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Sample records for sound alaska exxon

  1. Evaluation of sea otter capture after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Weltz, F.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    After the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Exxon Company, U.S.A., began rescuing sea otters (Enhydra lutris). The primary objective of this operation was to capture live, oiled sea otters for cleaning and rehabilitation. Between 30 March and 29 May 1989, 139 live sea otters were captured in the sound and transported to rehabilitation centers in Valdez, Alaska. Within the first 15 days of capture operations, 122 (88%) otters were captured. Most sea otters were captured near Knight, Green, and Evans islands in the western sound. The primary capture method consisted of dipnetting otters out of water and off beaches. While capture rates declined over time, survival of captured otters increased as the interval from spill date to capture date increased. The relative degree of oiling observed for each otter captured declined over time. Declining capture rates led to the use of tangle nets. The evidence suggests the greatest threat to sea otters in Prince William Sound occurred within the first 3 weeks after the spill. Thus, in the future, the authors believe rescue efforts should begin as soon as possible after an oil spill in sea otter habitat. Further, preemptive capture and relocation of sea otters in Prince William Sound may have increased the number of otters that could have survived this event.

  2. Histopathology of adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G. S.; Okihiro, M. S.; Hinton, D. E.; Brown, E. D.; Hanes, D.

    1999-01-01

    The histopathology of Pacific herring sampled from oiled sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska, three weeks after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, is discussed. All samples showed multifocal hepatic necrosis and significantly increased tissue concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, Pacific herring from reference sites in 1989 and from all sites in 1990 and 1991 did not have hepatic necrosis or increase PAH concentrations. Naphthalenes were the predominant PAH in all tissue samples. The development of hepatic necrosis and the predominance of naphthalenes in samples from 1989 is considered consistent with results obtained from recent laboratory studies indicating that crude oil exposure resulted in dose-dependent expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). It was concluded that adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound were likely exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in April 1989. Because Pacific herring near spawning condition in early spring are in a state of physiological stress, the added stress of oil exposure in 1989 could reasonably have led to expression of VHSV in these fish. The findings suggest that the immediate response to future large toxic spills should include consideration of the potential interaction of multiple stressors in exposed individuals. 29 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G.D.; Okihiro, M.S.; Hanes, D.

    2003-01-01

    Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (P<0.001). We concluded that demersal rockfish were exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure. (author)

  4. Subtidal distribution of Exxon Valdez oil in two bays in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This 1991 study assessed the subtidal fate of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 2 bays. A subtidal stratified random sampling design compared stations in the oiled Bay of Isles with stations in the reference Drier Bay. Thirty-five random sampling stations over 3 depth zones in each of the oiled and reference bays enabled generalization of the results. 12 non-randomly chosen stations were also sampled in the two bays. Sediment samples were analyzed for saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons, grain size and organic carbon. The statistical comparisons between the oiled and reference bays were based on PAH analyses. Four types of PAH were identified in the two bays; Alaska North Slope (ANS) petrogenic spill PAH; seep-derived natural petrogenic background PAH; pyrogenic PAH; and diagenetic PAH (perylene). The Bay of Isles sediments contained significantly higher levels of weathered ANS-PAH than Drier Bay. These levels were generally small compared with those of the petrogenic background PAH naturally present. The concentration of the natural petrogenic PAH component increased with increasing depth zone for each bay. Drier Bay, a location of past cannery and mining activity, had significantly greater levels of pyrogenic PAH than the Bay of Isles. All sediment PAH concentrations were well below the 4,000 ng/g total PAH concentration reported in the literature as a sublethal toxicity threshold value in sediments. The highest sediment ANSPAH concentration (201 ng/g) was 20 times lower than this value

  5. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, T.A.; Smith, R.O.; Stekoll, M.S.; Jewett, S.C.; Hose, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Possible injury to, and recovery of, populations of eelgrass Zostera marine L., in Prince William Sound were assessed following the Exxon Valdez oil spill by comparing populations at oiled vs reference sites between 1990 and 1995. Eelgrass beds in heavily oiled bays were exposed to moderate concentrations of hydrocarbons. In 1990, a year after the spill, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons average nearly 4000 ng g -1 dry weight of sediment at oiled sites compared to less than 700 ng g -1 at reference sites. Injuries to eelgrass, if any, appeared to be slight and did not persist for more than a year after the spill. There were possible effects on the average density of shoots and flowering shoots, as these were 24 and 62% lower at oiled than at reference sites in 1990 (p < 0.10 for both). However, there were no differences between oiled and reference sites with respect to eelgrass biomass, seed density, seed germination or the incidence of normal mitosis in seedlings, and there were no signs of the elimination of eelgrass beds. (author)

  6. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James L.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  8. Monitoring oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Stoker, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of shoreline monitoring programs were employed to evaluate the recovery of the ecological communities of Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines after the oil spill: (a) Extensive shoreline surveys conducted (1989--1992) over much of the oiled shoreline to define extent of shoreline oiling and to assess biological conditions; (b) Detailed sampling in 1989 at nonrandomly chosen locations representing a range of oiling conditions (c) Comprehensive shoreline ecology program initiated in 1990 to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound using (1) a rigorous stratified random sampling study design with 64 sites representing 4 shoreline habitats and 4 oiling levels (unoiled, light, moderate, heavy); (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites of particular concern. Biological communities were analyzed to detect differences due to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Following the spill, populations of all major species survived as sources for recolonization. Recruitment to oiled shores began in summer 1989. By 1990, shoreline biota in PWS had largely recovered. Estimates of shoreline recovery (biological community indistinguishable from reference) ranged from 91% based on univariate analysis of standard community parameters to 73% based on multivariate correspondence analysis

  9. Histopathology and cytogenetic evaluation of Pacific herring larvae exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory or in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Brown, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Pacific herring larvae samples from oiled sites showed ascites, pericardial edema, and genotoxic damage. Laboratory study confirmed that these lesions were consistent with oil exposure. In a laboratory experiment, Pacific herring eggs were exposed to an oil-water dispersion of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and sampled for histopathology less than 24 h after hatching. Effects were significant at the 0.48 mg/L dose. Lesions included ascites, heptocellular vacuolar change and degeneration or necrosis of skeletal myocytes, retinal cells, and developing brain cells. Lesions in field-sampled larvae were consistent with higher mortality rates documented in larvae from oiled sites. In both field and laboratory experiments, ascites was the most significant lesion related to oil exposure. Decreased growth in larvae from oiled sites was also consistent with findings in three other laboratory studies with Pacific herring. This study concluded that if a large proportion of a population is exposed to contamination during early life stages, impacts on subsequent recruitment may be significant. However, estimates of the proportion of Pacific herring year-class affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill vary from 4 per cent to 50 per cent. Since recruitment of the 1989 year-class was also poor in Sitka Sound (the control site), it was suggested that oceanic variables might have been more significant in limiting recruitment of the 1989 year-class in Prince William Sound than was the oil spill. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.D.; Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental

  13. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Study design and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a large field and laboratory program to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The study was designed so that results could be generalized area-wide (biology, chemistry) or habitat-wide (toxicology) and projected forward in time (chemistry). It made use of the sediment quality triad approach, combining biological, chemical, and toxicological measurements to assess shoreline recovery. Key aspects of the study include the following: coordinated field sampling for chemical, toxicological, and biological studies; stratified random sampling (SRS) as a basis for spatial generalization; periodic sampling to assess trends, including sites with worst-case conditions; analysis of oil-spill effects on hundreds of species; statistical methods based on normal and non-normal theory, consistent with the structure of the data, including generalized linear models and multivariate correspondence analysis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  16. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Esslinger, George G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  17. The Impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Phytoplankton as Evidenced Through the Sedimentary Dinoflagellate Cyst Records in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, M.; Pospelova, V.; Williams, J. R.; Dellapenna, T.; Mertens, K.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of crude oil are extracted from marine environments and transported via the sea, putting coastal communities at a greater risk of oils spills. It is therefore crucial for these communities to properly assess the risk. The first step is to understand the effects of such events on the environment, which is limited by the lack of research on the impact of oil spills on phytoplankton. This first-of-its-kind research aims to identify how one of the major groups of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, have been affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. To do this, sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts, produced during dinoflagellate reproduction and preserved in the sediment, were analyzed. Two sediment cores were collected from PWS in 2012. The sediments are mainly composed of silt with a small fraction of clay. Both well-dated with 210Pb and 137Cs, the cores have high sedimentation rates, allowing for an annual to biannual resolution. Core 10 has a sedimentation rate of 1.1 cm yr-1 and provides continuous record since 1957, while Core 12 has a sedimentation rate of 1.3 cm yr-1 and spans from 1934. The cores were subsampled every centimeter for a total of 110 samples. Samples were treated using a standard palynological processing technique to extract dinoflagellate cysts and 300 cysts were counted per sample. In both cores, cysts were abundant, diverse and well preserved with the average cyst assemblage being characterized by an equal number of cysts produced by autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Of the 40 dinoflagellate cyst taxa, the most abundant are: Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp. Other common species are: Spiniferites ramosus, cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Echinidinium delicatum, E. zonneveldiae, E. transparantum, Islandinium minutum, and a thin pale brown Brigantedinium type. Changes in the sedimentary sequence of dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed by determining cyst

  18. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters vaptured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bruden, D.L.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical analyses were performed on sea otter blood samples collected from 31 adult males, 63 adult females, and 42 pups captured in western Prince William Sound (oiled area), and 12 adult males, 40 adult females, and 15 pups captured in eastern Prince William Sound (unoiled area) in 1989 and 1990. Hematologic differences between eastern and western adult males were minimal. Both hematocrits and hemoglobins were higher in western than eastern otters but the biological significance of this is equivocal. Western males had higher absolute eosinophil counts, suggesting possible systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Western males had higher serum protein and serum globulin levels than eastern males, suggesting greater antigenic stimulation (more inflammatory and/or infectious conditions). There were no differences in hematologic parameters between eastern and western female otters. Some chemistry changes were present, but the degree of difference was small. Total protein and serum globulin levels were slightly higher in western females, a finding also seen in adult males. Mean levels of liver enzymes for western females were somewhat higher than for the eastern otters, suggesting the possibility of subclinical liver disease. As a group, western pup hematocrits, hemoglobins, and red cell counts were significantly lower than those of eastern pups. From a biological perspective, these reductions were minimal but supported by individual animal data. The red cell data suggest a mild anemia in western pups; however, the degree of anemia was minimal, so that biological significance was equivocal. Other hematologic and clinical chemical differences between eastern and western pups were not striking and were also of equivocal biological significance.

  19. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m 2 to about 12,000 m 2 . Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Nutrients and other data from bottle casts in the Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from the ACONA in support of the Exxon Valdez Restoration Study (EVOS) from 13 July 1979 to 12 December 1979 (NODC Accession 0000531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and other data were collected from bottle casts from the ACONA in the Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from 13 July 1979 to 12 December 1979. Data...

  1. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety

  2. Bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez oil in Prince William Sound beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C; Geng, Xiaolong; Short, Jeff

    2016-12-15

    Oil from the Exxon Valdez laden with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has persisted on some beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, >20years after these beaches became contaminated. The degradation rate of the total PAH (TPAH) is estimated at 1% per year. Low oxygen concentrations were found to be the major factor causing oil persistence, and bioremediation through the injection of hydrogen peroxide and nutrients deep into four beaches in PWS were conducted in the summers of 2011 and 2012. It was found that due to the treatment, the TPAH biodegradation rate was between 13% and 70% during summer 2011 and summer 2012. The results also showed high efficiency in the delivery of oxygen and nutrient to the contaminated areas of the beach. However, the approach has an environmental cost associated with it, and stakeholders would need to conduct a rigorous net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) for pursuing the bioremediation of submerged contaminated sediments, especially in higher latitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conditions of persistent oil on beaches in Prince William Sound 26 years after the Exxon Valdez spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Mandy R.; Maselko, Jacek; Heintz, Ron A.; Fugate, Corey J.; Holland, Larry

    2018-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 10.8 million gallons of crude oil. Contrary to early projections, subsequent studies over several decades have shown subsurface oil persisting on impacted beaches. Here we present findings from a lingering oil survey conducted during the summer of 2015 at a small set of beaches in Prince William Sound known to have persistent subsurface Exxon Valdez oil. The objectives of the survey were to estimate how much oil remains at these sites, the oil composition, and oil retention rates compared to previous studies. Results from the survey found lingering oil was present at 8 of 9 sites that were revisited. Surveys revealed little evidence of change in oil area or mass over the last 14 years, nor has there been a change in the distribution of oiling intensities or their location on the beach. Detailed analysis of the oil indicated it has not weathered since 2001. Subsurface oils collected in 2015 have enriched concentrations of phenanthrenes and chrysenes relative to oil originating in the cargo hold indicating that buried oil has retained some toxic potential over the last two decades, but it is not currently bioavailable. Subsurface oil appears to be sequestered in sediments and protected from hydrological washing and low oxygen and nutrient levels inhibiting biodegradation. These findings are consistent with previous surveys and predictive geomorphic models suggesting the estimated 0.6% Exxon Valdez oil remaining is sequestered and not bioavailable unless disturbed and will likely persist in the environment on a decadal scale.

  4. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The author's results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. The emphasis of this chapter will be on some of the difficulties and problems associated with the fertilizer application and its effect on oil degradation. The author will concentrate primarily on the separate application of an oleophilic fertilizer which occurred at a site called Snug Harbor on Knight Island in Prince William Sound, and on the application of slow-release fertilizer granules which occurred on Disk Island in Prince William Sound

  5. Spatial and temporal ecological variability in the northern Gulf of Alaska: What have we learned since the Exxon Valdez oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, Donna G. R.; Lindeberg, Mandy R.; Holderied, Kris; Pegau, W. Scott

    2018-01-01

    This special issue examines oceanographic and biological variability in the northern Gulf of Alaska region with an emphasis on recent monitoring efforts of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) and Herring Research and Monitoring (HRM) programs funded by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council (EVOSTC). These programs are designed to improve our understanding of how changing environmental conditions affect Gulf of Alaska ecosystems and the long-term status of resources injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  6. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  7. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  8. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  9. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  10. Analysis of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impacts on Prince William Sound pink salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, E.L.; Moulton, L.L.; Maki, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on pink salmon in Prince William Sound (PWS), was studied. Since the incident, numerous and extensive field and laboratory studies have been completed by various scientists. This paper synthesized information on the post-spill salmon harvests, the concentration of petroleum that entered the water column, the number of streams oiled, and stream sediment chemistry, to determine the potential for oil spill effects. Results from this study showed that oiling to the extent experienced during incubation and rearing during both the spring and fall of 1989 through the spring of 1991, resulted in no measurable effects on the PWS pink salmon. The estimated losses predicted earlier, likely exceeded actual losses. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude 146°40...

  13. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Status of selected bottomfish and crustacean species in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.A.; Dinnel, P.A.; Orensanz, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure and possible adverse effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) at depth were studied between 1989 and 1991 on several species of crustaceans, molluscs, and finfish that are characterized by ontogenetic shifts in distribution from meroplanktonic larvae to benthic and demersal juveniles and adults. The authors approach was to search for (1) evidence of exposure to Exxon Valdez crude oil (EVC) at depth (generally between 20 to 150 m) and (2) measurable perturbations at both the individual and population levels. Primary species targeted were Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), several pandalid shrimps (Pandalus platyceros, P. hypsinotus, P. borealis), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), and several bivalves including scallops (Chlamys rubida) and infaunal clams (Nuculana, Yoldia, and Macoma spp.). The survey design provided a comparison between variables measured in oiled bays around Knight Island and non-oiled bays at other locations within Prince William Sound. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin were measured in all bays sampled in this study and levels of PAHs derived from EVC were elevated in the oiled bays following the spill, yet attenuated to less than 200 ng/g sediment by 1991. 95 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Trophic mass-balance model of Alaska's Prince William Sound ecosystem, for the post-spill period 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okey, T.A.; Pauly, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Ecopath modelling approach for the Prince William Sound (PWS) ecosystem was described. The area is the site of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), the largest spill in U.S. history. 36,000 tonnes of crude oil spread throughout the central and southwestern PWS into the Gulf of Alaska and along the Kenai and Alaska Peninsula. The initial effects of the oil spill were catastrophic. The Ecopath modelling approach discussed in this report is aimed at providing a cohesive picture of the PWS ecosystem by constructing a mass-balanced model of food-web interactions and trophic flows using information collected since the EVOS. The model includes all biotic components of the ecosystem and provides a quantitative description of food-web interactions and relationships, as well as energy flows among components. The model can provide an understanding of how ecosystems respond to disturbances, such as oil spills. 216 refs., 74 tabs., 13 figs., 8 appendices

  17. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Bird Nests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  18. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  19. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Recovery of intertidal hardshelled clams in Prince William Sound from Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.P.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    Native little neck (Protothaca staminea) and butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) were quantitatively surveyed from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydraulic washing of sand and gravel beaches altered beach morphology by transporting material down slope from upper elevations, often burying the lower beach in several centimeters of sediment having a relatively low content of fines and organic carbon. Hydraulically washed beaches showed significant reductions in clam densities in 1989 and 1990. Recruitment of clams was very limited on these beaches through 1993; as a result, clam densities on these hydraulically washed beaches remain very depressed compared to those on beaches that were unoiled or oiled but not washed. Littlenecks transplanted from a reference site to a heavily oiled but untreated site showed significant patterns of increased mortality, decreased growth, and increased bioaccumulation of PAH in response to a gradient in sediment PAH, This same heavily oiled site has consistently had among the highest rates of hardshelled clam recruitment of any of the sites sampled. Littlenecks also were transplanted to another heavily oiled beach that had been hydraulically washed and had little remaining hydrocarbons. These clams showed very high survival, yet this beach has had very little clam recruitment. It is hypothesized that recruitment at this site may be inhibited by the low level of finer sediments and low organic content remaining after washing

  1. Seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John R.; O'Dell, Matthew B.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Straley, Janice M.; Dickson, Danielle M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, are a conspicuous predator in the Prince William Sound ecosystem, yet there has been little effort directed towards monitoring this species since the 1980s, prior to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We used vessel-based surveys to examine the seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in the waters of Prince William Sound during eight years from 2007 to 2015. Over the course of 168 days and 15,653 km of survey effort, 921 Dall's porpoise were encountered in 210 groups. We estimate an encounter rate of 0.061 porpoise/km traveled or 1 porpoise encountered for every 16.5 km traveled. Dall's porpoise were found throughout the year in Prince William Sound, and used a wide range of habitats, including those not considered typical of the species, such as bays, shallow water, and nearshore waters. Dall's porpoise seasonally shifted their center of distribution from the western passages in fall to the bays of the eastern Sound in winter and spring. Dall's porpoises were widely dispersed throughout the Sound in summer. We identified potential Dall's porpoise habitat (depth, slope, and distance from shore) within Prince William Sound using generalized additive models (GAM). Dall's porpoise were found in deeper water during summer and in shallowest water during spring. We propose that their use of novel habitats is a function of reduced predation risk associated with the decline of their main predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca), following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the presence of overwintering and spawning Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). While the size of the Dall's porpoise population within Prince William Sound remains unknown, our encounter rates were lower than those reported in the 1970s. Their high metabolic rate and ubiquitous presence makes them one of the more important, yet understudied, forage fish predators in the region.

