WorldWideScience

Sample records for sought medical care

  1. The pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners from a medical consultant in clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, D

    1997-01-01

    Clinical biochemistry departments can be a valuable source of clinical advice for further investigations and the need for referral to specialist clinics. This paper outlines the pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners in a district hospital setting, and addresses some of the issues regarding seeking such advice and the implications for continuing medical education and training. PMID:9196966

  2. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  3. 'First we go to the small doctor': First contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gautham (Meenakshi); E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground & objectives: Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1 st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India -

  4. RFID and medication care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtela, Antti; Saranto, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic healthcare needs new IT innovations and applications to be able to treat the rapidly growing number of patients effectively and safely. The information technology has to support healthcare in developing practices and nursing patients without confronting any complications or errors. One critical and important part of healthcare is medication care, which is very vulnerable for different kind of errors, even on fatal errors. Thus, medication care needs new methods for avoiding errors in different situations during medication administration. This poster represents an RFID-based automated identification system for medication care in a hospital environment. This work is a part of the research project MaISSI (Managing IT Services and Service Implementation) at the University of Kuopio, Department of Computer Science, Finland.

  5. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  6. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

  7. Redefining "Medical Care."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lauren R

    President Donald J. Trump has said he will repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and replace it with health savings accounts (HSAs). Conservatives have long preferred individual accounts to meet social welfare needs instead of more traditional entitlement programs. The types of "medical care" that can be reimbursed through an HSA are listed in section 213(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and include expenses "for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body." In spite of the broad language, regulations and court interpretations have narrowed this definition substantially. It does not include the many social factors that determine health outcomes. Though the United States spends over seventeen percent of gross domestic product (GDP) on "healthcare", the country's focus on the traditional medicalized model of health results in overall population health that is far beneath the results of other countries that spend significantly less. Precision medicine is one exceptional way in which American healthcare has focused more on individuals instead of providing broad, one-size-fits-all medical care. The precision medicine movement calls for using the genetic code of individuals to both predict future illness and to target treatments for current illnesses. Yet the definition of "medical care" under the Code remains the same for all. My proposal for precision healthcare accounts involves two steps-- the first of which requires permitting physicians to write prescriptions for a broader range of goods and services. The social determinants of health are as important to health outcomes as are surgical procedures and drugs--or perhaps more so according to many population health studies. The second step requires agencies and courts to interpret what constitutes "medical care" under the Code differently depending on the taxpayer's income level. Childhood sports programs and payments

  8. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on the population exposed to radioactivity released from a nuclear power plant, the paper gives an overview of medical strategies in emergency care, steps in medical care, and clinical procedures including decontamination and oral administration of iodine-131. Strategies for evacuation are presented depending on predicted exposure doses to the whole body and thyroid gland. Medical care consists of three steps. When the thyroid gland is supposed to be exposed to 5 - 50 rem or more, the oral administration of iodine-131 is recommended. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Medical returns: seeking health care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Cole, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of transnational medical travel among immigrant groups in industrialized nations, relatively little scholarship has explored the diverse reasons immigrants return home for care. To date, most research suggests that cost, lack of insurance and convenience propel US Latinos to seek health care along the Mexican border. Yet medical returns are common even among Latinos who do have health insurance and even among those not residing close to the border. This suggests that the distinct culture of medicine as practiced in the border clinics Latinos visit may be as important a factor in influencing medical returns as convenience and cost. Drawing upon qualitative interviews, this article presents an emic account of Latinos' perceptions of the features of medical practice in Mexico that make medical returns attractive. Between November 15, 2009 and January 15, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 Mexican immigrants and nine Mexican Americans who sought care at Border Hospital, a private clinic in Tijuana. Sixteen were uninsured and eight had insurance. Yet of the 16 uninsured, six had purposefully dropped their insurance to make this clinic their permanent "medical home." Moreover, those who substituted receiving care at Border Hospital for their US health insurance plan did so not only because of cost, but also because of what they perceived as the distinctive style of medical practice at Border Hospital. Interviewees mentioned the rapidity of services, personal attention, effective medications, and emphasis on clinical discretion as features distinguishing "Mexican medical practice," opposing these features to the frequent referrals and tests, impersonal doctor-patient relationships, uniform treatment protocols and reliance on surgeries they experienced in the US health care system. While interviewees portrayed these features as characterizing a uniform "Mexican medical culture," we suggest that they are best described as

