genotypes exactly corresponded to each other. The authors propose that these CNTNAP2 variants increase the susceptibility to speech sound disorder. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10608123 and rs2538976 may merge into one single-nucleotide polymorphism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  2. Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2018-02-28

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its associated concussion are major causes of disability and death. All ages can be affected but children, young adults and the elderly are particularly susceptible. A decline in mortality has resulted in many more individuals living with a disability caused by TBI including those affecting vision. This review describes: (1) the major clinical and pathological features of TBI; (2) the visual signs and symptoms associated with the disorder; and (3) discusses the assessment of quality of life and visual rehabilitation of the patient. Defects in primary vision such as visual acuity and visual fields, eye movement including vergence, saccadic and smooth pursuit movements, and in more complex aspects of vision involving visual perception, motion vision ('akinopsia'), and visuo-spatial function have all been reported in TBI. Eye movement dysfunction may be an early sign of TBI. Hence, TBI can result in a variety of visual problems, many patients exhibiting multiple visual defects in combination with a decline in overall health. Patients with chronic dysfunction following TBI may require occupational, vestibular, cognitive and other forms of physical therapy. Such patients may also benefit from visual rehabilitation, including reading-related oculomotor training and the prescribing of spectacles with a variety of tints and prism combinations. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  3. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  4. Keep Your Voice Sound: How to Prevent and Avoid Voice Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Listen Up! Wise Choices Avoid Voice Problems Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day. This helps keep your vocal folds moist and healthy. Limit intake of caffeinated or alcoholic drinks. These can dehydrate your body and make the ...

  5. Gray matter density of auditory association cortex relates to knowledge of sound concepts in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael F; Grossman, Murray

    2012-06-06

    Long-term memory integrates the multimodal information acquired through perception into unified concepts, supporting object recognition, thought, and language. While some theories of human cognition have considered concepts to be abstract symbols, recent functional neuroimaging evidence has supported an alternative theory: that concepts are multimodal representations associated with the sensory and motor systems through which they are acquired. However, few studies have examined the effects of cortical lesions on the sensory and motor associations of concepts. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with disease in auditory association cortex would have difficulty processing concepts with strong sound associations (e.g., thunder). Human participants with the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) performed a recognition task on words with strong associations in three modalities: Sound, Sight, and Manipulation. LvPPA participants had selective difficulty on Sound words relative to other modalities. Structural MRI analysis in lvPPA revealed gray matter atrophy in auditory association cortex, as defined functionally in a separate BOLD fMRI study of healthy adults. Moreover, lvPPA showed reduced gray matter density in the region of auditory association cortex that healthy participants activated when processing the same Sound words in a separate BOLD fMRI experiment. Finally, reduced gray matter density in this region in lvPPA directly correlated with impaired performance on Sound words. These findings support the hypothesis that conceptual memories are represented in the sensory and motor association cortices through which they are acquired.

  6. Materials problems associated with fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    This paper outlines the principles of design and operation of conceptual fusion reactors, indicates the level of research funding and activity being proposed at major centres and reviews the major materials problems which have been identified, together with an outline of the experimental techniques which have been suggested for investigating these problems. (author)

  7. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to clarify the incidence and nature of behavioural problems in children with PLI using a prognostic design in mainstream education. This design should provide valuable insights into the general relationship between PLI and various behavioural problems. Methods & Procedures:

  8. Toward the Soundness of Sense Structure Definitions in Thesaurus-Dictionaries. Parsing Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out some difficult problems of thesaurus-dictionary entry parsing, relying on the parsing technology of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations, successfully applied on six largest thesauri -- Romanian (2, French, German (2, and Russian. \\textbf{Challenging Problems:} \\textbf{(a}~Intricate and~/~or recursive structures of the lexicographic segments met in the entries of certain thesauri; \\textbf{(b}~Cyclicity (recursive calls of some sense marker classes on marker sequences; \\textbf{(c}~Establishing the hypergraph-driven dependencies between all the atomic and non-atomic sense definitions. Classical approach to solve these parsing problems is hard mainly because of depth-first search of sense definitions and markers, the substantial complexity of entries, and the sense tree dynamic construction embodied within these parsers. \\textbf{SCD-based Parsing Solutions:} \\textbf{(a}~The SCD parsing method is a procedural tool, completely formal grammar-free, handling the recursive structure of the lexicographic segments by procedural non-recursive calls performed on the SCD parsing configurations of the entry structure. \\textbf{(b}~For dealing with cyclicity (recursive calls between secondary sense markers and the sense enumeration markers, we proposed the Enumeration Closing Condition, sometimes coupled with New{\\_}Paragraphs typographic markers transformed into numeral sense enumeration. \\textbf{(c}~These problems, their lexicographic modeling and parsing solutions are addressed to both dictionary parser programmers to experience the SCD-based parsing method, as well as to lexicographers and thesauri designers for tailoring balanced lexical-semantics granularities and sounder sense tree definitions of the dictionary entries.

  9. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population.

  10. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  11. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  12. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  13. Using sound to solve syntactic problems: the role of phonology in grammatical category assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M H

    1992-04-01

    One ubiquitous problem in language processing involves the assignment of words to the correct grammatical category, such as noun or verb. In general, semantic and syntactic cues have been cited as the principal information for grammatical category assignment, to the neglect of possible phonological cues. This neglect is unwarranted, and the following claims are made: (a) Numerous correlations between phonology and grammatical class exist, (b) some of these correlations are large and can pervade the entire lexicon of a language and hence can involve thousands of words, (c) experiments have repeatedly found that adults and children have learned these correlations, and (d) explanations for how these correlations arose can be proposed and evaluated. Implications of these phenomena for language representation and processing are discussed.

  14. Jump in the amplitude of a sound wave associated with contraction of a nitrogen discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a sound wave created by an external source and directed along the positive column of a nitrogen discharge in order to make the discharge pass to the contracted state is studied experimentally. A phenomenon involving a jump in the sound wave amplitude, caused by the discharge contraction, is observed and studied. It is established that the amplitude of the sound wave as a function of the discharge current near the jump exhibits hysteresis. It is shown that in the field of a high-intensity sound wave causing the discharge to expand eliminates the jump in the sound amplitude. The dependence of the growth time of the sound amplitude caused by the jump in this quantity on the sound wave intensity is determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  16. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  17. Haematological Problems Associated with Gaucher's Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five recent cases of Gaucher's disease seen at Groote Schuur Hospital illustrate the haematological complications. The main problem is hypersplenism with secondary thrombocytopenia. Two patients underwent splenectomy for this reason, and one gained lasting improvement. None of the more rare haematological ...

  18. VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is recently recognized that the ionosphere is very sensitive to seismic effects,and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes, seems to bevery promising for short-term earthquake prediction. We have proposed a possible use ofVLF/LF (very low frequency (3-30 kHz /low frequency (30-300 kHz radio sounding ofthe seismo-ionospheric perturbations. A brief history of the use of subionospheric VLF/LFpropagation for the short-term earthquake prediction is given, followed by a significantfinding of ionospheric perturbation for the Kobe earthquake in 1995. After showingprevious VLF/LF results, we present the latest VLF/LF findings; One is the statisticalcorrelation of the ionospheric perturbation with earthquakes and the second is a case studyfor the Sumatra earthquake in December, 2004, indicating the spatical scale and dynamicsof ionospheric perturbation for this earthquake.

  19. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  20. Assessment on problems associated with artificial insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cedures, and poor management of AI bulls associated with poor motivations and skills of ..... edition. Mississippi State University. Pearson, Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, ... In: proceedings of the 13th annual conference of the Ethio-.

  1. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  2. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children’s mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial...

  3. Large-scale association study for structural soundness and leg locomotion traits in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenius Timo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification and culling of replacement gilts with poor skeletal conformation and feet and leg (FL unsoundness is an approach used to reduce sow culling and mortality rates in breeding stock. Few candidate genes related to soundness traits have been identified in the pig. Methods In this study, 2066 commercial females were scored for 17 traits describing body conformation and FL structure, and were used for association analyses. Genotyping of 121 SNPs derived from 95 genes was implemented using Sequenom's MassARRAY system. Results Based on the association results from single trait and principal components using mixed linear model analyses and false discovery rate testing, it was observed that APOE, BMP8, CALCR, COL1A2, COL9A1, DKFZ, FBN1 and VDBP were very highly significantly (P ALOX5, BMP8, CALCR, OPG, OXTR and WNT16 were very highly significantly (P APOE, CALCR, COL1A2, GNRHR, IHH, MTHFR and WNT16 were highly significantly (P CALCR and COL1A2 on SSC9 was detected, and haplotype -ACGACC- was highly significantly (P Conclusion The present findings provide a comprehensive list of candidate genes for further use in fine mapping and biological functional analyses.

  4. Health-relevant personality is associated with sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, Karin; Hasson, Dan

    2017-04-01

    Hyperacusis, over-sensitivity to sounds, causes distress and disability and the etiology is not fully understood. The study aims to explore possible associations between health-relevant personality traits and hyperacusis. Hyperacusis was assessed using the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and clinical uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL). Personality was measured with the Health-relevant Personality (HP5i) Inventory. The study sample was 348 (140 men and 208 women; age 23-71 years). Moderate correlations were found between the personality trait negative affectivity (NA; a facet of neuroticism) and dimensions of the HQ and weak correlations were found with the ULLs. Hedonic capacity (a facet of extraversion) was significantly correlated with the HQ but not with the ULLs. Impulsivity (a facet of conscientiousness) was correlated with the HQ and the ULLs. A significant difference in mean values was found in all hyperacusis measures and different levels of NA - those with higher levels displayed more severe signs of hyperacusis. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that higher levels of NA increases the odds of having hyperacusis on average 4.6 times for men and 2.4 times for women. These findings imply that health-relevant personality traits should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of hyperacusis. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...

  6. Are occlusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds associated with the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriti, Leandro; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Leal de Godoy, Camila Haddad; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] To assess the association between the oclusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds and signs/symptoms of TMD in adolescents. [Subjects] Adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. [Methods] The participants were evaluated using the Helkimo Index and a clinical examination to track clicking sounds, parafunctional habits and other signs/symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were classified according to the presence or absence of headache, type of occlusion, facial pattern and type of bite. In statistical analyse we used the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, with a level of significance of 5%. [Results] The sample was made up of 81 adolescents with a mean age of 15.64 years; 51.9% were male. The prevalence of signals/symptoms of TMD was 74.1%, predominantly affecting females. Signals/symptoms of TMD were significantly associated with clicking sounds, headache and nail biting. No associations were found between signals/symptoms of TMD and angle classification, type of bite and facial pattern. [Conclusion] Headache is one of the most closely associated symptoms of TMD. Clicking sounds were found in the majority of cases. Therefore, the sum of two or more factors may be necessary for the onset and perpetuation of TMD.

  7. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  8. Moving-Boundary Problems Associated with Lyopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Christopher Andrew

    The work presented in this Dissertation is motivated by research into the preservation of biological specimens by way of vitrification, a technique known as lyopreservation. The operative principle behind lyopreservation is that a glassy material forms as a solution of sugar and water is desiccated. The microstructure of this glass impedes transport within the material, thereby slowing metabolism and effectively halting the aging processes in a biospecimen. This Dissertation is divided into two segments. The first concerns the nature of diffusive transport within a glassy state. Experimental studies suggest that diffusion within a glass is anomalously slow. Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is proposed as a mathematical model which captures the qualitative features of anomalously slow diffusion while minimizing computational expense. This model is applied to several moving-boundary problems and the results are compared to a more well-established model, fractional anomalous diffusion (FAD). The virtues of SBM are based on the model's relative mathematical simplicity: the governing equation under FAD dynamics involves a fractional derivative operator, which precludes the use of analytical methods in almost all circumstances and also entails great computational expense. In some geometries, SBM allows similarity solutions, though computational methods are generally required. The use of SBM as an approximation to FAD when a system is "nearly classical'' is also explored. The second portion of this Dissertation concerns spin-drying, which is an experimental approach to biopreservation in a laboratory setting. A biospecimen is adhered to a glass wafer and this substrate is covered with sugar solution and rapidly spun on a turntable while water is evaporated from the film surface. The mathematical model for the spin-drying process includes diffusion, viscous fluid flow, and evaporation, among other contributions to the dynamics. Lubrication theory is applied to the model and an

  9. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  10. Atmospheric circulation and sounding-derived parameters associated with thunderstorm occurrence in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek; Taszarek, Mateusz; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of atmospheric circulation patterns and sounding-derived parameters on thunderstorm occurrence in Central Europe. Thunderstorm activity tends to increase as one moves from the north to the south of the research area. Maximal thunderstorm occurrence is observed in the summer months, while between October and March such activity is much lower. Thunderstorms are also more frequent in spring than in autumn. In the warm season, the occurrence of thunderstorm is associated with the presence of a trough associated with a low located over the North Sea and Scandinavia. In the cold season, the synoptic pattern indicates a strong zonal flow from the west with significantly higher horizontal pressure gradient compared to the warm season. Thunderstorms are more likely to form when the boundary layer's mixing ratios are higher than 8 g kg- 1. Deep convection is also more likely to occur when the vertical temperature lapse rates (between 800 and 500 hPa pressure layers) exceed 6 °C km- 1. During the cold season, considerably higher lapse rates are needed to produce thunderstorms. The values obtained for the convective available potential energy indicate that at least 50 J kg- 1 is needed to produce a thunderstorm during wintertime and 125 J kg- 1 during summertime. Cold season thunderstorms are formed with a lower instability but with a more dynamic wind field having an average value of deep layer shear that exceeds 20 ms- 1. The best parameter to distinguish thunderstorm from non-thunderstorm days for both winter and summer months is a combination of the square root of the convective available potential energy multiplied by the deep layer shear.

  11. Unhealthy behaviors in adolescents: multibehavioral associations with psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Robertus Josephus

    2014-06-01

    Several unhealthy behaviors are associated with psychosocial health in adolescents. Previous studies have shown that different adolescent health behaviors cluster, and, in order to understand these associations, it is important to investigate the relations between individual behaviors and psychosocial problems. This study addressed the research question "Are adolescent health behaviors associated with psychosocial problems, and to what extent do certain health behaviors confound the relations between other health behaviors and psychosocial problems in adolescents?" Self-reported questionnaire data on a broad range of health behaviors and demographics were collected from 2,690 high school students in the Netherlands in September 2012. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, nearly all unhealthy behaviors were found to be significantly associated with psychosocial problems. However, after correction for confounding by other behaviors, psychosocial problems were associated with fewer behaviors, namely compulsive internet use and videogame playing, smoking, cannabis use, and being bullied. These associations differed in boys and girls. In multibehavioral analyses adjusted for behavioral clustering, which can cause considerable interbehavioral confounding, several behaviors were associated with psychosocial problems in adolescents. This approach to behavior analysis provides a better insight into behaviors and psychosocial health, and the specific associations identified can be utilized when designing effective prevention programs, such as health-promoting school interventions.

  12. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  13. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  14. Problems Associated With Solid Waste Management Among Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of solid waste management in Nigeria has been an important issue for discussion among scientists and researchers in recent times. This study evaluates the problems associated with effective solid waste management among peri-urban households in southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected from 94 ...

  15. Sound generator associated with the counseling in the treatment of tinnitus: evaluation of the effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Andressa Vital; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    The relations between the tinnitus and the hearing loss are due to the sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss, since this is followed by the functional and structural alteration of the auditory system as a whole. The cochlear lesions are accompanied by a reduction in the activity of the cochlear nerve, and the neural activity keeps increased in mainly all the central auditory nervous system to compensate this deficit. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the sound generator (SG) associated with the counseling in the treatment of the tinnitus in individuals with and without hearing loss regarding the improvement of the nuisance through Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The sample consisted of 30 individuals of both genders divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) was comprised of 15 individuals with tinnitus and normal hearing, adapted to SG; Group 2 (G2) was comprised of 15 individuals with complaints of hearing acuity and tinnitus, adapted with SG and an individual hearing aid device (HA). Both groups underwent the following procedures: anamnesis and history of complaint, high frequency audiometry (HFA), imitanciometry, acuphenometry with the survey of psychoacoustic pitch and loudness thresholds and application of the tools THI and VAS. All of them were adapted with HA and Siemens SG and participated in a session of counseling. The individuals were assessed in three situations: initial assessment (before the adaptation of the HA and SG), monitoring and final assessment (6 months after adaptation). The comparison of the tinnitus nuisance and handicap in the three stages of assessment showed a significant improvement for both groups. The use of the SG was similarly effective in the treatment of the tinnitus in individuals with and without hearing loss, causing an improvement of the nuisance and handicap. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier

  16. Problems Associated With Substandard And Counterfeit Drugs In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems Associated With Substandard And Counterfeit Drugs In Developing Countries: A Review Article On Global Implications Of Counterfeit Drugs In The Era Of Anti-Retroviral (ARVS) Drugs In A Free Market Economy.

  17. Sound iconicity of abstract concepts: Place of articulation is implicitly associated with abstract concepts of size and social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auracher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness. However, to date the relative influence of perceptual and conceptual cognitive processing on this association is not clear. To bridge this gap, three experiments were conducted in which associations between nonsense words and pictures of animals or emotional body postures were tested. In these experiments participants had to infer the relation between visual stimuli and the notion of size from the content of the pictures, while directly perceivable features did not support-or even contradicted-the predicted association. Results show that implicit associations between articulatory-acoustic characteristics of phonemes and pictures are mainly influenced by semantic features, i.e., the content of a picture, whereas the influence of perceivable features, i.e., size or shape, is overridden. This suggests that abstract semantic concepts can function as an interface between different sensory modalities, facilitating cross-modal associations.

  18. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modell...

  19. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  20. Poor Hand-Pointing to Sounds in Right Brain-Damaged Patients: Not Just a Problem of Spatial-Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Francesco; Farne, Alessandro; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We asked 22 right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and 11 elderly healthy controls to perform hand-pointing movements to free-field unseen sounds, while modulating two non-auditory variables: the initial position of the responding hand (left, centre or right) and the presence or absence of task-irrelevant ambient vision. RBD patients suffering from…

  1. The Association of DRD2 with Insight Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.

  2. Normative data for Chinese compound remote associate problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2017-12-01

    The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a well-known measure of creativity, with each item on the RAT is composed of three unrelated stimulus words. The participant's task is to find an answer in the form of a word that could combine with each of the stimulus words, thus forming three new actual nouns. Researchers have modified the RAT to develop compound remote associate problems that emphasize combining vocabulary to form compound words. In the field of creativity research for Mandarin speakers, the Chinese RAT has been widely applied for over 10 years. The original RAT, compound remote associate problems, and Chinese RAT have various common advantages, such as being convenient to use and having objective scoring; additionally, the development of items for certain tests is easy and satisfies the requirements of psychological assessments in terms of the quantity of items. Currently, many language editions of the RAT and compound remote associate problems already exist. In particular, the English and Italian versions of these tests already have derived normative data. Because approximately 20% of the world's population are native Mandarin speakers, and because increasing numbers of people are choosing Mandarin as a second language, the need to increase Mandarin-language resources is growing; however, normative data for the Chinese RAT still do not exist. To address this issue, in the present study we developed Chinese compound remote associate problems and analyzed the passing rates by items, problem solving times, and various normative data, using the responses of 253 subjects in three experiments.

  3. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  4. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  5. Problems associated with modelling future biomass use in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkson, J.; Fenhann, J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main objectives of modelling biomass consumption is to obtain accurate assessment of current and future biomass supply and demand patterns. Some problems associated with biomass modelling in the developing countries are discussed, the focus is put on Africa. The wood fuel and charcoal consumption in households are investigated. Differences between rural and urban areas are pointed out. (K.A.)

  6. Some Mobile Phone Associated Health Problems Among Mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although mobile telecommunications deliver enormous benefit to society, there are concerns whether its electric and magnetic field emissions are linked with cancer or other health hazards. Objectives: 1) determining some of the mobile phone(Mph) associated health problems. 2) identifying some of the risk ...

  7. Study of polypharmacy and associated problems among elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polypharmacy is very common among elderly and interventions to improve the optimal use of medication in elderly could lead to reduction in the problems associated with polypharmacy. KEYWORDS: Non-adherence; Polypharmacy; Self medications. Internet Journal of Medical Update 2012 January;7(1):35-39 ...

  8. Problems Associated with the Use of Internet Facilities among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey was conducted in Benue State to analyze the major problems associated with the use of Internet facilities. The population of this study consisted of all rural farmers and extension workers in the study area. However, a sample size of 193 respondents was selected using purposive, snow ball and simple random ...

  9. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  10. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  11. Damaged self-esteem is associated with internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, D.H.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation,

  12. Off the beaten track: Freud, sound and music. Statement of a problem and some historico-critical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralea, Francesco; Minazzi, Vera

    2008-10-01

    The authors note that the element of sound and music has no place in the model of mental functioning bequeathed to us by Freud, which is dominated by the visual and the representational. They consider the reasons for this exclusion and its consequences, and ask whether the simple biographical explanation offered by Freud himself is acceptable. This contribution reconstructs the historical and cultural background to that exclusion, cites some relevant emblematic passages, and discusses Freud's position on music and on the aesthetic experience in general. Particular attention is devoted to the relationship between Freud and Lipps, which is important both for the originality of Lipps's thinking in the turn-of-the-century debate and for his ideas on the musical aspects of the foundations of psychic life, at which Freud 'stopped', as he himself wrote. Moreover, the shade of Lipps accompanied Freud throughout his scientific career from 1898 to 1938. Like all foundations, that of psychoanalysis was shaped by a system of inclusions and exclusions. The exclusion of the element of sound and music is understandable in view of the cultural background to the development of the concepts of the representational unconscious and infantile sexuality. While the consequences have been far reaching, the knowledge accumulated since that exclusion enables us to resume, albeit on a different basis, the composition of the 'unfinished symphony' of the relationship between psychoanalysis and music.

  13. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  14. Association of problem behavior with sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2014-02-01

    There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  16. Associations among everyday stress, critical life events, and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Ledermann, Thomas; Blattner, Denise; Galluzzo, Claudia

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how stress is linked to sexual problems among women and men in close relationships. Psychological symptoms, relationship quality, internal daily stress (i.e., originating within the couple such as conflicts, worry for the partner), external daily stress (i.e., stress arising outside the couple such as job stress, stressful relatives, and so forth), and critical life events were examined with regard to their association with different sexual problems. The results support the hypotheses that (1) there is an incremental effect of stress on sexual problems after controlling for psychological symptoms and relationship quality, and that (2) it is primarily internal daily stress and in some cases critical life events rather than external daily stress that are related to sexual problems, particularly hypoactive sexual desire in women and men, sexual aversion in women, vaginismus in women, and premature ejaculation in men. Our findings indicate that the treatment of these sexual problems should address relationship issues and include a focus on helping individuals improve their stress management skills within their couple relationship.