  2. In situ exposure of herring embryos in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, R.; Brown, E.; Baker, T.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate long-term residual toxicity, artificially spawned Pacific herring (Clupea pallasl) embryos were deployed at 5 oiled and 5 unoiled sites in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Embryos were exposed at 1.5 m and 4.5 m below mean low water for 8--10 d post fertilization. The embryos were then retrieved and transported to the laboratory for hatching and evaluation under controlled conditions, Endpoints were (1) embryo survival, (2) live hatch, (3) deformed larvae and (4) larval dry weight. The oiled sites produced significantly (P < 0.01) more deformed larvae (63.3%) than did the unoiled sites (51.3%), but there was a lower hatching success at the unoiled sites which resulted in no overall difference in normal live larvae produced between oiled and unoiled sites. The mean dry weight of newly hatched larvae from the oiled sites (78 microg/larva) was significantly lower than those from the unoiled sites (97 microg/larva) at all depths (P < 0.01). Increased larval deformities and reduced hatching weight is consistent with what has been reported by several investigators for herring larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on the data, there appeared to be differences between the previously oiled and unoiled sites relative to herring development, but it is not clear whether this was due to residual oil effects or parental effects

  3. Reassessment of the hydrocarbons in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska : identifying the source using partial least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska there has been much discussion regarding the clean-up and long term fate of the oil. There has also been debate regarding the origin of the background hydrocarbons present within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GoA). There is evidence that background (pre-spill) hydrocarbons may come from either nearby coal deposits or from natural oil seeps and eroding source rocks in the region. This paper presented a study in which the multivariate statistical methodology of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to reassess the percentage contribution of coal, seep oil, shales and rivers to the hydrocarbon loading in the GoA. Data was provided by researchers at the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Bowdoin College, for Exxon. The data was analysed using selected sites as sources in order to develop signatures. The signatures were based on 40 and 136 compounds respectively, including the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and terpane biomarkers from the Exxon data. The key components describing the sources were fitted to the data for other sites around the GoA to determine the proportion of the variability described by each source. The large complex datasets can be used to develop complex fingerprints for sources rather than using relatively simplistic ratios between selected compounds. The results indicate that 30 per cent of the signature is common between each source and that the small PAHs are the best diagnostic compounds in the model for the oil signature and the large PAHs are good for coal. Naphthalene, methyl and dimethyl naphthalene are the best markers for the seep oil signature. For the pre-spill background, coals and shales are best defined by the larger PAHs such as perylene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In general, the average partitioning between the two sources across all the sampling sites within the region indicated that 53 per cent is attributable to the

  4. A Conceptual Model of Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers and Their Influence on the Prince William Sound, Alaska, Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Cummins, Kenneth W; Highsmith, Raymond C; Hilborn, Ray; McRoy, C Peter; Parrish, Julia; Weingartner, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Prince William Sound (PWS) is a semi-enclosed fjord estuary on the coast of Alaska adjoining the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). PWS is highly productive and diverse, with primary productivity strongly coupled to nutrient dynamics driven by variability in the climate and oceanography of the GOA and North Pacific Ocean. The pelagic and nearshore primary productivity supports a complex and diverse trophic structure, including large populations of forage and large fish that support many species of marine birds and mammals. High intra-annual, inter-annual, and interdecadal variability in climatic and oceanographic processes as drives high variability in the biological populations. A risk-based conceptual ecosystem model (CEM) is presented describing the natural processes, anthropogenic drivers, and resultant stressors that affect PWS, including stressors caused by the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 and the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. A trophodynamic model incorporating PWS valued ecosystem components is integrated into the CEM. By representing the relative strengths of driver/stressors/effects, the CEM graphically demonstrates the fundamental dynamics of the PWS ecosystem, the natural forces that control the ecological condition of the Sound, and the relative contribution of natural processes and human activities to the health of the ecosystem. The CEM illustrates the dominance of natural processes in shaping the structure and functioning of the GOA and PWS ecosystems.

  5. Policy lessons from Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, D.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The wreck of the Exxon Valdez in Prince william sound in Alaska leaves in its aftermath grave policy questions about how much risk the public should be asked to bear and how much industry should be required to do to prevent oil spills and to clean them up when they occur. But because of industry's inadequate response to the Exxon Valdez spill, this catastrophe will provide few solid answers say the authors. The results of the accident were clearly catastrophic: 1,200 miles of polluted shorelines, 260,000 to 580,000 dead birds, decreased biological productivity, and disruption of life and business in scores of seashore communities. As with any accident, prevention and preparedness are the twin concepts that underlie most post-accident policy analyses. Actions since the accident by both Congress and the state of Alaska to prevent such spills in the future are useful, kelso and Brown note. The lack of effective technology to clean up large oil spills was dramatically demonstrated in this incident, they add, making a national research and development undertaking essential. Public involvement in establishing standards for spill prevention, response preparedness, and cleanup is vital, Kelso and Brown emphasize, because in the final analysis, it is the public that is hurt if the prevention and response systems break down

  6. Correlates of Harlequin Duck densities during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Dean, T.A.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated relationships of Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) densities to habitat attributes, history of habitat contamination by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, and prey biomass density and abundance during winters 1995-1997 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Habitat features that explained variation in duck densities included distance to streams and reefs, degree of exposure to wind and wave action, and dominant substrate type. After accounting for these effects, densities were lower in oiled than unoiled areas, suggesting that population recovery from the oil spill was not complete, due either to lack of recovery from initial oil spill effects or continuing deleterious effects. Prey biomass density and abundance were not strongly related to duck densities after accounting for habitat and area effects. Traits of Harlequin Ducks that reflect their affiliation with naturally predictable winter habitats, such as strong site fidelity and intolerance of increased energy costs, may make their populations particularly vulnerable to chronic oil spill effects and slow to recover from population reductions, which may explain lower densities than expected on oiled areas nearly a decade following the oil spill.

  7. Comparison of two shoreline assessment programs conducted for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harner, E.J.; Gilfillan, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Two large shoreline assessment studies conducted in 1990 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill used different design strategies to determine the impact of oiling on shoreline biota. One of the studies, the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment (CHIA) conducted for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Council, used matched pairs of sites, normal population distributions for biota, and meta-analysis. The power of the CHIA study to detect oiling impacts depends on being able to identify and select appropriate pairs of sites for comparison. The CHIA study also increased the oiling signal by focusing on moderate to heavily oiled sites. The Shoreline Ecology Program (SEP), conducted for Exxon, used a stratified-random-sampling study design, normal and non-normal population distributions and covariates. The SEP study was able to detect oiling impacts by using a sufficient number of sites and widely spaced transects

  8. Long-term monitoring program: Evaluating chronic exposure of harlequin ducks and sea otters to lingering Exxon Valdez Oil in Western Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    We found that average cytochrome P4501A induction (as measured by EROD activity) during March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks captured in areas of Prince William Sound oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, relative to those captured in unoiled areas. This result is consistent with findings from March 2013. We interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 years after the original spill. Results from preceding sampling in 2011 indicated that EROD activity was elevated in harlequin ducks in oiled relative to unoiled areas, although the magnitude of elevation was lower than in previous years (1998-2009), suggesting that the rate or intensity of exposure was diminishing by 2011. The data presented in this report add to a growing body of literature indicating that persistence of oil in the environment, and exposure of wildlife to that oil, can occur over much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′ W...

  10. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.G.; Harner, E.J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  11. The Exxon-Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.G.; Stringer, W.J.; Grove, J.E.; Ahlnas, K.; Royer, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that satellite images were used to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill after the tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef, Alaska 24 March 1989. Since that time, over 11 million gallons of crude oil have circulated through the western Prince William Sound region of Alaska, oiling many of its beaches. A good deal of this oil subsequently entered the Gulf of Alaska with some transported beyond Kodiak Island, 500 km to the southwest. Satellite imagery of the spill was recorded by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Landsat Thematic Mapper, the SPOT Panchromatic Scanner and the SPOT Multispectral Scanner. Images from all four of these sources have been analyzed to help ascertain the extent of the spill and monitor its trajectory along the Alaskan coast. Digital image processing techniques have been utilized to emphasize spectral responses related to oil on the water surface and on teaches. Turbidity and sea surface temperature data have been enhanced to provide information on the circulation and distribution of surface water bodies. In addition to the satellite imagery, airborne visual observations with aerial photography, Side-Looking Airborne Radar, and other airborne sensors as well as shipboard sightings and samples were acquired

  12. A holistic approach to hydrocarbon source allocation in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, embayments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    The complex organic geochemistry record in the subtidal sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska is a result of much industrial and human activity in the region. Recent oil spills and a regional background of natural petroleum hydrocarbons originating from active hydrocarbon systems in the northern Gulf of Alaska also contribute to the geochemical record. Pyrogenic and petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are introduced regularly to the subtidal sediments at sites of past and present human activities including villages, fish hatcheries, fish camps and recreational campsites as well as abandoned settlements, canneries, sawmills and mines. Hydrocarbon contributions are fingerprinted and quantified using a holistic approach where contributions from multiple sources is determined. The approach involves a good understanding of the history of the area to identify potential sources. It also involves extensive collection of representative samples and an accurate quantitative analysis of the source and sediment samples for PAH analytes and chemical biomarker compounds. Total organic carbon (TOC) does not work in restricted embayments because of a constrained least-square algorithm to determine hydrocarbon sources. It has been shown that sources contributing to the natural petrogenic background are present in Prince William Sound. In particular, pyrogenic hydrocarbons such as combustion products of diesel is significant where there was much human activity. In addition, petroleum produced from the Monterey Formation in California is present in Prince William Sound because in the past, oil and asphalt shipped from California was widely used for fuel. Low level residues of weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill are also still present. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Lack of physiological responses to hydrocarbon accumulation by Mytilus trossulus after 3-4 years chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.E.; Brodersen, C.; Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.; Rice, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1992 and 1993 from beaches in Prince William Sound that had been oiled by the Exxon Valdez spill of March, 1989. At some of the oiled beaches, mussels were collected from beds overlying oiled sediments, and from bedrock adjacent to these beds. Mussels were also collected from beaches within the Sound that had not been impacted by the spill. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, and glycogen content), were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 0 to 6 μg g -1 , and were significantly greater in mussels from oiled beds than those from reference beds. No significant differences were noted in byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, or glycogen content between oiled sample sites and reference sites. The lack of physiological response was surprising because mussels in this study were chronically exposed to PAH for 3-4 years, and none of the physiological responses measured appeared to be affected by that exposure. The lack of a physiological response suggests that chronically exposed mussels may develop a physiological tolerance to PAH, but we recognize that these measures may not have been sensitive enough to discriminate response from background noise. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Marchant, S.O.; O'Brien, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccess R which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  17. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  18. Transportation costs for forest products from the Puget Sound area and Alaska to Pacific Rim markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold W. Wisdom

    1990-01-01

    Ocean freight rates to Pacific Rim markets for softwood logs, cants, and wood pulp from Alaska were compared with rates from the Puget Sound area by using analysis of covariance and analysis of variance techniques. The results did not support the hypothesis that lower freight rates for Alaska result from shorter shipping distances. In many cases, ocean freight rates...

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in winter condition of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oceanographic exchange with the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kristen B.; Kline, Thomas C.; Roberts, Megan E.; Sewall, Fletcher F.; Heintz, Ron A.; Pegau, W. Scott

    2018-01-01

    Spatial variability in early and late winter measures of whole body energy density of juvenile (age-0) Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska was examined over nine years of study. Pacific herring in this region remain considered as an injured resource over the 25 years following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, however factors responsible for the lack of recovery by herring in PWS are a source of ongoing debate. Given the species' key ecological role in energy transfer to higher predators, and its economic role in a historical commercial fishery within the region, significant research effort has focused on understanding environmental factors that shape nutritional processes and the quality of these young forage fish. During November (early winter), factors such as juvenile herring body size, hydrological region of PWS, year, and the interaction between carbon (δ13C‧) or nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope signature and hydrological region were all important predictors of juvenile herring energy density. In particular, analyses indicated that in the northern and western regions of PWS, juvenile herring with more depleted δ13C‧ values (which reflect a Gulf of Alaska carbon source) were more energy dense. Results suggest that intrusion of water derived from the Gulf of Alaska enhances the condition of age-0 herring possibly through alterations in zooplankton community structure and abundance, particularly in the northern and western regions of PWS in the fall, which is consistent with regional circulation. During March (late winter), factors such as juvenile herring body size, year, and the interaction between δ13C‧ or δ15N isotope signature and year were all important predictors of juvenile herring energy density. Results differed for early and late winter regarding the interaction between stable isotope signatures and region or year, suggesting important seasonal aspects of circulation contribute to variation in PWS juvenile

  20. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshelis, David L.; Johnson, Ancel M.; Garshelis, Judith A.

    1984-01-01

    Sea otters in Prince William Sound. Alaska, were spatially segregated into predominantly (97%) male areas at the front of the expanding population and breeding areas with fewer (up to 33%) males. From 1975 to 1984 we captured and marked 267 otters with tags and (or) radio transmitters and investigated their reproductive strategies, social relationships, and patterns of sexual segregation. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in September and October. Females first bred at 4 years of age and were capable of pupping annually; they generally separated from their pup before mating. Males established breeding territories that enabled prolonged precopulatory interactions that may have prompted female–pup separation and post-copulatory interactions that precluded females from mating with other males. Male mating success was related to age, weight, territory quality, and the length of time they maintained their territory. After the breeding season, territorial males returned to male areas where food was more abundant. Young, dispersing males also entered male areas and remained there until attaining breeding age. In male areas, otters commonly rested in groups of >50 individuals. Gregariousness promoted social interactions and likely enhanced food finding and (historically) predator protection. As food diminished, males moved into adjacent, unoccupied regions; females then occupied former male areas.

  1. Hydrographic trends in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1960-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    A five-decade time series of temperature and salinity profiles within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the immediately adjacent shelf was assembled from several archives and ongoing field programs, and augmented with archived SST observations. Observations matched with recent cool (2007-2013) and warm (2013-onward) periods in the region, and also showed an overall regional warming trend ( 0.1 to 0.2 °C decade-1) that matched long-term increases in heat transport to the surface ocean. A cooling and freshening trend ( - 0.2 °C decade-1 and 0.02 respectively) occurred in the near surface waters in some portions of PWS, particularly the northwestern margin, which is also the location of most of the ice mass in the region; discharge (estimated from other studies) has increased over time, suggesting that those patterns were due to increased meltwater inputs. Increases in salinity at depth were consistent with enhanced entrainment of deep water by estuarine circulations, and by enhanced deep water renewal caused by reductions in downwelling-favorable winds. As well as local-scale effects, temperature and salinity were positively cross correlated with large scale climate and lunar indexes at long lags (years to months), indicating the longer time scales of atmospheric and transport connections with the Gulf of Alaska. Estimates of mixed layer depths show a shoaling of the seasonal mixed layer over time by several meters, which may have implications for ecosystem productivity in the region.

  2. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  3. Mass balance constraints on the sources of the petrogenic hydrocarbon background in offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Brown, J.S.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive sampling program was conducted in 1999 in the offshore sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to verify a recent claim that eroding coal beds are the source of petrogenic hydrocarbons background in the area. Samples taken in 1993 and 1994 were reanalyzed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Three Bering River coal samples plus 10 archived source-rock and 3 archived Gulf of Alaska seep and field oil samples from exploration activities in the 1960s and 1970s were also analyzed. The linear combination of the analyte distributions of 18 representative sources that most likely matched the compositions of each sample was derived using the least-squares method. Some of the potential contributing sources which were examined for this study included seep oil, eroding source rocks, eroding coal beds, glacial flour, recent terrestrial sources and human activity. It was determined that the recent claim was incorrect. Eroding Tertiary petroleum source rocks and residues of seep oils are the main sources of hydrocarbon background in the area, rather than area coals or residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Prince William Sound Herring disease program (HDP), restoration project 070819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Elliott, Diane G.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hansen, John D.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of pathogens in Pacific herring from 2007 – 2010 indicated that Ichthyophonus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and erythrocytic necrosis virus are endemic in Prince William Sound and throughout the NE Pacific. Laboratory studies with VHSV indicated that multiple herring stocks are equally susceptible to the resulting disease, Pacific herring shed copious levels of VHSV (as high at 5x108 plaque-forming units/day) shortly after exposure, chronic and persistent infections can occur in Pacific herring, susceptibility of Pacific herring to VHS extends to the larval life stages but not the embryonic stages, and the prior exposure history of Pacific herring to VHSV can be determined post hoc. Laboratory studies involving Ichthyophonus indicated that schizonts can be inactivated with chlorine and iodine solutions, the parasite can survive for extended periods in saltwater but not freshwater, a low potential exists for cross contamination between in vitro explant cultures, infectious schizonts are released from the skin surface of infected herring, schizonts are not uniformly distributed throughout the skeletal muscle of infected Pacific herring, multiple types of Ichthyophonus exist with different genotypes and phenotypic traits, and temperature is an important factor influencing the infectivity of Ichthyophonus. Additional field and laboratory studies indicated that Ichthyophonus negatively influences the swimming performance of infected hosts and the negative impacts effects are exacerbated by increasing temperatures, American shad are an important reservoir of Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, Pacific herring are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and Pacific herring will accept surgically implanted acoustic tags with negligible impacts on survival.

  5. Strain accumulation across the Prince William Sound asperity, Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Svarc, J. L.; Lisowski, M.

    2015-03-01

    The surface velocities predicted by the conventional subduction model are compared to velocities measured in a GPS array (surveyed in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2004) spanning the Prince William Sound asperity. The observed velocities in the comparison have been corrected to remove the contributions from postseismic (1964 Alaska earthquake) mantle relaxation. Except at the most seaward monument (located on Middleton Island at the seaward edge of the continental shelf, just 50 km landward of the deformation front in the Aleutian Trench), the corrected velocities qualitatively agree with those predicted by an improved, two-dimensional, back slip, subduction model in which the locked megathrust coincides with the plate interface identified by seismic refraction surveys, and the back slip rate is equal to the plate convergence rate. A better fit to the corrected velocities is furnished by either a back slip rate 20% greater than the plate convergence rate or a 30% shallower megathrust. The shallow megathrust in the latter fit may be an artifact of the uniform half-space Earth model used in the inversion. Backslip at the plate convergence rate on the megathrust mapped by refraction surveys would fit the data as well if the rigidity of the underthrust plate was twice that of the overlying plate, a rigidity contrast higher than expected. The anomalous motion at Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip at near the plate convergence rate on a postulated, listric fault that splays off the megathrust at depth of about 12 km and outcrops on the continental slope south-southeast of Middleton Island.

  6. Strain accumulation across the Prince William Sound asperity, Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The surface velocities predicted by the conventional subduction model are compared to velocities measured in a GPS array (surveyed in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2004) spanning the Prince William Sound asperity. The observed velocities in the comparison have been corrected to remove the contributions from postseismic (1964 Alaska earthquake) mantle relaxation. Except at the most seaward monument (located on Middleton Island at the seaward edge of the continental shelf, just 50 km landward of the deformation front in the Aleutian Trench), the corrected velocities qualitatively agree with those predicted by an improved, two-dimensional, back slip, subduction model in which the locked megathrust coincides with the plate interface identified by seismic refraction surveys, and the back slip rate is equal to the plate convergence rate. A better fit to the corrected velocities is furnished by either a back slip rate 20% greater than the plate convergence rate or a 30% shallower megathrust. The shallow megathrust in the latter fit may be an artifact of the uniform half-space Earth model used in the inversion. Backslip at the plate convergence rate on the megathrust mapped by refraction surveys would fit the data as well if the rigidity of the underthrust plate was twice that of the overlying plate, a rigidity contrast higher than expected. The anomalous motion at Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip at near the plate convergence rate on a postulated, listric fault that splays off the megathrust at depth of about 12 km and outcrops on the continental slope south-southeast of Middleton Island.