  11. Adherence to Follow-Up Recommendations by Triathlon Competitors Receiving Event Medical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Joslin, Jeremy D.; Lloyd, Jarem B.; Copeli, Nikoli; Cooney, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. We sought to investigate triathlete adherence to recommendations for follow-up for participants who received event medical care. Methods. Participants of the 2011 Ironman Syracuse 70.3 (Syracuse, NY) who sought evaluation and care at the designated finish line medical tent were contacted by telephone approximately 3 months after the initial encounter to measure adherence with the recommendation to seek follow-up care after event. Results. Out of 750 race participants, 35 (4.6%) ...

  12. MEDIC: medical embedded device for individualized care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Winston H; Bui, Alex A T; Batalin, Maxim A; Au, Lawrence K; Binney, Jonathan D; Kaiser, William J

    2008-02-01

    Presented work highlights the development and initial validation of a medical embedded device for individualized care (MEDIC), which is based on a novel software architecture, enabling sensor management and disease prediction capabilities, and commercially available microelectronic components, sensors and conventional personal digital assistant (PDA) (or a cell phone). In this paper, we present a general architecture for a wearable sensor system that can be customized to an individual patient's needs. This architecture is based on embedded artificial intelligence that permits autonomous operation, sensor management and inference, and may be applied to a general purpose wearable medical diagnostics. A prototype of the system has been developed based on a standard PDA and wireless sensor nodes equipped with commercially available Bluetooth radio components, permitting real-time streaming of high-bandwidth data from various physiological and contextual sensors. We also present the results of abnormal gait diagnosis using the complete system from our evaluation, and illustrate how the wearable system and its operation can be remotely configured and managed by either enterprise systems or medical personnel at centralized locations. By using commercially available hardware components and software architecture presented in this paper, the MEDIC system can be rapidly configured, providing medical researchers with broadband sensor data from remote patients and platform access to best adapt operation for diagnostic operation objectives.

  13. PALLIATIVE CARE AND MEDICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anca COLIBABA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines learners’ difficulty in acquiring and practicing palliative medical skills necessary in medical procedures due to limited technologically state-of-the art language learning support to facilitate optimum access for medical students to the European medicine sector and offers as a potential solution the Palliative Care MOOC project (2014-1-RO01-KA203-002940. The project is co-financed by the European Union under the Erasmus+ program and coordinated by the Gr.T.Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi, Romania. The article describes the project idea and main objectives, highlighting its focus and activities on developing innovative guidelines on standardized fundamental medical procedures, as well as clinical language and communication skills. The project thus helps not only medical lecturers and language teachers who teach medical students, but also the medical students themselves and the lay people involved in causalities.

  14. 32 CFR 564.37 - Medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Medical care. 564.37 Section 564.37 National... REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.37 Medical care. (a) General. The definitions of medical care; policies outlining the manner, conditions, procedures, and eligibility for care; and the sources from which...