  17. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneli...

  18. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  19. Association between clinically meaningful behavior problems and overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Gannon, Kate; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A; Zuckerman, Barry

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between clinically meaningful behavior problems and concurrent and future overweight in 8- to 11-year-old children. 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interview data for 8- to 11-year-old children and their mothers were analyzed. A Behavior Problems Index score >90th percentile was considered clinically meaningful. Child overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders (selected a priori): child's sex, race, use of behavior-modifying medication, history of academic retention, and hours of television per day; maternal obesity, smoking status, marital status, education, and depressive symptoms; family poverty status; and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score. In an attempt to elucidate temporal sequence, a second analysis was conducted with a subsample of normal-weight children who became overweight between 1996 and 1998 while controlling for BMI z score in 1996. The sample included 755 mother-child pairs. Of the potential confounding variables, race, maternal obesity, academic grade retention, maternal education, poverty status, and HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score acted as joint confounders, altering the relationship between behavior problems and overweight in the multiple logistic regression model. With these covariates in the final model, behavior problems were independently associated with concurrent child overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-6.49). The relationship was strengthened in the subsample of previously normal-weight children, with race, maternal obesity, HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score, and 1996 BMI z score acting as confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 5.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-19.9). Clinically meaningful behavior problems in 8- to 11-year-old children were independently

  20. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  1. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101

  2. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eCreemers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  3. Problems of university-based scientists associated with clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R D

    1979-05-01

    University faculty members who participate in clinical trials face a number of difficulties in connection with this association. Publication opportunities are often limited, and individual scholarship is difficult to express and evaluate within the context of a cooperative trial. Merit increases, promotion, and the award of tenure will usually require evidence of scholarly achievement outside the trial setting. For this reason, it seems inadvisable to recommend that a young investigator devote a major portion of his scholarly and research time to such an activity. A possible exception may be a full-time appointment for 1 to 2 years. Nonetheless, cooperative clinical trials are an important investigative tool and they should continue to be associated with academic centers. If appropriate administrative arrangements can be made, it should be possible to solve the academic problems of the young investigator associated with such trials.

  4. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  5. Evaluation of the problems associated with ENEL's irradiated fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, L.; Belelli, U.

    1978-01-01

    The present difficulties in the reprocessing field, wich will continue for a period of time not easily definable, impose on the nuclear utilities the research of adequate solutions to solve the problem associated with storage of the fuels discharged by the nuclear power stations in operation. In this context, the paper examines the technical aspects of the various possible alternatives and on the basis of the Italian nuclear program, possible storage strategies are discussed in the assumption of the development of an adequate oxide-fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems related to storage in pools at the station or away from reactor are described in the light of the recent experience made in Italy with the adaptation of an old pool reactor out of service, that is, the Avogadro reactor in Saluggia, to store the fuels of the stations now in operation. Finally some economic aspects are considered in order to ascertain their impact on the cost of energy produced. (author)

  6. Revisiting Mathematical Problem Solving and Posing in the Digital Era: Toward Pedagogically Sound Uses of Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, S.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of sophisticated computer programs such as "Wolfram Alpha" has made many problems found in the secondary mathematics curriculum somewhat obsolete for they can be easily solved by the software. Against this background, an interplay between the power of a modern tool of technology and educational constraints it presents is…

  7. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  8. Emotional and behavioral problems associated with sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, is discussed. There are data on the characteristic polysomnographic changes detected in the presence of the discussed emotional and behavioral disorders in children. A possible pathophysiological rationale is provided for the found associations. Practical guidelines for examination of children with complaints about emotional and behavioral disorders for possible concomitant parasomnias are substantiated. 

  9. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  10. Association between workaholism and sleep problems among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between workaholism, the tendency to work excessively hard in a compulsive fashion, and sleep problems among Japanese nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 nurses from 2 university hospitals in Japan using a self-reported questionnaire on workaholism, sleep, job-related variables (i.e., job demands, job control, and worksite support), and demographic variables. A total of 394 nurses returned the questionnaire (response rate=65.7%) and complete data from 312 female nurses were used for analyses (final coverage rate=52.0%). Workaholics, as measured using the Japanese version of the Dutch Workaholism Scale, were defined as those having high scores on both the "work excessively" and "work compulsively" subscales. Logistic regression analyses revealed that workaholics had higher risks for sleep problems in terms of subjective sleep insufficiency, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, difficulty awakening in the morning, and feeling tired when waking up in the morning (odds ratios [OR] of 4.40, 3.18, 3.48, and 4.61, respectively, p<0.05). These remained significant even after adjusting for demographic and job-related variables (OR 3.41, 5.36, 2.56, and 2.77, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between workaholism and insomnia symptoms. These results suggest that workaholic nurses had higher risks for impaired awakening, insufficient sleep, and workplace sleepiness.

  11. Sleep quality and sleep associated problems in female pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.

  12. A new approximation of the dispersion relations occurring in the sound-attenuation problem of turbofan aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert SZABO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion relations, appearing in the analysis of the stability of a gas flow in a straight acoustically-lined duct with respect to perturbations produced by a time harmonic source, beside the wave number and complex frequency contain the solution of a boundary value problem of the Pridmore-Brown equation depending on the wave number and frequency. For this reason, in practice the dispersion relations are rarely simple enough for carried out the zeros. The determination of zeros of these dispersion relations is crucial for the prediction of the perturbation attenuation or amplification. In this paper an approximation of the dispersion relations is given. Our approach preserves the general character of the mean flow, the general Pridmore-Brown equation and it’s only in the shear flow that we replace the exact solution of the boundary value problem with its Taylor polynomial approximate. In this way new approximate dispersion relations are obtained which zero’s can be found by computer.

  13. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  14. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  15. Associations between immune function and air pollution among postmenopausal women living in the Puget Sound airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lori A.

    Air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes, and changes in the immune system may be intermediate steps between exposure and a clinically relevant adverse health outcome. We analyzed the associations between three different types of measures of air pollution exposure and five biomarkers of immune function among 115 overweight and obese postmenopausal women whose immunity was assessed as part of a year-long moderate exercise intervention trial. For air pollution metrics, we assessed: (1) residential proximity to major roads (freeways, major arterials and truck routes), (2) fine particulate matter(PM2.5) at the nearest monitor to the residence averaged over three time windows (3-days, 30-days and 60-days), and (3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) modeled based on land use characteristics. Our immune biomarkers included three measures of inflammation---C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6---and two measures of cellular immunity---natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that living near a major road, increased exposure to PM2.5 and increased exposure to NO2 would each be independently associated with increased inflammation and decreased immune function. We observed a 21% lower average natural killer cell cytotoxicity among women living within 150 meters of a major arterial road compared to other women. For PM2.5 , we observed changes in 3 of 4 indicators of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3---an antibody to the T cell receptor associated with increases in 3-day averaged PM2.5. For 30-day averaged PM 2.5 and 60-day averaged PM2.5 we did not observe any statistically significant associations. We observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation index stimulated by the plant protein phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 1 of 2 PHA concentrations in association with modeled NO2. For the three inflammatory markers, we observed no notable associations with any of our measures of air pollution. If confirmed, our

  16. Gender Associations for Musical Instruments in Nursery Children: The Effect of Sound and Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nigel; Shibazaki, Kagari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study carried out with 105 children, aged between three and four years in three nursery units in London and Surrey, UK. The aim of this study was to explore the level of association which young children have between various musical instruments, musical styles and a particular gender. However, we also aimed to…

  17. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Turbine rotors inspection problems associated with independent inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.O.; Martinez, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    As is well know, the serious problems affecting turbine-generator set rotors and moving parts, such as stress-corrosion cracking and/or the phenomena of creep/fatigue, have led the companies possessing these components to make considerable investments in terms of economy and human resources with a view to finding means for control and solutions. The fact that certain countries, such as Spain, have a limited number of fossil-fuelled and/or nuclear plants, with different suppliers and designs, means that the control and solving of such problems necessarily imply significant technological dependence and, consequently, that the resources used imply high associated costs that is most cases have to be paid in overseas currencies. This fact led several Spanish plant owners to propose that Tecnatom carry out an R ampersand D project aimed at developing and integral turbine rotor inspection and evaluation system designed to reduce technological dependence in this area through the application of in-house technology. This project identified as PC-850059 has been subsidized by the Spanish authorities through The Interministerial Commission of Science ampersand Technology. This article describes the developments achieved and the difficulties inherent to independent turbine rotor inspection and evaluation

  19. US Epidemiology of Cannabis Use and Associated Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the changing US epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems. Adults and adolescents increasingly view cannabis as harmless, and some can use cannabis without harm. However, potential problems include harms from prenatal exposure and unintentional childhood exposure; decline in educational or occupational functioning after early adolescent use, and in adulthood, impaired driving and vehicle crashes; cannabis use disorders (CUD), cannabis withdrawal, and psychiatric comorbidity. Evidence suggests national increases in cannabis potency, prenatal and unintentional childhood exposure; and in adults, increased use, CUD, cannabis-related emergency room visits, and fatal vehicle crashes. Twenty-nine states have medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and of these, 8 have recreational marijuana laws (RMLs). Many studies indicate that MMLs or their specific provisions did not increase adolescent cannabis use. However, the more limited literature suggests that MMLs have led to increased cannabis potency, unintentional childhood exposures, adult cannabis use, and adult CUD. Ecological-level studies suggest that MMLs have led to substitution of cannabis for opioids, and also possibly for psychiatric medications. Much remains to be determined about cannabis trends and the role of MMLs and RMLs in these trends. The public, health professionals, and policy makers would benefit from education about the risks of cannabis use, the increases in such risks, and the role of marijuana laws in these increases. PMID:28853439

  20. Problems associated with dimensional analysis of electroencephalogram data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, S.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Holzfuss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The goal was to evaluate anesthetic depth for a series of 5 to 10 patients by dimensional analysis. It has been very difficult to obtain clean EEG records from the operating room. Noise is prominent due to electrocautery and to movement of the patient's head by operating room personnel. In addition, specialized EEG equipment must be used to reduce noise and to accommodate limited space in the room. This report discusses problems associated with dimensional analysis of the EEG. We choose one EEG record from a single patient, in order to study the method but not to draw general conclusions. For simplicity, we consider only two states: awake but quiet, and medium anesthesia. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  2. Audio-Visual Cross-Modal Association in Color and Sound Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Nakamura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a similar straightforward relationship exists between lightness and pitch in synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes (Mark, 1974; Hubbard, 1996; Ward et al., 2006. These results indicated that nonsynaesthetes have similar lightness-pitch mapping with synaesthetes. However, in their experimental paradigm such a similarity seems to stem from not so much sensory phenomena as high-level memory associations in nonsynaesthetes. So, we examined what process in perception and/or cognition relates lightness-pitch synaesthesia-like phenomena in nonsynaethetes. In our study we targeted perceived colors (luminance per se rather than the imagery of color (luminance via memory association. Results indicated that the performance in color selection were affected by task-irrelevant stimuli (auditory information, but there was little significant correlation between color and auditory stimuli (pitch in simple color conditions. However, in subjective figures conditions, results showed a different tendency and partly showed correlations. Recent work indicates synaesthesia needs selective attention (Rich et al., 2010 and some research shows perception of subjective contours need attention (Gurnsey, 1996. We conjecture that lightness-pitch synaesthesia-like phenomena may need some kind of attention or the other higher brain activity (eg, memory association, cognition.

  3. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  4. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  5. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  6. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  7. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2017-03-01

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  8. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. Problems associated with the export of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: Recent forecasts indicate that by the year 2000 there will be more than 1000 nuclear power plants operating in 50 countries and with several countries expecting to derive one-half or more of their electric generation from nuclear power plants At present only six countries are exporters of nuclear power systems, three more currently supply their own domestic markets, while the remainder are importers. It is expected that most of the importers will continue to depend to varying degrees on foreign supply, at least in the near future. If nuclear power is to offer an important benefit to the world, the achievement of this benefit will require co-operation between the supplying and receiving nations in overcoming problems which might inhibit the full development of this energy source. In addition to ensuring safety and reliability, special problem areas include financing, skilled manpower needs, adequate local industrial and engineering infrastructure, access to advanced technology, and an assured supply of nuclear fuel. The symposium had special emphasis on the problems facing many of the developing countries in the initial stages of nuclear power programmes, and was divided into three major topics nuclear safety, domestic contributions, and international aspects In the safety area, emphasis was given to the special considerations that may exist for countries that import nuclear plants. These special considerations can be due to some non-standard features of the exported reactor such as lower power ratings, dissimilar site characteristics that can effect the design, and the evolution and changes in design and safety requirements during construction. This can be complicated by differences in safety philosophy and codified standards of the various suppliers and unique construction problems in the less developed countries. Thus, the ability of the importing country to carry out the regulatory and safety function is obviously important. A number of presentations

  10. Graph Modeling for Quadratic Assignment Problems Associated with the Hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelmann, Hans; Peng Jiming; Wu Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we consider the quadratic assignment problem arising from channel coding in communications where one coefficient matrix is the adjacency matrix of a hypercube in a finite dimensional space. By using the geometric structure of the hypercube, we first show that there exist at least n different optimal solutions to the underlying QAPs. Moreover, the inherent symmetries in the associated hypercube allow us to obtain partial information regarding the optimal solutions and thus shrink the search space and improve all the existing QAP solvers for the underlying QAPs.Secondly, we use graph modeling technique to derive a new integer linear program (ILP) models for the underlying QAPs. The new ILP model has n(n-1) binary variables and O(n 3 log(n)) linear constraints. This yields the smallest known number of binary variables for the ILP reformulation of QAPs. Various relaxations of the new ILP model are obtained based on the graphical characterization of the hypercube, and the lower bounds provided by the LP relaxations of the new model are analyzed and compared with what provided by several classical LP relaxations of QAPs in the literature.

  11. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  13. The Use of an Open Field Model to Assess Sound-Induced Fear and Anxiety Associated Behaviors in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Case, Beth C; Foster, Melanie L; Lazarowski, Lucia; Fish, Richard E; Landsberg, Gary; DePuy, Venita; Dorman, David C; Sherman, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the playing of thunderstorm recordings during an open-field task elicits fearful or anxious responses in adult beagles. The goal of our study was to apply this open field test to assess sound-induced behaviors in Labrador retrievers drawn from a pool of candidate improvised explosive devices (IED)-detection dogs. Being robust to fear-inducing sounds and recovering quickly is a critical requirement of these military working dogs. This study presented male and female dogs, with 3 minutes of either ambient noise (Days 1, 3 and 5), recorded thunderstorm (Day 2), or gunfire (Day 4) sounds in an open field arena. Behavioral and physiological responses were assessed and compared to control (ambient noise) periods. An observer blinded to sound treatment analyzed video records of the 9-minute daily test sessions. Additional assessments included measurement of distance traveled (activity), heart rate, body temperature, and salivary cortisol concentrations. Overall, there was a decline in distance traveled and heart rate within each day and over the five-day test period, suggesting that dogs habituated to the open field arena. Behavioral postures and expressions were assessed using a standardized rubric to score behaviors linked to canine fear and anxiety. These fear/anxiety scores were used to evaluate changes in behaviors following exposure to a sound stressor. Compared to control periods, there was an overall increase in fear/anxiety scores during thunderstorm and gunfire sound stimuli treatment periods. Fear/anxiety scores were correlated with distance traveled, and heart rate. Fear/anxiety scores in response to thunderstorm and gunfire were correlated. Dogs showed higher fear/anxiety scores during periods after the sound stimuli compared to control periods. In general, candidate IED-detection Labrador retrievers responded to sound stimuli and recovered quickly, although dogs stratified in their response to sound stimuli. Some dogs were

  14. Tinnitus (Phantom Sound: Risk coming for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'tinnitus' comes from the Latin word tinnire, meaning “to ring” or “a ringing.” Tinnitus is the cognition of sound in the absence of any corresponding external sound. Tinnitus can take the form of continuous buzzing, hissing, or ringing, or a combination of these or other characteristics. Tinnitus affects 10% to 25% of the adult population. Tinnitus is classified as objective and subjective categories. Subjective tinnitus is meaningless sounds that are not associated with a physical sound and only the person who has the tinnitus can hear it. Objective tinnitus is the result of a sound that can be heard by the physician. Tinnitus is not a disease in itself but a common symptom, and because it involves the perception of sound or sounds, it is commonly associated with the hearing system. In fact, various parts of the hearing system, including the inner ear, are often responsible for this symptom. Tinnitus patients, which can lead to sleep disturbances, concentration problems, fatigue, depression, anxiety disorders, and sometimes even to suicide. The evaluation of tinnitus always begins with a thorough history and physical examination, with further testing performed when indicated. Diagnostic testing should include audiography, speech discrimination testing, computed tomography angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography should be performed. All patients with tinnitus can benefit from patient education and preventive measures, and oftentimes the physician's reassurance and assistance with the psychologic aftereffects of tinnitus can be the therapy most valuable to the patient. There are no specific medications for the treatment of tinnitus. Sedatives and some other medications may prove helpful in the early stages. The ultimate goal of neuro-imaging is to identify subtypes of tinnitus in order to better inform treatment strategies.

  15. Lung and Heart Sounds Analysis: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortiz, Ana L; Ibarra, David

    2018-01-01

    Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively. In this article, we review the research conducted during the last six years on lung and heart sounds, instrumentation and data sources (sensors and databases), technological advances, and perspectives in processing and data analysis. Our review suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases reported on in the literature; related diseases that are less analyzed include chronic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and parenchymal pathology. Some new findings regarding the methodologies associated with advances in the electronic stethoscope have been presented for the auscultatory heart sound signaling process, including analysis and clarification of resulting sounds to create a diagnosis based on a quantifiable medical assessment. The availability of automatic interpretation of high precision of heart and lung sounds opens interesting possibilities for cardiovascular diagnosis as well as potential for intelligent diagnosis of heart and lung diseases.

  16. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

  17. The Association between Mathematical Word Problems and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenius-Tuohimaa, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interplay between mathematical word problem skills and reading comprehension. The participants were 225 children aged 9-10 (Grade 4). The children's text comprehension and mathematical word problem-solving performance was tested. Technical reading skills were investigated in order to categorise participants as…

  18. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  19. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  20. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  1. Problems associated with accelerated thermal aging of electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential problems that may be experienced when accounting for aging mechanisms in organic polymers when utilizing accelerated thermal aging techniques for electrical equipment qualification. Included are discussions of actual experiences and problems encountered in the qualification of electrical and electronic equipment for a complete nuclear power plant. The wide variety of approaches to thermal accelerated aging by various manufacturers of diverse equipment types provides depth to the discussion. A description of how to account for aging mechanisms is also presented

  2. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  3. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  4. The Course of Sleep Problems in Patients With Heart Failure and Associations to Rehospitalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Peter; Brostrom, Anders; Sanderman, Robbert; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep problems are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and might be associated with patient outcomes. Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the course of sleep problems in HF patients over 1 year and the association between sleep problems and rehospitalization. Methods:

  5. Problems associated with extension visists among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the problems related to field visits carried out by extension staff to farmers in the rural areas. A total of 125 farmers were purposively and randomly sampled for this study from two villages, in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The three objectives were; (1) to identify the period of extension visits carried out by the ...

  6. Problems associated with the export of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1978-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 130 participants from 31 countries and 3 international organizations. The symposium gave special emphasis to the problems facing developing countries in the initial stages of nuclear power programmes, and was divided into three major topics: nuclear safety, domestic contributions, and international aspects. Thirty-seven papers were presented in nine sessions

  7. Some unsolved problems concerning copepods associated with marine invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotto, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    Three unsolved problems relating to symbiotic copepods of marine invertebrates are discussed: 1. The whereabouts of the unknown male of the gill parasite of lobsters, Nicothoe astaci. 2. The occurrence of very large and apparently post-reproductive females in the annelidicolous Cyclorhiza megalova.

  8. Factors associated with internalising problems in orphans and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare internalising problems reported by orphans and their caregivers with that of non-orphans and their caregivers. Design: Case control study. Setting: Cahora-Bassa District of Tete, Mozambique Subjects: Seventy-six maternal or double orphans (aged 10-14 years) and their caregivers were compared ...

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  10. Electronic Interests and Behaviours Associated with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple computing devices continue to develop capabilities that support online gambling, resulting in the need to evaluate the extent that this trend will contribute to gambling problems. A sample of 1,141 participants completed an online survey assessing interest in and difficulties limiting use of digital services. Questionnaire items measured…

  11. Problems associated with nuclear energy utilization in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, N.

    1975-01-01

    The special problems of integrating nuclear power into the overall national power system of a developing country are reviewed. Topics such as optimal size selection, policy for nuclear fuel cycle, and choice of reactor type are examined. The results of these analyses as applied to Turkey are presented. The impact of safety and regulatory matters are discussed

  12. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  13. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  14. Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Iwamae, Masayoshi; Kim, Chongsoo; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-06-13

    It has been proposed that an inappropriately conditioned fatigue sensation could be one cause of chronic fatigue. Although classical conditioning of the fatigue sensation has been reported in rats, there have been no reports in humans. Our aim was to examine whether classical conditioning of the mental fatigue sensation can take place in humans and to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten and 9 healthy volunteers participated in a conditioning and a control experiment, respectively. In the conditioning experiment, we used metronome sounds as conditioned stimuli and two-back task trials as unconditioned stimuli to cause fatigue sensation. Participants underwent MEG measurement while listening to the metronome sounds for 6 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing mental task trials (two-back task trials), which are demanding working-memory task trials, were performed for 60 min; metronome sounds were started 30 min after the start of the task trials (conditioning session). The next day, neural activities while listening to the metronome for 6 min were measured. Levels of fatigue sensation were also assessed using a visual analogue scale. In the control experiment, participants listened to the metronome on the first and second days, but they did not perform conditioning session. MEG was not recorded in the control experiment. The level of fatigue sensation caused by listening to the metronome on the second day was significantly higher relative to that on the first day only when participants performed the conditioning session on the first day. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) in the insular cortex, with mean latencies of approximately 190 ms, were observed in six of eight participants after the conditioning session, although ECDs were not identified in any participant before the conditioning session. We demonstrated that the metronome sounds can cause mental fatigue sensation as a result of repeated pairings of the sounds

  15. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers: A growing global problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers.