  7. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holba, C.; McGee, M.; Thompson, P.

    1993-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  8. Dispute over Exxon Valdez cleanup data gets messy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scientists from NOAA and Exxon dispute whether the Prince William Sound ecosystem is recovering from the Exxon Valdez spill. NOAA scientists claim that the Sound is still staggering from a major ecological blow and that crude oil weathering products are contaminating vast numbers of Alaskan wildlife. Exxon scientists claim that most of the biota of the Sound is returning to full strength and is largely free of oil from the spill. At the heart of the dispute is the technique of hydrocarbon fingerprinting to identify the source of crude. Exxon scientists claim that government scientists do not know how to interpret the data, and that what they claim is contamination from Valdez crude actually comes from other sources, such as diesel soot from the smokestacks of ships used to collect fish for study. NOAA scientists claim that hydrocarbon fingerprinting is an inappropriate method for tracking oil-spill damage to biota, due to the varied ways in which living organisms metabolize petroleum

  9. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  10. Egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, M. D.; Brown, E. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that instantaneous daily rates of egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring were higher at two oil-exposed sites than at two other sites not so exposed. Results showed that egg-larval mortality was twice as great in the oil-exposed areas as in the two non-oiled areas. Larval growth rates were also severely affected; they were about half of those measured in populations from other areas of the north Pacific Ocean. A cautionary note was introduced to the effect that the differences in the egg-larval mortality between oiled and control sites may have been influenced by differences in egg dessication, predation, and wave scouring, hence these results should not be construed as conclusive evidence of oil spill damage. 40 refs., 6 figs

  11. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... mandates two tug escorts for double hull tankers over 5,000 gross tons transporting oil in bulk in PWS. The... tug escort requirements apply to certain double hull tankers. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  12. Densities of Barrow's goldeneyes during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska in relation to habitat, food, and history of oil contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Dean, Thomas A.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated variation in densities of Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) during winter at 214 sites within oiled and unoiled study areas in Prince William Sound, Alaska in relation to physical habitat attributes, prey biomass, and history of habitat contamination by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Using general linear model analyses, we found that goldeneye densities were positively associated with occurrence of a stream within 200 m, lack of exposure to wind and waves, and mixed (versus rocky) substrate. We speculate that these associations relate to habitat profitability via selection of beneficial attributes and avoidance of detrimental features. We also determined that biomass of blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus), the primary prey, was not related to Barrow's Goldeneye densities; we suggest that mussel standing stock exceeds predation demands in our study areas and, thus, does not dictate goldeneye distribution. After accounting for habitat effects, we detected no effect of history of oil contamination on Barrow's Goldeneye densities, suggesting that populations have recovered from the oil spill. Although other studies documented hydrocarbon exposure in Barrow's Goldeneyes through at least 1997, either the level of exposure did not affect populations via reductions in survival, or effects of oil exposure were offset by immigration.

  13. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs

  14. Recent paleoseismicity record in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Miller, Eric J.; Marshall, Nicole R.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological and geochemical investigation of sediment cores collected in the deep (>400 m) central basin of Prince William Sound, along with geochemical fingerprinting of sediment source areas, are used to identify earthquake-generated sediment gravity flows. Prince William Sound receives sediment from two distinct sources: from offshore (primarily Copper River) through Hinchinbrook Inlet, and from sources within the Sound (primarily Columbia Glacier). These sources are found to have diagnostic elemental ratios indicative of provenance; Copper River Basin sediments were significantly higher in Sr/Pb and Cu/Pb, whereas Prince William Sound sediments were significantly higher in K/Ca and Rb/Sr. Within the past century, sediment gravity flows deposited within the deep central channel of Prince William Sound have robust geochemical (provenance) signatures that can be correlated with known moderate to large earthquakes in the region. Given the thick Holocene sequence in the Sound ( 200 m) and correspondingly high sedimentation rates (>1 cm year-1), this relationship suggests that sediments within the central basin of Prince William Sound may contain an extraordinary high-resolution record of paleoseismicity in the region.

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  16. Holocene deposition and megathrust splay fault geometries within Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pratt, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    New high resolution sparker seismic reflection data, in conjunction with reprocessed legacy seismic data, provide the basis for a new fault, fold, and Holocene sediment thickness database for Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, legacy airgun seismic data in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska tie features on these new sparker data to deeper portions of megathrust splay faults. We correlate regionally extensive bathymetric lineaments within Prince William Sound to megathrust splay faults, such as the ones that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Lastly, we estimate Holocene sediment thickness within Prince William Sound to better constrain the Holocene fault history throughout the region. We identify three seismic facies related to Holocene, Quaternary, and Tertiary strata that are crosscut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of the megathrust splay faults. The crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A change in exhumation rates, slip rates, and fault orientation appears near Hinchinbrook that we attribute to differences in subducted slab geometry. Based on our slip rate analysis, we calculate average Holocene displacements of 20 m and 100 m in eastern and western Prince William Sound, respectively. Landward of two splay faults exposed on Montague Island, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes.

  17. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  18. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Melissa L; Branch, Trevor A; Moffitt, Steven D; Hulson, Peter-John F

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  19. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Muradian

    Full Text Available The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt, with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  20. Synthesis of nearshore recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill: sea otter liver pathology and survival in Western Prince William Sound, 2001 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, George G.; Mohr, F.C.; Lipscomb, T.P.; Murray, M.J.; Howlin, S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined livers and liver biopsies collected from captured sea otters in WPWS, 2001–2008, to determine whether indicators of liver health correlated with history of oil contamination from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Sea otters captured in oiled areas had a significantly higher proportion of livers with gross pathological change, based on visual inspection at the time of capture, than those from unoiled areas. Of the 10 histopathology variables scored on liver biopsies, only two (vacuolar change and pigment) differed between animals from oiled and unoiled areas, and neither correlated with gross pathology scores. Vacuolar change indicates physiological disturbance, which is consistent with potential effects from oil exposure but also could be influenced by a number of other factors. We concluded that, as of 2008, some differences in liver health were evident between sea otters from oiled and unoiled areas; these differences were consistent with, but not specific to, effects that might be expected with sublethal exposure to lingering Exxon Valdez oil. We also quantified variation in survival of radiomarked sea otters within oiled areas of WPWS in relation to age, sex, body condition, selected blood serum chemistry variables, and histological scores indicative of liver health. Of the variables considered, only the serum enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the ratio of serum proteins albumin and globulin (A/G) were correlated with survival, with higher levels of AST and lower levels of A/G associated with increased likelihood of mortality. High AST and low A/G both may be indicative of liver disease. Taken together, results reported here suggest that liver health of sea otters in oiled areas was slightly poorer than those from unoiled areas and, ifurther, that this may have translated to poorer survival through 2008, nearly 2 decades after the spill. More recently collected information indicated that mortality patterns and abundance had returned to

  1. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  3. Megathrust splay faults at the focus of the Prince William Sound asperity, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberty, Lee M.; Finn, Shaun P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Peterson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    sparker and crustal-scale air gun seismic reflection data, coupled with repeat bathymetric surveys, document a region of repeated coseismic uplift on the portion of the Alaska subduction zone that ruptured in 1964. This area defines the western limit of Prince William Sound. Differencing of vintage and modern bathymetric surveys shows that the region of greatest uplift related to the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was focused along a series of subparallel faults beneath Prince William Sound and the adjacent Gulf of Alaska shelf. Bathymetric differencing indicates that 12 m of coseismic uplift occurred along two faults that reached the seafloor as submarine terraces on the Cape Cleare bank southwest of Montague Island. Sparker seismic reflection data provide cumulative Holocene slip estimates as high as 9 mm/yr along a series of splay thrust faults within both the inner wedge and transition zone of the accretionary prism. Crustal seismic data show that these megathrust splay faults root separately into the subduction zone décollement. Splay fault divergence from this megathrust correlates with changes in midcrustal seismic velocity and magnetic susceptibility values, best explained by duplexing of the subducted Yakutat terrane rocks above Pacific plate rocks along the trailing edge of the Yakutat terrane. Although each splay fault is capable of independent motion, we conclude that the identified splay faults rupture in a similar pattern during successive megathrust earthquakes and that the region of greatest seismic coupling has remained consistent throughout the Holocene.

  4. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  5. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  6. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  7. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals

  8. Exxon shelves Fawley capacity hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1993-01-01

    Exxon Chemical (Fareham, U.K.) has shelved plans to expand its 100,000-m.t./year steam cracker at Fawley, U.K. Exxon confirms it has not included the proposed expansion in the company's capital investment program for the next two to three years. 'Money is tight and this project failed to secure the investment,' the company says

  9. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  10. SAR Observation and Modeling of Gap Winds in the Prince William Sound of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Olsson, Peter Q; Volz, Karl

    2008-08-22

    Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) is a unique locale tending to have strong gap winds, especially in the winter season. To characterize and understand these strong surface winds, which have great impacts on the local marine and aviation activities, the surface wind retrieval from the Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR-wind) is combined with a numerical mesoscale model. Helped with the SAR-wind observations, the mesoscale model is used to study cases of strong winds and relatively weak winds to depict the nature of these winds, including the area of extent and possible causes of the wind regimes. The gap winds from the Wells Passage and the Valdez Arm are the most dominant gap winds in PWS. Though the Valdez Arm is north-south trending and Wells Passage is east-west oriented, gap winds often develop simultaneously in these two places when a low pressure system is present in the Northern Gulf of Alaska. These two gap winds often converge at the center of PWS and extend further out of the Sound through the Hinchinbrook Entrance. The pressure gradients imposed over these areas are the main driving forces for these gap winds. Additionally, the drainage from the upper stream glaciers and the blocking effect of the banks of the Valdez Arm probably play an important role in enhancing the gap wind.

  11. SAR Observation and Modeling of Gap Winds in the Prince William Sound of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Volz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alaska’s Prince William Sound (PWS is a unique locale tending to have strong gap winds, especially in the winter season. To characterize and understand these strong surface winds, which have great impacts on the local marine and aviation activities, the surface wind retrieval from the Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR-wind is combined with a numerical mesoscale model. Helped with the SAR-wind observations, the mesoscale model is used to study cases of strong winds and relatively weak winds to depict the nature of these winds, including the area of extent and possible causes of the wind regimes. The gap winds from the Wells Passage and the Valdez Arm are the most dominant gap winds in PWS. Though the Valdez Arm is north-south trending and Wells Passage is east-west oriented, gap winds often develop simultaneously in these two places when a low pressure system is present in the Northern Gulf of Alaska. These two gap winds often converge at the center of PWS and extend further out of the Sound through the Hinchinbrook Entrance. The pressure gradients imposed over these areas are the main driving forces for these gap winds. Additionally, the drainage from the upper stream glaciers and the blocking effect of the banks of the Valdez Arm probably play an important role in enhancing the gap wind.

  12. Megathrust splay faults at the focus of the Prince William Sound asperity, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberty, Lee M.; Finn, Shaun P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Peterson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution sparker and crustal-scale air gun seismic reflection data, coupled with repeat bathymetric surveys, document a region of repeated coseismic uplift on the portion of the Alaska subduction zone that ruptured in 1964. This area defines the western limit of Prince William Sound. Differencing of vintage and modern bathymetric surveys shows that the region of greatest uplift related to the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was focused along a series of subparallel faults beneath Prince William Sound and the adjacent Gulf of Alaska shelf. Bathymetric differencing indicates that 12 m of coseismic uplift occurred along two faults that reached the seafloor as submarine terraces on the Cape Cleare bank southwest of Montague Island. Sparker seismic reflection data provide cumulative Holocene slip estimates as high as 9 mm/yr along a series of splay thrust faults within both the inner wedge and transition zone of the accretionary prism. Crustal seismic data show that these megathrust splay faults root separately into the subduction zone décollement. Splay fault divergence from this megathrust correlates with changes in midcrustal seismic velocity and magnetic susceptibility values, best explained by duplexing of the subducted Yakutat terrane rocks above Pacific plate rocks along the trailing edge of the Yakutat terrane. Although each splay fault is capable of independent motion, we conclude that the identified splay faults rupture in a similar pattern during successive megathrust earthquakes and that the region of greatest seismic coupling has remained consistent throughout the Holocene.

  13. Estimation of probability of coastal flooding: A case study in the Norton Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Chapman, R. S.; Jensen, R. E.; Azleton, M. T.; Eisses, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Along the Norton Sound, Alaska, coastal communities have been exposed to flooding induced by the extra-tropical storms. Lack of observation data especially with long-term variability makes it difficult to assess the probability of coastal flooding critical in planning for development and evacuation of the coastal communities. We estimated the probability of coastal flooding with the help of an existing storm surge model using ADCIRC and a wave model using WAM for the Western Alaska which includes the Norton Sound as well as the adjacent Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea. The surface pressure and winds as well as ice coverage was analyzed and put in a gridded format with 3 hour interval over the entire Alaskan Shelf by Ocean Weather Inc. (OWI) for the period between 1985 and 2009. The OWI also analyzed the surface conditions for the storm events over the 31 year time period between 1954 and 1984. The correlation between water levels recorded by NOAA tide gage and local meteorological conditions at Nome between 1992 and 2005 suggested strong local winds with prevailing Southerly components period are good proxies for high water events. We also selected heuristically the local winds with prevailing Westerly components at Shaktoolik which locates at the eastern end of the Norton Sound provided extra selection of flood events during the continuous meteorological data record between 1985 and 2009. The frequency analyses were performed using the simulated water levels and wave heights for the 56 year time period between 1954 and 2009. Different methods of estimating return periods were compared including the method according to FEMA guideline, the extreme value statistics, and fitting to the statistical distributions such as Weibull and Gumbel. The estimates are similar as expected but with a variation.

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  15. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  16. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Stubblefield, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Oil spill response planning, training and facilities for wildlife in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The special provisions of the SERVS System of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company concerning the treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill, were described. The Company is prepared to mobilize a rapid response for protection and treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill anywhere along the trans-Alaska pipeline or in Prince William Sound. Equipment for hazing, capture, and treatment is pre-assembled and staged at facilities at the Valdez Marine Terminal. Veterinarians and wildlife treatment specialists are under contract for treating oiled birds. This complex of wildlife response capabilities meets or exceeds the guidelines and response planning standards set by wildlife agencies. 7 refs., 6 figs

  18. Of the Troco to Exxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    A historical recount of the presence is made in Colombia of what is today Exxon Mobil; company that with the same history of the Colombian petroleum and with good part of the industrial development of the country. It was the Tropical Oil Company (Troco), subsidiary in Colombia of the Standard Oil Company and that today it is known as Exxon Mobil, the one that made possible the take off of this industry in the beginnings of the century twenty

  19. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  20. Meteorological and other data from moored buoys in Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) in support of the Sound Ecosystem Analysis (SEAS) project from 08 October 1991 to 16 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000482)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and other data were collected from Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from moored buoys from 08 October 1991 to 16 December 1998. Buoys are part of...

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) (NODC Accession 0014154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1980)....

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1978): Marine Bird Habitats (F040) (NODC Accession 0014159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Habitats (F040) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1978). Each dataset uses the...

  3. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1983): Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) (NODC Accession 0014155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1983)....

  4. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) (NODC Accession 0014156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Standard Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975...

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979): Marine Bird Surveys (F041) (NODC Accession 0014160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Surveys (F041) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  6. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  8. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Feeding Flock (F037) (NODC Accession 0014157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Feeding Flock (F037) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  9. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, M.G.; Ka'aihue, L.

    2001-01-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  10. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance and community structure in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2009-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Caitlin A. E.; Campbell, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Large calanoid copepods and other zooplankters comprise the prey field for ecologically and economically important predators such as juvenile pink salmon, herring, and seabirds in Prince William Sound (PWS).​ From 2009-2016, the Gulf Watch Alaska program collected zooplankton 5-10 times each year at 12 stations in PWS to establish annual patterns. Surveys collected 188 species of zooplankton with Oithona similis, Limacina helicina, Pseudocalanus spp., and Acartia longiremis as the most common species present in 519 samples. Generalized additive models assessed seasonal abundance and showed peak abundance in July (mean: 9826 no. m-3 [95% CI: 7990-12,084]) and lowest abundance in January (503 no. m-3 [373 to 678]). Significantly higher zooplankton abundance occurred in 2010 (542 no. m-3 ± 55 SE) and lowest in 2013 (149 no. m-3 ± 13). The species composition of communities, determined via hierarchical cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, produced six distinct communities based on season and location. The winter community, characterized by warm-water indicator species including Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Calanus pacificus, and Corycaeus anglicus, diverged into four communities throughout the spring and summer. The first spring community, characterized by copepods with affinities for lower salinities, occurred sound-wide. The second spring community, comprised of planktonic larvae, appeared sporadically in PWS bays in 2011-2013. Spring and summer open water stations were defined by the presence of large calanoid copepods. A summer community including the most abundant taxa was common in 2010 and 2011, absent in 2013, then sporadically appeared in 2014 and 2015 suggesting interannual variability of zooplankton assemblages. The zooplankton community shifted to a uniform assemblage characterized by cnidarians in the early autumn. Community assemblages showed significant correlations to a set of environmental variables including SST, mixed layer depth

  11. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Plafker, G.; Svarc, J. L.; Lisowski, M.

    2014-07-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973-1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting ( 1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993-2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ ∑iut-ti. From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  12. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  13. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Plafker, George; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ < 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times tiwould be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  14. Distribution of juvenile Pacific herring relative to environmental and geospatial factors in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandoski, Sean; Bishop, Mary Anne

    2018-01-01

    Documenting distribution patterns of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) can clarify habitat preferences and provide insight into ecological factors influencing early life survival. However, few analyses relating juvenile Pacific herring density to habitat characteristics have been conducted. We sampled age-0 Pacific herring in nine bays and fjords distributed throughout Alaska's Prince William Sound during November over a 3-year period (2013-2015) and investigated associations between catch rate and habitat covariates using generalized linear mixed models. Our results indicated that the night-time distribution of age-0 Pacific herring in the pelagic environment was influenced by proximity to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, salinity, and water depth. Age-0 Pacific herring catch rate was negatively associated with tow depth, with herring favoring shallower water across the range of depths sampled (7.2-35.4 m). In addition, Pacific herring distribution was positively associated with fresher water within the sampled salinity gradient (24.1-32.3 psu) and proximity to eelgrass beds. Seasonal changes in juvenile Pacific herring distribution were investigated by sampling one bay over a seven month period (October-April). Age-0 Pacific herring tended to remain in the inner bay region throughout the seven months, while age-1 Pacific herring had shifted from the inner to the outer bay by spring (March-April). Additionally, catch rate of age-0 Pacific herring in areas where ice breakup had just occurred was higher than in open water, suggesting that age-0 herring preferentially select ice-covered habitats when available. Based on our results we recommend that habitat preferences of age-0 Pacific herring should be considered in the development of Pacific herring year-class strength indices from catch data.