  15. Patient satisfaction with medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sadovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients’ evaluation of medical care is becoming more and more important due to expanding patient-centered care. For this purpose a complex index of patient satisfaction with healthcare is used. This parameter reflects the correspondence of actual healthcare services to patient’s expectations that were formed under the influence of cultural, social, economic factors, and personal experience of each patient. Satisfaction is a subjective parameter, thus, a grade of satisfaction is barely connected with quality of healthcare services itself. Moreover, medical organizations should always take into account specific features of each patient, since they can have an influence on customer attitude to medical services.This article comprises the review of publications studying determinants of patient satisfaction. In the course of the study, we analyzed data received by research teams from different countries.According to the review, we made some conclusions. First, determinants of patient satisfaction with healthcare can be divided in two groups. The first group of factors includes patients’ characteristics such as age, gender, ethnical and cultural features. However, researches from different countries revealed that there is a difference in the importance of factors belonging to this group and their influence on satisfaction of certain patient cohorts. The second group includes factors that belong to the process of healthcare services delivery and its organization. Moreover, it was found that patient satisfaction level is changing in a waveform. Thus, medical organization should not only try to increase patient satisfaction level but also maintain it. AS a result, it necessary to monitor patient satisfaction with healthcare services. That is why there is a distinct need for the development of a new tool or adaptation of existing instrument of satisfaction measurement, which would be unitized for all medical organizations in the Russian Federation 

  16. Adherence to Follow-Up Recommendations by Triathlon Competitors Receiving Event Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Jeremy D; Lloyd, Jarem B; Copeli, Nikoli; Cooney, Derek R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . We sought to investigate triathlete adherence to recommendations for follow-up for participants who received event medical care. Methods . Participants of the 2011 Ironman Syracuse 70.3 (Syracuse, NY) who sought evaluation and care at the designated finish line medical tent were contacted by telephone approximately 3 months after the initial encounter to measure adherence with the recommendation to seek follow-up care after event. Results . Out of 750 race participants, 35 (4.6%) athletes received event medical care. Of these 35, twenty-eight (28/35; 80%) consented to participate in the study and 17 (61%) were available on telephone follow-up. Of these 17 athletes, 11 (11/17; 65%) of participants reported that they had not followed up with a medical professional since the race. Only 5 (5/17; 29%) confirmed that they had seen a medical provider in some fashion since the race; of these, only 2 (2/17; 12%) sought formal medical follow-up resulting from the recommendation whereas the remaining athletes merely saw their medical providers coincidentally or as part of routine care. Conclusion . Only 2 (2/17; 12%) of athletes who received event medical care obtained postrace follow-up within a one-month time period following the race. Event medical care providers must be aware of potential nonadherence to follow-up recommendations.

  17. Adherence to Follow-Up Recommendations by Triathlon Competitors Receiving Event Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Joslin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We sought to investigate triathlete adherence to recommendations for follow-up for participants who received event medical care. Methods. Participants of the 2011 Ironman Syracuse 70.3 (Syracuse, NY who sought evaluation and care at the designated finish line medical tent were contacted by telephone approximately 3 months after the initial encounter to measure adherence with the recommendation to seek follow-up care after event. Results. Out of 750 race participants, 35 (4.6% athletes received event medical care. Of these 35, twenty-eight (28/35; 80% consented to participate in the study and 17 (61% were available on telephone follow-up. Of these 17 athletes, 11 (11/17; 65% of participants reported that they had not followed up with a medical professional since the race. Only 5 (5/17; 29% confirmed that they had seen a medical provider in some fashion since the race; of these, only 2 (2/17; 12% sought formal medical follow-up resulting from the recommendation whereas the remaining athletes merely saw their medical providers coincidentally or as part of routine care. Conclusion. Only 2 (2/17; 12% of athletes who received event medical care obtained postrace follow-up within a one-month time period following the race. Event medical care providers must be aware of potential nonadherence to follow-up recommendations.