  16. Problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of endodontic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emily, P.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of endodontic lesions in animal dentistry is complicated and restricted by the use of objective diagnostic procedures. Human endodontics uses subjective symptoms to a large degree, as well as objective symptoms. Subjective symptoms include patient pain; sensitivity to hot or cold; percussion; and foul taste or odor. Veterinary dentists must receive input from clients, as well as using their own clinical and radiographic evaluation. Many endodontic lesions remain undetected because the client fails to notice broken or discolored teeth, facial swelling, drooling, difficulty in chewing, chewing only on one side, and general malaise. An increased awareness of the endodontic problems that can occur in animals increases the level of veterinary care. Numerous techniques, including apexogenesis, apexification, direct and indirect pulp capping, and conventional and surgical endodontic therapy, can be used to treat various endodontic problems successfully

  17. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  18. A modeling study of tidal energy extraction and the associated impact on tidal circulation in a multi-inlet bay system of Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-12-01

    Previous tidal energy projects in Puget Sound have focused on major deep channels such as Admiralty Inlet that have a larger power potential but pose greater technical challenges than minor tidal channels connecting to small sub-basins. This paper focuses on the possibility of extracting energy from minor tidal channels by using a hydrodynamic model to quantify the power potential and the associated impact on tidal circulation. The study site is a multi-inlet bay system connected by two narrow inlets, Agate Pass and Rich Passage, to the Main Basin of Puget Sound. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the study site and calibrated for tidal elevations and currents. We examined three energy extraction scenarios in which turbines were deployed in each of the two passages and concurrently in both. Extracted power rates and associated changes in tidal elevation, current, tidal flux, and residence time were examined. Maximum instantaneous power rates reached 250 kW, 1550 kW, and 1800 kW, respectively, for the three energy extraction scenarios. The model suggests that with the proposed level of energy extraction, the impact on tidal circulation is very small. It is worth investigating the feasibility of harnessing tidal energy from minor tidal channels of Puget Sound.

  19. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    O Halloran, C; Silver, MW; Lahiff, M; Colford, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2016, International Association for Ecology and Health. A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statist...

  20. Solution of inverse localization problem associated to multistatic radar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutkhil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of inverse localization by a target with the aim to retrieve the position of the target, given the intensity and phase of the electromagnetic waves scattered by this object. Assuming the surface cross section to be known as well as the intensity and phase of the scattered waves, the target position was reconstructed through the echo signals scattered of each bistatic. We develop in the same time a multistatic ambiguity function trough bistatic ambiguity function to investigate several fundamental aspects that determine multistatic radar performance. We used a multistatic radar constructed of two bistatic radars, two transmitters and one receiver.

  1. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  2. Problems associated with digital luminescence radiography in the neonate and young infant. Problems with digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R J; Pease, J N

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the Siemens Digiscan has been undertaken to determine whether digital luminescence radiography (DLR) could replace conventional radiography in the examination of the neonate and young infant. Whilst the overall image quality of the digital radiograph was consistently higher than for conventional radiography the difference was less marked than we had expected. Furthermore, the potential for reduction in radiation dose by reducing the repeat rate due to incorrect exposure was limited. The potential advantages of DLR have been critically examined in relationship to neonatal radiography and a number of problems encountered during the evaluation have been highlighted.

  3. Mechanical design problems associated with turbopump fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evces, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    Most high speed cryogenic turbopumps for liquid propulsion rocket engines currently use ball or roller contact bearings for rotor support. The operating speeds, loads, clearances, and environments of these pumps combine to make bearing wear a limiting factor on turbopump life. An example is the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Although the HPOTP design life is 27,000 seconds at 30,000 rpms, or approximately 50 missions, bearings must currently be replaced after 2 missions. One solution to the bearing wear problem in the HPOTP, as well as in future turbopump designs, is the utilization of fluid film bearings in lieu of continuous contact bearings. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and damping seal bearings are all replacement candidates for contact bearings in rocket engine high speed turbomachinery. These three types of fluid film bearings have different operating characteristics, but they share a common set of mechanical design opportunities and difficulties. Results of research to define some of the mechanical design issues are given. Problems considered include transient strat/stop rub, non-operational rotor support, bearing wear inspection and measurement, and bearing fluid supply route. Emphasis is given to the HPOTP preburner pump (PBP) bearing, but the results are pertinent to high-speed cryogenic turbomachinery in general.

  4. Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.

  5. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  6. Healthcare ‑ associated infections: A public health problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of ...

  7. Software Usability: Concepts, Attributes and Associated Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grīnberga Sabīne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened a large set of opportunities for new electronic services (e-commerce, e-health, e-studies etc.. There are many considerations that need to be made when programmers are building new application software or system software. The software needs to be attractive enough that people want to look at it. It also needs to contain all necessary information that developers want to share with their readers (customers, users in order to help them achieve the objective for which they came to their website, use their software, or interact with their teaching packages. The oversupply of e-services products has created a need for usability research and development. “Usability means making products and systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements”. Usability is a key concept of the human-computer interface and is concerned with making computer systems easy to learn and easy to use through a user-centered design process. The in-depth understanding of usability concepts and processes are critical for large-scale acceptance of new e-services and knowledge productivity. Poorly designed software can be extremely annoying to users. Smith and Mayes state that „usability is now recognised as a vital determining factor in the success of any new computer system or computer-based service”. Studies have shown that the main health problems of computer users are repetitive strain injuries, visual discomfort and stress-related disorders. Beside other risk factors, such as poor workstation design, uncomfortable work postures, long hours of computer use every day, stress, etc., also poor design and usability of the computer systems, as well as computer technical problems, add to the pressure felt by the user, which may in turn cause stress-related disorders.

  8. Low frequency sound field enhancement system for rectangular rooms, using multiple loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this PhD dissertation is within the performance of loudspeakers in rooms at low frequencies. The research concentrates on the improvement of the sound level distribution in rooms produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies. The work focuses on seeing the problem acoustically...... and solving it in the time domain. Loudspeakers are the last link in the sound reproduction chain, and they are typically placed in small or medium size rooms. When low frequency sound is radiated by a loudspeaker the sound level distribution along the room presents large deviations. This is due...... to the multiple reflection of sound at the rigid walls of the room. This may cause level differences of up to 20 dB in the room. Some of these deviations are associated with the standing waves, resonances or anti resonances of the room. The understanding of the problem is accomplished by analyzing the behavior...

  9. Solved and unsolved problems associated with the Bauschinger-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbach, J.

    1979-01-01

    The generic term 'Bauschinger effect' describes the laws of the elasto-plastic material behaviour on cyclic load. From the engineering point of view, the Bauschinger-effect is significant for the quasi-static component behaviour at reversed stress directions: A reversal of the stress direction can lead to a drastic decrease of stretch resistance and herewith to an excessive buckling danger; with proper predeformation stiffness can be increased however. On the other side the Bauschinger effect is tightly connected with material fatigue: The irreversible energy supplied by cyclic-plastic deformation is consumed by a small part for crack initiation and - spreading. Though a number of laws of the Bauschinger-effect are phenomenologically validated, there arise totally unsolved problems in the mist simple applications, above all in the relation between Bauschinger-effect and material fatigue. On the one hand there is not, for instance, a correct physical theory of the known laws of the Bauschinger-effect. On the other side, there are material properties, which are manifested in the fatigue behaviour of materials but not in a measurable cyclic stress-strain relationship. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  10. Problems associated with clinical trials of Ayurvedic medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K Sharma

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times as medicines for the treatment of various diseases. Especially in countries like India many of herbal drugs and formulations are used in different practices of treatment like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. It is estimated that about 25% of all modern medicines are directly or indirectly derived from plants sources. The contribution of developing countries in global herbal business is very poor due to lack of quality control and standardization measures. There is lack of common standards and appropriate methods for evaluating Traditional Medicine to ensure the safety, efficacy and quality control. This indicates the importance and necessity to develop a standard operational procedure for the standardization of herbal drugs and formulations. Benchmarking the evaluation protocols including both quality control and quality assurance of herbal drugs would play a major role in providing highly reliable and effective herbals drugs and to attract international trade, thus generating revenue. The article highlights various problems being faced by developing countries and suggests a unique approach for the preparation of SOP/guidelines for the standardization of all herbal based formulations, also there is a need for systematic clinical trials of traditional plant based medicines to enhance global acceptance

  11. Aesthetic problems associated with the cosmetic use of bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Fatimata; Soko, Anta Soumare; Dione, Demba Anta; Niang, Suzanne Oumou; Kane, Assane; Bocoum, Thierno Ibrahima; Dieng, Mame Thierno; Ndiaye, Bassirou

    2007-10-01

    The use of skin bleaching products for cosmetic purposes is a frequent practice (25-96%) in women from sub-Saharan Africa. The dermatologic complications associated with this practice have been comprehensively reported. The aim of this work was to study the epidemiologic, clinical, and cosmetic aspects of these complications in order to produce better therapeutic guidelines for their management. This was a prospective, descriptive study performed over a 6-month period. All women aged between 15 and 50 years, who consulted a dermatologist (Le Dantec Hospital or Institute of Social Hygiene), experienced a complication associated with artificial depigmentation, and agreed to take part in the study, were included. The data were input and analyzed using Epi info version 6.0. Eighty-six female patients were included, with a mean age of 29.34 years (range, 16-49 years). The breakdown by level of education was as follows: primary (48.8%), secondary (18.3%), and higher (8.5%) education. Twenty-two per cent of our population had not attended school. The mean monthly cost of skin bleaching products was 6.22 euros. The initial skin tone before using skin bleaching products was black in 41.5% of patients, light in 32.9%, and intermediate in 25.6%. The mean duration of exposure was 6.7 +/- 5 years (range, 1-30 years). The breakdown by skin bleaching products showed that topical corticosteroids were the most frequently used (78%), followed by hydroquinone (56%), products based on vegetable extracts (31.7%), caustic products (8.5%), and, finally, products of unknown composition (41.4%). Two components or more were frequently combined (86.5%). The aesthetic complications of artificial depigmentation were the reason for consulting a dermatologist in 10 patients (12%). Nineteen types of aesthetic complication were reported in our sample. Hyperpigmentation of the joints was the most frequently found complication (85.4%), followed by striae atrophicae (72%) and skin atrophy (59

  12. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  13. Environmental problems associated with Arctic development especially in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G. C.

    1976-10-01

    Exploration and extraction of mineral and petroleum resources in the arctic tundra and subarctic taiga regions of the world has potential impacts on the environment, wildlife, and human health and safety. Transportation, especially over low wet-tundra in summer, causes long-term changes in vegetation by reducing insulation to the underlying permafrost. Gravel laid directly on the tundra mat, makes the most suitable permanent road-bed. However this causes problems such as spreading of dust, impoundment of water, behavioral barricading of animals, alteration of river channels, and siltation of streams. Anadromous fishes are a major food alteration of stream channels or siltation of rivers can affect their movement and reproduction. Oil-spills in aquatic systems are harder to control and clean up than terrestrial ones, and recovery of ponds takes several years. The oil-rich outer-continental shelves in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas, now under exploration for oil, are especially sensitive. They contain unique populations of marine mammals and birds. Human habitation of the Arctic requires transport of food, fuel, and construction materials, and disposal of refuse and wastes which, due to the permafrost-underlain vegetative mat, is difficult. Heating by fossil fuels results in ice-fogs in winter and accumulation of atmospheric pollutants at ground-level during thermal inversions at all seasons. Perhaps the greatest impact is the increased intervention of the human population. Where native people were previously only sparsely settled or nomadic in the tundra, and on coasts where they congregated, now the economic need for resources has resulted in increased pressure overall which will result in fewer habitats for wildlife, destruction of wilderness, and increased access to humans for further exploration and recreation.

  14. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  15. [Reptile-associated salmonellosis as an important epidemiological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Aleksandra

    2014-11-17

    of food poisoning. One of the reservoirs of Salmonella are reptiles, which are increasingly kept as pets. Most reptiles are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. These strains, isolated from reptiles, can cause serious infections, especially in infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies. The disease called reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) may manifest with bloody diarrhea, meningitis, and arthritis, and consequently can cause bacteremia and sepsis. Among the strains described in the literature, Salmonella strains possessing the O48 antigen are an important group. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella O48 contains sialic acid (NeuAc) in an O-specific-chain. LPS containing NeuAc exhibits antigenic similarity to antigens found in the human body, including blood serum, and therefore is correlated with the occurrence of the dangerous phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Bacteria containing NeuAc in their outer structures can evade the immunological response of the host, which significantly increases their virulence. Most data about RAS come from the USA, but in recent years cases from European countries are more frequent in the literature. Unfortunately, the occurrence of RAS in Poland has not been monitored so far. There is also no campaign to inform the public about the health risks connected with contact of people with reptiles.

  16. Cerebral visual impairment in children: Causes and associated ophthalmological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehere, Niranjan; Chougule, Pratik; Dutton, Gordon N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). A retrospective review of case records of all children aged visual impairment was seen in 88.8%, and 11.2% had high functioning CVI. Fifty-eight (46.4%) patients had significant refractive errors, 40 (32.25%) had strabismus, 4 (3.2%) had visually significant cataract, and 40 (32%) had optic atrophy. Motor delay was observed in 39.5%, speech delay was evident in 22.4%, and cognitive delay in 16%. HIE is the most common cause (one-third) of CVI in our population, and the majority of them presented at age visual impairment (88.8%). A significant number of them have treatable ophthalmic conditions such as refractive errors (46.4%), accommodative insufficiency (12.1%), and cataract (3.2%), and more than one-third of them also have delay in other areas of development.

  17. Second sound scattering in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosgen, T.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing cavities are used to study the scattering of second sound in liquid helium II. The special geometries reduce wall interference effects and allow measurements in very small test volumes. In a first experiment, a double elliptical cavity is used to focus a second sound wave onto a small wire target. A thin film bolometer measures the side scattered wave component. The agreement with a theoretical estimate is reasonable, although some problems arise from the small measurement volume and associated alignment requirements. A second cavity is based on confocal parabolas, thus enabling the use of large planar sensors. A cylindrical heater produces again a focused second sound wave. Three sensors monitor the transmitted wave component as well as the side scatter in two different directions. The side looking sensors have very high sensitivities due to their large size and resistance. Specially developed cryogenic amplifers are used to match them to the signal cables. In one case, a second auxiliary heater is used to set up a strong counterflow in the focal region. The second sound wave then scatters from the induced fluid disturbances

  18. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between yoga practice and joint problems: a cross-sectional survey among 9151 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Schumann, Dania; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-07-01

    Yoga exercises have been associated with joint problems recently, indicating that yoga practice might be potentially dangerous for joint health. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga practice is associated with the frequency of joint problems in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were questioned in 2013 whether they experienced regular joint pain or problems in the past 12 months and whether they regularly practiced yoga. Associations of joint problems with yoga practice were analysed using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 9151 women, 29.8% reported regular problems with stiff or painful joints, and 15.2, 11.9, 18.1 and 15.9% reported regular problems with shoulders, hips, knees and feet, respectively, in the past 12 months. Yoga was practiced sometimes by 10.1% and often by 8.4% of women. Practicing yoga was not associated with upper or lower limb joint problems. No association between yoga practice and joint problems has been identified. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga in relation to joint problems.

  20. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  1. Gender differences in the associations between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.

  2. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  3. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  4. Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ardö, Jonas

    2011-02-01

    To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise. Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis. With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population. Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep

  5. The association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 with behavioural problems in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    Full Text Available Higher serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, an indicator of vitamin D synthesis and intake, have been associated with better mental health and cognitive function. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 (the active vitamin D(3 metabolite have been associated with openness and extrovert behaviour, but 25(OHD concentrations have not been associated with behavioural problems in humans.We investigated the prospective association between the different forms of 25(OHD - 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2- and childhood behavioural problems in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Serum 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2 concentrations were assessed at mean age 9.9 years. Incident behavioural problems were assessed with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention problems, peer relationship problems and pro-social behaviour subscales and total difficulties score at mean age 11.7. Sample sizes varied between 2413-2666 depending on the outcome.Higher 25(OHD(3 concentrations were weakly associated with lower risk of prosocial problems (fully adjusted odds ratio: OR (95% confidence interval: CI 0.85 (0.74, 0.98. Serum 25(OHD(3 or 25(OHD(2 concentrations were not associated with other subscales of SDQ or total difficulties score after adjusting for concfounders and other measured analytes related to vitamin D.Our findings do not support the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in childhood has important influences on behavioural traits in humans.

  6. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  7. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  8. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  9. The association of behavioural and emotional problems with tobacco use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a highly addictive behaviour, often initiated during adolescence. It is suggested that smoking is associated with behavioural and emotional problems. This study aims to assess the impact of psychosocial problems on smoking initiation and vice versa. Method: We obtained data on

  10. Childhood Conduct Problems Are Associated with Increased Partnership and Parenting Difficulties in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudino, Alessandra; Woodward, Lianne J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from a sample of 337 parents studied at age 30 to examine the linkages between childhood conduct problems assessed at ages 7-9 and later partnership and parenting outcomes. The key findings of this study were: 1) increasing levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with increased risk of partnership difficulties,…

  11. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  13. Effortful control as modifier of the association between negative emotionality and adolescents' mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which effortful control moderated the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems associated with high negative emotionality in a Dutch population sample of pre- and early adolescents (N = 1,922). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed with the

  14. Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences. Bullying involvement in 6,406 adolescents was determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Data were collected regarding the mental health problems, including depression, suicidality, insomnia, general anxiety, social phobia, alcohol abuse, inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The association between experiences of bullying involvement and mental health problems was examined. The risk of mental health problems was compared among those with different levels/types of bullying involvement. The results found that being a victim of any type of bullying and being a perpetrator of passive bullying were significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems, and being a perpetrator of active bullying was significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems except for general anxiety. Victims or perpetrators of both passive and active bullying had a greater risk of some dimensions of mental health problems than those involved in only passive or active bullying. Differences in the risk of mental health problems were also found among adolescents involved in different types of bullying. This difference in comorbid mental health problems should be taken into consideration when assessing adolescents involved in different levels/types of bullying. © 2014.

  15. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Baars

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  16. The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.

  17. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  18. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  19. Distinguishing Alfven waves from quasi-static field structures associated with the discrete aurora: Sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, D.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Earle, G.D.; Vickrey, J.F.; Boehm, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present and analyze sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements of the low frequency ( 0 in the auroral oval. By examining the time-domain field data it is often difficult to distinguish temporal fluctuations from static structures which are Doppler shifted to a non-zero frequency in the spacecraft frame. However, they show that such a distinction can be made by constructing the impedance function Z(f). Using Z(f) they find agreement with the static field interpretation below about 0.1 Hz in the spacecraft frame, i.e. Z(f) = Σ p -1 where Σ p is the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere. About 0.1 Hz the authors find Z(f) > Σ p -1 , which they argue to be due to the presence of Alfven waves incident from the magnetosphere and reflecting from the lower ionosphere, forming a standing wave pattern. These waves may represent an electromagnetic coupling mechanism between the auroral acceleration region and the ionosphere

  20. A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, John; Setti, Annalisa; Doheny, Emer P; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has provided evidence suggesting a link between inefficient processing of multisensory information and incidence of falling in older adults. Specifically, Setti et al. (Exp Brain Res 209:375-384, 2011) reported that older adults with a history of falling were more susceptible than their healthy, age-matched counterparts to the sound-induced flash illusion. Here, we investigated whether balance control in fall-prone older adults was directly associated with multisensory integration by testing susceptibility to the illusion under two postural conditions: sitting and standing. Whilst standing, fall-prone older adults had a greater body sway than the age-matched healthy older adults and their body sway increased when presented with the audio-visual illusory but not the audio-visual congruent conditions. We also found an increase in susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion during standing relative to sitting for fall-prone older adults only. Importantly, no performance differences were found across groups in either the unisensory or non-illusory multisensory conditions across the two postures. These results suggest an important link between multisensory integration and balance control in older adults and have important implications for understanding why some older adults are prone to falling.

  1. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  2. The Intergenerational Association Between Parents' Problem Gambling and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity/Inattention Behaviors in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-11-04

    Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.

  3. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  4. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  5. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  6. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  7. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Looking at the ventriloquist: visual outcome of eye movements calibrates sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Pages

    Full Text Available A general problem in learning is how the brain determines what lesson to learn (and what lessons not to learn. For example, sound localization is a behavior that is partially learned with the aid of vision. This process requires correctly matching a visual location to that of a sound. This is an intrinsically circular problem when sound location is itself uncertain and the visual scene is rife with possible visual matches. Here, we develop a simple paradigm using visual guidance of sound localization to gain insight into how the brain confronts this type of circularity. We tested two competing hypotheses. 1: The brain guides sound location learning based on the synchrony or simultaneity of auditory-visual stimuli, potentially involving a Hebbian associative mechanism. 2: The brain uses a 'guess and check' heuristic in which visual feedback that is obtained after an eye movement to a sound alters future performance, perhaps by recruiting the brain's reward-related circuitry. We assessed the effects of exposure to visual stimuli spatially mismatched from sounds on performance of an interleaved auditory-only saccade task. We found that when humans and monkeys were provided the visual stimulus asynchronously with the sound but as feedback to an auditory-guided saccade, they shifted their subsequent auditory-only performance toward the direction of the visual cue by 1.3-1.7 degrees, or 22-28% of the original 6 degree visual-auditory mismatch. In contrast when the visual stimulus was presented synchronously with the sound but extinguished too quickly to provide this feedback, there was little change in subsequent auditory-only performance. Our results suggest that the outcome of our own actions is vital to localizing sounds correctly. Contrary to previous expectations, visual calibration of auditory space does not appear to require visual-auditory associations based on synchrony/simultaneity.