  15. Focused exhumation along megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Armstrong, Phillip A; Liberty, Lee M; Ferguson, Kelly M; Finn, Shaun P; Arkle, Jeannette C; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Megathrust splay faults are a common feature of accretionary prisms and can be important for generating tsunamis during some subduction zone earthquakes. Here we provide new evidence from Alaska that megathrust splay faults have been conduits for focused exhumation in the last 5 Ma. In most of central Prince William Sound, published and new low-temperature thermochronology data indicate little to no permanent rock uplift over tens of thousands of earthquake cycles. However, in southern Prince William Sound on Montague Island, apatite (U–Th)/He ages are as young as 1.1 Ma indicating focused and rapid rock uplift. Montague Island lies in the hanging wall of the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system, which ruptured during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake and produced ∼9 m of vertical uplift. Recent geochronology and thermochronology studies show rapid exhumation within the last 5 Ma in a pattern similar to the coseismic uplift in the 1964 earthquake, demonstrating that splay fault slip is a long term (3–5 my) phenomena. The region of slower exhumation correlates with rocks that are older and metamorphosed and constitute a mechanically strong backstop. The region of rapid exhumation consists of much younger and weakly metamorphosed rocks, which we infer are mechanically weak. The region of rapid exhumation is separated from the region of slow exhumation by the newly identified Montague Strait Fault. New sparker high-resolution bathymetry, seismic reflection profiles, and a 2012 Mw4.8 earthquake show this feature as a 75-km-long high-angle active normal fault. There are numerous smaller active normal(?) faults in the region between the Montague Strait Fault and the splay faults. We interpret this hanging wall extension as developing between the rapidly uplifting sliver of younger and weaker rocks on Montague Island from the essentially fixed region to the north. Deep seismic reflection profiles show the splay faults root into the subduction megathrust where there

  16. Timelines and mechanisms of wildlife population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Matkin, Craig O.; Cushing, Daniel; Kaler, Robert; Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly A.

    2018-01-01

    Research and monitoring activities over the 28 years since the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska have led to an improved understanding of how wildlife populations were damaged, as well as the mechanisms and timelines of recovery. A key finding was that for some species, such as harlequin ducks and sea otters, chronic oil spill effects persisted for at least two decades and were a larger influence on population dynamics over the long term than acute effects of the spill. These data also offer insights into population variation resulting from factors other than the oil spill. For example, while many seabirds experienced direct and indirect effects of the spill, population trajectories of some piscivorous birds, including pigeon guillemots and marbled murrelets, were linked to long-term environmental changes independent of spill effects. Another species, killer whales, suffered population declines due to acute spill effects that have not been resolved despite lack of chronic direct effects, representing a novel pathway of long-term injury. The observed variation in mechanisms and timelines of recovery is linked to species specific life history and natural history traits, and thus may be useful for predicting population recovery for other species following other spills.

  17. Revisiting source identification, weathering models, and phase discrimination for Exxon Valdez oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driskell, W.B.; Payne, J.R.; Shigenaka, G.

    2005-01-01

    A large chemistry data set for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and saturated hydrocarbon (SHC) contamination in sediment, water and tissue samples has emerged in the aftermath of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska. When the oil was fresh, source identification was a primary objective and fairly reliable. However, source identification became problematic as the oil weathered and its signatures changed. In response to concerns regarding when the impacted area will be clean again, this study focused on developing appropriate tools to confirm hydrocarbon source identifications and assess weathering in various matrices. Previous efforts that focused only on the whole or particulate-phase oil are not adequate to track dissolved-phase signal with low total PAH values. For that reason, a particulate signature index (PSI) and dissolved signature index (DSI) screening tool was developed in this study to discriminate between these 2 phases. The screening tool was used to measure the dissolved or water-soluble fraction of crude oil which occurs at much lower levels than the particulate phase, but which is more widely circulated and equally as important as the particulate oil phase. The discrimination methods can also identify normally-discarded, low total PAH samples which can increase the amount of usable data needed to model other effects of oil spills. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Timelines and mechanisms of wildlife population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Matkin, Craig; Cushing, Daniel; Kaler, Robert; Bodkin, James; Monson, Daniel; Esslinger, George; Kloecker, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Research and monitoring activities over the 28 years since the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska have led to an improved understanding of how wildlife populations were damaged, as well as the mechanisms and timelines of recovery. A key finding was that for some species, such as harlequin ducks and sea otters, chronic oil spill effects persisted for at least two decades and were a larger influence on population dynamics over the long term than acute effects of the spill. These data also offer insights into population variation resulting from factors other than the oil spill. For example, while many seabirds experienced direct and indirect effects of the spill, population trajectories of some piscivorous birds, including pigeon guillemots and marbled murrelets, were linked to long-term environmental changes independent of spill effects. Another species, killer whales, suffered population declines due to acute spill effects that have not been resolved despite lack of chronic direct effects, representing a novel pathway of long-term injury. The observed variation in mechanisms and timelines of recovery is linked to species specific life history and natural history traits, and thus may be useful for predicting population recovery for other species following other spills.

  19. Strategic management of oil spills: some lessons from the Exxon Valdez disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geistauts, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1989 the tanker Exxon Valdez grounded on a well-known reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound, resulting in an oil spill of nearly 11 million gallons (260,000 barrels). Much of the oil washed ashore, coating over 1,200 miles of shoreline, and damaged marine mammals, birds, and other life forms. Response to the spill revealed lack of preparedness, disagreement as to appropriate response tactics and technologies, and a confused decision-making structure. This article provides details of the Alaskan setting of the disaster. The historical conflict between economic development and environmental preservation that characterizes the region is emphasised. An outline is given of the apparent causes of this particular oil spill and then a number of strategic propositions concerning oil spills in general and their remediation are presented. In conclusion, it is argued briefly that, in general, effective and efficient maritime oil spill prevention and remediation require technological, logistic and decision-making mechanisms to be in place at all times on a global scale. This suggests that there should be an overall structural framework, composed of key sub-structures providing the necessary mechanisms. (U.K.)

  20. Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite

  1. Physical data from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of Alaska; Institute of Marine Science (UAK/IMS) in support of the Exxon Oil Spill Monitoring Program and the Gulf of Alaska Recirculation Project from 1989-05-05 to 1989-05-28 (NODC Accession 8900171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and sigma-t profiles from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX. Data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of...

  2. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  3. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  4. Gene Transcript Profiling in Sea Otters Post-Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Tool for Marine Ecosystem Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizabeth Bowen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS, Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS. We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS from the Alaska Peninsula (2009, Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009, Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012, Kodiak Island (2005 and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription; Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription; and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription. The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  5. Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez oil spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Waters, Shannon C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS) from the Alaska Peninsula (2009), Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009), Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012), Kodiak Island (2005) and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription); Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription); and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription). The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  6. Landslides and megathrust splay faults captured by the late Holocene sediment record of eastern Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.P.; Liberty, Lee M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    We present new marine seismic‐reflection profiles and bathymetric maps to characterize Holocene depositional patterns, submarine landslides, and active faults beneath eastern and central Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, which is the eastern rupture patch of the 1964 Mw 9.2 earthquake. We show evidence that submarine landslides, many of which are likely earthquake triggered, repeatedly released along the southern margin of Orca Bay in eastern PWS. We document motion on reverse faults during the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake and estimate late Holocene slip rates for these growth faults, which splay from the subduction zone megathrust. Regional bathymetric lineations help define the faults that extend 40–70 km in length, some of which show slip rates as great as 3.75  mm/yr. We infer that faults mapped below eastern PWS connect to faults mapped beneath central PWS and possibly onto the Alaska mainland via an en echelon style of faulting. Moderate (Mw>4) upper‐plate earthquakes since 1964 give rise to the possibility that these faults may rupture independently to potentially generate Mw 7–8 earthquakes, and that these earthquakes could damage local infrastructure from ground shaking. Submarine landslides, regardless of the source of initiation, could generate local tsunamis to produce large run‐ups along nearby shorelines. In a more general sense, the PWS area shows that faults that splay from the underlying plate boundary present proximal, perhaps independent seismic sources within the accretionary prism, creating a broad zone of potential surface rupture that can extend inland 150 km or more from subduction zone trenches.

  7. Environmental science in a legal context: The Exxon Valdez experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D.G. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Marine Science; Bader, H. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Resources Management

    1996-11-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska, the government gathered environmental data about this accident`s environmental consequences. This was done primarily as part of natural-resource damage assessment, a focused process which is defined in United States law and which limits information gathering to a specific set of studies to meet those statutory requirements. The goal of the damage assessment process is to determine the extent of injury to natural resources so that biological restoration can be obtained; it was neither designed nor intended to study effects of oil spills in a broad sense. Other programs and funding sources exist for that purpose. In our opinion, however, two major problems arose when damage assessment was applied to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. First, the procedural constraints on environmental data collection severely compromised the state and federal governments` ability to demonstrate natural resource injury. Second, by the time it became generally understood what kinds of studies would and would not be conducted as part of the natural-resource damage assessment, numerous valuable research opportunities had either been lost or curtailed for lack of alternate funding. We suggest possible solutions to these problems including better understanding of the goals and limitations of the damage assessment process by those involved, decreased reliance on ecological baseline data, and replacement of restoration with mitigation as a goal of damage assessment. 45 refs

  8. Seaweeds and the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekoll, M.S.; Deysher, L.; Dean, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    A three-year study, initiated in 1989, has evaluated the response of subtidal and intertidal seaweed communities to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities. The project was part of the coastal habitat injury assessment research sanctioned under the natural resource damage assessment program. A stratified random design was used to select oiled sites for the study. Paired control (unoiled) sites were then matched to the oiled sites. The most consistent effect found in subtidal populations in Prince William Sound was the higher relative abundance of small-size classes of kelps at the oiled sites, indicating the prior disappearance of larger plants. This disappearance was possibly caused by activities associated with the cleanup operations. Intertidal populations of algae were affected by the spill and cleanup in all three major areas studied: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet-Kenai, and Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula. The most obvious effect was a significant removal of the dominant intertidal plant Fucus gardneri from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The limited dispersal of this plant combined with the relatively harsh conditions of the upper intertidal will cause a slow recovery of the upper intertidal zone in the affected areas. Effects of the spill extended to other algal species. Species such as Cladophora, Myelophycus, Odonthalia, Palmaria, and Polysiphonia showed decreases in their percent cover at oiled sites. Only Gloiopeltis populations appeared to increase in percent cover in oiled areas. In both the Cook Inlet-Kenai and the Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula areas Fucus populations appeared to be enhanced in the lower intertidal zone - between 2 and 3 meters below the high-tide mark - in 1991

  9. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  10. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  11. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  12. Survey design, statistical analysis, and basis for statistical inferences in coastal habitat injury assessment: Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.L.; Erickson, W.P.; Strickland, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment study was to document and quantify injury to biota of the shallow subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal zones throughout the shoreline affected by oil or cleanup activity associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The results of these studies were to be used to support the Trustee's Type B Natural Resource Damage Assessment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A probability based stratified random sample of shoreline segments was selected with probability proportional to size from each of 15 strata (5 habitat types crossed with 3 levels of potential oil impact) based on those data available in July, 1989. Three study regions were used: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula, and Kodiak/Alaska Peninsula. A Geographic Information System was utilized to combine oiling and habitat data and to select the probability sample of study sites. Quasi-experiments were conducted where randomly selected oiled sites were compared to matched reference sites. Two levels of statistical inferences, philosophical bases, and limitations are discussed and illustrated with example data from the resulting studies. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Sheen surveillance: An environmental monitoring program subsequent to the 1989 Exxon Valdez shoreline cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, D.G.; Egging, D.E.; Kuhn, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the fall of 1989, an aerial surveillance program was implemented to locate oil sheens (or slicks) originating from shorelines affected by the Exxon Valdez spill. The objectives of the program were to identify any oil on the water that warranted response and to identify those sections of shoreline that would be priority candidates for further cleanup in 1990. The program initially surveyed the entire affected area, but, because proportionally fewer sheens were spotted in the Gulf of Alaska, the program was refocused on Prince Williams Sound in early 1990. The surveillance program consisted of frequent low-altitude flights with trained observers in a deHavilland Twin otter outfitted with observation ports and communication equipment. The primary surveillance technique used was direct visual observation. Other techniques, including photography, were tested but proved less effective. The flights targeted all shorelines of concern, particularly those near fishing, subsistence, and recreational areas.the observers attempted to locate all sheens, estimate their size and color, ad identify the source of the oil found in the sheen. Size and color were used to estimate the volume of oil in each sheen. Samples were collected whenever possible during the summer of 1990 using a floating Teflon trademark sampling device that was developed for easy deployment from a boat or the pontoon of a float plane. Forty four samples were analyzed by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Eleven of these samples were also analyzed by GC/MS. In general, the analyses confirmed the observers' judgment of source. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A Review of distribution and quantity of lingering subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) are, at present, patchily distributed across the geologically complex and spatially extensive shorelines of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. We review and synthesize previous literature describing the causal geomorphic and physical mechanisms for persistence of oil in the intertidal subsurface sediments of these areas. We also summarize previous sampling and modeling efforts, and refine previously presented models with additional data to characterize the present-day linear and areal spatial extent, and quantity of lingering subsurface oil. In the weeks after the spill in March of 1989, approximately 17,750 t of oil were stranded along impacted shorelines, and by October of 1992, only 2% of the mass of spilled oil was estimated to remain in intertidal areas. We estimate that lingering subsurface residues, generally between 5 and 20 cm thick and sequestered below 10-20 cm of clean sediment, are present over 30 ha of intertidal area, along 11.4 km of shoreline, and represent approximately 227 t or 0.6% of the total mass of spilled oil. These residues are typically located in finer-grained sand and gravel sediments, often under an armor of cobble- or boulder-sized clasts, in areas with limited groundwater flow and porosity. Persistence of these residues is correlated with heavy initial oil loading together with localized sheltering from physical disturbance such as wave energy within the beach face. While no longer generally bioavailable and increasingly chemically weathered, present removal rates for these remaining subsurface oil residues have slowed to nearly zero. The only remaining plausible removal mechanisms will operate over time scales of decades.

  15. Forest resources of Prince William Sound and Afognak Island, Alaska: their character and ownership, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlllem W.S. van Hees

    1989-01-01

    The 1978 inventory of the forest resources of Prince William Sound and Afognak Island was designed to produce estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber. Estimates of timber resource quantities were also categorized by owner. Nearly 56 percent of the available timberland area is under Forest Service management, and almost 40...

  16. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  17. The relationship of near-surface active faulting to megathrust splay fault geometry in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Northrup, C.; Pratt, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    We interpret regionally extensive, active faults beneath Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to be structurally linked to deeper megathrust splay faults, such as the one that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Western PWS in particular is unique; the locations of active faulting offer insights into the transition at the southern terminus of the previously subducted Yakutat slab to Pacific plate subduction. Newly acquired high-resolution, marine seismic data show three seismic facies related to Holocene and older Quaternary to Tertiary strata. These sediments are cut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of megathrust splay. Crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A distinct boundary coinciding beneath the Hinchinbrook Entrance causes a systematic fault trend change from N30E in southwestern PWS to N70E in northeastern PWS. The fault trend change underneath Hinchinbrook Entrance may occur gradually or abruptly and there is evidence for similar deformation near the Montague Strait Entrance. Landward of surface expressions of the splay fault, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes. Surface exposures of Tertiary rocks throughout PWS along with new apatite-helium dates suggest long-term and regional uplift with localized, fault-controlled subsidence.

  18. Biological, chemical, optical, and physical observations collected aboard the Alaska marine highway system ferry TUSTUMENA in the Gulf of Alaska from September 15, 2004 through November 6, 2008 (NODC Accession 0070122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An oceanographic measurement system aboard the Alaskan ferry Tustumena operated for four years in the Alaska Coastal Current with funding from the Exxon Valdez Oil...

  19. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely represents the northwestern edge of a broader swath of plate boundary deformation between the Montague-Hinchinbrook Island region and the Kayak Island

  20. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing investigation of

  1. Introduction to Exxon nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant in Richland, Washington produces fuel assemblies for both pressurized water and boiling water reactors. The Richland plant was the first US bulk-handling facility selected by the IAEA for inspection under the US-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. The plant was under IAEA inspection from March 1981 through October 1983. This text provides a written description of the plant layout, operation and process. The text also includes a one ton-a-day model (or reference) plant which was adapted from the Exxon Nuclear plant. The Model Plant provides a generic example of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) bulk-handling facility. The Model Plant is used to illustrate in a more quantitative way some of the key safeguards requirements for a bulk-handling facility

  2. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  3. Structure and petroleum potential of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Major structural features of the Yakutat segment, the segment of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska, are delineated by multichannel seismic reflection data. A large structural high is centered on Fairweather Ground and lies generally at the edge of the shelf from Cross Sound to west of the Alsek Valley. A basement uplift, the Dangerous River zone, along which the seismic acoustic basement shallows by up to two kilometers, extends north from the western edge of Fairweather Ground towards the mouth of the Dangerous River. The Dangerous River zone separates the Yakutat segment into two distinct subbasins. The eastern subbasin has a maximum sediment thickness of about 4 km, and the axis of the basin is near and parallel to the coast. Strata in this basin are largely of late Cenozoic age (Neogene and Quaternary) and approximately correlate with the onshore Yakataga Formation. The western subbasin has a maximum of at least 9 km of sediment, comprised of a thick (greater than 4.5 km) Paleogene section overlain by late Cenozoic strata. The Paleogene section is truncated along the Dangerous River zone by a combination of erosion, faulting, and onlap onto the acoustic basement. Within the western subbasin, the late Cenozoic basin axis is near and parallel to the coast, but the Paleogene basin axis appears to trend in a northwest direction diagonally across the shelf. Sedimentary strata throughout the Yakutat shelf show regional subsidence and only minor deformation except in the vicinity of the Fairweather Ground structural high, near and along the Dangerous River zone, and at the shoreline near Lituya Bay. Seismic data across the continental slope and adjacent deep ocean show truncation at the continental slope of Paleogene strata, the presence of a thick (to 6 km) undeformed or mildly deformed abyssal sedimentary section at the base of the slope that in part onlaps the slope, and a relatively narrow zone along the slope or at

  4. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in feathers of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); McKnight, Aly [P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Shoup Bay in Prince William Sound, Alaska to determine if there were age-related differences in metal levels, and in Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani)) from the same region to determine if there were differences in oiled and unoiled birds. Except for mercury, there were no age-related differences in metals levels in the feathers of kittiwakes. Kittiwakes over 13 years of age had the highest levels of mercury. There were no differences in levels of metals in the feathers of oystercatchers from oiled and unoiled regions of Prince William Sound. Except for mercury, the feathers of oystercatchers had significantly higher levels of all metals than those of kittiwakes. Levels of mercury in kittiwake feathers (mean of 2910 ng/g [ppb]) were within the range of many species of seabirds reported for other studies, and were generally below adverse effects levels.

  6. AFSC/ABL: Exxon Valdez Trustee Hydrocarbon Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This hydrocarbon database was initiated after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The first version was as an RBase database, PWSOIL(Short, Heintz et al. 1996). It...

  7. Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palinkas, L.A.; Petterson, J.S.; Russell, J.; Downs, M.A. (Impact Assessment, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts and the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms in 13 Alaska communities. METHOD: A community survey of 599 men and women was conducted approximately 1 year after the spill occurred. Questions from the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule were used to assess symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to assess levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The post-spill (i.e., 1-year) prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD for the study communities with all degrees of exposure was 20.2% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of respondents with CES-D Scale scores above 16 and 18 was 16.6% and 14.2%, respectively. When compared with the unexposed group, members of the high-exposure group were 3.6 times as likely to have generalized anxiety disorder, 2.9 times as likely to have PTSD, 1.8 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 16 and above, and 2.1 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 18 and above. Women exposed to this event were particularly vulnerable to these conditions, and Alaska Natives were particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms after the oil spill. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the oil spill's impact on the psychosocial environment was as significant as its impact on the physical environment. The Exxon Valdez experience suggests a number of implications for the mental health needs of disaster victims, particularly in primary care settings.

  8. Reconnaissance from Fort Hamlin to Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, by way of Dall, Kanuti, Allen, and Kowak rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, W.C.