  18. Organisational fundamentals of medical care in catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnefeld, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents definitions, considerations, and fundamentals of discussion. He starts by listing the institutions, equipment and traning required for medical care and life-saving services in cases of emergency. A central coordination service for medical care and life saving is proposed. The present situation is reviewed, future needs are stated, and the necessary components of a medical service are listed. (DG) [de

  19. Medical and health care sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The medical and health care sector in general supplies products and provides services that can be categorized as diagnostic radiology, therapeutic application and nuclear medicine (both, diagnostic and/ or therapeutic). The institutions offer different categories of services. Some provide only one category of service, for example, diagnostic radiology. Others may provide more than one categories, for example, diagnostic nuclear medicine and therapeutic nuclear medicine services. A total of 90 entities comprising 65 public agencies and 34 private companies were selected in this study for this sector. The majority of the entities, 75.6 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders operate in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  20. Patient-centred care: using online personal medical records in IVF practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuil, W.S.; Hoopen, A.J. ten; Braat, D.D.M.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic patient-accessible medical records have shown promise in enhancing patient-centred care for patients with chronic diseases. We sought to design, implement and evaluate a patient-accessible medical record specifically for patients undergoing a course of assisted reproduction (IVF

  1. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of ambulatory care services in hospital...

  2. Emergency Medical Care Training and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Charles S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an 11-week emergency medical care training program for adolescents focusing on: pretest results; factual emergency instruction and first aid; practical experience training; and assessment. (RC)

  3. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  4. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  5. Medication safety programs in primary care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Shahid, Monica; Roughead, Libby

    2017-10-01

    Medication safety plays an essential role in all healthcare organizations; improving this area is paramount to quality and safety of any wider healthcare program. While several medication safety programs in the hospital setting have been described and the associated impact on patient safety evaluated, no systematic reviews have described the impact of medication safety programs in the primary care setting. A preliminary search of the literature demonstrated that no systematic reviews, meta-analysis or scoping reviews have reported on medication safety programs in primary care; instead they have focused on specific interventions such as medication reconciliation or computerized physician order entry. This scoping review sought to map the current medication safety programs used in primary care. The current scoping review sought to examine the characteristics of medication safety programs in the primary care setting and to map evidence on the outcome measures used to assess the effectiveness of medication safety programs in improving patient safety. The current review considered participants of any age and any condition using care obtained from any primary care services. We considered studies that focussed on the characteristics of medication safety programs and the outcome measures used to measure the effectiveness of these programs on patient safety in the primary care setting. The context of this review was primary care settings, primary healthcare organizations, general practitioner clinics, outpatient clinics and any other clinics that do not classify patients as inpatients. We considered all quantitative studied published in English. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. Data were extracted from the included studies to address the review question. The data extracted included type of medication safety program, author, country of origin, aims and purpose of the study, study population, method, comparator, context, main findings and outcome

  6. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a national survey designed to meet the need for objective, reliable information about the provision and use of...

  8. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  9. Inflation in DoD Medical Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    The Defense Health Program (DHP) is appropriated funds to provide medical care to active-duty military personnel and their family members, military retirees and their family members, and other eligible beneficiaries...

  10. High-cost users of medical care

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Steven A.; Riley, Gerald F.; Iannacchione, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, the 10 percent of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population that incurred the highest medical care charges was responsible for 75 percent of all incurred charges. Health status was the strongest predictor of high-cost use, followed by economic factors. Persons 65 years of age or over incurred far higher costs than younger persons and had higher out-of-pocket costs, absolutely and as a percentage of income, althoug...

  11. Care maps for children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sherri; Nicholas, David; Mahant, Sanjay; Weiser, Natalie; Kanani, Ronik; Boydell, Katherine; Cohen, Eyal

    2017-12-01

    Children with medical complexity require multiple providers and services to keep them well and at home. A care map is a patient/family-created diagram that pictorially maps out this complex web of services. This study explored what care maps mean for families and healthcare providers to inform potential for clinical use. Parents (n=15) created care maps (hand drawn n=10 and computer-generated n=5) and participated in semi-structured interviews about the process of developing care maps and their perceived impact. Healthcare providers (n=30) reviewed the parent-created care maps and participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed for themes and emerging theory using a grounded theory analytical approach. Data analysis revealed 13 overarching themes that were further categorized into three domains: features (characteristics of care maps), functions (what care maps do), and emerging outcomes (benefits of care map use). These domains further informed a definition and a theoretical model of how care maps work. Our findings suggest that care maps may be a way of supporting patient- and family-centred care by graphically identifying and integrating experiences of the family as well as priorities for moving forward. Care maps were endorsed as a useful tool by families and providers. They help healthcare providers better understand parental priorities for care. Parents can create care maps to demonstrate the complex burden of care. They are a unique visual way to incorporate narrative medicine into practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Medical Care Cost Recovery National Database (MCCR NDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Medical Care Cost Recovery National Database (MCCR NDB) provides a repository of summary Medical Care Collections Fund (MCCF) billing and collection information...