  9. Do causes of stress differ in their association with problem drinking by sex in Korean adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, So-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have focused mainly on whether stress causes present drinking or excessive drinking. However, few studies have been conducted on the relationship between stress and problem drinking in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the stress level and the cause of stress related to problem drinking behavior according to sex among Korean youth. Data for this study were pooled from cross-sectional data collected annually from 2007 through 2012 from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. A representative sample of 442,113 students from 800 randomly selected middle and high schools in Korea were included. Multiple logistic regression models were used in the analysis. Both male and female students with extremely high stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking than were students with no stress (odds ratios [OR], 1.73 in males and 1.41 in females). The major causes of stress in male students that were associated with problem drinking were conflict with a teacher, trouble with parents, and peer relationships (ORs, 2.47, 1.72, and 1.71, respectively), whereas there are no statistically significant association between causes of stress and problem drinking among female students. Considering stress level, Male students with extremely high stress level were associated with problem drinking regardless of causes of stress, while Female students who felt extremely high levels of stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking due to stress from a conflict with parents, peer relationships, appearance, and financial difficulty (ORs, 1.53, 1.53, 1.46, and 1.47, respectively). Adolescents who engage in problem drinking may be affected by different causes of stress according to sex. Thus, appropriate approaches that reflect sex differences will be helpful to alleviate problem drinking in adolescents and educational authorities need to arrange more effective education program for drinking given positive associations between drinking

  10. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  12. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  13. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

  14. Is problem-based learning associated with students’ motivation? A quantitative and qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wijnen (Marit); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G. Smeets (Guus); M.J. Kroeze (Maarten); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, a mixed-method design was employed to investigate the association between a student-centred, problem-based learning (PBL) method and law students’ motivation. Self-determination theory (SDT) states that autonomous motivation, which is associated with higher academic

  15. The association between antihormonal treatment and cognitive complaints in breast cancer survivors with sleep problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Damholdt, Malene; Dahlgaard, Jesper Ovesen

    2016-01-01

    . Statistically significant associations were observed between the CFQ and all measures of psychological distress (depression, fatigue, PTS, and perceived stress (r = 0.33–0.58, p's > 0.001)). Severity of sleep problems was also associated with the CFQ (r = 0.16, p = 0.01) There was no significant effect......, CFQtotal = 29.9(SD = 14.6); CFQ‐distractibility = 8.9(SD = 5.2) (p's = 0.06; 0.03). When adjusting for severity of sleep problems, symptoms of depression, PTS, fatigue, and perceived stress, these differences remained statistically significant (CFQ‐total: p = 0.047; CFQ‐distractibility: p = 0......Background: Cognitive complaints following chemotherapy are common and often associated with psychological distress. There is also a growing concern about cognitive problems among BC survivors receiving adjuvant antihormonal therapy. We, therefore, investigated the association between antihormonal...

  16. Does Competence Mediate the Associations between Puberty and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer, B.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine separate mediational models linking a) menarcheal status or b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. Method Cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (11–17 years; M=14.93, SD=2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural Equation Modeling was used for analyses. Results Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence which was related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Conclusions Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in post-menarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. PMID:21939864

  17. Are gastrointestinal and sleep problems associated with behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Lei; Liang, Shuang; Zou, Ming-Yang; Sun, Cai-Hong; Han, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Xi-Tao; Xia, Wei; Wu, Li-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from concurrent medical symptoms, including gastrointestinal (GI) and sleeping problems. However, there is limited information on the correlation between co-morbidities and autistic behavioral symptoms. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of GI and sleep problems in Chinese ASD children, examined the impacts of GI and sleep problems on autistic behavioral symptoms, and investigated the factors associated with GI and sleep problems. The survey included 169 ASD and 172 healthy children. Data regarding demographic characteristics, GI symptoms, sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms were collected through questionnaires. GI and sleep problems were prevalent in Chinese ASD children. Moreover, ASD children with GI symptoms reported more severe ASD core symptoms than others. Autistic children's GI symptoms were associated with maternal sleep problems during pregnancy, child's 0-6 month food sources and picky eating. ASD children with sleep disturbances had lower performance in daily living skills, social cognition, social communication and intellectual development than ASD children without sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances were associated with extra nutrient supply during lactation and feeding, and child's picky eating. Autistic children with GI or/and sleep problems may represent clinically relevant subtypes of ASD, for which targeted treatments may be needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A single episode of high intensity sound inhibits long-term potentiation in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Deus, J L; Cunha, A O S; Terzian, A L; Resstel, L B; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Almeida, S S; Leão, R M

    2017-10-26

    Exposure to loud sounds has become increasingly common. The most common consequences of loud sound exposure are deafness and tinnitus, but emotional and cognitive problems are also associated with loud sound exposure. Loud sounds can activate the hipothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in the secretion of corticosterone, which affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to short episodes of high intensity sound inhibited hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without affecting spatial learning and memory. Here we aimed to study the impact of short term loud sound exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and function. We found that a single minute of 110 dB sound inhibits hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 LTP for 24 hours. This effect did not occur with an 80-dB sound exposure, was not correlated with corticosterone secretion and was also observed in the perforant-dentate gyrus synapse. We found that despite the deficit in the LTP these animals presented normal spatial learning and memory and fear conditioning. We conclude that a single episode of high-intensity sound impairs hippocampal LTP, without impairing memory and learning. Our results show that the hippocampus is very responsive to loud sounds which can have a potential, but not yet identified, impact on its function.

  19. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Relations and Attention Problems from 9 to 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Linqin; Pan, Bin; Zhang, Wenxin; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2018-05-12

    We examined the bidirectional relations between peer relations and attention problems from middle childhood through adolescence. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Children and Adolescents (LSCCA, N = 2157, 51.9% male), three key aspects of peer relations (acceptance, rejection, and victimization) were assessed annually from 9 to 16 years of age. Attention problems were assessed at 9 and 15 years. Latent growth modeling indicated that greater attention problems at age 9 were linked with a lower intercept for peer acceptance, and higher intercepts for rejection and victimization. Also, prior lower acceptance and greater rejection and victimization, along with a higher increase over time in rejection and lower decrease over time in victimization, predicted attention problems at age 15. Cross-lagged analysis showed that attention problems were associated with less subsequent peer acceptance and greater subsequent rejection and victimization. Only peer rejection (but neither victimization nor acceptance) predicted more subsequent attention problems. Findings point to bidirectional associations between attention problems and peer relations in the developmental transition across adolescence. Evidence for differential bidirectionality of attention problems with the multiple peer experience (group versus dyadic; good versus bad) emerged, and future replications are needed.

  20. Current Situation, Problems and Solution Proposals of Kiwi Producer Associations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SIRAY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer associations have an important role in adoption and implementation of new agricultural technologies. In Turkey, associations have contributed significantly to increase of kiwi production and its consumption in recent years. The most important function of kiwi producer associations is to assist their members in marketing of products as well as to try to provide solutions to problems related to kiwi production techniques. The data of this research was obtained from the 12 kiwi producer associations. According to the research results, the most important problem of kiwi producer associations is having financial difficulties. The associations, getting 79.4% of their incomes from the subscriptions, are unable to sufficiently perform their duties due to their limited budgets. The associations have indicated that the main problems in kiwi production are lack of knowledge for production techniques and qualified technical staff. There is no marketing problem of the product due to adequate domestic demand. But, the products should be disposed immediately due to lack of cold storage facilities and they are not sold at desired price.

  1. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  2. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  3. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  4. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  5. Bidirectional Associations Between Newlyweds' Marital Satisfaction and Marital Problems over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-12-01

    Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  6. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...

  7. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    OpenAIRE

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1?28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, preval...

  8. The Association of Form of Gambling with Problem Gambling Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with 2274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. Analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the specific gambling games played and the extent of problem gambling symptoms. The forms of gambling that were most associated with gambling problems were card games, casino gambling, “other” gambling on routine activities, and betting on games of skill such as basketball, pool, or golf. The form of gambling which made the largest contribution to gambling pr...

  9. Associations among types of impulsivity, substance use problems and neurexin-3 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Scott F; Lehmann, Melissa K; Christ, Christa C; Hersrud, Samantha L; Davies, Gareth E

    2011-12-15

    Some of the genetic vulnerability for addiction may be mediated by impulsivity. This study investigated relationships among impulsivity, substance use problems and six neurexin-3 (NRXN3) polymorphisms. Neurexins (NRXNs) are presynaptic transmembrane proteins that play a role in the development and function of synapses. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11), the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS) and the TIME paradigm; alcohol problems with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST); drug problems with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20); and regular tobacco use with a single question. Participants (n=439 Caucasians, 64.7% female) donated buccal cells for genotyping. Six NRXN3 polymorphisms were genotyped: rs983795, rs11624704, rs917906, rs1004212, rs10146997 and rs8019381. A dual luciferase assay was conducted to determine whether allelic variation at rs917906 regulated gene expression. In general, impulsivity was significantly higher in those who regularly used tobacco and/or had alcohol or drug problems. In men, there were modest associations between rs11624704 and attentional impulsivity (p=0.005) and between rs1004212 and alcohol problems (p=0.009). In women, there were weak associations between rs10146997 and TIME estimation (p=0.03); and between rs1004212 and drug problems (p=0.03). The dual luciferase assay indicated that C and T alleles of rs917906 did not differentially regulate gene expression in vitro. Associations between impulsivity, substance use problems and polymorphisms in NRXN3 may be gender specific. Impulsivity is associated with substance use problems and may provide a useful intermediate phenotype for addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  11. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  12. Associations between Prosocial and Problem Behavior from Early to Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Memmott-Elison, Madison K; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-05-01

    Though recent research has highlighted prosocial behavior as negatively associated with problem behavior during adolescence, we know little about how these variables might be associated longitudinally, whether there are bidirectional effects, and whether there might be different patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors for different individuals. Thus, the current study examined relations between prosocial and problem behaviors in three different ways in an attempt to better understand these associations. Participants included 500 adolescents recruited from a Northwestern state in the USA who took part in the study every year from age 12 to 18 (50% female, 67% European American). Growth curve analyses suggested that change in prosocial behavior was negatively associated with change in aggression and delinquency over time. A longitudinal panel model suggested that prosocial behavior and aggression were negatively associated bidirectionally, and that prosocial behavior was negatively associated with delinquency over time. Finally, mixture modeling conducted at ages 12, 15, and 18 revealed heterogeneity in the ways in which prosocial and problem behaviors co-occur. The discussion focuses on the complexity of interrelations between prosocial behavior and problem behavior across adolescence.

  13. Sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Associations with psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulewitsch MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health.Objective: The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students.Methods: A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire.Results and conclusion: Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%. Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems.Keywords: university students, sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, self-efficacy

  15. Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical aid for radiation accident casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical treatment for radiation accident casualties are considered for different types of radiation accident: whole-body or partial irradiation, external or internal contamination and small or large numbers of cases. The problems posed are ones of competence, urgency and capacity; on the diagnostic side there is the problem of evaluating the exposure or contamination and assessing the resultant damage, while on the treatment side the questions of first aid, conventional treatment and specialized treatment have to be considered. The solutions envisaged involve organization at the local and national levels and planning of medical treatment by skilled, multidisciplinary medical teams. (author)

  16. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air.

  17. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey L. Ream

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  18. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  19. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  20. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A pressure plate study on fore and hindlimb loading and the association with hoof contact area in sound ponies at the walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F; Back, W; Dewulf, J; Gasthuys, F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fore- and hind-hoof contact area and limb loading. Data from a previous study on forelimb loading and symmetry were compared with data on hindlimb kinetics, and the fore- and hind-hoof contact area at the walk and trot was evaluated. Five sound ponies, selected for symmetrical feet, were walked and trotted over a pressure plate embedded in a custom-made runway. The hindlimb peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were found to be significantly lower than in the forelimb, whereas their high symmetry ratios (>95%) did not show a significant difference from forelimb data. Hindlimb PVF in ponies was found to be slightly higher when compared to data reported for horses even though the ponies moved at a similar or lower relative velocity. The contact area had low intra-individual variability and was significantly smaller in the hind- than in the fore-hooves. A larger contact area was significantly associated with lower peak vertical pressure (PVP) but higher PVF and VI. No significant differences between left and right sides were found for contact area or loading variables. Pressure plate measurements demonstrated a significant association between hoof contact area and limb loading, in addition to intrinsic differences between fore and hindlimb locomotor function. The pressure plate provides the clinician with a tool to quantify simultaneously contralateral differences in hoof contact area and limb loading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fransson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  3. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research. PMID:29780345

  4. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior - Validation and Association With Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T -tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  5. A reinforcement sensitivity model of affective and behavioral dysregulation in marijuana use and associated problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Noah N; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    This study tested a model linking sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) to marijuana use and problems via affect lability and poor control. A 6-month prospective design was used in a sample of 2,270 young-adults (64% female). The hypothesized SP × SR interaction did not predict affect lability or poor control, but did predict use likelihood at baseline. At low levels of SR, SP was associated with an increased likelihood of abstaining, which was attenuated as SR increased. SP and SR displayed positive main effects on both affect lability and poor control. Affect lability and poor control, in turn, mediated effects on the marijuana outcomes. Poor control predicted both increased marijuana use and, controlling for use level, greater intensity of problems. Affect lability predicted greater intensity of problems, but was not associated with use level. There were few prospective effects. SR consistently predicted greater marijuana use and problems. SP however, exhibited both risk and protective pathways. Results indicate that SP is associated with a decreased likelihood of marijuana use. However, once use is initiated SP is associated with increased risk of problems, in part, due to its effects on both affect and behavioral dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with windowpane condensation, e. g. humid indoor air.......Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home...

  7. Algorithmic solution of arithmetic problems and operands-answer associations in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, C; Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    2001-05-01

    Many developmental models of arithmetic problem solving assume that any algorithmic solution of a given problem results in an association of the two operands and the answer in memory (Logan & Klapp, 1991; Siegler, 1996). In this experiment, adults had to perform either an operation or a comparison on the same pairs of two-digit numbers and then a recognition task. It is shown that unlike comparisons, the algorithmic solution of operations impairs the recognition of operands in adults. Thus, the postulate of a necessary and automatic storage of operands-answer associations in memory when young children solve additions by algorithmic strategies needs to be qualified.

  8. The Association of Parental Depressive Symptoms with Child Internalizing Problems: The Role of Parental Guilt Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; Haker, Kelly; McKee, Laura G.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Potts, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Roberts, Lorinda; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on prior research by Rakow et al. (2009) by examining the role of parental guilt induction in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child internalizing problems in a sample of parents with a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and two families with 129 children (66 males; Mage = 11.42 years) were studied. The association of parental depressive symptoms with child internalizing problems was accounted for by parental guilt induction, which was assessed by behavioral observations and child report. Implications of the findings for parenting programs are discussed and future research directions are considered. PMID:21355654

  9. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Associated With Service Use for Young Adolescents With Mental Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M. Ryan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study wasto identify factors associated with use of services for adolescent mental health problems in an Australian community-based sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted on data collected from 636 parents and their adolescent child to identify individual and family variables predicting parent report of service use for mental health problems in the adolescent 12 months later. The services most reported by parents to have been accessed were school-based ones. Multivariate analysis found that the following were associated with service use 12 months later: the adolescent being female, parent report of peer problems and hyperactivity, single-parent household, the parent being Australian born, and prior service use by the adolescent. Parental overcontrol was associated with reduced likelihood of service use at follow-up. No association was found between service use at follow-up and parent gender, socioeconomic status, number of siblings, parent psychopathology, family social connectedness, and prior service use by the parent. No association was also found for family environment factors, parental attachment, or for the adolescent’s emotional competence or use of social support. The results indicate that families provide a potential target for interventions aimed at increasing use of professional services for adolescent mental health problems.

  12. Gray matter density of auditory association cortex relates to knowledge of sound concepts in primary progressive aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Michael F.; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Long-term memory integrates the multimodal information acquired through perception into unified concepts, supporting object recognition, thought, and language. While some theories of human cognition have considered concepts to be abstract symbols, recent functional neuroimaging evidence has supported an alternative theory: that concepts are multimodal representations associated with the sensory and motor systems through which they are acquired. However, few studies have examined the effects o...

  13. Sleep problems and suicide associated with mood instability in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Keltie C; Saunders, Kate EA; Geddes, John R

    2018-01-01

    Objective Mood instability is common in the general population. Mood instability is a precursor to mental illness and associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Sleep disturbance appears to be closely linked with mood instability. This study assesses the association between mood instability and sleep disturbance and the link with suicidal ideation and behaviour in a general population sample in England. Method The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007 collected detailed information about mental health symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adult household residents living in England (n = 7303). Mood instability was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-II. Sleep problems were defined as sleeping more than usual or less than usual during the past month. Other dependent variables included medication use and suicidal ideation and behaviour (response rate 57%). Generalized linear modelling was used to estimate the prevalence of mood instability and sleep problems. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. All estimates were weighted. Results The prevalence of mood instability was 14.7% (95% confidence interval [13.6%, 15.7%]). Sleep problems occurred in 69.8% (95% confidence interval: [66.6%, 73.1%]) of those with mood instability versus 37.6% (95% confidence interval: [36.2%, 39.1%]) of those without mood instability. The use of sedating and non-sedating medications did not influence the association. Sleep problems were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour even after adjusting for mood instability. Conclusion Sleep problems are highly prevalent in the general population, particularly among those with mood instability. Sleep problems are strongly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour. Treatments that target risk and maintenance factors that transcend diagnostic boundaries, such as therapies that target sleep disturbance, may be particularly valuable for preventing and

  14. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  15. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  16. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  17. Are mental health problems and depression associated with bruxism in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Andréa Coimbra; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Rodriguez, Juliana Dalla Martha; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Bettiol, Heloísa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Saraiva, Maria da Conceição

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found an association between bruxism and emotional and behavioral problems in children, but reported data are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bruxism, and of its components clenching and grinding, and its associations with mental problems and depression. Data from two Brazilian birth cohorts were analyzed: one from 869 children in Ribeirão Preto - RP (São Paulo), a more developed city, and the other from 805 children in São Luís - SL (Maranhão). Current bruxism - evaluated by means of a questionnaire applied to the parents/persons responsible for the children - was defined when the habit of tooth clenching during daytime and/or tooth grinding at night still persisted until the time of the assessment. Additionally, the lifetime prevalence of clenching during daytime only and grinding at night only was also evaluated. Mental health problems were investigated using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and depression using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Analyses were carried out for each city: with the SDQ subscales (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, attention/hyperactivity disorder), with the total score (sum of the subscales), and with the CDI. These analyses were performed considering different response variables: bruxism, clenching only, and grinding only. The risks were estimated using a Poisson regression model. Statistical inferences were based on 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There was a high prevalence of current bruxism: 28.7% in RP and 30.0% in SL. The prevalence of clenching was 20.3% in RP and 18.8% in SL, and grinding was found in 35.7% of the children in RP and 39.1% in SL. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association of bruxism with emotional symptoms and total SDQ score in both cities. When analyzed separately, teeth clenching was associated with emotional symptoms, peer problems, and total SDQ score; grinding was

  18. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  19. The association between interpersonal problems and treatment outcome in the eating disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan; Lindekilde, Nanna; Lübeck, Marlene; Clausen, Loa

    2015-01-01

    To review systematically the eating disorder literature in order to examine the association between pre-treatment interpersonal problems and treatment outcome in people diagnosed with an eating disorder. Six relevant databases were searched for studies in which interpersonal problems prior to treatment were examined in relation to treatment outcome in patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Thirteen studies were identified (containing 764 AN, 707 BN and 48 EDNOS). The majority of studies indicated that interpersonal problems at the start of therapy were associated with a detrimental treatment outcome. Individuals with a binge/purge-type of eating disorder may be particularly vulnerable to interpersonal issues and these issues may lead to poorer treatment recovery by reducing the individual's ability to engage in the treatment process on a functional level. The clinical and research implications are discussed.

  20. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. RESULTS: Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated......OBJECTIVES: Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet...... communication are associated with young people's social relations. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89 %, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming...

  1. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  2. Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

  3. Convergence problems associated with the iteration of adjoint equations in nuclear reactor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngcobo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Convergence problems associated with the iteration of adjoint equations based on two-group neutron diffusion theory approximations in slab geometry are considered. For this purpose first-order variational techniques are adopted to minimise numerical errors involved. The importance of deriving the adjoint source from a breeding ratio is illustrated. The results obtained are consistent with the expected improvement in accuracy

  4. Shared-Reading versus Oral Storytelling: Associations with Preschoolers' Prosocial Skills and Problem Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…

  5. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  7. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Nielsen, Line; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-02-01

    Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet communication are associated with young people's social relations. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89%, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated with almost all aspects of poor social relations among boys. Among girls, an association was only seen for bullying. For both boys and girls, perceived problems related to Internet use were associated with bullying only. Although the study is cross-sectional, the findings suggest that computer gaming and Internet use may be harmful to young people's social relations.

  8. Association between Parental Involvement in School and Child Conduct, Social, and Internalizing Problems: Teacher Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Klockner, Christian A.; Morch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (Involve-T) by means of exploratory factor analysis and examined the association between children's socio-emotional and behavioural problems and teacher-reported parental involvement in school, using structural equation modelling. The study was conducted with…

  9. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  10. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning

  11. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  12. Slender body treatment of some specialized problems associated with elliptic-cross-section missile configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Slender body methods were applied to some specialized problems associated with missile configurations with elliptic cross sections. Expressions are derived for computing the velocity distribution on the nose section when the ellipse eccentricity is varying longitudinally on the missile. The cross flow velocity on a triform fin section is also studied.

  13. Worry in Children: Changing Associations with Fear, Thinking, and Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Imogen; Szabó, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Worry in adults has been conceptualized as a thinking process involving problem-solving attempts about anticipated negative outcomes. This process is related to, though distinct from, fear. Previous research suggested that compared to adults, children's experience of worry is less strongly associated with thinking and more closely related to fear.…

  14. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  15. Problems of dosimetry and risk assessment associated with inhalation of fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repin, V.S.; Nechaev, S.Y.; Bondarenko, O.A.; Bykorez, A.I.; Kononenko, L.I.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the problems of dosimetry and risk assessment associated with inhalation of fuel particles. Radioactive emission parameters and potential for assessment of the lung cancer risk with inhalation penetration of hot particles are described. (O.L.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Association between Speech-Language, General Cognitive Functioning and Behaviour Problems in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, N. F.; Giacheti, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. Methods: The…

  17. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. Is Greater Improvement in Early Self-Regulation Associated with Fewer Behavioral Problems Later in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Searle, Amelia K.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Lynch, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of improvement in self-regulation achieved between ages 4 and 6 years is associated with the level of behavioral problems later in childhood. Participants were 4-year-old children (n = 510) attending preschools in South Australia. Children's level of self-regulation was assessed using the…

  20. Longitudinal Associations between Marital Instability and Child Sleep Problems across Infancy and Toddlerhood in Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, Anne M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Conger, Rand D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between marital instability and child sleep problems at ages 9 and 18 months in 357 families with a genetically unrelated infant adopted at birth. This design eliminates shared genes as an explanation for similarities between parent and child. Structural equation modeling indicated that T1 marital…

  1. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  2. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  3. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. A one-year longitudinal study was conducted among employed persons aged 45-64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (N = 8984). The presence of common chronic health problems and work-related factors was determined at baseline and self-reported sickness absence at one-year follow-up by questionnaire. Multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between health, work factors, and sickness absence, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) techniques were used to test effect modification. Common health problems were related to follow-up sickness absence, most strongly to high cumulative sickness absence (> 9 days per year). Baseline psychological health problems were strongly related to high sickness absence at follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 3.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.80-4.82]. Higher job demands at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among workers with severe headaches [RERI 1.35 (95% CI 0.45-2.25)] and psychological health problems [RERI 3.51 (95% CI 0.67-6.34)] at baseline. Lower autonomy at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among those with musculoskeletal [RERI 0.57 (95% CI 0.05-1.08)], circulatory [RERI 0.82 (95% CI 0.00-1.63)], and psychological health problems [RERI 2.94 (95% CI 0.17-5.70)] at baseline. Lower autonomy and higher job demands increased the association of an array of common chronic health problems with sickness absence, and thus focus should be placed on altering these factors in order to reduce sickness absence and essentially promote sustainable employability.