    1902-01-01

    The reconnaissance described in the following pages was carried out in pursuance of a plan which has been followed for some years by the United States Geological Survey in the topographic and geologic exploration of the little-known parts of Alaska and in the collection of such information as will be of value not only to the scientific world, but to the prospector, the miner, and the trader. Capital disappears and years are wasted by prospectors who push out beyond the shifting frontier and pursue their search for gold where gold is not to be expected, and lives are being continually lost because the location and character of trails, drainage ways, and mountain ranges and passes are unknown, or because the knowledge which a few possess is not in a form available for the use of others.

  9. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  10. Validation of Sea levels from coastal altimetry waveform retracking expert system: a case study around the Prince William Sound in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N. H.; Deng, X.; Idris, N. H.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the validation of Coastal Altimetry Waveform Retracking Expert System (CAWRES), a novel method to optimize the Jason satellite altimetric sea levels from multiple retracking solutions. The validation is conducted over the region of Prince William Sound in Alaska, USA, where altimetric waveforms are perturbed by emerged land and sea states. Validation is performed in twofold. First, comparison with existing retrackers (i.e. MLE4 and Ice) from the Sensor Geophysical Data Records (SGDR), and second, comparison with in-situ tide gauge data. From the first validation assessment, in general, CAWRES outperforms the MLE4 and Ice retrackers. In 4 out of 6 cases, the value of improvement percentage (standard deviation of difference) is higher (lower) than those of the SGDR retrackers. CAWRES also presents the best performance in producing valid observations, and has the lowest noise when compared to the SGDR retrackers. From the second assessment with tide gauge, CAWRES retracked sea level anomalies (SLAs) are consistent with those of the tide gauge. The accuracy of CAWRES retracked SLAs is slightly better than those of the MLE4. However, the performance of Ice retracker is better than those of CAWRES and MLE4, suggesting the empirical-based retracker is more effective. The results demonstrate that the CAWRES would have potential to be applied to coastal regions elsewhere.

  11. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  12. Model simulations of the drift and spread of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the drift and spread of the Exxon-Valdez oil spill that occurred on March 24, 1989 are simulated using a modified version of the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service oil spill behavior model. The model simulations show that the movement of the oil out of Prince William Sound and beyond is sensitive to the wind/ocean currents taken into account is three to four times that with either wind or ocean currents only. While 12-day drift of the spill containing the higher concentrations of oil parcels is in very good agreement with observations, model simulations show the presence of oil further to the south, albeit in lower concentrations. The lateral spread of the oil is also very well simulated by the model

  13. Long-term effects of Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments on intertidal infauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driskell, W.B.; Houghton, J.P.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Lees, D.C.; Shigenaka, G.; Mearns, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from five years of quantitative monitoring (1989 through 1993) have been analyzed for trends in infaunal recovery on Prince William Sound sand and gravel beaches affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill and cleanup. Hydraulic washing caused significant, immediate changes in beach morphology, sediment structure, and biota. Total organism abundance, species richness, species diversity, and abundances of several major taxa (polychaetes, molluscs, gastropods) were dramatically reduced in hot-water-treated beaches relative to those in unoiled beaches. These reductions remain discernible but have lessened somewhat after five years. Oiled but untreated beaches continue to have a richer and more abundant infauna than those that were hot-water washed. Multivariate analyses indicate trends in recovery and identify important species in the successional recolonization. Correlations of biological variables with residual sediment total PAH and with sediment coarseness suggest that changes in beach morphology resulting from washing were as important as residual hydrocarbons in affecting recovery

  14. 2005 Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Lidar: Unalakleet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report is a summary of a LiDAR data collection over the community of Unalakleet, in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The original data were collected on...

  15. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires..., conservation and environmental, public-at-large, recreation users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and mariculture, and Native landowners. In order to ensure that a...

  16. ExxonMobil and QGPC sign EGU agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    ExxonMobil Middle East Gas Marketing Ltd., an Exxon Mobil Corporation subsidiary, and Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC) announced on May 2 that they have signed a Development and Production Sharing Agreement (DPSA) for the Enhancement Gas Utilization (EGU) project. Under the EGU project, additional North Field gas will be developed for pipeline sales to domestic projects and regional gas exports. The signing ceremony was attended by HE Abdulla Bin Hamad Al Attiyah, Minister of Energy, Industry, Electricity and Water and Chairman of QGPC, Mr Lucio A. Noto, Vice Chairman, Exxon Mobil Corporation, and Mr Harry J. Longwell, Senior Vice President, Exxon Mobil Corporation. The signing of the agreement follows the signing of the Heads of Agreement (HOA) for the project i December 1998. The EGU project will produce gas from the North Field with nominal capacity of 1.75 billion cubic feet per day (1.75 BCFPD) of gas sales to supply domestic demand and export to regional markets. The project will also produce condensate, butane and propane for export, as well as ethane for feedstock to future petrochemical ventures. (author)

  17. Herring parasite and tissue alterations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.D.; Rice, S.D.; Okihiro, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined the intensity and prevalence of larval nematodes (Anisakis simplex) and alterations in selected tissues of spawning Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) exposed to crude oil, in the laboratory under controlled conditions and in Prince William Sound 14 days after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In the laboratory, intensity and prevalence of nematodes in the body cavities of herring exposed to the water-soluble fraction of oil declined when exposed to doses above 1.2 mg/L total aromatics. In Prince William Sound, nematodes were rare in spawning herring from oiled sites and abundant among herring from areas outside the spill. Oil exposure apparently induced the nematodes to migrate from the body cavity to the body wall with the lower intensity reflecting a change in parasite location. A coccidian, Eimeria clupearum, was found in greater numbers in oil-exposed herring. To verify exposure effects and to link parasite and tissue alteration with oil exposure, histological examination was used. Liver coagulative necrosis indicated hepatotoxic exposure. Necrosis was followed by macrophage aggregation in the resolution phase. The laboratory exposures allowed confirmation of oil exposure in Prince William Sound and permitted analysis of effects on two internal parasites

  18. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from ALPHA HELIX From Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from 1989-05-05 to 1989-05-11 (NODC Accession 8900192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Alaska, Institute of Marine Science is responsible for this data collected aboard the R/V Alpha Helix on cruise number HX123 between May 5, 1989 to...

  19. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  20. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear material control and accounting system at Exxon Nuclear will be described in detail. Subjects discussed will include: the basis of the MC and A system, the nuclear materials accounting systems (NMRS and NICS), physical inventory taking, IAEA inspection experience, safeguards organization, measurements and measurement control, MUF evaluation, accounting forms and reports and use of tamper-indicating seals. The general requirements for material accounting and control in this type of a bulk-handling facility are described. The way those requirements are met for the subject areas shown above is illustrated using a reference (Model Plant) version of the Exxon Nuclear plant The difference between the item-accounting procedures used at reactor facilities and the bulk-accounting procedures used at fuel fabrication facilities is discussed in detail

  1. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public... users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and...

  3. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oilspill in March 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved. Model analyses suggested that actual seabird mortality could have been in the hundreds of thousands, prompting concerns about severe and persistent impacts on populations of several species, especially murres (Uria spp.). Recovery for some populations was projected to take decades. The findings of several studies conducted following the oil spill, however, indicate that these concerns may not be justified. These studies examined colony attendance and reproduction of murres as well as habitat utilization for the prevalent species in Prince William Sound and along the Kenai Peninsula. Surveys of attendance by birds at murre breeding colonies in 1991 indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels when colonies were grouped by the degree of oiling in the vicinity. At a large colony in the Barren Islands, where damage was described as especially severe, counts of murres were generally similar to historical estimates made in the late 1970s. In 1990 and 1991, murres breeding at the Barren Islands colony also produced young at levels that were within the range of natural (prespill) variation for this site. Incidental observations indicated that several other species reproduced successfully in oiled areas in Prince William Sound and along the Kenai Peninsula following the spill. 161 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Benthic data from bottom grabs from Prince William Sound in support of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project from the R/V DAVIDSON and R/V BIG VALLEY from 03 July 1990 to 25 June of 1991 (NODC Accession 0000447)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic samples and other data were collected from the R/V DAVIDSON and R/V BIG VALLEY from the Prince William Sound from 03 July 1990 to 25 June of 1991 . Data were...

  5. Projection of the Earth's energy mix between 2010 and 2040 as seen by Exxon Mobil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a French comment of Exxon Mobil's 2014 issue of the 'Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040' publication. The original Exxon Mobil report is attached to the document. The Outlook for Energy is Exxon Mobil's long-term global view of energy demand and supply. Its findings help guide Exxon Mobil's long-term investments, and help promote better understanding of the issues shaping the world's energy future. Updated each year, this edition covers the period to 2040. The Outlook for Energy includes Exxon Mobil Corporation's internal estimates and forecasts of energy demand, supply, and trends through 2040 based upon internal data and analyses as well as publicly available information from external sources including the International Energy Agency. This report includes forward looking statements

  6. Children's moral and ecological reasoning about the Prince William Sound oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, P H

    1997-11-01

    Sixty 2nd, 5th, and 8th graders were interviewed on their moral and ecological reasoning about the 1990 Exxon Valdez oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Results showed that children understood that the oil spill negatively affected the local Alaskan shoreline, marine life, fishermen, recreationists, and the oil company. Children cared that harm occurred to the shoreline and marine life and conceived of both types of harm as violating a moral obligation. Fifth and 8th graders, compared with 2nd graders, used a greater proportion of anthropocentric reasoning (e.g., that nature ought to be protected to protect human welfare) and biocentric reasoning (e.g., that nature has intrinsic value, rights, or a teleology). Discussion focuses on how studying children's reasoning about nature not only extends the bounds of what counts as moral--to include a relationship with the natural world--but also provides a unique means by which to conduct basic research on children's moral development.

  7. Damage assessment in coastal habitats: Lessons learned from Exxon Valdez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, T.A.; McDonald, L.; Stekoll, M.S.; Rosenthal, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines alternative designs for the monitoring and assessment of damages of environmental impacts such as oil spills. The optimal design requires sampling at pairs of impacted (oiled) and control (unoiled) sites both before and after the event. However, this design proved impractical in evaluating impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on nearshore subtidal communities, and may be impractical for future monitoring. An alternative design is discussed in which sampling is conducted at pairs of control and impact sites only after the impact

  8. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on survival of Pacific herring eggs and viability of their larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, M.D.; Warburton, H.D.; Parker, T.B.; Litke, M.; Marliave, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 coincided with the spawning period of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in the spill area. Adult herring were first observed near their spawning ground about a week after the spill. Spawners were concentrated in four major areas of Prince William Sound. The northeast and north areas were untouched by the spill, but the Naked Island archipelago and the northern tip of Montague Island were in the spill path. Previous research has shown that growth and mortality of free-swimming herring larvae were not significantly different between non-oiled and oiled areas of the Sound, suggesting that any effect of the oil spill on herring may have been restricted to the egg stage. This hypothesis was tested by measuring survival, hatching schedule, and viability of herring eggs collected from oiled and non-oiled areas of the Sound and incubated in laboratory aquaria. Variance analysis showed that egg survival and mean age of hatch varied with oil treatment, depth, and the interaction of treatment and depth. Six larval abnormalities were identified, all of which would render larvae effectively dead in a natural environment. Dry egg weight and yolk volume varied only with depth. Despite these findings, the population dynamics of both oiled and non-oiled herring eggs from the Sound in 1989 resembled the dynamics of natural, uncontaminated herring eggs. A possible reason for this similarity is that most eggs in the oil treatments may have been exposed to relatively low concentrations of hydrocarbons. 2 refs

  9. Acoustic effects of oil-production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska-1990 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.J.; Greene, C.R.; Koski, W.R.; Smultea, M.A.; Cameron, G.

    1991-10-01

    The report concerns the effects of underwater noise from simulated oil production operations on the movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales migrating around northern Alaska in spring. An underwater sound projector suspended from pack ice was used to introduce recorded drilling noise and other test sounds into leads through the pack ice. These sounds were received and measured at various distances to determine the rate of sound attenuation with distance and frequency. The movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales approaching the operating projector were studied by aircraft- and ice-based observers. Some individuals of both species were observed to approach well within the ensonified area. However, behavioral changes and avoidance reactions were evident when the received sound level became sufficiently high. Reactions to aircraft are also discussed

  10. Bioremediation of marine oil spills: when and when not--the Exxon Valdez experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald; Bragg, James

    2009-03-01

    In this article we consider what we have learned from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in terms of when bioremediation should be considered and what it can accomplish. We present data on the state of oiling of Prince William Sound shorelines 18 years after the spill, including the concentration and composition of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) sampled by systematic shoreline surveys conducted between 2002 and 2007. Over this period, 346 sediment samples were analysed by GC-MS and extents of hydrocarbon depletion were quantified. In 2007 alone, 744 sediment samples were collected and extracted, and 222 were analysed. Most sediment samples from sites that were heavily oiled by the spill and physically cleaned and bioremediated between 1989 and 1991 show no remaining SSOR. Where SSOR does remain, it is for the most part highly weathered, with 82% of 2007 samples indicating depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Total PAH) of >70% relative to EVOS oil. This SSOR is sequestered in patchy deposits under boulder/cobble armour, generally in the mid-to-upper intertidal zone. The relatively high nutrient concentrations measured at these sites, the patchy distribution and the weathering state of the SSOR suggest that it is in a form and location where bioremediation likely would be ineffective at increasing the rate of hydrocarbon removal. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Long-term effects of Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments on rocky intertidal epibiota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.P.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.; Shigenaka, G.; Mearns, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-water treatments used to remove Exxon Valdez oil from rocky beaches of Prince William Sound in 1989 were shown to have severe short-term impacts on intertidal epibenthos. Quantitative sampling was conducted from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate recovery of littoral habitats from the effects of oiling and hotwater washing. Effects of hot-water treatments applied in 1989 remained visible in intertidal assemblages through 1993. Some hot-water treated rocky shores that had been stripped of biota showed little colonization by 1991; significant differences remained between epibiota on unoiled shores and that on oiled shores that were hot-water washed. On other oiled rocky shores that were not hot-water washed, the majority of the community dominants, including rockweed, mussels, barnacles, limpets, drills, and littorines, survived the oiling; by July 1991 these shores did not differ in most respects from unoiled shores. By July 1993 hot-water-washed rocky shores had been colonized by opportunistic species as well as by most of the original biota. Algal assemblages were heavily dominated by rockweed, but red algae reminded depressed, especially at lower elevations; otherwise, few significant differences remained in 1993 between the epibiota on unoiled and hot-water-washed shores. Full recovery appears to be several years away in many areas, however

  12. Assessing ExxonMobil's Climate Change Communications (1977-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supran, G.; Oreskes, N.

    2017-12-01

    Coal, oil, and gas companies have operated - and continue to operate - across myriad facets of the climate problem: scientific, political, and public. Efforts to engage the fossil fuel industry in addressing climate change should therefore be informed by this broad historical context. In this paper, we present an empirical document-by-document textual content analysis and comparison of 187 diverse climate change communications from ExxonMobil spanning 1977 to 2014, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, internal company documents, and paid, editorial-style advertisements ("advertorials") in The New York Times. We examine whether these communications sent consistent messages about the state of climate science and its implications - specifically, we compare their positions on climate change as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. In all four cases, we find that as documents become more publicly accessible, they increasingly communicate doubt. That is, ExxonMobil contributed to advancing climate science - by way of its scientists' academic publications - but promoted doubt about it in advertorials. Our findings shed light on one oil and gas company's multivalent strategic responses to climate change. They offer a cautionary tale against myopic engagement with the fossil fuel industry, demonstrating the importance of evaluating the full spectrum of a company's claims and activities.

  13. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved and overall mortality was estimated in the hundreds of thousands. These observations led to concerns about persistent impacts on seabirds, especially murres (Uria spp.). Surveys of attendance by murres at breeding colonies in the spill path in 1991, however, indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels. Investigations of habitat occupancy conducted shortly after the spill in 1989 showed that, of the 47 bird species examined, the majority were using areas of oil-affected habitats by late 1991, although a few species did not show clear signs of recovery at the end of the study. These species were primarily wintering and resident forms. Because habitat use by other ecologically similar species was not affected by the spill or they recovered rapidly, prospects for recovery of the species that continued to show evidence of oiling impacts on habitat use in late 1991 would seem to be good. Collectively, these studies indicate that concerns about long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds may not be justified, and that recovery in the use of habitats by many bird species and in colony attendance by murres appeared to be well advanced by late 1991

  14. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  15. Spatial and temporal variation in marine birds in the north Gulf of Alaska: The value of marine bird monitoring within Gulf Watch Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Esler, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Birds offer useful insights into marine ecosystems. Marine birds are responsive to spatial and temporal variation in the environment, that often originates with fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic drivers and permeates up through food webs to conspicuous top predators such as seabirds (Coyle and Pinchuk 2005, Speckman et al. 2005, Gonzales-Solis et al. 2009, Cushing et al., this report). In that way, marine birds are excellent assimilators, samplers, and indicators of the status of marine environments (Montevecchi 1993, Piatt et al. 2007b, Zador et al. 2013). Marine bird responses to dynamic marine ecosystems can be detected in a variety of metrics, including abundance, distribution, and productivity. For example, in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA), decadal-scale variation in oceanographic conditions has been associated with dramatic shifts in prey composition and abundance (Anderson and Piatt 1999). In turn, these shifts were more closely correlated with changes in abundance of fish-eating birds of Prince William Sound (PWS), such as pigeon guillemots (Golet et al. 2002) and marbled and Kittlitz’s murrelets (Kuletz et al. 2011a, 2011b), than in the abundance of species that primarily consume plankton or benthic prey (Agler et al. 1999, Cushing et al., this report). Birds also are responsive to anthropogenic influences in marine environments, including commercial fishing, contamination, introduction of non-native species, coastal development, offshore resource extraction, and vessel traffic. A major anthropogenic perturbation in the northern GOA was the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, in which marine birds suffered high immediate mortality (Piatt and Ford 1996). Additionally, several species showed long-term evidence of declines in the oiled areas of PWS (Lance et al. 2001), as well as impacts to reproductive success years later (Golet et al. 2002). However, the degree of direct impact and vulnerability to chronic injury, which was related to exposure to

  16. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    .... ADDRESSES: First floor conference room, Glenn Olds Hall, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska. FOR... public. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. [FR Doc. 2013-21569...

  17. OpenMPI and ExxonMobil Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Nathan Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchard, Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-09

    These are a series of slides for a presentation for ExxonMobil's visit to Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered are: Open MPI - The Release Story, MPI-3 RMA in Open MPI, MPI dynamic process management and Open MPI, and new options with CLE 6. Open MPI RMA features are: since v2.0.0 full support for the MPI-3.1 specification, support for non-contiguous datatypes, support for direct use of the RDMA capabilities of high performance networks (Cray Gemini/Aries, Infiniband), starting in v2.1.0 will have support for using network atomic operations for MPI_Fetch_and_op and MPI_Compare_and_swap, tested with MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE.

  18. 76 FR 20715 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... continuing sounding rocket operations at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... information about NASA's Sounding Rocket Program (SRP) and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks' PFRR may be...

  19. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  20. Visitor, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide Library Alaska Historical Society Alaska State Museum Sheldon Jackson Museum Industry Facts Agriculture

  1. Record reach : ExxonMobil extends its own world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2008-06-15

    Extended reach drilling (ERD) records are now regularly being broken by ExxonMobil Corporation's Sakhalin project on Russia's east coast. In 2008, an oil well on the coast established a new record by achieving a measured depth of 11,680 meters. The well was punched out by a Texas-based drilling company using the world's largest land-based drilling rig. The use of ERD has reduced the capital and operating costs of the project in addition to reducing its environmental impacts. ERD has been used to drill onshore beneath the seafloor and has eliminated the need for additional offshore structure and pipelines. The horizontal reach of the wells has improved productivity while also avoiding disturbing whale migrations in the region. The rig features a 1.5 million pound load capacity, 3000 horsepower draw-works. The top-drive drilling systems were used to transmit real time data to external locations for further evaluation. Oil and gas is also produced from a gravity-based offshore platform. It was concluded that longer wellbore are now being developed by the corporation in order to drill under the Beaufort Sea. 2 figs.