  13. Medical Secretaries’ Care of Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Witt, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    to health informatics and CSCW, this case study identifies their importance, and suggests that they and other non-clinical groups should be considered, when developing health care IT. We propose the term 'boundary-object trimming', to conceptualize their contributions to hospitals' cooperative work...

  14. [Medication errors in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary medical care in Irish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-03-22

    An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  16. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwright Shane PA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  17. 2001 survey on primary medical care in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S C; Phua, H P; Cheong, P Y

    2004-05-01

    The 2001 survey on primary medical care was undertaken to compare updated primary healthcare practices such as workload and working hours in the public and private sectors; determine private and public sector market shares in primary medical care provision; and gather the biographical profile and morbidity profile of patients seeking primary medical care from both sectors in Singapore. This is the third survey in its series, the earlier two having been carried out in 1988 and 1993, respectively. The survey questionnaire was sent out to all the 1480 family doctors in private primary health outpatient practice, the 89 community-based paediatricians in the private sector who were registered with the Singapore Medical Council and also to all 152 family doctors working in the public sector primary medical care clinics. The latter comprised the polyclinics under the two health clusters in Singapore, namely the Singapore Health Services and National Healthcare Group, and to a very much smaller extent, the School Health Service's (SHS) outpatient clinics. The survey was conducted on 21 August 2001, and repeated on 25 September 2001 to enable those who had not responded to the original survey date to participate. Subjects consisted of all outpatients who sought treatment at the private family practice clinics (including the clinics of the community-based paediatricians), and the public sector primary medical care clinics, on the survey day. The response rate from the family doctors in private practice was 36 percent. Owing to the structured administrative organisation of the polyclinics and SHS outpatient clinics, all returns were completed and submitted to the respective headquarters. Response from the community-based paediatricians was poor, so their findings were omitted in the survey analysis. The survey showed that the average daily patient-load of a family doctor in private practice was 33 patients per day, which was lower than the 40 patients a day recorded in 1993

  18. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...

  19. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...

  20. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-12-01

    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  1. Trends in medical care cost--revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzino, J V

    1997-01-01

    Market forces have had a greater influence on the health care sector than anticipated. The increased use of managed care, particularly HMOs, has been largely responsible for a sharp deceleration in the rise of medical care costs. After recording double-digit growth for much of the post-Medicare/Medicaid period, national health expenditures rose just 5.1 percent and 5.5 percent in 1994 and 1995, respectively. The medical care Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 3.5 percent in 1996-just 0.5 percent above the overall CPI. The delivery and financing of health care continues to evolve within a framework of cost constraints. As such, mergers, acquisitions and provider alliance groups will remain an integral part of the health industry landscape. However, cost savings are likely to become more difficult to achieve, especially if the "quality of care" issue becomes more pronounced. National health expenditures, which surpassed the $1 trillion mark in 1996, are projected to rise to $1.4 trillion by the year 2000--representing a 7.2 percent growth rate from 1995. In any event, demographics and technological advances suggest that the health sector will demand a rising share of economic resources. The ratio of health care expenditures to gross domestic product is forecast to rise from 13.6 percent in 1995 to 15 percent by the year 2000.

  2. Free medical care and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aniket Deepak; Banerjee, Arunabha

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the question of whether patients, who receive free medical care, whether from private charitable or governmental hospitals, can claim rights as 'consumers' under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The issue will be discussed from a constitutional perspective as well as that of the law of torts.