  4. Musculoskeletal Problems Associated with University Students Computer Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhadani PB

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of musculoskeletal problems among university students, scanty information exists in South African context. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, causes and consequences of musculoskeletal problems among University of Venda students’ computer users. This cross-sectional study involved 694 university students at the University of Venda. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic characteristics, problems associated with computer users, and causes of musculoskeletal problems associated with computer users. The majority (84.6% of the participants use computer for internet, wording processing (20.3%, and games (18.7%. The students reported neck pain when using computer (52.3%; shoulder (47.0%, finger (45.0%, lower back (43.1%, general body pain (42.9%, elbow (36.2%, wrist (33.7%, hip and foot (29.1% and knee (26.2%. Reported causes of musculoskeletal pains associated with computer usage were: sitting position, low chair, a lot of time spent on computer, uncomfortable laboratory chairs, and stressfulness. Eye problems (51.9%, muscle cramp (344.0%, headache (45.3%, blurred vision (38.0%, feeling of illness (39.9% and missed lectures (29.1% were consequences of musculoskeletal problems linked to computer use. The majority of students reported having mild pain (43.7%, moderate (24.2%, and severe (8.4% pains. Years of computer use were significantly associated with neck, shoulder and wrist pain. Using computer for internet was significantly associated with neck pain (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.93; games: neck (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.85 and hip/foot (OR=0.60; CI 95% 0.40-0.92, programming for elbow (OR= 1.78; CI 95% 1.10-2.94 and wrist (OR=2.25; CI 95% 1.36-3.73, while word processing was significantly associated with lower back (OR=1.45; CI 95% 1.03-2.04. Undergraduate study had a significant association with elbow pain (OR=2

  5. Associations of health behaviors, school performance and psychosocial problems in adolescents in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus

    2017-04-01

    School-based health-promoting interventions show promising results in improving various health outcomes of adolescents. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about the relations between health behaviors and school performances, while improving these would give schools a stronger incentive to invest in health promotion. This paper presents the associations of several health behaviors with school performances and studies the mediating effects of psychosocial problems. Health behavior and socio-demographic data were gathered from 905 Dutch high school students via an online survey, completed in-class. These data were matched with school records of the students' overall grade average (GA) on the three core subjects in Dutch high schools (Dutch, English and Math). The associations between health behaviors and school performances, and the potentially mediating effects of psychosocial problems, were studied via mixed-effects regression models. Smoking, being bullied, compulsive and excessive internet use and low physical activity were directly associated with lower school grades. Additionally, being bullied, bullying, smoking, excessive and compulsive internet use were associated with students' grades via mediation of psychosocial problems. This means that lower school grades were (also) associated with those behaviors through the effects of psychosocial problems in those students. This study showed the strong links between health behaviors and academic achievements among adolescents. Schools and health promoters should be educated more on these relations, so that they are aware of this common interest to get more support for health-promoting interventions. Additionally, the role of psychosocial problems in the relations between behaviors and school performances should be studied further in future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resilience associated with mental health problems among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-05-01

    A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, OR u  = 0.96 and 0.96, p mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.

  8. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  10. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  11. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  12. Clinical and Cognitive Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Problem Solving in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M; Beck, Jonathan S; Iosif, Ana-Maria; McCauley, James B; Gilhooly, Leslie J; Matter, John C; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-04-01

    Mathematics achievement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied. However, the ability to solve applied math problems is associated with academic achievement, everyday problem-solving abilities, and vocational outcomes. The paucity of research on math achievement in ASD may be partly explained by the widely-held belief that most individuals with ASD are mathematically gifted, despite emerging evidence to the contrary. The purpose of the study was twofold: to assess the relative proportions of youth with ASD who demonstrate giftedness versus disability on applied math problems, and to examine which cognitive (i.e., perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, working memory) and clinical (i.e., test anxiety) characteristics best predict achievement on applied math problems in ASD relative to typically developing peers. Twenty-seven high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 27 age- and Full Scale IQ-matched typically developing controls were assessed on standardized measures of math problem solving, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and test anxiety. Results indicated that 22% of the ASD sample evidenced a mathematics learning disability, while only 4% exhibited mathematical giftedness. The parsimonious linear regression model revealed that the strongest predictor of math problem solving was perceptual reasoning, followed by verbal ability and test anxiety, then diagnosis of ASD. These results inform our theories of math ability in ASD and highlight possible targets of intervention for students with ASD struggling with mathematics. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Background factors associated with problem avoidance behavior in healthy partners of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Mariko; Sanjo, Makiko; Hirai, Kei

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated avoidance behaviors of healthy partners of breast cancer patients and sought to (1) describe men's perception of their own avoidance behavior and (2) identify the background factors associated with such behavior. An Internet-based survey was conducted, and analysis was performed on the responses of 368 male spouses of female breast cancer patients. Thirty to forty percent of spouses had some type of problem avoidance behavior toward their wives. There was a high correlation (r = 0.70, P problem avoidance behavior at the time of diagnosis and subsequent problem behavior (mean follow-up period after diagnosis: 1.3 + 1.1 years). The characteristics of spouses with avoidant behaviors included having wives with recurrence, having wives treated with anticancer drug therapy or total resection, and having their own experience of cancer. Covariance structure analysis revealed 2 factors related to the background of spouses with problem avoidance behavior: (1) having a sense of difficulty in coping (beta = 0.68, P problem avoidance behavior among healthy male partners of breast cancer patients is common and correlates with difficulty coping and a poor marital relationship. It is important to address both the problem avoidance behavior itself and to support couples early, before this behavior surfaces. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Two hierarchies of integrable lattice equations associated with a discrete matrix spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Xu Xixiang; Zhao Qiulan

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice models are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws of the positive hierarchy, then, the integrable coupling systems of the positive hierarchy are derived from enlarging Lax pair

  15. Initial-boundary value problems associated with the Ablowitz-Ladik system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baoqiang; Fokas, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    We employ the Ablowitz-Ladik system as an illustrative example in order to demonstrate how to analyze initial-boundary value problems for integrable nonlinear differential-difference equations via the unified transform (Fokas method). In particular, we express the solutions of the integrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger and integrable discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equations in terms of the solutions of appropriate matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems. We also discuss in detail, for both the above discrete integrable equations, the associated global relations and the process of eliminating of the unknown boundary values.

  16. Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rickert, Martin E; Langström, Niklas; Donahue, Kelly L; Coyne, Claire A; Larsson, Henrik; Ellingson, Jarrod M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring. To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design. We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. The analyses prospectively predicted multiple indices of substance use and problems while controlling for statistical covariates and comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize confounding. Offspring of a representative sample of women in the United States (sample 1) and the total Swedish population born during the period from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1995 (sample 2). Adolescent offspring of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6904) and all offspring born in Sweden during the 13-year period (n = 1,187,360). Self-reported adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and early onset (before 14 years of age) of each substance (sample 1) and substance-related convictions and hospitalizations for an alcohol- or other drug-related problem (sample 2). The same pattern emerged for each index of substance use/problems across the 2 samples. At the population level, maternal SDP predicted every measure of offspring substance use/problems in both samples, ranging from adolescent alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR](moderate), 1.32 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]; HR(high), 1.33 [1.17-1.53]) to a narcotics-related conviction (HR(moderate), 2.23 [2.14-2.31]; HR(high), 2.97 [2.86-3.09]). When comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize genetic and environmental confounds, however, the association between SDP and each measure of substance use/problems was minimal and not statistically significant. The association between maternal SDP and offspring substance use/problems is likely due to familial background

  17. Gender differences in associations between cancer-related problems and relationship dissolution among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Cristina; Westmaas, J Lee; Kim, Jihye; Cannady, Rachel; Stein, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that a cancer diagnosis predicts marital dissolution more strongly for women survivors than men, but there is a paucity of research on potential processes underlying this vulnerability. The present cross-sectional study examined whether specific cancer-related problems were associated with the odds of relationship breakup following diagnosis and whether these relationships differed between male and female cancer survivors. A national cross-sectional quality of life study assessed self-reported cancer-related problems and relationship change among survivors who were either 2, 6, or 10 years post-diagnosis (n = 6099). Bivariate analyses indicated that cancer-related problems (e.g., emotional distress) were greater for divorced/separated survivors compared to those with intact relationships and were greater for women versus men. Logistic regressions indicated that for both male and female survivors, lower income, younger age, and longer time since diagnosis were associated with greater odds of divorce or separation after diagnosis (ORs > 2.14, p emotional distress (OR = 1.14, p divorce or separation. For men only, fear of cancer recurrence was associated with greater odds of divorce or separation (OR = 1.32, p emotional or financial/employment problems attributed to the cancer diagnosis were associated with the likelihood of reporting relationship dissolution. Although directions of causality could not be ascertained, results suggest the possibility that helping male and female cancer survivors cope with specific cancer-related problems may benefit the quality and stability of their relationships with significant others following diagnosis.

  18. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  19. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  20. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  1. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  2. Pathophysiology of ADHD and associated problems – starting points for Neurofeedback interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eAlbrecht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by severe and age-inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, and the majority of patients show comorbid or associated problems from other psychiatric disorders. Also, ADHD is associated with cognitive and motivational problems as well as resting-state abnormalities, associated with impaired brain activity in distinct neuronal networks. This needs to be considered in a multimodal treatment, of which neurofeedback may be a promising component. During neurofeedback, specific brain activity is fed-back using visual or auditory signals, allowing the participants to gain control over these otherwise unaware neuronal processes. Neurofeedback may be used to directly improve underlying neuronal deficits, and/or to establish more general self-regulatory skills that may be used to compensate behavioural difficulties.The current manuscript describes pathophysiological characteristics of ADHD, heterogeneity of ADHD subtypes and gender differences, as well as frequently associated behavioural problems such as oppositional defiant/conduct or tic disorder. It is discussed how neurofeedback may be helpful as a treatment approach within these contexts.

  3. Knowledge Lability: Within-Person Changes in Parental Knowledge and Their Associations with Adolescent Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities have been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, and measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence.

  4. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  5. Neighborhood disadvantage as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Kristin L; Scaramella, Laura V; Laird, Robert D; Sohr-Preston, Sara L

    2011-02-01

    Neighborhood dangerousness and belongingness were expected to moderate associations between harsh parenting and toddler-age children's problem behaviors. Fifty-five predominantly African American mothers participated with their 2-year old children. Neighborhood danger, neighborhood belongingness, and children's problem behaviors were measured with mothers' reports. Harsh parenting was measured with observer ratings. Analyses considered variance common to externalizing and internalizing problems, using a total problems score, and unique variance, by controlling for internalizing behavior when predicting externalizing behavior, and vice versa. Regarding the common variance, only the main effects of neighborhood danger and harsh parenting were significantly associated with total problem behavior. In contrast, after controlling for externalizing problems, the positive association between harsh parenting and unique variance in internalizing problems became stronger as neighborhood danger increased. No statistically significant associations emerged for the models predicting the unique variance in externalizing problems or models considering neighborhood belongingness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included ( n  = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  7. Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues for a Scalar Riemann-Hilbert Problem Associated to Inverse Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.; Sulem, Catherine

    A complete set of eigenfunctions is introduced within the Riemann-Hilbert formalism for spectral problems associated to some solvable nonlinear evolution equations. In particular, we consider the time-independent and time-dependent Schrödinger problems which are related to the KdV and KPI equations possessing solitons and lumps, respectively. Non-standard scalar products, orthogonality and completeness relations are derived for these problems. The complete set of eigenfunctions is used for perturbation theory and bifurcation analysis of eigenvalues supported by the potentials under perturbations. We classify two different types of bifurcations of new eigenvalues and analyze their characteristic features. One type corresponds to thresholdless generation of solitons in the KdV equation, while the other predicts a threshold for generation of lumps in the KPI equation.

  8. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongi, Aika S; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.

  9. Factors associated with problem drinking among women employed in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aika S Mongi

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania.We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs.Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23;aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00 and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56;aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18, in the past 3 months.These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV

  10. Mental health problems of Dutch adolescents: the association with adolescents' and their parents' educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Jano; Bosma, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Feron, Frans J

    2010-06-01

    We studied the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems by examining whether a low educational level of adolescents and their parents shows independent (cumulative) or dependent (including interactive) associations with adolescents' mental health problems, or whether equalization occurred. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the preventive Youth Health Care Centre in a relatively deprived Dutch former mining area. Participants were 1861 adolescents aged 13 or 14 years (response rate 71.7%). The self-administered Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify adolescents' mental health problems. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations, and linear regression models to check the robustness of the findings. A low educational level of adolescents was strongly related to their mental health problems (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 3.31-8.70). The initially high odds ratios for adolescents with low-educated parents (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14-2.59) disappeared after controlling for the adolescents' own educational level (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.73-1.74). In terms of interactions, no specifically increased odds were found, e.g. for low-educated adolescents with high-educated parents. There was no evidence for socioeconomic equalization regarding adolescents' mental health problems. Lower educated adolescents had substantially higher odds of having mental health problems, regardless of their parents' education. The odds may be affected by differences in intelligence and life events. Youth healthcare workers should collaborate closely with schools to intervene in time, particularly among low-educated adolescents. More interventions are probably needed to reduce these major inequities.

  11. The association of parental characteristics and psychological problems in obese youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwé, V; Braet, C; Moens, E; Van Vlierberghe, L

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent parental psychological characteristics and parental behavior are related to psychological problems in obese youngsters. Data were collected from 196 families having an overweight youngster (range 10-16 years old) (mean body mass index (BMI)=31.2; s.d.=5.3) seeking weight-loss treatment and compared with data from normal weight samples. Behavior problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist; the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination was used to assess eating disorder psychopathology. Parental psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90; parenting behavior was assessed with the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. Parental psychopathology was prevalent in 59.6% of mothers and 35.7% of fathers. Youngsters exceeding the cutoff for problem behavior ranged between 41.4 and 53.1%. Children's problem behavior was most associated with psychopathology in the mother (r=0.40 for Internalizing and r=0.37 for Externalizing; both Pparenting behavior, namely Inconsistent discipline, although the effect was stronger for Externalizing behavior (explained variance: 10%) than for Internalizing behavior (explained variance: 4%). No evidence was found for a mediator effect from parenting behavior on the eating disorder symptoms of the obese youngsters. However, several direct relations emerged, suggesting a negative association between a child's eating disorder symptoms and Positive parenting behavior by the mother (r= -0.20 for Eating concern; r= -0.18 for Restraint eating; r= -0.16 for Shape concern; all PParental characteristics were associated with psychological problems in obese youngsters, not only in a direct way but also indirectly. The effects were partly mediated by a particular ineffective parenting style, namely inconsistent discipline on the part of the mother. Pediatric obesity treatments should focus more on parenting behaviors and parental characteristics.

  12. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika A. Schlarb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1–28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction.

  13. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1-28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction.

  14. Association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Marques, Alyne Jacques; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    Bruxism is the habit of clenching or grinding one's teeth in non-functional activities and affects both children and adults alike. Respiratory problems, such as asthma and upper airway infections, are reported to be the etiological factors of bruxism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children who exhibit the habit of bruxism. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out. Patient histories were taken and clinical exams were performed on 90 children for selection and allocation to one of two groups. For the determination of bruxism, a questionnaire was administered to parents/guardians and an oral clinical exam was performed based on the criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Thirty-three male and female children between 4 and 7 years of age participated in the study - 14 children with bruxism and 19 children without bruxism. The data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, with level of significance set at 5% (P bruxism. Seventy-seven percent of the children with bruxism had caries and 62.5% the children with respiratory problems exhibited the habit of bruxism. There seems to be an association between bruxism, respiratory problems, and dental caries in children.

  15. Binge drinking: a pattern associated with a risk of problems of alcohol use among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bedendo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.

  16. Gene–Environment Correlation Underlying the Association Between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Narusyte, Jurgita; Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene–environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent–adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents′ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11–22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986

  17. Person-related factors associated with work participation in employees with health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Mariska; Wind, Haije; Hulshof, Carel T J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore and provide systematically assessed information about the association between person-related factors and work participation of people with health problems. The research question was: what is the association between selected person-related factors and work participation of workers with health problems? A systematic review was carried out in PubMed and PsycINFO to search for original papers published between January 2007 and February 2017. The risk of bias of the studies included was assessed using quality assessment tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE framework for prognostic studies. In total, 113 studies were included, all of which addressed the association between person-related factors and work participation. The factors positively associated with work participation were positive expectations regarding recovery or return to work, optimism, self-efficacy, motivation, feelings of control, and perceived health. The factors negatively associated with work participation were fear-avoidance beliefs, perceived work-relatedness of the health problem, and catastrophizing. Different coping strategies had a negative or a positive relationship with work participation. The results of this review provide more insight into the associations between different cognitions and perceptions and work participation. The results of this study suggest that person-related factors should be considered by occupational- and insurance physicians when they diagnose, evaluate or provide treatment to employees. Further research is required to determine how these physicians could obtain and apply such information and whether its application leads to a better quality of care.

  18. Web survey of sleep problems associated with early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Fristad, Mary; Splaingard, Mark; Kelleher, Kelly; Hayes, John; Resko, Susan

    2008-05-01

    As research on sleep difficulties associated with Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (EBSD) is limited, a web-based survey was developed to further explore these problems. 494 parents of 4-to-12 year-olds, identified by parents as being diagnosed with EBSD, completed a web survey about past and current EBSD-related sleep problems. The survey included Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) items and sleep problems from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders 2nd edition. Nearly all parents reported some type of past or current EBSD-sleep problem. Most occurred during a worst mood period, particularly with mixed manic-depressive symptoms. Symptoms caused impairments at home, school, or with peers in 96.9% of the sample and across all three contexts in 64.0% of children. Sleep problems were also noted after three-day weekends and Spring and Fall Daylight Savings time changes. Findings, study limitations, and implications for treatment and etiology are discussed.

  19. Marital hostility and child sleep problems: direct and indirect associations via hostile parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Mannering, Anne M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined two family process predictors of parent-reported child sleep problems at 4.5 years in an adoption sample: marital hostility and hostile parenting. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to child sleep problems via hostile parenting. Mothers' marital hostility at 9 months was associated with child sleep problems at 4.5 years. Fathers' marital hostility at 9 months evidenced an indirect effect on child sleep problems at 4.5 years via fathers' hostile parenting at 27 months. Findings were significant even after controlling for genetic influences on child sleep (i.e., birth parent internalizing disorders). The findings suggest targets for prevention and intervention programs that are potentially modifiable (e.g., hostile parenting, marital hostility), and inform theory by demonstrating that relations among marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child sleep problems are significant after accounting for genetic influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. First-year growth in children with Noonan syndrome: Associated with feeding problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Draaisma, Jos M T; van der Burgt, Ineke; Roeleveld, Nel; Noordam, Cees

    2018-04-01

    Children with Noonan syndrome show rapid decline of growth in the first year of life and feeding problems are present in over 50%. The aim of this study was to explore whether growth decelerates because of feeding problems or other Noonan syndrome-related factors. We performed a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of clinically and genetically diagnosed subjects with Noonan syndrome (n = 143). Questionnaires about the phenotypic-genotypic profile and reported feeding problems were sent to eligible subjects. Data on first-year growth was obtained from growth charts. Ninety-one participants were excluded because of different criteria. A total of 52 subjects with Noonan syndrome were included. The largest decline in weight and length standard deviation score (SDS) occurred in the first 2.5 months after birth (-1.93 and -1.15, respectively), with feeding problems causing a decline of 0.57 SDS in the remaining months. At 1 year, children with feeding problems were on average 290 g lighter and 0.8 cm shorter than children without feeding problems. Weight gain was also negatively influenced by having a PTPN11 mutation (n = 39) and a higher gestational age, whereas children of parents with Noonan syndrome and with a higher birth weight gained more weight. Growth in length was reduced by having cardiac surgery and a higher gestational age, but positively influenced by birth length and maternal height. Growth in children with Noonan syndrome is impaired right after birth and only partially associated with feeding problems. In addition, several specific Noonan syndrome-related factors seem to influence growth in the first year. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The generalized Laguerre polynomials, the associated Bessel functions and application to propagation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.; Mancho, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of generalized Bessel functions has found significant applications in the analysis of radiation phenomena, associated with charges moving in magnetic devices. In this paper we exploit the monomiality principle to discuss the theory of two-variable Laguerre polynomials and introduce the associated Laguerre-Bessel functions. We study their properties (addition and multiplication theorems, generating function, recurrence relations and so on) and discuss the link with the ordinary case. The usefulness of the obtained results to treat problems relevant to the paraxial propagation of electromagnetic waves is also discussed.

  2. Risky dieting amongst adolescent girls: Associations with family relationship problems and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implicit and Explicit Associations with Erotic Stimuli in Women with and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Bandell, Myrthe; Bastin-Hurek, Eva; van Beurden, Myra; Araz, Suzan

    2018-02-20

    Conceptual models of sexual functioning have suggested a major role for implicit cognitive processing in sexual functioning. The present study aimed to investigate implicit and explicit cognition in sexual functioning in women. Gynecological patients with (N = 38) and without self-reported sexual problems (N = 41) were compared. Participants performed two Single-Target Implicit Association Tests (ST-IAT), measuring the implicit association of visual erotic stimuli with attributes representing, respectively, valence and motivation. Participants also rated the erotic pictures that were shown in the ST-IATs on the dimensions of valence, attractiveness, and sexual excitement, to assess their explicit associations with these erotic stimuli. Participants completed the Female Sexual Functioning Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale for continuous measures of sexual functioning, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms. Compared to nonsymptomatic women, women with sexual problems were found to show more negative implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting (implicit sexual motivation). Across both groups, stronger implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting predicted higher level of sexual functioning. More positive explicit ratings of erotic stimuli predicted lower level of sexual distress across both groups.

  4. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  5. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.T.; Artiss, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author)

  6. Operator performance and annunciation sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B K; Bradley, M T; Artiss, W G [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, NB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses the audible component of annunciation found in typical operating power stations. The purpose of the audible alarm is stated and the psychological elements involved in the human processing of alarm sounds is explored. Psychological problems with audible annunciation are noted. Simple and more complex improvements to existing systems are described. A modern alarm system is suggested for retrofits or new plant designs. (author) 3 refs.