  2. Status review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    central population is limited and it requires additional study. Compiling available abundance information, we estimated that in the recent past, Marbled Murrelets in Alaska numbered on the order of 1 million birds. We were unable to generate a similar estimate for historical population size in British Columbia. Using trend information from at-sea surveys spanning a wide geographic range in Alaska, murrelet numbers declined significantly at five of eight trend sites at annual rates of -5.4 to -12.7 percent since the early 1990s. Applying these rates of decline to the historical population estimate, the current murrelet population in Alaska is projected to be on the order of 270,000 birds. This represents an overall population decline of about 70 percent during the past 25 years. In British Columbia, available trend data indicate that murrelet populations there have experienced similar declines. We updated a recent (2002) population estimate for British Columbia, concluding that there are now between 54,000 and 92,000 murrelets in British Columbia. The rates of decline we observed are within, but at the high end of, a range of rates expected by chance. Given that declines were estimated for sites over essentially the entire northern range of the species, there is cause for concern about the species? status. In their marine habitats, Marbled Murrelets overlap with salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) gillnetting operations in British Columbia and in Alaska (especially in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska), and annual bycatch mortality is likely in the low thousands per year, although bycatch rates are difficult to measure. The species? inshore distribution coincides with high levels of vessel traffic and makes them especially vulnerable to both chronic oil pollution and to catastrophic spills (e.g., the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill [EVOS] in south-central Alaska, which is estimated to have killed 12,000 to 15,000 murrelets). In their forested nesting habitats, Marbled Murrelets

  3. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  4. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin; Hong, Su-Myeong; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X.

    2011-01-01

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 μg/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 μg/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  5. 75 FR 39910 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource..., Anchorage, Alaska 99503. Send written comments to Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee, c/o USDA...

  6. Assessing ExxonMobil’s climate change communications (1977-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supran, Geoffrey; Oreskes, Naomi

    2017-08-01

    This paper assesses whether ExxonMobil Corporation has in the past misled the general public about climate change. We present an empirical document-by-document textual content analysis and comparison of 187 climate change communications from ExxonMobil, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, internal company documents, and paid, editorial-style advertisements (‘advertorials’) in The New York Times. We examine whether these communications sent consistent messages about the state of climate science and its implications—specifically, we compare their positions on climate change as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. In all four cases, we find that as documents become more publicly accessible, they increasingly communicate doubt. This discrepancy is most pronounced between advertorials and all other documents. For example, accounting for expressions of reasonable doubt, 83% of peer-reviewed papers and 80% of internal documents acknowledge that climate change is real and human-caused, yet only 12% of advertorials do so, with 81% instead expressing doubt. We conclude that ExxonMobil contributed to advancing climate science—by way of its scientists’ academic publications—but promoted doubt about it in advertorials. Given this discrepancy, we conclude that ExxonMobil misled the public. Our content analysis also examines ExxonMobil’s discussion of the risks of stranded fossil fuel assets. We find the topic discussed and sometimes quantified in 24 documents of various types, but absent from advertorials. Finally, based on the available documents, we outline ExxonMobil’s strategic approach to climate change research and communication, which helps to contextualize our findings.

  7. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  8. Foreword: The evolution from species-specific damage assessment to ecosystem centric studies over the multi-decade period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stanley; Peterson, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound became the largest spill in U.S. waters at that time, and impacts and recovery from the spill were monitored extensively across time and species through to the present. By the 10-year anniversary, it was apparent that this spill had induced long-lasting oil contamination of shoreline habitats, long-lasting ecological effects, and demanded fundamental changes in the conceptual model of how to study spills and what to expect had been changed. This special volume (1) presents a selection of papers representing the evolution of studies leading to those currently underway; and (2) demonstrates how there is constant change in the environment, requiring larger and more complex studies to understand both natural and man-caused changes to a coastal ecosystem.

  9. Social and environmental sustainability in large-scale coastal zones: Taking an issue-based approach to the implementation of the Prince William Sound sustainable human use framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale J. Blahna; Aaron Poe; Courtney Brown; Clare M. Ryan; H. Randy Gimblett

    2017-01-01

    Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based...

  10. Exxon and Higher Education: Reflections on One Student-to-Student Advising Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschauer, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes the implementation of Exxon's Student-to-Student advising program at Wautauga College. Advanced students are hired to teach beginning students basic college survival skills including time management, taking lecture notes, reading textbooks, taking exams, writing reports, making oral presentation, and improving interpersonal relations.…

  11. Sound velocity, temperature, and salinity profiles from underway vessel profiler and CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER from West of Prince of Wales, Alaska, from 2008-10-07 to 2008-11-10 (NODC Accession 0048722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER from West of Prince of Wales, Alaska, from 07 October 2008 to 10 November 2008. Data were collected...

  12. Sound velocity, temperature, and salinity profiles from underway vessel profiler and CTD casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the Chatham Straight, coastal waters of SE Alaska, from 2008-06-02 to 2008-06-16 (NODC Accession 0048895)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in Chatham Straight, coastal wasters of SE Alaska, from 02 June 2008 to 16 June 2008. Data were...

  13. The use of mussel PAH burdens to assess bioavailability and long-term risk to wildlife following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankiewicz, P.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Neff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected as part of shoreline studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Data from sites monitored through 1991 in Prince William Sound indicate tissue PAH burdens decreasing over an order of magnitude per year and near levels observed at control sites by the summer of 1991. The distribution of PAH analyses in the tissue shows extensive weathering of the oil and is similar to the pattern observed in adjacent sediments. This similarity in PAH fingerprints suggests mussel accumulation of oil particulates rather than dissolved aromatics. Analyses indicate that the highest PAH concentrations in mussels are at least an order of magnitude below levels known to cause reproductive effects in wildlife. Evaluation of the abundance of mussels in Prince William Sound indicate that the impacted mussels are a small fraction of the total mussel population. Considering the above and that mussels generally comprise a small fraction of total diet, there is little long-term risk to wildlife from the consumption of mussels. These results will be placed in context to a 1993 survey of mussel tissue burdens in Prince William Sound

  14. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  15. State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Center Occupations Requiring Licenses Corporations Employer Information Alaska's Job Bank/Alaska Assistance Center Alaska's Job Bank Occupations Requiring Licenses Corporations Unemployment Insurance Tax Child Care Child Protection Denali KidCare Food Stamps Poison Control Seasonal Flu Immunization

  16. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  17. Operating experience with Exxon nuclear advanced fuel assembly and fuel cycle designs in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, F.B.; Killgore, M.R.; Holm, J.S.; Brown, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear Company (ENC) has achieved a high standard of performance in its supply of fuel reloads for both BWRs and PWRs, while introducing substantial innovations aimed at realization of improved fuel cycle costs. The ENC experience with advanced design features such as the bi-metallic spacer, the dismountable upper tie plate, natural uranium axial blankets, optimized water-to-fuel designs, annular pellets, gadolinia burnable absorbers, and improved fuel management scenarios, is summarized

  18. CSI : Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. It highlighted the unique qualifications of Enbridge Inc. in creating an infrastructure to move the supply to where it is in most demand. Enbridge has substantial northern experience and has a unique approach for the construction of the Alaskan Gas Pipeline which entails cooperation, stability and innovation (CSI). Enbridge's role in the joint venture with AltaGas and Inuvialuit Petroleum was discussed along with its role in the construction of the first Canadian pipeline in 1985. The 540 mile pipeline was buried in permafrost. A large percentage of Enbridge employees are of indigenous descent. Enbridge recognizes that the amount of capital investment and the associated risk needed for the Alaska Gas Pipeline will necessitate a partnership of producers, pipeline companies, Native organizations, the State of Alaska, market participants and other interested parties. 9 figs

  19. Business, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment Advisors Business Law Charitable Gaming Division of Banking & Securities Laws Relating to Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska State Government Jobs Federal Jobs Starting a Small Business Living Get a Driver License Get a Hunting

  20. Alaska Community Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us

  1. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  2. Biological conditions of shorelines following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, S.W.; Neff, J.M.; Schroeder, T.R.; McCormick, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is based primarily on survey results from Prince William Sound, where most of the heavy shoreline oiling occurred. Although not strictly quantitative, the shoreline surveys provide an unprecedented, broad base of professional observations covering the entire spill-affected area from 1989 through 1992 by which to evaluate spill impacts and recovery. Shoreline surveys documented that the extent of shoreline oiling declined substantially from 1989 to 1992. In 1989, oil was found on about 16 percent of the 3,000 miles of shoreline in Prince William Sound; by the spring of 1991, oil was found on only about 2 percent of the shoreline; and by May of 1992, on only 0.2 percent. In all years, most of this oil was located in the biologically least productive upper intertidal and supratidal zones. In both 1991 and 1992, small, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found on some boulder/cobble beaches. Most of these deposits were also located in the upper intertidal and were usually buried beneath clean sediments. In almost all cases, the condition of intertidal biological communities improved correspondingly from 1989 to 1992. By the spring of 1991, recovery appeared to be well under way on virtually all previously oiled shores, with species composition, abundance, and diversity levels usually comparable to those of nearby shores that were not oiled in 1989. Recruitment of intertidal plants and animals was observed as early as the summer of 1989, and increasingly through 1991 and 1992. Recruitment was evident even in areas with remnant deposits of surface and subsurface oil, indicating that toxicity levels of the oil had declined substantially and that, in most cases, the residual oil no longer interfered with biological recovery. Observations of birds and marine mammals on or near shorelines surveyed during 1991 and 1992 confirmed that species present before the spill were still present and were feeding and reproducing in areas affected by oil in 1989

  3. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  4. The role of Imperial Oil Limited in the global priorities and local initiatives of Exxon Corporation R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin-Dulude, L.; Desranleau, C.; Fortier, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Research and development expenditures by Exxon Corporation, one of the major multi-national oil companies, was studied in an effort to demonstrate the manner in which research and development is planned, managed and financed on a global scale, and to discern the role played in the worldwide network of Exxon Corporation laboratories by Exxon's main Canadian affiliate, Imperial Oil Limited of Sarnia. The findings are based upon close examination of all public documents regarding Exxon and its affiliates since 1882 to 1975, and interviews with research personnel. It was described how in the 1920s, the Sarnia research centre of Imperial Oil began to develop its expertise in lubricant research, earning a world research mandate in 1967 with exclusive rights in this area for the entire Exxon Corporation. It is evident that by being able to concentrate in areas that took advantage of their technological competence and expertise while, on the other hand, ensuring that the processes and products generated by the whole network of laboratories were available and adapted to the Canadian context, the commercial impact of Imperial's research and development efforts have been greatly enhanced by its affiliation with the large multinational company. 27 refs

  5. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  6. 75 FR 16159 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-0121] Prince William Sound Regional... the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the...

  7. 77 FR 19301 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2012-0099] Prince William Sound Regional... Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the activities...

  8. 76 FR 1187 - Application for Recertification of Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... on, the application for recertification submitted by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's... advisory group in lieu of a Regional Citizens' Advisory Council for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This...

  9. Alaska Child Support Services Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payments Online! The CSSD Business Services Portal offers employers the convenience of paying child support ://my.Alaska.gov. Reporting online will save you time and money! If your business already has a myAlaska account Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska

  10. Time-series current measurements, temperature, and salinity data from CTD, moored buoy, and current meter casts from the Norton Sound Alaska from 14 July 1985 to 22 July 1985 (NODC Accession 0000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Time-series current measurements, temperature, and salinity data were collected from fixed platforms at the Bering Sea - Norton Sound from July 14, 1985 to July 22,...

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  14. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  15. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  16. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  17. Information needs for habitat protection: Marbled murrelet habitat identification. Restoration project 93051b. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuletz, K.J.; Marks, D.K.; Naslund, N.L.; Goodson, N.G.; Cody, M.B.

    1994-12-01

    To define murrelet nesting habitat in southcentral Alaska, we surveyed inland activity of murrelets and measured habitat features between 1991 and 1993, in Prince William Sound, Kenai Fjords National Park and Afognak Island, Alaska (N=262 sites). Using all study areas, we developed statistical models that explain variation in murrelet activity levels and predict the occurrence of behaviors indicative of nesting, based on temporal, geographic, topographic, weather and habitat variables. The multiple regression analyses explained 52 percent of the variation in murrelet activity level. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify variables that could predict the occurrence of nesting behaviors. The best model included survey method (from a boat, shore or inland), location relative to the head of a bay, tree diameter and number of potential nesting platforms on trees. Overall, the features indicative of murrelet nesting habitat included low elevation locations near the heads of bays, with extensive forest cover of large old-growth trees.

  18. Postrelease monitoring of radio-instrumented sea otters in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.; Stack, C.; Monson, Daniel H.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that were captured in western Prince William Sound (PWS) or the Gulf of Alaska, treated, and held in captivity at the temporary rehabilitation centers established in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill were instrumented with radio transmitters, released into eastern PWS, and monitored by radiotelemetry. We undertook the present study to gain information for guiding the release of the remaining captive otters and evaluating the efficacy of sea otter rehabilitation after exposure to crude oil. Radio transmitters were attached to the flippers of seven sea otters released in May 1989 and monitored for periods of a few hours to more than 60 days. However, little was learned about the fate of these animals because the radio transmitters used proved unreliable. Forty-five additional sea otters from the rehabilitation centers were implanted with radio transmitters, released into northeastern PWS and monitored for 8 months. During the first 20 days after the first release of these implanted otters (n = 21), they were more mobile than wild-caught and released sea otters studied in PWS, from 1984 through 1990. All were alive and vigorous at the end of the 20-day period. Tracking of all 45 implanted sea otters during the 8-month period showed that the otters remained highly mobile. Many (46.6%) crossed into western PWS. However, by the end of the 8 months, 12 of the instrumented otters were dead and 9 were missing. One radio failed. These mortality and missing rates are much higher than those normally observed for adult sea otters in PWS. The death rate was highest in winter. These data suggest that, despite the tremendous amount of money and energy directed toward the treatment and care of these animals, the sea otters released from the centers were not completely rehabilitated, that is, not returned to a normal state. We recommend that future policies focus on preventing otters from becoming oiled, rather than attempting to treat them

  19. An assessment of oil-spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Adults and escapement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.; Brannon, E.J.; Gilbertson, L.G.; Moulton, L.L.; Skalski, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field program designed to monitor the status of wildstock pink salmon populations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Field counts of spawning salmon were conducted each year from 1989 through 1992 to test for spill effects o the distribution nd abundance of pink salmon adults spawning in selected streams in the southwestern portion of Prince William Sound, including streams from the most heavily oiled areas. Counts of whole-stream and intertidal escapement density were statistically compared for 40 study streams in 1989 and for a subset of those streams in successive years. Measurements of residual hydrocarbons were made from stream-bed sediments to test for correlations with spawning behavior. Adult pink salmon in the postspill years of 1990 and 1991, progeny of the year classes considered most vulnerable to the oil spill, returned in high numbers, with the wildstock spawners exceeding their parent year returns. In 1989, adult returns reflected the relatively weak run for that year with a mean spawner density of 0.68 fish/m 2 in reference streams and 0.69 fish/m 2 in oiled streams. In 1990, mean escapement density for reference streams was 1.40 fish/m 2 and 1.55 fish/m 2 for oiled streams, indicating the strongest run of the four study years. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations for the majority of oiled streams show a general decline from 1989 to background levels by 1990. 45 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  1. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  2. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  3. A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.

  4. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  5. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  6. 77 FR 32978 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Hall Conference Room, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. [FR Doc. 2012-13380 Filed 6-1-12...

  7. Alaska Public Offices Commission, Department of Administration, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees State of Alaska Department of Administration Alaska Public Offices Commission Alaska Department of Administration, Alaska Public Offices Commission APOC Home Commission Filer ; AO's Contact Us Administration > Alaska Public Offices Commission Alaska Public Offices Commission

  8. Review of ExxonMobil Canada's 2008 offshore environmental effects monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogswell, A.; Kenchington, E.; Kennedy, E.; Law, B.; Lee, K.; Tremblay, J.; Worcester, T. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Science; Courtenay, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Gulf Science; Payne, J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Newfoundland and Labrador Science

    2009-07-15

    The environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program for the Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) was designed to evaluate predictions made during its environmental assessment (EA) process. The Oceans, Habitat, and Species at Risk Branch of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was asked to review ExxonMobil Canada Properties Inc.'s 2008 annual report regarding the EEM for this offshore project. This report reviewed the monitoring results for benthic habitat and fish density; produced water chemistry and toxicity; and mussel hydrocarbon body burden. This report revealed that SOEP's 2008 EEM was consistent with previous reports, but that the monitoring methods used were not particularly meaningful, particularly since they failed to address fish health and fish quality issues. 3 refs.

  9. Exxon nuclear neutronics design methods for pressurized water reactors. Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, F.B.; Stout, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications to the Exxon Nuclear PWR neutronic design calculational methods are presented as well as the results obtained when these improved methods are compared to reactor measurements. The basic PWR design tools remain unchanged; i.e., the XPOSE code is used for generating the basic nuclear parameters, the PDQ-7 code is used for calculating reactivity and x-y power distributions, and the XTG code is used for three-dimensional analysis. The recent start-up experiences at D. C. Cook Unit 1 and H. B. Robinson Unit 2 have provided a significant increase in the data base supporting the current ENC PWR neutronic methods. The verification comparisons contained in the supplement include reactor measurements from D. C. Cook Unit 1, Cycle 2; H. B. Robinson Unit 2, Cycles 4 and 5; Palisades Cycle 2, and R. E. Ginna, Cycle 7

  10. 46 CFR 7.180 - Kotzebue Sound, AK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kotzebue Sound, AK. 7.180 Section 7.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.180 Kotzebue Sound, AK. A line drawn from Cape Espenberg Light to latitude 66°52′ N. longitude 163°28′ W.; and...

  11. Alaska Kids' Corner, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide shocks of wheat represent Alaskan agriculture. The fish and the seals signify the importance of fishing

  12. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  13. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  14. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  15. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  16. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  17. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council's capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period

  18. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the PFRR...

  19. Migration patterns of post-spawning Pacific herring in a subarctic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Mary Anne; Eiler, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) can be challenging because spawning, feeding and overwintering may take place in different areas separated by 1000s of kilometers. Along the northern Gulf of Alaska, Pacific herring movements after spring spawning are largely unknown. During the fall and spring, herring have been seen moving from the Gulf of Alaska into Prince William Sound, a large embayment, suggesting that fish spawning in the Sound migrate out into the Gulf of Alaska. We acoustic-tagged 69 adult herring on spawning grounds in Prince William Sound during April 2013 to determine seasonal migratory patterns. We monitored departures from the spawning grounds as well as herring arrivals and movements between the major entrances connecting Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Departures of herring from the spawning grounds coincided with cessation of major spawning events in the immediate area. After spawning, 43 of 69 tagged herring (62%) moved to the entrances of Prince William Sound over a span of 104 d, although most fish arrived within 10 d of their departure from the spawning grounds. A large proportion remained in these areas until mid-June, most likely foraging on the seasonal bloom of large, Neocalanus copepods. Pulses of tagged herring detected during September and October at Montague Strait suggest that some herring returned from the Gulf of Alaska. Intermittent detections at Montague Strait and the Port Bainbridge passages from September through early January (when the transmitters expired) indicate that herring schools are highly mobile and are overwintering in this area. The pattern of detections at the entrances to Prince William Sound suggest that some herring remain in the Gulf of Alaska until late winter. The results of this study confirm the connectivity between local herring stocks in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska.