  3. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    systems Anesthesia Antisepsis/sanitation (Lister, Pasteur , Koch) Nursing care (Nightingale) World War I and World War II Antibiotics Blood...to preserve the life of casualties in critical conditions. TACEVAC includes evacuation by both designat- ed medical (MEDEVAC) mobility assets and...military experience in Somalia, Afghanistan, and Iraq revitalized the concept of treating hemorrhage with plas- ma to preserve coagulation system

  4. [The characteristics of medical technologies in emergency medical care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakhovskiĭ, A G; Babenko, A I; Bravve, Iu I; Tataurova, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the implementation of major 12 diagnostic and 17 treatment technologies applied during medical care of patients with 12 key nosology forms of diseases in departments of the emergency medical care hospital No 2 of Omsk. It is established that key groups of technologies in the implementation of diagnostic process are the laboratory clinical diagnostic analyses and common diagnostic activities at reception into hospital and corresponding departments. The percentage of this kind of activities is about 78.3% of all diagnostic technologies. During the realization of treatment process the priority technologies are common curative and rehabilitation activities, intensive therapy activities and clinical diagnostic monitoring activities. All of them consist 80.1% of all curative technologies.

  5. Medical Services: Medical Record Administration and Health Care Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-03

    medical condition caused by it. Explain conditions, such as traumatic bursitis, traumatic neuritis, traumatic myositis , or traumatic synovitis, by... histopathologic findings have a direct bearing on diagnosis and treatment (AR 40-31/BUMEDINST 6510.2F/AFR 160-55). In such cases, the attending physician...Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Armed Forces Histopathology Centers AR 40–35 Preventive Dentistry AR 40–48 Nonphysician Health Care Providers

  6. Medical liability and health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.

  7. [Reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina Sáez, Celia; Urbieta Sanz, Elena; Madrigal de Torres, Manuel; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual; Pérez Cárceles, María D

    2016-03-01

    To quantify and to evaluate the reliability of Primary Care (PC) computerised medication records of as an information source of patient chronic medications, and to identify associated factors with the presence of discrepancies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. General Referral Hospital in Murcia. Patients admitted to the cardiology-chest diseases unit, during the months of February to April 2013, on home treatment, who agreed to participate in the study. Evaluation of the reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records by analysing the concordance, by identifying discrepancies, between the active medication in these records and that recorded in pharmacist interview with the patient/caregiver. Identification of associated factors with the presence of discrepancies was analysed using a multivariate logistic regression. The study included a total of 308 patients with a mean of 70.9 years (13.0 SD). The concordance of active ingredients was 83.7%, and this decreased to 34.7% when taking the dosage into account. Discrepancies were found in 97.1% of patients. The most frequent discrepancy was omission of frequency (35.6%), commission (drug added unjustifiably) (14.6%), and drug omission (12.7%). Age older than 65 years (1.98 [1.08 to 3.64]), multiple chronic diseases (1.89 [1.04 to 3.42]), and have a narcotic or psychotropic drug prescribed (2.22 [1.16 to 4.24]), were the factors associated with the presence of discrepancies. Primary Care computerised medication records, although of undoubted interest, are not be reliable enough to be used as the sole source of information on patient chronic medications when admitted to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  9. [Cologne Statement for Medical Care of Refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmüller, G A; Dötsch, J; Weiß, M; Wiater, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Nitschke, H; Bunte, A

    2016-04-01

    The Cologne statement resulted from both regional and nationwide controversial discussions about meaning and purpose of an initial examination for infectious diseases of refugees with respect to limited time, personnel and financial resources. Refugees per se are no increased infection risk factors for the general population as well as aiders, when the aiders comply with general hygiene rules and are vaccinated according to the recommendations of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO). This is supported by our own data. Based on individual medical history, refugees need medical care, which is offered purposeful, economic, humanitarian and ethical. In addition to medical confidentiality, the reporting obligation according § 34 Infection Protection Act (IPA) and the examination concerning infectious pulmonary tuberculosis according to § 36 (4) IPA must be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Reliability of medical audit in quality assessment of medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Luiz Antonio Bastos