  7. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  8. Sleep Problems are Associated with Development and Progression of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results from REDUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Brandee L; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Hopp, Martin L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    Although lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep problems often develop together, to our knowledge it is unknown whether sleep disturbances are linked to lower urinary tract symptoms development and progression. As measured by the 6-item MOS-Sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale) survey we examined the relationship between sleep problems, and the development and progression of lower urinary tract symptoms in the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study. REDUCE was a randomized trial testing prostate cancer chemoprevention with dutasteride in men with prostate specific antigen 2.5 to 10 ng/ml and a negative biopsy. At baseline men completed MOS-Sleep and a scaled average was used to calculate the sleep score. Men were followed for 4 years and I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) was completed at baseline and every 6 months. Asymptomatic men had I-PSS less than 8 while symptomatic men had I-PSS 8 or greater. In the placebo arm of 2,588 men not receiving α-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors at baseline we tested the association between sleep problems and lower urinary tract symptom development and progression using Cox models. During followup lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 209 of 1,452 asymptomatic men (14%) and 580 of 1,136 (51%) with lower urinary tract symptoms demonstrated progression. On multivariable analysis higher sleep scores were suggestively associated with increased lower urinary tract symptoms in asymptomatic men (quartile 4 vs 1 HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-2.17, p = 0.12) and with lower urinary tract symptom progression in symptomatic men (per 10 points of sleep score HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, p = 0.029). Among men with lower urinary tract symptoms worse sleep scores were associated with the progression of lower urinary tract symptoms and among asymptomatic men worse sleep scores were suggestively associated with the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these data suggest that sleep

  9. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  10. [Cyber-bullying in adolescents: associated psychosocial problems and comparison with school bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber

  11. Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates research from 1,435 studies on associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Parental warmth, behavioral control, autonomy granting, and an authoritative parenting style showed very small to small negative concurrent and longitudinal associations with externalizing problems. In contrast, harsh control, psychological control, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting were associated with higher levels of externalizing problems. The strongest associations were observed for harsh control and psychological control. Parental warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, autonomy granting, authoritative, and permissive parenting predicted change in externalizing problems over time, with associations of externalizing problems with warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, and authoritative parenting being bidirectional. Moderating effects of sampling, child's age, form of externalizing problems, rater of parenting and externalizing problems, quality of measures, and publication status were identified. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Factors associated with acceptance of peers with mental health problems in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Lorraine; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis

    2011-09-01

    Research suggests that children's reactions to peers with mental health problems are related to the maintenance and outcomes of these problems. However, children's perceptions of such peers, particularly those with internalising problems, are neither well researched nor understood. The present study aimed to test a series of models relating socio-demographic and attributional variables to the acceptance of hypothetical boys and girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. A sample of 595 participants, drawn from five different age-groups spanning early childhood to late adolescence, completed a booklet of questions in response to two vignettes describing the behaviour of hypothetical target peers with depression and ADHD. The sample was drawn from schools randomly selected in the east of Ireland. The models indicated that age and gender of the participant, and the perceived responsibility of the target character for his/her condition, were the three most important predictors of acceptance in all models. However, the relationship between these variables and acceptance varied depending on the gender of the target child and the condition (depression or ADHD) in the models tested. The findings of the study suggest that the relationships between socio-demographic and attributional variables and acceptance of peers with mental health problems depend on the type of mental health problem under consideration. The findings have implications for the development of information and education programmes to improve the integration of children with mental health problems. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Adolescent Callous-Unemotional Traits Mediates the Longitudinal Association between Conduct Problems and Media Violence Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas. A. Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the bidirectional longitudinal association between conduct problems (CPs and media violence exposure (MVE, with callous-unemotional (CU traits as a potential mediator of this association. The sample consisted of 1,451 (49.9% boys Greek Cypriot adolescents. CPs and MVE were measured at Year 1 and Year 3 and CU traits were measured at Year 2, enabling the examination of longitudinal associations and indirect effects between these variables. A bidirectional association between CPs and MVE was identified. Further, both CPs and MVE at Year 1 were positively associated with Year 2 CU traits, and youth high on CU traits at Year 2 were more likely to exhibit CP behaviors and to be exposed to media violence at Year 3. Finally, two indirect pathways were identified, suggesting that the longitudinal bidirectional association between CPs and MVE was partially mediated by CU traits. These findings suggest that CU traits constitute an underlying mechanism explaining the longitudinal association between CPs and MVE.

  14. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.

    2012-12-01

    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  15. Effect of Physics Problem Solving on Structures Schemes and Knowledge Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowidodo, I.; Jatmiko, B.; Susantini, E.; Widodo, S.; Shofwan, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop learners’ thinking structures through associations, case based, and schematic method so that different knowledge structures have a role in influencing the structure of creative thinking. The learners have low mastery of physics materials since they are not given sufficient opportunity to build their own knowledge. They should be directed to approach each new problem or task with their prior knowledge, assimilate new information, and construct their own understanding. The design of this research was a quasi-experiment using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using variance analysis. The design of this research was a quasi-experiment using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using variance analysis. The learning process of problemsolving consists of: 1) identifying problems, 2) planning projects, 3) creating projects, 4) presenting projects, and 5) evaluating projects. From the results of this research, it can be concluded that problem-solving method can provide strong supports in developing the learners’ creative thinking skills as they can share their knowledge and interact with their friends and the environment. This learning activity also constitutes an appropriate technique to help the learners to develop problem solving knowledge and skills.

  16. Problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. The study found significant differences between "problem solving level" and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers' siblings' closeness level; between "loneliness level" and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers', siblings' closeness level; between "depression level" and life quality, family income, fathers' closeness level. Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended.

  17. Review of heat transfer problems associated with magnetically-confined fusion reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Carlson, G.A.; Cornish, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of possible fusion reactor configurations have revealed a host of interesting and sometimes extremely difficult heat transfer problems. The general requirements imposed on the coolant system for heat removal of the thermonuclear power from the reactor are discussed. In particular, the constraints imposed by the fusion plasma, neutronics, structure and magnetic field environment are described with emphasis on those aspects which are unusual or unique to fusion reactors. Then the particular heat transfer characteristics of various possible coolants including lithium, flibe, boiling alkali metals, and helium are discussed in the context of these general fusion reactor requirements. Some specific areas where further experimental and/or theoretical work is necessary are listed for each coolant along with references to the pertinent research already accomplished. Specialized heat transfer problems of the plasma injection and removal systems are also described. Finally, the challenging heat transfer problems associated with the superconducting magnets are reviewed, and once again some of the key unsolved heat transfer problems are enumerated

  18. Problematic Technology Use in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. Personality and behavioral problems associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina; Romero, Estrella

    2017-03-01

    In parallel to the rapid growth of access to new technologies (NT) there has been an increase in the problematic use of the same, especially among children and adolescents. Although research in this field is increasing, the studies have mainly been developed in the community, and the characteristics associated with the problematic use of NT are unknown in samples that require clinical care. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between problematic use of video games (UPV) and Internet (UPI) and personality traits and behavior problems in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. The sample consists of 88 patients who were examined in the clinical psychology consultation in the Mental Health Unit for Children and Adolescents of the University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela. Data were obtained from self-reports and rating scales filled out by parents. 31.8% of the participants present UPI and 18.2%, UPV. The children and adolescents with UPNT have lower levels of Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness and higher levels of Emotional instability, global Impulsivity and Externalizing behavior problems, as well as Attention and Thought problems. UPNT is a problem that emerges as an important issue in clinical care for children and adolescents, so its study in child and youth care units is needed. Understanding the psychopathological profile of children and adolescents with UPNT will allow for the development of differential and more specific interventions.

  19. Peer Victimization among Classmates-Associations with Students' Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Modin, Bitte

    2017-10-13

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  20. Problems associated with use of the logarithmic equivalent strain in high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, J J; Aranas, C Jr

    2014-01-01

    The logarithmic 'equivalent' strain is frequently recommended for description of the experimental flow curves determined in high pressure torsion (HPT) tests. Some experimental results determined at -196 and 190 °C on a 2024 aluminum alloy are plotted using both the von Mises and logarithmic equivalent strains. Three types of problems associated with use of the latter are described. The first involves the lack of work conjugacy between the logarithmic and shear stress/shear strain curves, a topic that has been discussed earlier. The second concerns the problems associated with testing at constant logarithmic strain rate, a feature of particular importance when the material is rate sensitive. The third type of problem involves the 'history dependence' of this measure in that the incremental logarithmic strain depends on whether the prior strain accumulated in the sample is known or not. This is a difficulty that does not affect use of the von Mises equivalent strain. For these reasons, it is concluded that the qualifier 'equivalent' should not be used when the logarithmic strain is employed to describe HPT results

  1. Direct and indirect associations between social anxiety and nicotine dependence and cessation problems: multiple mediator analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Little empirical work has evaluated why socially anxious smokers are especially vulnerable to more severe nicotine dependence and cessation failure. Presumably, these smokers rely on cigarettes to help them manage their chronically elevated negative affect elicited by a wide array of social contexts. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety cross-sectionally in regard to a range of smoking processes among 466 treatment-seeking smokers. Negative affect and negative affect reduction motives were examined as mediators of the relations of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. Social anxiety was directly and robustly associated with perceived barriers to smoking cessation and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Social anxiety was also associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking inflexibility indirectly through negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. Negative affect and smoking to reduce negative affect mediated these relations. These findings document the important role of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives in the relationships of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems.

  2. Peer Victimization among Classmates—Associations with Students’ Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B. Låftman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student’s own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!, including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14–15 years of age distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student’s own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  3. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also highlight the need to further investigate many of

  4. Child sex moderates the association between negative parenting and childhood conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple dimensions of negative parenting behavior are associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), there is relatively little research on whether the association is equally robust in boys and girls. To improve the specificity of current models of negative parenting and offspring CP, we explored the potential moderating role of child sex in a sample of 179 5- to 10-year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were assessed using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales, semistructured interviews) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, race-ethnicity, and ADHD diagnostic status (i.e., ADHD vs. non-ADHD), inconsistent discipline was positively associated with offspring aggression and rule-breaking behavior, whereas harsh punishment was positively associated with aggression, rule-breaking behavior, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Furthermore, child sex significantly moderated the association of inconsistent discipline and aggression and rule-breaking behavior, such that inconsistent discipline was positively associated with CP for boys, but not for girls. Given the centrality of negative parenting to theories of and efficacious interventions for aggression and CP, we discuss these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework and consider their implications for intervention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Status of emission release and associated problems in energy systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Koyama, Shigeo; Ihara, Seijiro.

    1987-11-01

    OECD/IEA/ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Project) has been started in March 1976. Since initiation of the projects, JAERI and ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) have been participating in the projects as operating agent of Japan. From last October, the ETSAP has initiated its Annex III programme, which pursues the problems laid down in energy-environment relationships. Main research objective of the programme is to investigate through the systems analysis ''how various environmental constrains would affect the pattern of fuel and technology use and the choice and timing of implementation of abatement technologies''. In this report, we describe the status of emission release in Japan and associated problems in energy system analysis which has been investigated at the start of these research programme mentioned above. (author)

  6. Cyber and bias-based harassment: associations with academic, substance use, and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Katerina O; Bauman, Sheri; Poteat, V Paul; Koenig, Brian; Russell, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. We used a population-based survey of 17,366 middle and high school students that assessed harassment due to race/ethnicity or sexual orientation, and harassment through the Internet or text messaging along with other forms of interstudent harassment. Odds ratios indicated that students experiencing both cyber and bias-based harassment were at the greatest risk for adjustment problems across all indicators, with suicidal ideation and attempts having the largest risk differences. Assessments of adolescent health and adjustment should include questions regarding both cyber and bias-based harassment. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Sound Abstraction of the Parsing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Katsoris, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    In formal verification, cryptographic messages are often represented by algebraic terms. This abstracts not only from the intricate details of the real cryptography, but also from the details of the non-cryptographic aspects: the actual formatting and structuring of messages. We introduce a new a...

  8. Where Lies the Harm in Lottery Gambling? A Portrait of Gambling Practices and Associated Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean-Michel; Kairouz, Sylvia; Monson, Eva; Eroukmanoff, Vincent

    2018-03-13

    Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896). Participants were separated into two groups: exclusive lottery gamblers (ELGs) and non-exclusive lottery gamblers. Using multivariate analysis, study results reveal that ELGs, who represent two thirds of gamblers, generally exhibit less intensive gambling patterns and are less likely to report other risky behaviours. However, harms associated with moderate risk and problem gambling are found to be concentrated in specific subpopulations for both groups, primarily males, older individuals, and those who report lower income and education level. Given widespread participation in lotteries and concentration of harm within specific subgroups, these findings point to the need for prevention efforts despite the lower levels of harm associated with lottery gambling.

  9. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  10. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors such as using an oil-based lubricant have been associated with condom failures such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview technology, and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Nearly all participants made at least 1 error, with high rates of using oil-based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil-based lubricants than white and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have an STI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-8.12). Young men who have sex with men report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil-based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV.

  11. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  12. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  13. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Kara M; Seelig, Amber D; Armenta, Richard F; Rivera, Anna C; Peterson, Arthur V; Jacobson, Isabel G; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J; Rull, Rudolph P; Williams, Emily C

    2018-06-04

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and unhealthy alcohol use are commonly associated conditions. It is unknown whether specific symptoms of PTSD are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use. Data from the first 3 enrollment panels (n = 151,567) of the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study of military personnel were analyzed (2001-2012). Complementary log-log models were fit to estimate whether specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters were associated with subsequent initiation of 2 domains of unhealthy alcohol use: risky and problem drinking (experience of 1 or more alcohol-related consequences). Models were adjusted for other PTSD symptoms and demographic, service, and health-related characteristics. Eligible study populations included those without risky (n = 31,026) and problem drinking (n = 67,087) at baseline. In adjusted analyses, only 1 PTSD symptom-irritability/anger-was associated with subsequent increased initiation of risky drinking (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.09) at least 3 years later. Two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal [RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.23] and emotional numbing [RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.40]) and 5 symptoms (restricted affect [RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19], sense of foreshortened future [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18], exaggerated startle response [RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13], sleep disturbance [RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15], and irritability/anger [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.17]) were associated with subsequent initiation of problem drinking. Findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of

  15. US market. Sound below the line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2012-07-01

    The American Wind Energy Association AWEA is publishing warnings almost daily. The lack of political support is endangering jobs. The year 2011 broke no records, but there was a sound plus in expansion figures. (orig.)

  16. Association of prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines and child internalizing problems: A sibling-controlled cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild E Brandlistuen

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women experience sleep problems and anxiety that require treatment. The long-term safety for the child of maternal benzodiazepine (BZD and z-hypnotic use during pregnancy remains controversial.We conducted a cohort and a sibling control study using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data on use of BZD and z-hypnotics, internalizing and externalizing outcomes, and covariates were collected from mothers at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and when children were 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age. The total sample consisted of 71,996 children (19,297 siblings at 1.5 years and 55,081 children (13,779 siblings at 3 years. Short-term use was defined as use in one pregnancy period only. Long-term use was defined as use in two or more pregnancy periods. Linear full cohort random-effect and sibling-matched fixed-effect regression models were used to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior in children prenatally exposed compared to those unexposed in the full cohort of pregnancies accounting for family clusters, as well as within sibling clusters comparing pregnancies with discordant exposures. Propensity score (PS adjustment included variables on indication for use (sleep problems, symptoms of anxiety and depression and other potential confounding factors.Long-term prenatal exposure to BZD or z-hypnotics was associated with increased internalizing behavior in crude cohort analyses and at age 1.5 years after PS adjustment in sibling-matched fixed-effect models [β 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.95]. Analyses on specific drug groups showed that prenatal exposure to BZD-anxiolytics was associated with increased internalizing problems at both 1.5 years [β 0.25, 0.01-0.49] and 3 years [β 0.26, 0.002-0.52] while exposure to z-hypnotics was not associated with any adverse outcomes after adjustment.The findings suggest a moderate association between BZD-anxiolytic exposure and child internalizing problems that is

  17. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies...... to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...

  18. Suicide Ideation, Alcohol Consumption, Motives, and Related Problems: Exploring the Association in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  20. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  1. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  2. Tables of the velocity of sound in sea water

    CERN Document Server

    Bark, L S; Meister, N A

    1964-01-01

    Tables of the Velocity of Sound in Sea Water contains tables of the velocity of sound in sea water computed on a ""Strela-3"" high-speed electronic computer and a T-5 tabulator at the Computational Center of the Academy of Sciences. Knowledge of the precise velocity of sound in sea water is of great importance when investigating sound propagations in the ocean and when solving practical problems involving the use of hydro-acoustic devices. This book demonstrates the computations made for the velocity of sound in sea water, which can be found in two ways: by direct measurement with the aid of s

  3. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  4. Beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems in Uganda: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee

    2014-09-01

    There are major gaps in knowledge about beliefs, stigma and discrimination in Uganda, including the relationship between different cultural beliefs and stigmatising responses, how stigma and beliefs result in discrimination and the impact of social factors such as gender, poverty and ethnic conflict. This exploratory study aims to understand beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health in Uganda in more depth from the perspectives of different stakeholders. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with mental health activists, policymakers, practitioners, non-governmental and human rights organisations, journalists and academics. Stigma was reported by individuals, families, communities and institutions, including health services. The study also found stigmatising beliefs linked to traditional, religious and medical explanatory frameworks, high levels of 'associated stigma', common mental health problems rarely medicalised and discrimination linked to poverty, gender and conflict. The findings suggest the need to address stigma in their cultural and social context, alongside other human rights initiatives. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Beneath sci-fi sound: primer, science fiction sound design, and American independent cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    Primer is a very low budget science-fiction film that deals with the subject of time travel; however, it looks and sounds quite distinctively different from other films associated with the genre. While Hollywood blockbuster sci-fi relies on “sound spectacle” as a key attraction, in contrast Primer sounds “lo-fi” and screen-centred, mixed to two channel stereo rather than the now industry-standard 5.1 surround sound. Although this is partly a consequence of the economics of its production, the...

  6. IFLA General Conference, 1984. Management and Technology Division. Section on Information Technology and Joint Meeting of the Round Table Audiovisual Media, the International Association for Sound Archives, and the International Association for Music Libraries. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six papers on information technology, the development of information systems for Third World countries, handling of sound recordings, and library automation were presented at the 1984 IFLA conference. They include: (1) "Handling, Storage and Preservation of Sound Recordings under Tropical and Subtropical Climatic Conditions" (Dietrich…

  7. Age, pattern of menopause, climacteric symptoms and associated problems among urban population of Hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the physiology of menopause in the context of the age at menopause, its pattern, climacteric symptoms and associated problems of an urban cohort. In total, 800 women of age 45-59 years, who had reached a natural menopause were interviewed. The data were collected by simple random sampling method. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Physical examination including height, weight and blood pressure check was also carried out at the same time. Data were statistically analyzed through software program SPSS 10.0. The mean age at menopause of subjects was 47.16 years. Duration of climacteric ranged from 2 - 36 months in majority of cases. The marked climacteric symptoms were low backache (75%), headache (70.25%), tiredness (67.75%), limb pain (59.25%), sleep disturbance (53.75%), lack of concentration (49.5%), hot flushes (55.5%) and night sweats (45%). Other associated problems were hypertension (31.5%), ischaemic heart disease (22.25%), diabetes mellitus (15.75%), postmenopausal bleeding (10.5%) and vaginitis (4.2%), respectively. (author)

  8. Association Between Caregiver Stress and Behavioral Problems in the Children of Incarcerated Fathers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Caregivers of children with incarcerated parents have received little attention in the literature, though they face unique incarceration-related challenges. General caregiver research has highlighted associations between caregiver distress and children's behavioral problems, even implying that the depressive tendencies of caregivers can be 'transmitted'. The current study investigated the applicability of this notion to caregivers responsible for children of incarcerated fathers. Methods Fifty-four female caregivers of children with incarcerated parents were recruited via collaboration with a non-governmental organization. Their levels of stress and depression were measured using questionnaires, as were the behavioral problems of children under their care. The relationships between the variables were examined. Results The results firstly suggest that these caregivers are vulnerable to psychological distress, with around 57 % of them suffering from borderline to severe depression. Obtained socio-demographic characteristics were not found to have any bearing on the psychosocial functioning of caregivers or children-rather, all psychosocial variables were interlinked, and further analyses revealed that the depression of caregivers mediated the relationship between their perceived stress and internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems of the child (β = .628 and β = .468 respectively), implicating depression as a mechanism via which adversity can be transferred from a caregiver to a child. Conclusions Increasing the focus on a caregiver's mental health may be an efficacious strategy in research and practice, perhaps by providing more support for caregivers and implementing joint caregiver-child interventions to more holistically alleviate problems in families affected by parental incarceration. Limitations of the current study and further recommendations are also discussed.

  9. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  10. An Investigation of the Association Between Shame and Problem Gambling: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Coping Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Thompson, Kara; Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-12-01

    Despite often being considered equivalent affective states, shame and guilt have differential associations with problem gambling with only shame showing a strong positive association with problem gambling. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the shame-problem gambling association. Further, shame and guilt are associated with distinct coping strategies, with shame motivating maladaptive coping (e.g., avoidance, escape) and guilt motivating adaptive coping (e.g., taking corrective action). This study aimed to examine whether maladaptive coping motives for gambling mediate the relationship between shame, but not guilt, and gambling problems. Participants were 196 (126 male) regular gamblers who completed a same and guilt scale, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and a modified Gambling Motives Questionnaire, which assessed individual motives to engage in gambling for coping, enhancement, or social reasons. Results indicated that coping motives for gambling fully mediated the relationship between shame and problem gambling severity, but did not mediate the association between guilt and problem gambling severity. Experiencing shame contributes to problem gambling as a result of gambling to cope with negative affect. Cultivating more adaptive strategies to cope with shame may be effective in preventing and treating problem gambling.