  20. An analysis of CSR online communication. : The case of Shell, ExxonMobil, E-ON and Vestas

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Nguyen, Thien Thanh; Wall, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Corporation Social Responsibility (CSR) has been growing in its importance, which makescompanies under great pressure with the handling of CSR and making it a useful managerial tool.This thesis tries to answer the questions of whether the E.ON Group, Vestas, ExxonMobil, andthe Shell Corporation are using the appropriate CSR communication strategies, and whether ornot a company’s relative environmental friendliness affects the CSR communication strategy ofsaid company, and was written to incre...

  1. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  2. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  3. Alaska Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel services for State government Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  4. LearnAlaska Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Mission Statement The mission of the Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  5. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  6. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted

  8. Preliminary reactor physics calculations for Exxon LWR fuel testing in the power burst facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, W.O.; Nigg, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The PFB reactor is being considered as an irradiation facility to test LWR fuel rods for Exxon Nuclear Company. Requested test conditions are 18 kW/ft axial peak steady state power in 2.5% initial enrichment, 20,000 MWd/Tu exposed rods. Multigroup transport theory calculations (S/sub n/ and Monte Carlo) showed that this was unattainable in the standard PBF test loop. Thus, a flux multiplier was developed in the form of a Zr-2-clad 0.15-inch thick cylindrical shell of 35% enriched, 88% T.D. UO 2 replacing the flow divider, surrounding the rod within the in-pile tube in PFB. With this flux multiplier installed and assuming an average water density of 0.86 g/cm 3 within the test loop, a Figure of Merit (FOM) for a single-rod test assembly of 0.86 kW/ft-MW +- 5% (at 95% confidence level) was calculated. This FOM is the axial peak linear test rod power per megawatt of reactor power. A reactor power of about 21 megawatts will therefore be required to supply the requested linear test rod axial peak heating rate of 18 kW/ft

  9. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  10. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  11. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  12. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  15. Employee, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Resources Division of Corporations, Business & Professional Licensing Dept. of Commerce Benefits Resources State Employee Directory State Calendar State Training: LearnAlaska State Travel Manager) Web Mail (Outlook) Login Who to Call Health Insurance Insurance Benefits Health and Optional

  16. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  17. A Method for Extrapolation of Atmospheric Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    case are not shown here. We also briefly examined data for the Anchorage, AK ( PANC ), radiosonde site for the case of the inversion height equal to...or greater than the extrapolation depth (i.e., hinv ≥ hext). PANC lies at the end of a broad inlet extending northward from the Gulf of Alaska at...type of terrain can affect the model and in turn affect the extrapolation. We examined a sounding from PANC (61.16 N and –150.01 W, elevation of 40

  18. Status report No. 8: State uses of Exxon and Stripper Well oil overcharge funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, H.; Claytor, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    From March of 1986 through early January, 1991 (when the report surveying began) state governments received $3.423 billion in funds obtained by the federal government through two major cases, based on price overcharges committed by numerous oil companies during the period of price controls, between 1973 and 1981. Furthermore, about another $1 billion may still be collected from oil companies, with roughly 1/2 to be distributed to the states (and the other 1/2 to the federal government), over the next 5 to 10 years. The role of state governments is to allocate the funds, within the specific case guidelines, to new or existing energy programs, in a way which is designed to benefit (or provide restitution to) the class or classes of purchasers who bore the burden of the overcharges. This report incorporates information collected by NCLC through telephone surveys conducted from January through March 1991. The information we collected on the status and state uses of both Exxon and Stripper Well funds is contained in the state-by-state narrative summary selection and in a series of tables at the end of the report. Each of the quarterly reports tracks final state decisions allocating use of these funds. The terms ''allocated'' and ''designated'' are used interchangeably throughout the document to mean that final state decisions have been made regarding these funds. Tracking state allocations about these funds is the only practical way for us to provide an overview of the actual status of state processes or decisions which have occurred with regard to this money. 9 tabs

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska/Brit.Colum. as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 1983-03-15 to 1983-11-01 (NODC Accession 8600321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska/Brit.Colum. from March 15, 1983 to November 1, 1983. Data were...

  20. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  1. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  2. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  3. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  4. Quantifying population-level risks using an individual-based model: sea otters, Harlequin Ducks, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Parker, Keith R

    2012-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments need to advance beyond evaluating risks to individuals that are largely based on toxicity studies conducted on a few species under laboratory conditions, to assessing population-level risks to the environment, including considerations of variability and uncertainty. Two individual-based models (IBMs), recently developed to assess current risks to sea otters and seaducks in Prince William Sound more than 2 decades after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are used to explore population-level risks. In each case, the models had previously shown that there were essentially no remaining risks to individuals from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the EVOS. New sensitivity analyses are reported here in which hypothetical environmental exposures to PAHs were heuristically increased until assimilated doses reached toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived at the no-observed-adverse-effects and lowest-observed-adverse-effects levels (NOAEL and LOAEL, respectively). For the sea otters, this was accomplished by artificially increasing the number of sea otter pits that would intersect remaining patches of subsurface oil residues by orders of magnitude over actual estimated rates. Similarly, in the seaduck assessment, the PAH concentrations in the constituents of diet, sediments, and seawater were increased in proportion to their relative contributions to the assimilated doses by orders of magnitude over measured environmental concentrations, to reach the NOAEL and LOAEL thresholds. The stochastic IBMs simulated millions of individuals. From these outputs, frequency distributions were derived of assimilated doses for populations of 500,000 sea otters or seaducks in each of 7 or 8 classes, respectively. Doses to several selected quantiles were analyzed, ranging from the 1-in-1000th most-exposed individuals (99.9% quantile) to the median-exposed individuals (50% quantile). The resulting families of quantile curves provide the basis for

  5. Forest dynamics in the temperate rainforests of Alaska: from individual tree to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara M. Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of remeasurement data from 1079 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots revealed multi-scale change occurring in the temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska. In the western half of the region, including Prince William Sound, aboveground live tree biomass and carbon are increasing at a rate of 8 ( ± 2 ) percent per decade, driven by an increase in Sitka...

  6. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  7. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  8. EPA Research in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s collaboration with the DEC and the Air Force on PFAS sampling and analytical methods is key to ensuring valid, defensible data are collected on these emerging contaminants that are being found in soil, groundwater and drinking water in Alaska.

  9. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  10. CTD and fluorometer data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska as part of the GLobal Ocean Ecosystem dynamiCs (GLOBEC) project from 05 March 2002 to 11 December 2002 (NODC Accession 0001062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and fluorometer data were collected using CTD and fluorometer from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska and Prince Williams Sound from March 5, to December...

  11. Dtags beluga whale data collected from Bristol Bay by Alaska Fisheries Scientific Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2011-05-01 to 2014-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0142174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Suction cup attached multi-sensor tags were placed on beluga whales in Bristol Bay, Alaska, to collect depth, 3D acceleration and sound. Data were coupled with...

  12. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  13. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  14. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  15. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  16. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  17. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  18. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  19. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  20. Exxon Nuclear WREM-based NJP-BWR ECCS evaluation model and example application to the Oyster Creek Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysinski, T.L.; Bjornard, T.A.; Steves, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed integrated ECCS model for non-jet pump boiling water reactors is presented, using the RELAP4-EM/BLOWDOWN and RELAP4-EM/SMALL BREAK portions of the Exxon Nuclear WREM-based Generic PWR Evaluation Model coupled with the ENC NJP-BWR Fuel Heatup Model. The results of the application of the proposed model to Oyster Creek are summarized. The results of the break size sensitivity study using the proposed model for the Oyster Creek Plant are presented. The application of the above results yielded the MAPLHGR curves. Included are a description of the proposed non-jet pump boiling water reaction evaluation model, justification of its conformance with TOCFR50, Appendix K, the adopted Oyster Creek plant model, and results of the analysis and sensitivity studies. (auth)

  1. The evolving Alaska mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P.D.; O'Brien, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of mapping in Alaska, the current status of the National Mapping Program, and future plans for expanding and improving the mapping coverage. Research projects with Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Return Vidicon imagery and real- and synthetic-aperture radar; image mapping programs; digital mapping; remote sensing projects; the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; and the Alaska High-Altitude Aerial Photography Program are also discussed.-from Authors

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  3. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  4. Alaska's nest egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Thomas.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the Alaska Permanent Fund was established to receive a substantial share of the state's oil receipts and to invest these monies each year. Four key aspects are unique to Alaska's providential fund among oil-producing states. Firstly a constitutional amendment is needed to touch the assets so the capital is safe from encroachment by the government. Secondly, each Alaskan gets a detailed breakdown of what is invested and what is earned. In the third place, and most importantly, each Alaskan receives an annual dividend from the Fund. Fourthly, the funds have been prudently invested almost entirely outside Alaska rather than in unremunerative vanity infrastructure projects. Now, however, oil production is falling and revenues per barrel from new fields with higher costs are projected to decline as well. Given the budget shortfall, there is now a debate about whether the dividends paid directly to the people, should be shifted, at least in part to the state budget. Although the Fund's capital cannot be touched by the government, the Legislature does have the right to dispose of the income. The arguments in this debate over policy and political philosophy are examined. (UK)

  5. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    marijuana means for Alaska and you. Careline: 1-877-266-HELP (4357) Alaska's Tobacco Quitline Learn the Twitter Find us on Facebook Quicklinks Alaska Opioid Policy Task Force "Spice" Synthetic Marijuana Health Information Alaska State Plan for Senior Services, FY 2016-FY 2019 Get health insurance at

  6. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  7. Culture loss and sense of place in resource valuation: Economics, anthropology and indigenous cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Snyder; Daniel R. Williams; George Peterson

    2003-01-01

    The Exxon-Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef outside the Valdez Arm of Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24th 1989. Aside from attracting enormous media attention, this disaster focused a great deal of research and analysis on the ecological (Brown et al. 1993), political (Piper 1997), economic (Cohen 1993), and social (Jorgensen 1995; Gill and Picou 1997...

  8. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  9. Common murre abundance, phenology, and productivity on the Barren Islands, Alaska: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, P.D.; Parrish, J.K.; Kettle, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Principally because of the paucity of prespill data on the Barren Islands murre population size and reproductive success, it is impossible to quantify any effect on the spill on these populations. Available prespill data (1976--1978) on the East Amatuli murre population size ranges from 19,000 to 61,000 birds. These data are not systematic, replicated counts but rather are estimates indicating a broad range within which the true attendance figure probably resided. The postspill attendance counts range from 31,041 to 37,128 (1990--1992). Comparisons between matched historical and 1990s photographs showed nearly identical attendance patterns, although there were significantly more murres in the 1990s photographs. Postspill attendance data from multiply censused areas suggest a recovery may have been taking place because of greater than expected annual increases (+25% from 1990 to 1991). Prespill data on reproductive activity of the murres nesting in the Barren Islands were collected from a single 5 x 5-m plot located in a dense, flat section of the East Amatuli Light Rock colony. Comparisons with similarly collected postspill data suggest that phenology, egg production, and chick production are extremely variable among years, although chicks were fledged in all years. Egg and chick production were highest in 1977 and 1991 and lowest in 1992. 72 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  11. H09162: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H09026: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H09023: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. H09164: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H09165: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H09166: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H09048: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H09179: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H09163: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. Development of a unified federal/state coastal/inland oil and hazardous substance contingency plan for the state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautenberger, C.; Pearson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Passage of the US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 expanded the existing federal planning and response framework in several ways. The OPA created a new requirement for facility and tank vessel response plans and creates an area-level planning and coordination structure to help supplement federal, regional, and local planning efforts. The OPA amended the existing Clean Water Act's section 311(j)(4), which establishes area committees and area contingency plans as primary components of this structure. In 1980, the Alaska legislature enacted legislation which defines the state's policies regarding oil spills. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, additional legislation was passed to expand and strengthen the state's oil spill program. Specifically, in 1989 the Senate Bill 261 required the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop, annually review, and revise the State Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plans (State Master and Regional Plans). State regional plans serve as annexes to the State Master Plan. The coordinated and cooperative efforts by government agencies and local entities toward creating a unified federal/state, coastal/inland Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan are presented, along with the development and progress of unified area/regional contingency plans for Alaska. 3 figs

  1. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  2. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  3. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  4. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  5. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  6. Why the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake matters 50 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ruppert, Natalia A.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; ,

    2014-01-01

    Spring was returning to Alaska on Friday 27 March 1964. A two‐week cold snap had just ended, and people were getting ready for the Easter weekend. At 5:36 p.m., an earthquake initiated 12 km beneath Prince William Sound, near the eastern end of what is now recognized as the Alaska‐Aleutian subduction zone. No one was expecting this earthquake that would radically alter the coastal landscape, influence the direction of science, and indelibly mark the growth of a burgeoning state.

  7. Alaska exceptionality hypothesis: Is Alaska wilderness really different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Brown

    2002-01-01

    The common idiom of Alaska as “The Last Frontier” suggests that the relative remoteness and unsettled character of Alaska create a unique Alaskan identity, one that is both a “frontier” and the “last” of its kind. The frontier idiom portrays the place and people of Alaska as exceptional or different from the places and people who reside in the Lower Forty- Eight States...

  8. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  9. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  10. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  11. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  12. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  13. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  14. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  15. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  16. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  17. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  18. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by a Hydraulic Cutterhead Dredge during Maintenance Dredging in the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    underwater sound had not been linked to dredging projects. However, concerns for negative impacts of underwater noise on aquatic species (e.g. salmon ... METHODS Study site. The Port of Stockton is a major inland deepwater port in Stockton, California, located on the San Joaquin River before it joins... of Cook Inlet, Alaska. The authors reported that ambient sound levels ranged from 95 dB in the Knik Arm to 124 dB near Point Possession on an incoming

  19. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by Trailing Suction Hopper Dredges During Sand Mining and Pump-out Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    machinery itself, such as winches, generators, thrusters and particularly propeller-induced cavitation ; and 5) sounds associated with the off-loading of...dredges were working concurrently. This is not surprising, given that cavitation (propeller noise) contributed the most to the overall sound field. If...in Cook Inlet, Alaska (an area known for high hydrodynamic flow conditions). Their RLs ranged from 95- 120 dB at eight locations. Highest RLs were

  20. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  1. Exxon Nuclear Company WREM-based generic PWR ECCS evaluation model. Appendix C to Volume II. Yankee Rowe example problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Core 12, of the Yankee Rowe (YR), plant is to be licensed with the Exxon Nuclear Co. PWR Evaluation Model. This appendix presents methodology and results of an example calculation for the YR plant using the ENC Evaluation Model. This example problem is for the double-ended guillotine cold leg break with a discharge coefficient of 0.6 assuming loss of one emergency diesel. The NSSS supplier has determined this case to give the highest peak cladding temperature (PCT) for Core 11. The YR example problem was performed to determine the maximum acceptable local peak heating rate (Kw/ft). The blowdown was performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) ENC fuel at full power with the hot assembly power corresponding to the design peak rod heating rate of 12.9 Kw/ft. The HOT CHANNEL, TOODEE2, and RELAP4-FLOOD runs were made at several reduced hot assembly radial peaks, holding axial peaking constant, until an acceptable PCT was achieved. This procedure results in a PCT of 1834 0 F at a reduced peak linear heating rate of 10.5 Kw/ft for the ENC fuel at BOC. (auth)

  2. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from the Exxon Nuclear Company, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Exxon Nuclear Company at Richland, Washington. Plutonium particles less than 20 ..mu..m in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The method of moments is used to incorporate subgrid-scale resolution of the concentration within a grid cell volume. This method is a quasi-Lagrangian scheme which minimizes numerical error associated with advection. In all case studies, the effects of updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of the particulates by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited within 20 to 45 km downwind of the plant site. Ground-level isopleths in the x-y plane show that most of the material is deposited behind and slightly to the left of the centerline trajectory of the storm. Approximately 5% of the material is dispersed into the stratosphere and anvil section of the storm.

  3. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from the Exxon Nuclear Company, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Exxon Nuclear Company at Richland, Washington. Plutonium particles less than 20 μm in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The method of moments is used to incorporate subgrid-scale resolution of the concentration within a grid cell volume. This method is a quasi-Lagrangian scheme which minimizes numerical error associated with advection. In all case studies, the effects of updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of the particulates by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited within 20 to 45 km downwind of the plant site. Ground-level isopleths in the x-y plane show that most of the material is deposited behind and slightly to the left of the centerline trajectory of the storm. Approximately 5% of the material is dispersed into the stratosphere and anvil section of the storm

  4. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Of the various geographical regions in Alaska that were examined in an exhaustive literary search for the possibility of uranium--either vein type or sedimentary--six offer encouragement: the Copper River Basin, the alkaline intrusive belt of west-central Alaska and Selawik Basin area, the Seward Peninsula, the Susitna Lowland, the coal-bearing basins of the north flank of the Alaska Range, the Precambrian gneisses of the USGS 1:250,000 Goodnews quadrangle, and Southeastern Alaska, which has the sole operating uranium mine in the state. Other areas that may be favorable for the presence of uranium include the Yukon Flats area, the Cook Inlet Basin, and the Galena Basin

  5. Kevadel Alaska talves / Tiiu Ehrenpreis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehrenpreis, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    Autori muljeid 22.-25. märtsini Fairbanksis toimunud Alaska Ülikooli ja Ülemaailmse Arktika Uurimise Keskuse (IARC) juhtimisel GLOBE'i programmi uue projekti "Aastaajad ja bioomid" koolitusseminarist

  6. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  7. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  8. Level III Ecoregions of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. The ecoregions of Alaska are a...

  9. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  10. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  11. "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Ivey, M.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.; Dexheimer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science, Aerosol Science and UAS's for The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs At The Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site designed to collect data and help determine the impact that clouds and aerosols have on solar radiation. AMF3 provides a scientific infrastructure to support instruments and collect arctic data for the international arctic research community. The infrastructure at AMF3/Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF3's present base line instruments include: scanning precipitation Radars, cloud Radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) Along with all the standard metrological measurements. In addition AMF3 provides aerosol measurements with a Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Ground support for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and tethered balloon flights. Data from these instruments and systems are placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments and systems are at the ARM Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska.

  12. Improved Background Removal in Sounding Rocket Neutral Atom Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. R.; Rowland, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The VISIONS sounding rocket, launched into a substorm on Feb 7, 2013 from Poker Flat, Alaska had a novel miniaturized energetic neutral atom (ENA) imager onboard. We present further analysis of the ENA data from this rocket flight, including improved removal of ultraviolet and electron contamination. In particular, the relative error source contributions due to geocoronal, auroral, and airglow UV, as well as energetic electrons from 10 eV to 3 keV were assessed. The resulting data provide a more clear understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of the ion populations that are energized to tens or hundreds of eV.

  13. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984

  14. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  15. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  16. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  17. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  18. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  19. Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunk, Blanche R

    2005-01-01

    ...), are awarded to Alaska Native students. Academic preparation, lack of exposure to science careers in rural Alaska, and little connection between western science and Native traditional life have combined to impede Native students' interest...

  20. Life cycle costs for Alaska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A study was implemented to assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) with life cycle costs for : the Alaska Highway Bridge Inventory. The study consisted of two parts. Part 1 involved working with regional offices...