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical audit of hospital records has been a major component of quality of care assessment, although physician judgment is known to have low reliability. We estimated interrater agreement of quality assessment in a sample of patients with cardiac conditions admitted to an American teaching hospital. Physician-reviewers used structured review methods designed to improve quality assessment based on judgment. Chance-corrected agreement for the items considered more relevant to process and outcome of care ranged from low to moderate (0.2 to 0.6, depending on the review item and the principal diagnoses and procedures the patients underwent. Results from several studies seem to converge on this point. Comparisons among different settings should be made with caution, given the sensitivity of agreement measurements to prevalence rates. Reliability of review methods in their current stage could be improved by combining the assessment of two or more reviewers, and by emphasizing outcome-oriented events.

  11. Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers tool is a locator that helps people living with HIV/AIDS access medical care and related services. Users can...

  12. Access to patient-centered medical home among Ohio's Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrey, Elizabeth J; Seidu, Dazar; Ryan, Norma J; Chapman, Dj Sam

    2013-06-01

    Medical homes deliver primary care that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate and culturally effective. Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) require a wide range of support to maintain health, making medical home access particularly important. We sought to understand independent risk factors for lacking access. We analyzed Ohio, USA data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (2005-2006). Among CSHCN, 55.6% had medical home access. The proportion achieving each medical home component was highest for having a personal doctor/nurse and lowest for receiving coordinated care, family-centered care and referrals. Specific subsets of CSHCN were significantly and independently more likely to lack medical home access: Hispanic (AOR=3.08), moderate/high severity of difficulty (AOR=2.84), and any public insurance (AOR=1.60). Efforts to advance medical home access must give special attention to these CSHCN populations and improvements must be made to referral access, family-centered care, and care coordination.

  13. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  14. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  15. Influence of awareness and availability of medical alternatives on parents seeking paediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellbrant, Julia A; Åkeson, S Jonas; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia M

    2018-06-01

    Direct seeking of care at paediatric emergency departments may result from an inadequate awareness or a short supply of medical alternatives. We therefore evaluated the care-seeking patterns, availability of medical options and initial medical assessments - with overall reference to socioeconomic status - of parents at an urban paediatric emergency department in a Scandinavian country providing free paediatric healthcare. The parents of children assessed by paediatric emergency department physicians at a Swedish university hospital over a 25-day winter period completed a questionnaire on recent medical contacts and their reasons for attendance. Additional information was obtained from ledgers, patient records and population demographics. In total, 657 of 713 eligible patients (92%) were included. Seventy-nine per cent of their parents either failed to or managed to establish medical contact before the emergency department visit, whereas 21% sought care with no attempt at recent medical contact. Visits with a failed telephone or primary care contact (18%) were more common outside office hours ( p=0.014) and were scored as less urgent ( p=0.014). A perceived emergency was the main reason for no attempt at medical contact before the visit. Direct emergency department care-seeking was more common from the city district with the lowest socioeconomic status ( p=0.027). Although most parents in this Swedish study tried to seek medical advice before attending a paediatric emergency department, perceived emergency, a short supply of telephone health line or primary care facilities and lower socioeconomic status contributed to direct care-seeking by almost 40% of parents. Pre-hospital awareness and the availability of medical alternatives with an emphasis on major differences in socioeconomic status should therefore be considered to further optimize care-seeking in paediatric emergency departments.

  16. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA... Solutions USA, Inc. (Siemens), Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (subject firm). The...., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (TA-W-73,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc...

  17. Emerging trends in the outsourcing of medical and surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer B; McGrath, Mary H; Maa, John

    2011-01-01

    As total health care expenditures are expected to constitute an increasing portion of the US gross domestic product during the coming years, the US health care system is anticipating a historic spike in the need for care. Outsourcing medical and surgical care to other nations has expanded rapidly, and several ethical, legal, and financial considerations require careful evaluation. Ultimately, the balance between cost savings, quality, and patient satisfaction will be the key determinant in the future of medical outsourcing.