  11. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Moving into poverty during childhood is associated with later sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Bøe, Tormod; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Petrie, Keith J; Hysing, Mari

    2017-09-01

    A social gradient in sleep has been demonstrated across the life span, but previous studies have been cross-sectional and used self-reported socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. Using registry-based data on family income trajectories, the current study examined the association between relative poverty in childhood and subsequent sleep in adolescence. Data on family income during 2004-2010 was obtained from the National Income Registry. Poverty was defined as household income poverty, and analysis of variance and general linear models were used to examine associations between income trajectories and sleep, adjusting for confounders. LCA identified four classes: 'never poor', two classes characterized by moving in or out of poverty, and 'chronically poor'. Compared to the 'never poor' group, adolescents from families in the 'moving into poverty' group displayed worse sleep across most sleep measures, including shorter sleep, lower sleep efficiency, and more nocturnal wake time (but not sleep onset latency). Neither adolescents from families who had moved out of poverty by increasing family income, nor the 'chronically poor' group differed significantly from the reference group. The study found that downward socioeconomic mobility was associated with increased adolescent sleep problems. More studies are required on the mechanisms that may account for the association, to find targeted and effective strategies to prevent short sleep duration in adolescents from families with unstable financial circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  14. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  15. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  16. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  17. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  18. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  19. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  20. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  1. [Opinions and expectations of patients with health problems associated to asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M A; Suess, A; March, J C; Danet, A; Corral, O Pérez; Martín, A

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diseases related to asbestos exposure requires the development of monitoring programs and specific health care protocols. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions and expectations of former workers of an asbestos factory, in order to adapt the care process to the needs of the affected population, and to learn about the activity of the association that represents them. Qualitative study. Focus groups with former employees of a corrugated asbestos factory, members of the association AVIDA (Seville). Recording and transcription of interviews. Discourse analysis with Nudist Vivo 1.0. All respondents have health problems, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Through the association, they are involved in an ongoing process of negotiation with the public administration, to improve healthcare, achieve recognition as having an occupational disease and the payment of compensation. The lack of monitoring and continuity in care is designated as the major problem in the current care process. They welcome the creation of special care units, the good treatment received and the quality of technical instruments in the public health system. On the contrary, they criticize the difficulties in finding an accurate diagnosis, the lack of continuity of care, and the bureaucratic difficulties and lack of specific care directed to affected relatives. The participants' expectations highlight their intention to participate in the development of future programs and protocols. This study confirms the multifactor nature of diseases related to asbestos exposure and the importance of determining the needs and demands of the affected population in order to improve health care.

  2. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  3. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  4. Association between parental guilt and oral health problems in preschool children: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Clementino, Marayza Alves; Pinto-Sarmento, Tassia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-08-16

    Dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) can play an important role in the emergence of parental guilt, since parents feel responsible for their child's health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of oral health problems among preschool children on parental guilt. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 832 preschool children between three and five years of age in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). The item "parental guilt" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables (child's sex, child's age, parent's/caregiver's age, mother's schooling, type of preschool and household income), history of toothache and health perceptions (general and oral) were also administered. Clinical exams for dental caries and TDI were performed by three dentists who had undergone a training and calibration exercise (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Poisson hierarchical regression was used to determine the significance of associations between parental guilt and oral health problems (α = 5%). The multivariate model was carried out on three levels using a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic aspects; 2) health perceptions; and 3) oral health problems. The frequency of parental guilt was 22.8%. The following variables were significantly associated with parental guilt: parental perception of child's oral health as poor (PR = 2.010; 95% CI: 1.502-2.688), history of toothache (PR = 2.344; 95% CI: 1.755-3.130), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.002; 95% CI: 1.388-2.887), avulsion/luxation (PR = 2.029; 95% CI: 1.141-3.610) and tooth discoloration (PR = 1.540; 95% CI: 1.169-2.028). Based on the present findings, parental guilt increases with the occurrence of oral health problems that require treatment, such as dental caries and TDI of greater severity. Parental perceptions of

  5. Inverse problem of solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some preliminary results of numerical simulation to infer the sound velocity distribution in the solar interior from the oscillation data of the Sun as the inverse problem. They analyze the acoustic potential itself by taking account of some factors other than the sound velocity, and infer the sound velocity distribution in the deep interior of the Sun

  6. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  7. Mental health problems and their association to violence and maltreatment in a nationally representative sample of Tanzanian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Hecker, Tobias

    2018-04-12

    Little is known about the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research consistently determined violence and maltreatment to be important risk factors. In this study, we examined the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Tanzania, as well as the association with exposure to violence and maltreatment. We administered a set of questionnaires (e.g., strength and difficulties questionnaire; conflict tactic scale) to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school children (52% girls; age 14.92 years, SD = 1.02) and 333 parents or primary caregivers (53% females; age 43.47 years, SD = 9.02). 41% of the students reported an elevated level of mental health problems (emotional problems 40%, peer problems 63%, conduct problems 45%, hyperactivity 17%) in the past 6 months. Concordantly, 31% of parents reported observing an elevated level of mental health problems in their children (emotional problems 37%, peer problems 54%, conduct problems 35%, hyperactivity 17%). After controlling for other risk factors, we found significant associations between physical violence by parents and adolescent's mental health problems reported by students (β = 0.15) and their parents (β = 0.33). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of mental health problems using screening tools among secondary school students in Tanzania as well as an association between physical violence by parents and adolescents' mental health problems. Our findings emphasize the need to inform the population at large about the potentially adverse consequences associated with violence against children and adolescents.

  8. Association Between Parental Social Interaction and Behavior Problems in Offspring: a Population-Based Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Research in parental social support has chiefly examined received social support. Studies have suggested that provided social support may also be protective for child mental health problems. We aim to investigate the association between parental social interaction (both received and provided social support) and offspring behavior problems. We analyzed the data of 982 households, including 1538 children aged 4 to 16 years, from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) survey conducted over 2010-2011. We used a 5-point Likert scale to assess social interaction including parental emotional and instrumental support received from and provided to the spouse, other co-residing family members, non-co-residing family members or relatives, neighbors, and friends. Behavior problems in offspring were assessed using parental responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations between parental social interaction and behavior problems were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. We found that higher maternal social interaction is significantly associated with lower odds of both difficult and prosocial behavior problems, while the same associations were not found for paternal social interaction. Further, maternal provided social support showed an independent negative association with prosocial behavior problems in offspring, even when adjusted for received maternal social support and paternal social interaction. This study showed that maternal social interaction, but not paternal social interaction, might have a protective effect on offspring behavior problems. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the intervention to increase social participation among mothers whose children have behavior problems.

  9. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    colours show element displacements in opposite directions. Geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth, and thus learn about the inner structure of our planet. The same technique works for stars. The Sun, our nearest star and a typical middle-age member of its class, has been investigated in this way since the 1960's. With "solar seismology" , astronomers have been able to learn much about the inner parts of the star, and not only the outer layers normally visible to the telescopes. In the Sun, heat is bubbling up from the central regions where enormous amount of energy is created by nuclear reactions . In the so-called convective zone , the gas is virtually boiling, and hot gas-bubbles are rising with a speed that is close to that of sound. Much like you can hear when water starts to boil, the turbulent convection in the Sun creates noise . These sound waves then propagate through the solar interior and are reflected on the surface, making it oscillate. This "ringing" is well observed in the Sun, where the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations provide astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the solar interior. From the Sun to the stars There is every reason to believe that our Sun is a quite normal star of its type. Other stars that are similar to the Sun are therefore likely to pulsate in much the same way as the Sun. The search for such oscillations in other solar-like stars has, however, been a long and difficult one. The problem is simply that the pulsations are tiny, so very great precision is needed in the measurements. However, the last few years have seen considerable progress in asteroseismology, and François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory have now been able to detect unambiguous acoustic oscillations in the Solar-twin star, Alpha Centauri A. The bright and nearby star Alpha Centauri Alpha Centauri (Alpha Cen) [1] is the brightest star in the constellation

  10. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  11. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  12. Longitudinal Associations between Mothers' and Fathers' Sense of Competence and Children's Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dekovic, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D.; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the bidirectional associations between parents' sense of competence and children's externalizing problems, mediation of these associations by parenting behaviors, and differences between mothers and fathers concerning these associations. A sample of 551 families with children (49.9% girls; mean age = 7.83 years, SD…

  13. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Problems associated with the emissions limitations from road transport in the Lubuskie Province (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz

    2017-07-01

    According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the list of 50 cities with the most polluted air in Europe as many as 33 are located in Poland. All the cities that are on the list exceed the maximum concentration of dust recommended by WHO at least three times. In the Lubuskie Province there is a very serious problem of maintaining good air quality. The air in Poland is among the most polluted in the European Union and this also applies to less-industrialized areas, such as Lubuskie, where the concentration levels of substances hazardous to human health and the environment are recorded as exceeded. One of the main factors affecting the poor air quality in the region is road transport. It is not just a problem near roads with heavy traffic, but also applies to the cities, where there is a large movement of cars, which are often old and do not meet current environmental standards. This article aims to identify the main sources of low emission from road transport and identify potential solutions to help reduce emission from this sector. The actions aimed at limiting low emission from road transport can bring a significant positive ecological effect. The aim of this article is to review one of the main sources of low emission in the province of Lubuskie, which is transportation. Moreover, the authors of the paper indicate the main problems associated with the emission coming from road transport and describe the possibilities for opportunities to reduce pollution from this sector. In addition, the article presents the three-scenario simulation of annual emissions from passenger cars that could take place in 2020.

  15. Problems of identification associated with victims of aerodisaster: the Port Harcourt experience in December 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Etebu, E N; Athanasius, B P

    2012-01-01

    The problems associated with identification of victims after mass disaster such as aero-accident require an elaborate study with an attempt at proffering solutions in the midst of limited facilities. This is a case study of aero-disaster carried out by the authors at Port Harcourt International Airport on 10th December 2005. Information was adequately disseminated through different media to alert the public to come for the identification of the bodies. The 106 victims were then separated into those whose bodies were intact with few areas of burns, crushed/multiple fractures, those with severe burns, and dismembered or disintegrated bodies. Problems of identification was noticed in 26 (24.5%) of the victims which form the basis for this study. Those disputed by more than one family n = 11 (42.3%), those without dispute but very difficult to identify n = 6 (23.1%) and those that could not be identified n = 9 (34.6%). The cause of the identification difficulty also ranged from total disintegration of the bodies n = 9 (34.6%), severely burnt bodies n = 12 (46.2%) to those crushed with multiple fractures n = 5 (19.2%). Problems of identification of severely injured victims of aero-disaster in a limited facility setting can be minimized if strict and well documented pre-travel biometric profiles are taken. Facility for DNA fingerprint, forensic odontologists and forensic anthropologist should be provided. There should also be institution of aviation accident investigation team (AAIT) and mass disaster planning team (MDPT) to aid the identification of victims and probe into the cause and effect of the accident.

  16. Associations between loneliness and perceived social support and outcomes of mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Mann, Farhana; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Ma, Ruimin; Johnson, Sonia

    2018-05-29

    The adverse effects of loneliness and of poor perceived social support on physical health and mortality are established, but no systematic synthesis is available of their relationship with the outcomes of mental health problems over time. In this systematic review, we aim to examine the evidence on whether loneliness and closely related concepts predict poor outcomes among adults with mental health problems. We searched six databases and reference lists for longitudinal quantitative studies that examined the relationship between baseline measures of loneliness and poor perceived social support and outcomes at follow up. Thirty-four eligible papers were retrieved. Due to heterogeneity among included studies in clinical populations, predictor measures and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was conducted. We found substantial evidence from prospective studies that people with depression who perceive their social support as poorer have worse outcomes in terms of symptoms, recovery and social functioning. Loneliness has been investigated much less than perceived social support, but there is some evidence that greater loneliness predicts poorer depression outcome. There is also some preliminary evidence of associations between perceived social support and outcomes in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Loneliness and quality of social support in depression are potential targets for development and testing of interventions, while for other conditions further evidence is needed regarding relationships with outcomes.

  17. Problems associated with the effects of low doses of ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This book is the English version of the report number 34 of the Academie des Sciences, published in October 1995, and entitled 'Problemes lies aux effets des faibles doses des radiations ionisantes'. This report had been endorsed by CODER (Comite des Etudes et Rapports) on February 7, 1995. In dealing with problems associated with ionising radiation, a wide range of important aspects must be taken into account and many different international bodies are concerned with them. It was therefore though useful to make the report available in English. Several additions have been made to the original edition: it has been complemented with three appendices on the cellular, molecular and genetic effects of exposure to low doses of ionising radiations ; it was though useful to give, in addition to the references of the chapters and appendices, a summary of the main relevant work published by French research teams over the past few years; an addendum quotes some of the important contributions made over the past year; a symposium devoted to the effects of low doses of ionising radiations, and to repair enzyme systems will be organized by the Academy at the end of 1997. This will provide the opportunity to re-explore the situation in the light of the data accumulated at that time. This field is evolving rapidly and a periodic evaluation of the new data is mandatory. (authors)

  18. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  19. An anisotropic standing wave braneworld and associated Sturm-Liouville problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto

    2012-01-01

    We present a consistent derivation of the recently proposed 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld generated by gravity coupled to a phantom-like scalar field. We explicitly solve the corresponding junction conditions, a fact that enables us to give a physical interpretation to the anisotropic energy-momentum tensor components of the brane. So matter on the brane represents an oscillating fluid which emits anisotropic waves into the bulk. We also analyze the Sturm-Liouville problem associated with the correct localization condition of the transverse to the brane metric and scalar fields. It is shown that this condition restricts the physically meaningful space of solutions for the localization of the fluctuations of the model. (paper)

  20. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  1. Reach on sound: a key to object permanence in visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina Giovanna; Bomba, Monica; Luparia, Antonella; Lanners, Josée; Balottin, Umberto

    2011-04-01

    The capacity to reach an object presented through sound clue indicates, in the blind child, the acquisition of object permanence and gives information over his/her cognitive development. To assess cognitive development in congenitally blind children with or without multiple disabilities. Cohort study. Thirty-seven congenitally blind subjects (17 with associated multiple disabilities, 20 mainly blind) were enrolled. We used Bigelow's protocol to evaluate "reach on sound" capacity over time (at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months), and a battery of clinical, neurophysiological and cognitive instruments to assess clinical features. Tasks n.1 to 5 were acquired by most of the mainly blind children by 12 months of age. Task 6 coincided with a drop in performance, and the acquisition of the subsequent tasks showed a less agehomogeneous pattern. In blind children with multiple disabilities, task acquisition rates were lower, with the curves dipping in relation to the more complex tasks. The mainly blind subjects managed to overcome Fraiberg's "conceptual problem"--i.e., they acquired the ability to attribute an external object with identity and substance even when it manifested its presence through sound only--and thus developed the ability to reach an object presented through sound. Instead, most of the blind children with multiple disabilities presented poor performances on the "reach on sound" protocol and were unable, before 36 months of age, to develop the strategies needed to resolve Fraiberg's "conceptual problem". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  3. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  4. Problematic Alcohol Use and Problem Gambling: Associations to Structural and Functional aspects of Social Ties in a Finnish Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmyr Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.

  5. [Correction of refractive errors in patients with strabismus. Part I. Clinical problems associated with refraction, accommodation and convergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Sawińska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    In Part I the problems associated with refraction, accommodation and convergence and their role in proper eye position/visual alignment of the eyes as well as convergent, divergent and vertical alignment of the eyes have been described.

  6. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  7. Conceptual and statistical problems associated with the use of diversity indices in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Sandoval, Luis

    2009-09-01

    Diversity indices, particularly the Shannon-Wiener index, have extensively been used in analyzing patterns of diversity at different geographic and ecological scales. These indices have serious conceptual and statistical problems which make comparisons of species richness or species abundances across communities nearly impossible. There is often no a single statistical method that retains all information needed to answer even a simple question. However, multivariate analyses could be used instead of diversity indices, such as cluster analyses or multiple regressions. More complex multivariate analyses, such as Canonical Correspondence Analysis, provide very valuable information on environmental variables associated to the presence and abundance of the species in a community. In addition, particular hypotheses associated to changes in species richness across localities, or change in abundance of one, or a group of species can be tested using univariate, bivariate, and/or rarefaction statistical tests. The rarefaction method has proved to be robust to standardize all samples to a common size. Even the simplest method as reporting the number of species per taxonomic category possibly provides more information than a diversity index value.

  8. Mastitis associated with Prototheca zopfii - an emerging health and economic problem on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased incidence of protothecal mastitis has been recorded in several countries in the past ten years. The main goal of this article is to draw the attention of scientific and professional community to the emerging issue of mammary protothecosis. The article collates currently known facts about infection reservoirs, predisposing factors for the development of mastitis, clinical manifestations of the disease, and potential transmission routes within the herd as well as the measures for control and eradication. We would like to point out that identification of protothecal mastitis on a dairy farm is associated with a range of problems. Early detection of infected animals can be difficult because of predominantly subclinical course of early-stage infection, which easily spreads between cows via the milking system. Spontaneous recovery has not been recorded and infected cows typically develop chronic mastitis with granulomatous infiltration and progressive loss of functional parenchyma of the mammary gland. Substantial economic losses and health damages associated with mammary protothecosis strongly emphasise the need for developing effective prevention strategies aimed at control of the infection.

  9. Effect which environmental sound causes for memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    武良,徹文

    1999-01-01

    The research judges the relation and no relation between the stimulation at prime and the target stimulation with hearing of pleasantness and an unpleasant sound. It is a purpose what influence for you give to examine a reaction time and a miss-rate of responding as an index when the problem is accomplished. The subjects are 50 university students to the graduate school students from one year. The subject was distributed to 21 pleasant sound condition groups, 10 unpleasant sound condition gro...

  10. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  11. Associations between overweight, peer problems, and mental health in 12-13-year-old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Oellingrath, Inger Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and mental health problems represent two major challenges related to child and adolescent health. More knowledge of a possible relationship between the two problems and the influence of peer problems on the mental health of overweight children is needed. It has previously been hypothesized that peer problems may be an underlying factor in the association between overweight and mental health problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between overweight, peer problems, and indications of mental health problems in a sample of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Children aged 12-13 years were recruited from the seventh grade of primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Parents gave information about mental health and peer problems by completing the extended version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Height and weight were objectively measured. Complete data were obtained for 744 children. Fisher's exact probability test and multiple logistic regressions were used. Most children had normal good mental health. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that overweight children were more likely to have indications of psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR: 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.2) and peer problems (adjusted OR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2) than normal-weight children, when adjusted for relevant background variables. When adjusted for peer problems, the association between overweight and indications of any psychiatric disorder was no longer significant. The results support the hypothesis that peer problems may be an important underlying factor for mental health problems in overweight children.

  12. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  13. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  14. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  15. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  16. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  17. Educational strategies associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Haden, N Karl; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L

    2006-09-01

    This article was developed for the Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), established by the American Dental Education Association. CCI was created because numerous organizations within organized dentistry and the educational community have initiated studies or proposed modifications to the process of dental education, often working to achieve positive and desirable goals but without coordination or communication. The fundamental mission of CCI is to serve as a focal meeting place where dental educators and administrators, representatives from organized dentistry, the dental licensure community, the Commission on Dental Accreditation, the ADA Council on Dental Education and Licensure, and the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations can meet and coordinate efforts to improve dental education and the nation's oral health. One of the objectives of the CCI is to provide guidance to dental schools related to curriculum design. In pursuit of that objective, this article summarizes the evidence related to this question: What are educational best practices for helping dental students acquire the capacity to function as an entry-level general dentist or to be a better candidate to begin advanced studies? Three issues are addressed, with special emphasis on the third: 1) What constitutes expertise, and when does an individual become an expert? 2) What are the differences between novice and expert thinking? and 3) What educational best practices can help our students acquire mental capacities associated with expert function, including critical thinking and self-directed learning? The purpose of this review is to provide a benchmark that faculty and academic planners can use to assess the degree to which their curricula include learning experiences associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, self-directed learning, and other cognitive skills necessary for dental school graduates to ultimately become expert performers as

  18. Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...

  19. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers.

  20. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air pollution problems generated in MSW management processes in China are presented. ► Both quantity and composition of MSW generation in China are identified. ► The status of different methods for MSW treatment and disposal are reviewed. ► Some comprehensive control proposals for improving MSW management are proposed. -- Abstract: Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward

  1. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hezhong, E-mail: hztian@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao, Jiajia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Hao, Jiming [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Air pollution problems generated in MSW management processes in China are presented. ► Both quantity and composition of MSW generation in China are identified. ► The status of different methods for MSW treatment and disposal are reviewed. ► Some comprehensive control proposals for improving MSW management are proposed. -- Abstract: Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward.

  2. Daily Stress Magnifies the Association between Cognitive Decline and Everyday Memory Problems: An Integration of Longitudinal and Diary Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Almeida, David M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n=112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over ten years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for twelve consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided four saliva samples over the course of one day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  3. Coping with Jealousy: The Association between Maladaptive Aspects of Jealousy and Drinking Problems are Mediated by Drinking to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Lindgren, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N = 657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood. PMID:24138965

  4. Coping with jealousy: the association between maladaptive aspects of jealousy and drinking problems is mediated by drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Lindgren, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study was aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N=657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  6. Corrosion, inspection and other problems associated with Heat exchangers in the heavy water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion, fabrication and inspection problems encountered in the heavy water industry Heat exchangers are discussed. Among the problems examined are erosion/corrosion of two pass exchangers, rolling of tubes, pitting, fretting and protection for long term storage. (auth)

  7. Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....

  8. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  9. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  10. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Guina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472, we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis, as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs, DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs, most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance, and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse. Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment.

  11. Framing sound: Using expectations to reduce environmental noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-10-01

    Annoyance reactions to environmental noise, such as wind turbine sound, have public health implications given associations between annoyance and symptoms related to psychological distress. In the case of wind farms, factors contributing to noise annoyance have been theorised to include wind turbine sound characteristics, the noise sensitivity of residents, and contextual aspects, such as receiving information creating negative expectations about sound exposure. The experimental aim was to assess whether receiving positive or negative expectations about wind farm sound would differentially influence annoyance reactions during exposure to wind farm sound, and also influence associations between perceived noise sensitivity and noise annoyance. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either negative or positive expectations about wind farm sound. Participants in the negative expectation group viewed a presentation which incorporated internet material indicating that exposure to wind turbine sound, particularly infrasound, might present a health risk. Positive expectation participants viewed a DVD which framed wind farm sound positively and included internet information about the health benefits of infrasound exposure. Participants were then simultaneously exposed to sub-audible infrasound and audible wind farm sound during two 7 min exposure sessions, during which they assessed their experience of annoyance. Positive expectation participants were significantly less annoyed than negative expectation participants, while noise sensitivity only predicted annoyance in the negative group. Findings suggest accessing negative information about sound is likely to trigger annoyance, particularly in noise sensitive people and, importantly, portraying sound positively may reduce annoyance reactions, even in noise sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediator or moderator? The role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tim Oi; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2017-11-01

    Raising a child with intellectual disability (ID) may be stressful for parents. Previous studies have suggested the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study examined whether this mediating role is a result of parents' self-report bias. It also explored whether mindfulness has a moderating role instead when child behavior problems are reported by teachers. In a questionnaire survey, 271 Chinese parents of children with ID in 6 Hong Kong special schools reported their levels of stress and mindfulness, as well as their children's behavior problems. The latter was also reported by teachers. When child behavior problems were reported by parents, parental mindfulness was a mediator between child behavior problems and parental stress. In contrast, when child behavior problems were reported by teachers, parental mindfulness was a moderator between child behavior problems and parental stress. The mediation role of mindfulness maybe an artifact of measurement. The findings provide an encouraging message that parenting a child with ID and behavior problems does not necessarily mean more stress among all parents. Parents with a high level of mindfulness may experience less stress than those with a low level of mindfulness. Parents of children with intellectual disability (ID) tend to report high psychological stress. Previous self-report studies have identified mindfulness as a mediator in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study differs from previous studies by including third-party's reports. It has contributed to the existing body of knowledge in two respects. First, it examined whether the mediation effect resulted from parent self-report bias. Second, it tested an alternative hypothesis of the moderation effect by using teachers' reports to measure child behavior problems. The results showed that when child behavior problems were measured by parents

  13. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  14. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  15. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  16. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Curating sound performance as laboratories of envisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    This paper is based on my dissertation research that investigates how sound performance can be presented and represented - in real time, as well as in and through the archive. This double perspective opens a field of curatorial problems related to the simultaneous movements of both envisioning...