  1. State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation oil spill research and development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Sixteenth Alaska Legislature reviewed issues related to response action and planning involved in the release or threatened release of oil or hazardous substance. One of the outcomes of that review was the passage of House Bill 566, which established the Alaska State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) and within the SERC the Hazardous Substance Spill Technology Review Council. The Council was organized in the spring of 1991 and meets quarterly. The Council is responsible to assist in the identification of containment and clean up products and procedures for arctic and sub-arctic hazardous substance releases and to make recommendations to state agencies regarding their use and deployment. Appendix I explains additional duties of the Council. Members of the Council include the deputy commissioner of the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, representatives of the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the governor's senior science advisor, the U.S. Coast Guard, the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Alaska, Prince William Sound Science Center and representatives from Alaska judicial districts

  2. Publications - Geospatial Data | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov (United States)

    from rocks collected in the Richardson mining district, Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division Island 2009 topography: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Miscellaneous Publication , Geologic map of portions of the Livengood B-3, B-4, C-3, and C-4 quadrangles, Tolovana mining district

  3. Harvesting morels after wildfire in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia L. Wurtz; Amy L. Wiita; Nancy S. Weber; David Pilz

    2005-01-01

    Morels are edible, choice wild mushrooms that sometimes fruit prolifically in the years immediately after an area has been burned by wildfire. Wildfires are common in interior Alaska; an average of 708,700 acres burned each year in interior Alaska between 1961 and 2000, and in major fire years, over 2 million acres burned. We discuss Alaska's boreal forest...

  4. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, D.K.; Robertson, B.R.; McIntosh, D.; Juettner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14 CO 2 from added [ 14 C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 μg/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. A large population of carbon- and energy-starved, induced hydrocarbon oxidizers with metabolism limited by the physical and molecular recalcitrance of the heavier components is suggested. The effects of a surfactant that was widely applied were unremarkable on a test beach after 1.5 months. Unresolved components appearing in chromatograms from the remaining mixture were characteristic of partial oxidation products. Such compounds, known to accumulate when concentrations of smaller aqueous-phase hydrocarbons exceed the K m , may form in sediments as well

  6. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  7. Las empresas energéticas y la gran estrategia estadounidense hacia Irak : una reflexión sobre el rol de Exxon Mobil y Chevron como grupos económicos y de presión (2001- 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Lara, Luisa Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    La monografía pretende explicar el rol desempeñado por Exxon Mobil y Chevron en la formulación de la Gran Estrategia del gobierno Bush hacia Irak. Especialmente, se sostiene que las dos compañías multinacionales mencionadas lograron que la intervención militar en Irak, fuera pensada como un objetivo fundamental de la política energética del gobierno Bush. Para lograr este objetivo, Chevron y Exxon aprovecharon principalmente su posición en la economía nacional estadounidense. De hecho, lograr...

  8. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  9. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  10. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  11. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  12. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  13. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  14. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  15. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  16. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  17. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  18. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  19. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Cristina M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state.

  20. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  1. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  2. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  3. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  4. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  5. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  6. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  7. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  8. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  9. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  10. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  11. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  12. Alaska Resource Data File, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  13. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  14. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Peninsula is composed of the late Paleozoic to Quaternary sedimentary, igneous, and minor metamorphic rocks that record the history of a number of magmatic arcs. These magmatic arcs include an unnamed Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic island arc, the early Cenozoic Meshik arc, and the late Cenozoic Aleutian arc. Also found on the Alaska Peninsula is one of the most complete nonmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, marine Jurassic sedimentary sections known. As much as 8,500 m of section of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks record the growth and erosion of the Early Jurassic island arc.

  15. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  16. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  17. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  18. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  19. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  20. Alaska's indigenous muskoxen: a history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Lent

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus were widespread in northern and interior Alaska in the late Pleistocene but were never a dominant component of large mammal faunas. After the end of the Pleistocene they were even less common. Most skeletal finds have come from the Arctic Coastal Plain and the foothills of the Brooks Range. Archaeological evidence, mainly from the Point Barrow area, suggests that humans sporadically hunted small numbers of muskoxen over about 1500 years from early Birnirk culture to nineteenth century Thule culture. Skeletal remains found near Kivalina represent the most southerly Holocene record for muskoxen in Alaska. Claims that muskoxen survived into the early nineteenth century farther south in the Selawik - Buckland River region are not substantiated. Remains of muskox found by Beechey's party in Eschscholtz Bay in 1826 were almost certainly of Pleistocene age, not recent. Neither the introduction of firearms nor overwintering whalers played a significant role in the extinction of Alaska's muskoxen. Inuit hunters apparently killed the last muskoxen in northwestern Alaska in the late 1850s. Several accounts suggest that remnant herds survived in the eastern Brooks Range into the 1890s. However, there is no physical evidence or independent confirmation of these reports. Oral traditions regarding muskoxen survived among the Nunamiut and the Chandalar Kutchin. With human help, muskoxen have successfully recolonized their former range from the Seward Peninsula north, across the Arctic Slope and east into the northern Yukon Territory.

  1. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  2. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  3. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  4. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  5. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  6. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  7. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  8. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  9. Regional variation in the intensity of humpback whale predation on Pacific herring in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. R.; Heintz, R. A.; Straley, J. M.; Vollenweider, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    We modeled the biomass of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) consumed by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to determine if whales are preventing the recovery of some herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska. We estimated consumption, by whales, of two depressed (Lynn Canal, Prince William Sound) and one robust (Sitka Sound) herring populations during fall/winter of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. Consumption estimates relied on observations of whale abundance, prey selection, and herring energy content along with published data on whale size and metabolic rate. Herring biomass removed by whales was compared with independent estimates of herring abundance to assess the impact of predation on each population. Whales removed a greater proportion of the total biomass of herring available in Lynn Canal and Prince William Sound than in Sitka Sound. Biomass removals were greatest in Prince William Sound where we observed the largest number of whales foraging on herring. The biomass of herring consumed in Prince William Sound approximated the biomass lost to natural mortality over winter as projected by age-structured stock assessments. Though whales also focused their foraging on herring during the fall in Lynn Canal, whales were less abundant resulting in lower estimated consumption rates. Whales were more abundant in Sitka Sound than in Lynn Canal but foraged predominately on euphausiids. Herring abundance was greater in Sitka Sound, further reducing the overall impact on the herring population. These data indicate that the focused predation in Prince William Sound can exert top-down controlling pressure, but whale populations are not a ubiquitous constraint on forage fish productivity in the Gulf of Alaska at this time.

  10. Home Page, Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Services Alaska Labor Relations Agency Labor Standards and Safety Vocational Rehabilitation Workers' Compensation Of Interest Alaska's Job Bank Job Fairs, Recruitments, and Workshops Finding

  11. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  12. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  13. Seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in harbor seals in Alaska, USA, with age, regional, and reproductive comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover-Miller, A; Dunn, J L; Field, C L; Blundell, G; Atkinson, S

    2017-09-20

    Populations of harbor seal Phoca vitulina in the Gulf of Alaska have dramatically declined during the past 4 decades. Numbers of seals in Glacier Bay, in southeast Alaska, USA, have also declined despite extensive protection. Causes of the declines and slow recovery are poorly understood. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that adversely affects reproduction in many domestic species. We measured the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in 554 harbor seals in 3 Alaska locations: Prince William Sound (PWS), Glacier Bay (GB), and Tracy Arm Fords Terror (TAFT) Wilderness Area. Objectives included testing for regional, sex, age, and female reproductive state differences in Brucella antibody seroprevalence, persistence in titers in recaptured seals, and differences in titers between mother seals and their pups. Overall, 52% of adults (AD), 53% of subadults (SA), 77% of yearlings (YRL), and 26% of Brucella. Results show higher seroprevalence (64%) for AD and SA seals in the depressed and declining populations in PWS and GB than in TAFT (29%). Lactating females were less likely to be seropositive than other AD females, including pregnant females. Further research is needed to seek evidence of Brucella infection in Alaskan harbor seals, identify effects on neonatal viability, and assess zoonotic implications for Alaska Natives who rely on harbor seals for food.

  14. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  15. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  16. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  17. Sublethal effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on herring embryos and larvae: morphological, cytogenetic; and histopathological assessments, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hose, J. E.; Marty, G. D.; Hinton, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive sublethal damage assessments were carried out on Pacific herring larvae following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Egg masses were collected from oiled and non-oiled areas during 1989 to 1991, and incubated to hatch. The hatched larvae were evaluated for morphological deformities, cytogenetic abnormalities, and histopathological lesions. In 1989, herring larvae from the oiled areas showed high incidence of morphological deformities and cytogenetic abnormalities compared to larvae from non-oiled areas. There was no evidence of histopathological lesions. Identical assessments in 1990 and 1991 revealed no detectable oil-related developmental and genetic effects. In contrast, there was a marked decrease in survival, suggesting that that genetic damage at heavily oiled stations combined with severe morphological malformations mitigated against survival through the stressful larval period. 40 refs., 1 tab.,8 figs

  18. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  19. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  20. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  1. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  2. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  3. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  4. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  5. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  6. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri A Jemison

    Full Text Available Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus into a western distinct population segment (WDPS and an eastern DPS (EDPS with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'. Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East.

  7. Inter-Population Movements of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska with Implications for Population Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, Lauri A.; Pendleton, Grey W.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Hastings, Kelly K.; Maniscalco, John M.; Trites, Andrew W.; Gelatt, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15–30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000–2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either ‘West’ or ‘East’). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2–5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two ‘mixing zone’ rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  8. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  9. The State of Alaska Agency Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrative Services Division of Banking and Securities Division of Community & Regional Affairs Division Services Public Notices Alaska Communities Resident Working Finding Work in Alaska Private Industry Jobs Development Environmental Conservation Fish and Game Governor's Office Health and Social Services Labor and

  10. Alaska Plant Materials Center | Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Plan for Alaska, 2005 2017 AK Potato Seed Certification Handbook Tobacco Rattle Virus in Peonies Virus and Thrips Vectors Resources Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook Pacific Northwest Potato Production Disease Risk Monitoring Publications and Reports Late Blight Management Plan for Alaska

  11. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  12. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  13. Administrative Services Division - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    accounting practices and procedures. JoAnn Pelayo Finance Officer Email: joann.pelayo@alaska.gov Tel: (907 @alaska.gov Tel: (907) 465-3674 Fiscal and Accounting Provide centralized fiscal and accounting functions for , inter-departmental payments for core services, payroll accounting adjustments and oversight, and grant

  14. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  15. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  16. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  17. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  18. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  19. Seasonal presence and potential influence of humpback whales on wintering Pacific herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Janice M.; Moran, John R.; Boswell, Kevin M.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Heintz, Ron A.; Quinn, Terrance J., II; Witteveen, Briana H.; Rice, Stanley D.

    2018-01-01

    This study addressed the lack of recovery of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in relation to humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) predation. As humpback whales rebound from commercial whaling, their ability to influence their prey through top-down forcing increases. We compared the potential influence of foraging humpback whales on three herring populations in the coastal Gulf of Alaska: Prince William Sound, Lynn Canal, and Sitka Sound (133-147°W; 57-61°N) from 2007 to 2009. Information on whale distribution, abundance, diet and the availability of herring as potential prey were used to correlate populations of overwintering herring and humpback whales. In Prince William Sound, the presence of whales coincided with the peak of herring abundance, allowing whales to maximize the consumption of overwintering herring prior to their southern migration. In Lynn Canal and Sitka Sound peak attendance of whales occurred earlier, in the fall, before the herring had completely moved into the areas, hence, there was less opportunity for predation to influence herring populations. North Pacific humpback whales in the Gulf of Alaska may be experiencing nutritional stress from reaching or exceeding carrying capacity, or oceanic conditions may have changed sufficiently to alter the prey base. Intraspecific competition for food may make it harder for humpback whales to meet their annual energetic needs. To meet their energetic demands whales may need to lengthen their time feeding in the northern latitudes or by skipping the annual migration altogether. If humpback whales extended their time feeding in Alaskan waters during the winter months, the result would likely be an increase in herring predation.

  20. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  1. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  2. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  3. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  4. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  5. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project final report: Monitoring for evaluation of recovery and restoration of injured nearshore resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kim; Dean, Tom; Colettie, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, we completed three consecutive years of full field sampling in WPWS for EVOS Restoration Project 10100750. Nearshore monitoring was conducted in collaboration with the NPS SWAN I&M program and, beginning in 2012, as part of the EVOSTC GWA program. Data collection was done in accordance with standard operating procedures set forth to monitor marine water chemistry and quality, marine intertidal invertebrates, kelps and seagrasses, marine birds, black oystercatchers, and sea otters. Summer sampling in 2012 represented the fourth year of sampling in WPWS (an initial year of sampling was done in WPWS in 2007; EVOS Restoration Project 070750). Based on our monitoring of nearshore species in WPWS, and comparisons of data from WPWS and other areas within the Gulf of Alaska, we have no evidence of continued injury to biological resources at the spatial scales we are monitoring. A key finding is that recovery of the sea otter population is no longer constrained by exposure to lingering oil; this is consistent with related EVOSTC studies on harlequin ducks (Restoration Project 12120114-Q). We anticipate continued annual nearshore monitoring in WPWS and at KATM and KEFJ under GWA, with data summaries and analyses including all three areas to provide a larger spatial and temporal context to the understanding of processes and patterns in nearshore ecosystems of the GOA which were impacted by the EVOS of 1989.

  6. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  7. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  8. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  9. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  10. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  11. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  12. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  13. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  14. Social-Ecological Soundscapes: Examining Aircraft-Harvester-Caribou Conflict in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, Taylor R.

    quantify interactions and provide baseline data that may foster mitigation discourses among stakeholders. In Chapter 2, I employed a soundscape-ecology approach to address concerns about aircraft activity expressed by the Alaska Native community of Nuiqsut. Nuiqsut faces the greatest volume of aircraft activity of any community in Arctic Alaska because of its proximity to intensive oil and gas activity. However, information on when and where these aircraft are flying is unavailable to residents, managers, and researchers. I worked closely with Nuiqsut residents to deploy acoustic monitoring systems along important caribou harvest corridors during the peak of caribou harvest, from early June through late August 2016. This method successfully captured aircraft sound and the community embraced my science for addressing local priorities. I found aircraft activity levels near Nuiqsut and surrounding oil developments (12 daily events) to be approximately six times greater than in areas over 30 km from the village (two daily events). Aircraft sound disturbance was 26 times lower in undeveloped areas (Noise Free Interval =13 hrs) than near human development (NFI = 0.5 hrs). My study provided baseline data on aircraft activity and noise levels. My research could be used by stakeholders and managers to develop conflict avoidance agreements and minimize interference with traditional harvest practices. Soundscape methods could be adapted to rural regions across Alaska that may be experiencing conflict with aircraft or other sources of noise that disrupt human-wildlife interactions. By quantifying aircraft activity using a soundscape approach, I demonstrated a novel application of an emerging field in ecology and provided the first scientific data on one dimension of a larger social-ecological system. Future soundscape studies should be integrated with research on both harvester and caribou behaviors to understand how the components within this system are interacting over space and

  15. H09023B: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H09023A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H09027A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Norton Sound and Saint Lawrence Sound, Alaska, 1970-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  19. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  20. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  1. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  2. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  3. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  4. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  5. Sitka, Alaska 9 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 9 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  7. Homer, Alaska 8 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 8-second Homer Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 8-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  8. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  9. Gravity Data for Southwestern Alaska #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1294 records) were compiled by the Alaska Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. This data base was...

  10. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  11. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  12. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  13. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  14. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  15. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  16. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  18. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  19. Alaska1(ak1_wpn) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (10,578 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...

  20. ANWR and Alaska Peninsula Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1252 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...

  1. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  2. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  3. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  4. Seldovia, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Seldovia Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  5. Sitka, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  6. Sitka, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  7. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  8. Seward, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  10. Seldovia, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seldovia, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  11. Kodiak, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Kodiak Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  12. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  13. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  14. Civil Division - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud Control Anchorage department and other agencies on the management, retention, communication, and disclosure of information matters. In addition, the legislative liaison coordinates responses to media requests. Natural Resources

  15. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  16. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  18. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  19. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  20. Organochlorines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Lee, Sung-Eun; Li, Qing X.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during 2000-2001. ΣPCBs (16-728 ng/g lw) and ΣDDTs (14-368 ng/g lw) were the predominant pollutants followed by ΣHCHs (0.56-93 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (≤0.068-6.0 ng/g lw). Concentrations of the above organochlorines (OCs) in the liver, kidney and blubber tissues correlated with ages, sex, body weight and blubber thickness of the harbor seals. The OC concentrations were similar between the samples collected from two different regions - Prince William Sound, and Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula. Mean levels of OCs in nursing female adults were much lower than those in male adults, which indicate that lactation transfer OCs from mother seals to newborns. - Σ28 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH and heptachlor in harbor seal tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska are reported

  1. 14 CFR 99.45 - Alaska ADIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alaska ADIZ. 99.45 Section 99.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... Zones § 99.45 Alaska ADIZ. The area is bounded by a line from 54°00′N; 136°00′W; 56°57′N; 144°00′W; 57...

  2. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  3. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  4. Pathological studies of sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, B.E.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sea otters were captured and taken to rehabilitaion centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Records of 21 oiled otters that died within 10 days of arrival at the centers were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these deaths. Tissues from 51 oiled and 6 unoiled sea otters that died in the centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 oiled otters found dead shortly after the spill. Nucropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that were collected and frozen following the oil spill. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema and gastric erosion and hemorrhage were common in oiled animals, and were less frequent in unoiled animals. Tissues from 6 sea otters collected from a nonoiled area were examined, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  5. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  6. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  7. Alaska-Canada Pipeline Project : getting it done

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brintnell, R. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Enbridge's unique qualifications for the proposed Alaska-Canada pipeline that will extend from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta was discussed. Enbridge is Canada's largest local distribution company (LDC), handling approximately 14 bcf of natural gas per day through pipeline, processing and marketing. It also operates the world's longest liquids pipeline, delivering more than 2 million barrels per day. The company also has 20 years of operational experience in perma frost regions. The key challenges facing the construction of the proposed new high pressure liquids rich pipeline were discussed with reference to market outlook; cost reduction; U.S. fiscal and regulatory issues; Alaska fiscal contract; and, Canadian regulatory efficiency. A successful project will mean a $15 billion capital expenditure in Canada, $16 billion in government revenues, 12,000 construction work years, and tens of thousands of new jobs. It will also improve Alberta's position as the key energy hub and will increase the utilization of the existing infrastructure. Canadian consumers will benefit from access to a new supply basin and a more secure source of clean-burning natural gas at a cost competitive price. In order to get the project completed, the following requirements must be met: regulatory regimes must be clear and predictable; land access must be ensured in a timely manner; access to skilled human resources, material and equipment must also be ensured to facilitate timely and efficient project implementation; and, the safe and environmentally sound operation of the pipelines must also be ensured. This paper highlighted Canadian regulatory options in terms of the National Energy Board Act, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, the Yukon Environmental and Socio-Economic Assessment Act, and the Northern Pipeline Act. Enbridge's proposed straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan was discussed along with inter-connecting pipeline options. Enbridge

  8. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  9. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  10. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  11. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  12. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  13. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the... particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of migratory bird resources throughout Alaska. A... ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous inhabitants in the conservation of...

  14. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska, shall be permitted... implications. This rule is not specific to particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of... the creation of management bodies to ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous...

  15. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  16. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 [EPA-EPA-R10-RCRA-2010-0953; FRL-9247-5] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. On March 22, 2004, EPA...

  17. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  18. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  19. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  20. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box