  18. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children : a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  2. Protective factors associated with fewer multiple problem behaviors among homeless/runaway youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth.

  3. Problems in maintenance of herd health associated with acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostuch, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas plant emissions on dairy herds are described. A veterinarian establishing a practice in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, found that dairy herds in that area suffered from a disproportionately higher occurrence of health problems than Minnesota herds with similar types of management. These problems are postulated to result from acid-forming emissions from two large sour gas plants in the area (the Ram River and Gulf Strachan plants). Health problems found in dairy cattle in the Rocky Mountain House area were: unthriftiness, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, reproductive problems, and 'downer' animals (cows unable to stand up unassisted). Problems related to the reproductive organs were the most apparent. Clinical observations of problems in dairy herds are described. Since the levels of emissions from the plants have decreased, incidence of problems in dairy herds has also decreased. 1 ref., 2 figs

  4. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Periplogenin, isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, ameliorates L-T₄-induced hyperthyroidism and associated cardiovascular problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    2011-03-01

    The importance of glycoside in the regulation of thyroid dysfunction is not well understood. In the present investigation, effects of periplogenin-3- O-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)(1→4)-D-cymaropyranoside, isolated from the vegetable, LAGENARIA SICERARIA, in L-thyroxine (L-T₄)-induced hyperthyroidism and in related cardiovascular abnormalities have been revealed in Wistar albino rats. L-T₄ (500 μg/kg, s. c./d) administration for 12 days significantly increased serum concentrations of thyroxine (T₄), triidothyronine (T₃), and hepatic 5'-deiodinase I (5'-DI) activity with a parallel increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in different organs such as heart, liver and kidney; serum glucose and insulin concentrations and a decrease in cardiac Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase activity as well as serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Most of these adverse effects were reversed following the administration of isolated periplogenin. However, out of its 3 different concentrations (5.0, 10, and 25 mg/kg), 5 mg/kg appeared to be the most effective one as it could nearly normalize the level of T₃, glucose, insulin, Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase activity, tissue LPO and different serum lipids suggesting the protective role of periplogenin against thyrotoxicosis and associated cardiovascular problems. It appears that the periplogenin actions are mediated through its direct antithyroidal and/or LPO inhibiting properties. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The Association Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Externalizing Problems, and Gender in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor

    2016-09-01

    Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age  = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.

  8. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Trait Rumination Associated with the Ability to Generate Effective Problem Solving Strategies? Utilizing Two Versions of the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Nishimura, Haruki; Mastuda, Yuko; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Masaki

    This study examined the relationship between trait rumination and the effectiveness of problem solving strategies as assessed by the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (MEPS) in a nonclinical population. The present study extended previous studies in terms of using two instructions in the MEPS: the second-person, actual strategy instructions, which has been utilized in previous studies on rumination, and the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions, which is considered more suitable for assessing the effectiveness of problem solving strategies. We also replicated the association between rumination and each dimension of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S). Japanese undergraduate students ( N  = 223) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), MEPS, and SPSI-R:S. One half of the sample completed the MEPS with the second-person, actual strategy instructions. The other participants completed the MEPS with the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions. The results showed that neither total RRS score, nor its subscale scores were significantly correlated with MEPS scores under either of the two instructions. These findings taken together with previous findings indicate that in nonclinical populations, trait rumination is not related to the effectiveness of problem solving strategies, but that state rumination while responding to the MEPS deteriorates the quality of strategies. The correlations between RRS and SPSI-R:S scores indicated that trait rumination in general, and its brooding subcomponent in particular are parts of cognitive and behavioral responses that attempt to avoid negative environmental and negative private events. Results also showed that reflection is a part of active problem solving.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-N; Liu, L; Wang, L

    2014-05-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results. PMID:25954021

  12. Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright

  13. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations are associated with adult cancer and lung problems: US NHANES, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged but the effects from perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate concentrations and adult health conditions in a national and population-based study. Data was retrieved from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2009-2012, including demographics, blood pressure readings, self-reported health conditions and urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t test survey-weighted logistic regression models and population attributable risk estimation. There were no clear associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations and adult health conditions, although people with hearing loss and diabetes could be at the borderline risk. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations were significantly associated with emphysema (odds ratio (OR) 2.70 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.91-3.82, P cancer (OR 1.21 95%CI 1.06-1.39, P = 0.008), chronic bronchitis (OR 1.23 95%CI 1.10-1.52, P = 0.003), wheezing (OR 1.24 95%CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.011), coughing (OR 1.19 95%CI 1.03-1.37, P = 0.018) and sleep complaints (OR 1.14 95%CI 1.02-1.26, P = 0.019). The population attributable risks accounted for 3.3% (1.8-5.3%), 1.9% (0.6-3.5%), 1.2% (0.5-2.6%), 2.2% (0.5-4.1%), 1.8% (0.3-6.2%) and 1.3% (0.2-2.4%) for emphysema, cancer, chronic bronchitis, wheezing, coughing and sleep complaints, respectively. In addition, there was an inverse association observed between urinary nitrate level and heart failure. This is for the first time observing significant risk effects of urinary thiocyanate concentrations on adult cancer and lung problems, although the causality cannot be established. Elimination of such environmental chemical in humans should be included in future health policy and intervention programs.

  14. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were inte...

  15. The role of social frailty in explaining the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seongryu; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Jung, Songee; Makino, Keitaro; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    We examined the role of social frailty in the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and investigated which cognitive impairment domains are most strongly involved. Participants were 4251 older adults (mean age 72.5 ± 5.2 years, 46.1% male) who met the study inclusion criteria. Hearing problems were measured using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly. Social frailty was identified using responses to five questions. Participants were divided into four groups depending on the presence of social frailty and hearing problems: control, social frailty, hearing problem, and co-occurrence. We assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. Participants were categorized into normal cognition, single- and multiple-domain MCI, depending on the number of impaired cognitive domains. Participants with multiple-domain MCI exhibited the highest odds ratios (OR) of the co-occurrence group (OR: 3.89, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.96-7.72), followed by the social frailty (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.49-4.67), and hearing problem (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.34) groups, compared with the control group. However, single-domain MCI was not significantly associated with any group. Cognitive domain analysis revealed that impaired executive function and processing speed were associated with the co-occurrence, hearing problem, and social frailty groups, respectively. Social frailty and hearing problems were independently associated with multiple-domain MCI. Comorbid conditions were more strongly associated with multiple-domain MCI. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the causal role of social frailty in the association between hearing impairment and MCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Nybergh, Lotta; Jensen, Irene

    2018-02-14

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position. A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Only researchers and teachers were included in the study (n = 3207). Spearman correlations were performed to investigate differences in health and work environment problems. Employees who reported having experienced work environment or health problems in the previous seven days (n = 1475) were included in the analyses in order to investigate differences in subjective production loss. This was done using Student's t-test, One-way Anova and generalized linear models. The response rate was 63% (n = 2022). A total of 819 academic staff (40% of the population) reported experiencing either health problems, work environment problems or both during the previous seven days. The prevalence of health problems only or a combination of work environment and health problems was higher among women than men (p-value ˂0.05). This was especially the case for younger women, those in lower academic positions and those who had worked for fewer years at their current workplace. No difference was found for work environment problems. The majority of the employees who reported problems said that these problems affected their ability to perform at work (84-99%). The average production loss varied between 31 and 42% depending on the type of problem. Production loss due to health-related and work-environment related problems was highest among junior researchers and managers. No significant difference between men and women was found in the level of production loss. Subjective production loss in academia can be associated

  17. Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: associations with parenting style and sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Song, Jie Cheng; Mulraney, Melissa; Schuster, Tibor; Hiscock, Harriet

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine the association between sleep problems and parenting and sleep hygiene in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 5-13-year-old children with DSM 5 defined ADHD and a parent-reported moderate-to-severe sleep problem (N = 361). Sleep was assessed using the parent-reported Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Parents also completed checklists assessing sleep hygiene, parenting consistency, and parenting warmth. Linear regression established prediction models controlling for confounding variables including child age and sex, ADHD symptom severity, comorbidities, medication use, and socio-demographic factors. More consistent parenting was associated with decreased bedtime resistance (β = -0.16) and decreased sleep anxiety (β = -0.14), while greater parental warmth was associated with increased parasomnias (β = +0.18) and sleep anxiety (β = +0.13). Poorer sleep hygiene was associated with increased bedtime resistance (β = +0.20), increased daytime sleepiness (β = +0.12), and increased sleep duration problems (β = +0.13). In conclusion, sleep hygiene and parenting are important modifiable factors independently associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD. These factors should be considered in the management of sleep problems in children with ADHD.

  18. Children of South Sea Island immigrants to Australia: factors associated with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M W; Fua, C

    1995-01-01

    Social-delinquent problem youth of South Sea Island immigrant to Australia parents, were compared to non-problem youth from the same circumstances, on family, sociocultural, personality, and substance abuse variables. Interviews and testing were done by members of their own community. A consistent pattern of differences most pronounced for males was found between the two groups although not all reached statistical significance. The problem youth compared to the non-problem youth tended to come from families somewhat lower in socioeconomic level, somewhat less traditional in culture, and notably more prone to discipline by physical punishment than by verbal reasoning. The problem youth had significantly lower self-esteem, significantly higher maladjustment test scores, and significantly greater use and problems with alcohol and drugs. They were more alienated and had less clearly established direction for their future. Recommendations for remediation are considered.

  19. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  20. Negative emotionality moderates associations among attachment, toddler sleep, and later problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Forbes, Erika E; Campbell, Susan B

    2013-02-01

    Secure parent-child relationships are implicated in children's self-regulation, including the ability to self-soothe at bedtime. Sleep, in turn, may serve as a pathway linking attachment security with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in children. We used path analysis to examine the direct relationship between attachment security and maternal reports of sleep problems during toddlerhood and the degree to which sleep serves as a pathway linking attachment with subsequent teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined infant negative emotionality as a vulnerability factor that may potentiate attachment-sleep-adjustment outcomes. Data were drawn from 776 mother-infant dyads participating in the National Institute of Child and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. After statistically adjusting for mother and child characteristics, including child sleep and emotional and behavioral problems at 24 months, we found no evidence for a statistically significant direct path between attachment security and sleep problems at 36 months; however, there was a direct relationship between sleep problems at 36 months and internalizing problems at 54 months. Path models that examined the moderating influence of infant negative emotionality demonstrated significant direct relationships between attachment security and toddler sleep problems and between sleep problems and subsequent emotional and behavioral problems, but only among children characterized by high negative emotionality at 6 months. In addition, among this subset, there was a significant indirect path between attachment and internalizing problems through sleep problems. These longitudinal findings implicate sleep as one critical pathway linking attachment security with adjustment difficulties, particularly among temperamentally vulnerable children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Subtyping Children with Speech Sound Disorders by Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined associations of 5 endophenotypes (i.e., measurable skills that are closely associated with speech sound disorders and are useful in detecting genetic influences on speech sound production), oral motor skills, phonological memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and speeded naming, with 3 clinical criteria…

  2. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyad...

  3. Factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonda-Ma-Nzuzi, Thierry; Mampunza Ma Miezi, Samuel; Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Mvumbi, Diane Muanza; Aloni, Michel Ntentani; Malendakana, Fanny; Mpaka Mbeya, Davin; Lelo, Gilbert Mananga; Charlier-Mikolajczak, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in children with epilepsy (CWE). In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about these comorbidities particularly their relationships with socioeconomic features. The goal of this study was to identify clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in CWE of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). This cross-sectional hospital-based study had included 104 CWE aged 6 to 17years. Behavioral problems were assessed by the child behavior checklist. The Wechsler nonverbal scale of ability was used to assess cognitive impairment. At least one behavioral problem was found in 34.6% of CWE. Internalized problems were increasing with father's age (p=0.034). Externalized problems were increasing with the decreased of mother's age (p=0.009) and with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.032). Total behavioral problems were increasing with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.029). Cognitive impairment was present in 73.3% of CWE. It was more common in boys (p=0.013), and it was increasing with a low household daily expenses (p=0.034), with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.041), with an early onset of epileptic seizures (p=0.042), and with a high frequency of epileptic seizures (p=0.011). Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in CWE. Multivariate analysis has shown that behavioral problems were associated with socioeconomic features only. Contrariwise, cognitive impairment was associated with both socioeconomic factors and clinical features. There is a need of more studies to improve knowledge of these comorbidities in the sub-Saharan Africa context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  5. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  6. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  7. Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng

    1995-01-01

    The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord

  8. The association between psychiatric disorders and work-related problems among subway drivers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Hae Woo; Lee, Jongin; Byun, Junsu; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to find the prevalence and occupational risk factors for major psychiatric disorders among subway drivers in South Korea. Of all 998 current subway drivers, 995 participated in this study. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered by trained interviewers to diagnose psychiatric disorders in all participants. The questions on socio-demographic characteristics and working conditions included some questions related to a person under train (PUT) experience and work-related problems. One-year prevalence and lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder were diagnosed through the interview. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) of these three disorders were calculated in the sample of subway drivers using the 2011 Korean National Epidemiologic Survey data as a basis. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between work-related factors and the prevalence of the psychiatric disorders. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for a 1-year prevalence of MDD and PTSD among subway drivers were 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.7) and 5.6 (95% CI 3.1-8.8), respectively. Conflict with passengers was significantly associated with an increased risk for both MDD and PTSD in 1-year and in lifetime prevalence. Experiencing a sudden stop due to an emergency bell increased the risk of the lifetime prevalence of MDD (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.14-6.97) and PTSD (OR 7.53, 95% CI 1.77-32.02). The risk of PTSD significantly increased among drivers who once experienced a near accident in terms of both the 1-year prevalence (OR 8.81, 95% CI 1.96-39.3) and the lifetime prevalence (OR 6.36, 95% CI 2.40-16.90). PTSD and panic disorder were more prevalent among subway drivers than in the general population. We found that having a conflict with passengers, a near accident, and a breakdown while driving can be risk factors for psychiatric

  9. Study of family factors in association with behavior problems amongst children of 6-18 years age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogdand, Sandip S; Naik, Jd

    2014-07-01

    The 'behaviour problems' are having major impact on child's bodily and social development. The family provides emotional support to an individual as well as plays a major role in the formation of one's personality. The quality and nature of the parental nurturance that the child receives will profoundly influence his future development. The knowledge of these family factors associated with behaviour problems may be helpful to identify at risk children. To study the family factors associated with behaviour problems amongst children of 6-18 Yrs age group. an adopted urban slum area of Govt. Medical College, Miraj Dist-Sangli. Cross sectional study. the sample size was calculated based upon 40% prevalence obtained in pilot study. Total 600 Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area and their parents were interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma. chi-square test and risk estimate with Odd's ratio. Our study result reveals significant association between prevalence of behaviour problems with absence of either or both real parents and alcoholism in the parent or care taker. The behaviour problems have good prognosis if they are recognized earlier. Family has great role in prevention of behaviour problems in children, so parental counseling may be helpful.

  10. Is Team-Based Primary Care Associated with Less Access Problems and Self-Reported Unmet Need in Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Austin; Asada, Yukiko; Burge, Frederick

    2017-10-01

    As in many jurisdictions, the delivery of primary care in Canada is being transformed from solo practice to team-based care. In Canada, team-based primary care involves general practitioners working with nurses or other health care providers, and it is expected to improve equity in access to care. This study examined whether team-based care is associated with fewer access problems and less unmet need and whether socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need are smaller in team-based care than in non-team-based care. Data came from the 2008 Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care (sample size: 10,858). We measured primary care type as team-based or non-team-based and socioeconomic status by income and education. We created four access problem variables and four unmet need variables (overall and three specific components). For each, we ran separate logistic regression models to examine their associations with primary care type. We examined socioeconomic gradients in access problems and unmet need stratified by primary care type. Primary care type had no statistically significant, independent associations with access problems or unmet need. Among those with non-team-based care, a statistically significant education gradient for overall access problems existed, whereas among those with team-based care, no statistically significant socioeconomic gradients existed.

  11. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is associated with problem-solving skills in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zgibor, Janice; Matthews, Judith T; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and problem-solving skills in response to detected hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained from the American Association of Diabetes Educators Outcome System, implemented in 8 diabetes self-management education programs in western Pennsylvania. SMBG was measured by asking patients how often they checked, missed checking, or checked blood glucose later than planned. Problem-solving skill was measured by asking how often they modified their behaviors after detecting high or low blood glucose. Most patients checked their blood glucose at least once per day. However, when blood glucose was high or low, many of them reported doing nothing, and only some of them resolved the problem. There were significant associations between self-monitoring of blood glucose and problem-solving skills for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and time since diagnosis. Patients reported poor problem-solving skills when detecting hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia via SMBG. Patients need to learn problem-solving skills along with SMBG training to achieve glycemic control.

  12. Gender differences in the association between pre-adolescent smoking initiation and emotional or behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and

  13. Closed solutions to a differential-difference equation and an associated plate solidification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layeni, Olawanle P; Akinola, Adegbola P; Johnson, Jesse V

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct and novel formalisms for deriving exact closed solutions of a class of variable-coefficient differential-difference equations arising from a plate solidification problem are introduced. Thereupon, exact closed traveling wave and similarity solutions to the plate solidification problem are obtained for some special cases of time-varying plate surface temperature.

  14. General problems associated with the control and safe use of radiation sources (199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    There are problems at various levels in ensuring safety in the use of radiation sources. A relatively new problem that warrants international action is the smuggling of radioactive material across international borders. An international convention on the control and safe use of radiation sources is essential to provide a universally harmonized mechanism for ensuring safety

  15. Public opinion confronted by the safety problems associated with different energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J; Thomas, K

    1978-09-01

    Model study of public opinion 'for' and 'against' the various energy sources - oil, coal, solar and nuclear power. Attitudes are examined from four aspects: psychology - economic advantages, sociopolitical problems, environmental problems and safety. The investigation focuses on nuclear energy. (13 refs.) (In French)

  16. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  17. The association between motivation, affect, and self-regulated learning when solving problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Baars (Martine); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSelf-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a

  18. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  19. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. Methods A one-year longitudinal study was

  20. Anger and aggression problems in veterans are associated with an increased acoustic startle reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Lieke; Kleber, Rolf; Häfner, Michael; van Bedaf, Laury; Eekhout, Iris; Geuze, Elbert

    Anger and aggression are frequent problems in deployed military personnel. A lowered threshold of perceiving and responding to threat can trigger impulsive aggression. This can be indicated by an exaggerated startle response. Fifty-two veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 50

  1. Anger and aggression problems in veterans are associated with an increased acoustic startle reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, L.; Kleber, R.; Häfner, M.; Bedaf, L. van; Eekhout, I.; Geuze, E.

    2017-01-01

    Anger and aggression are frequent problems in deployed military personnel. A lowered threshold of perceiving and responding to threat can trigger impulsive aggression. This can be indicated by an exaggerated startle response. Fifty-two veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 50

  2. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  3. Primary problems associated with the health and welfare of employees observed when implementing lean manufacturing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampasso, Izabela Simon; Anholon, Rosley; Gonçalves Quelhas, Osvaldo Luiz; Filho, Walter Leal

    2017-01-01

    Lean philosophy is used by companies to increase productivity and reduce costs. Although uncontested benefits are created, it is necessary to highlight the problems related to employees' health and welfare caused by implementing lean manufacturing projects. The primary objective of this paper is to review the literature and identify the most relevant problems created by lean philosophy for employees. Research about the theme was performed on many international databases over three months, and an initial sample of 77 papers was found. Twenty-seven sources were utilized. We identified 22 categories of problems related to health and welfare of employees. The most cited problem was work intensification, mentioned by thirteen papers. Increased stress and increased responsibilities, demands and, consequently, pressure on the workers are among the primary problems observed in the research.

  4. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  5. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  6. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  7. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  8. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  9. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  10. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  11. Physics and music the science of musical sound

    CERN Document Server

    White, Harvey E

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive and accessible, this foundational text surveys general principles of sound, musical scales, characteristics of instruments, mechanical and electronic recording devices, and many other topics. More than 300 illustrations plus questions, problems, and projects.

  12. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  13. The association between emotional and behavioral problems and gastrointestinal symptoms among children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lancaster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258 and cats (n = 6950 entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37% had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%, all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%, and the microchip not registered (14%. A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%. The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  15. Efficient sound barrier calculations with the BEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method has been used for calculating the effect of introducing sound barriers for some decades. The method has also been used for optimizing the shape of the barrier and in some cases the effects of introducing sound absorption. However, numerical calculations are still quite...... time consuming and inconvenient to use, which is limiting their use for many practical problems. Moreover, measurements are mostly taken in one-third or full octave bands opposed to the numerical computations at specific frequencies, which then has to be conducted using a fine density in frequencies....... This paper addresses some of the challenges and possible solutions for developing BEM into a more efficient tool for sound barrier calculations....

  16. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun ho

    2012-01-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  17. Gestational age and chronic 'body-mind' health problems in childhood: dose-response association and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the developmental course of all health issues associated with preterm birth is important from an individual, clinical and public health point-of-view. Both the number of preterm births and proportion of survivors have increased steadily in recent years. The UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 18,818) was used to examine the association of gestational age with maternal ratings of general health and behavior problems at ages 5 and 11 years using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. The association between mothers' ratings of general health and behavior problems was relatively weak at each time point. Children rated as being in poor general health remained constant over time (4.0 % at age 5, 3.8 % at age 11), but children rated as having behavioral problems increased by almost 100 % (5.6 % at 5; 10.5 % at 11). A gradient of increasing risk with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (general health problems and/or behavior problems) at age 5, amplified at age 11 and was strongest for those with chronic problems (poor health at both age 5 and age 11). This association was found to be compounded by child sex, maternal characteristics at birth (education, employment, marital status) and duration of breast feeding. Integrated support to at-risk families initiated during, or soon after pregnancy, may prevent chronic problems and might potentially reduce long term health costs for both the individual and health services.

  18. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  19. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  20. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…