  18. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care... Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and... situations where third-party payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to...

  19. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... care. (a) When a member of the ARNG incurs a disease or an injury, while performing training duty under... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... benefits. (b) Authorization for care in civilian facility. (1) An individual who desires medical or dental...

  20. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  1. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  2. The Fresenius Medical Care home hemodialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeper, Christian; Diaz-Buxo, Jose A

    2004-01-01

    The Fresenius Medical Care home dialysis system consists of a newly designed machine, a central monitoring system, a state-of-the-art reverse osmosis module, ultrapure water, and all the services associated with a successful implementation. The 2008K@home hemodialysis machine has the flexibility to accommodate the changing needs of the home hemodialysis patient and is well suited to deliver short daily or prolonged nocturnal dialysis using a broad range of dialysate flows and concentrates. The intuitive design, large graphic illustrations, and step-by-step tutorial make this equipment very user friendly. Patient safety is assured by the use of hydraulic systems with a long history of reliability, smart alarm algorithms, and advanced electronic monitoring. To further patient comfort with their safety at home, the 2008K@home is enabled to communicate with the newly designed iCare remote monitoring system. The Aquaboss Smart reverse osmosis (RO) system is compact, quiet, highly efficient, and offers an improved hygienic design. The RO module reduces water consumption by monitoring the water flow of the dialysis system and adjusting water production accordingly. The Diasafe Plus filter provides ultrapure water, known for its long-term benefits. This comprehensive approach includes planning, installation, technical and clinical support, and customer service.

  3. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old ... as pain caused by an ear infection Common Medical Problems Young children have an average of 6 ...

  4. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old ... pain, such as from an ear infection Common Medical Problems Problems often found in this age group ...

  5. Proactive pharmaceutical care interventions decrease patients' nonadherence to osteoporosis medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman-Bieze, A G G; Hiddink, E G; van Boven, J F M; Vegter, S

    UNLABELLED: Using a protocolled intervention program, pharmacists can decrease nonadherence to osteoporosis medication, by continuous monitoring and tailored counseling sessions, starting at treatment initiation. In the usual care group, 32.8% of patients initiating osteoporosis medication

  6. 42 CFR 34.7 - Medical and other care; death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical and other care; death. 34.7 Section 34.7... EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF ALIENS § 34.7 Medical and other care; death. (a) An alien detained by or in... further care. (b) In case of the death of an alien, the body shall be delivered to the consular or...

  7. Identifying medication errors in the neonatal intensive care unit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the health care professional, patient, or consumer. ... Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Health Care Sciences, ..... patient safety. ... Clifton-Koeppel R. What nurses can do right now to reduce medication errors.

  8. Structuring Payment to Medical Homes After the Affordable Care Act

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Samuel T.; Abrams, Melinda K.; Baron, Richard J.; Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Landon, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for acco...

  9. Medication errors in home care: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Astrid; Bentsen, Signe Berit

    2017-11-01

    To explore registered nurses' experiences of medication errors and patient safety in home care. The focus of care for older patients has shifted from institutional care towards a model of home care. Medication errors are common in this situation and can result in patient morbidity and mortality. An exploratory qualitative design with focus group interviews was used. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses in home care. The data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were identified as follows: lack of information, lack of competence, reporting medication errors, trade name products vs. generic name products, and improving routines. Medication errors occur frequently in home care and can threaten the safety of patients. Insufficient exchange of information and poor communication between the specialist and home-care health services, and between general practitioners and healthcare workers can lead to medication errors. A lack of competence in healthcare workers can also lead to medication errors. To prevent these, it is important that there should be up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers during the transfer of patients from specialist to home care. Ensuring competence among healthcare workers with regard to medication is also important. In addition, there should be openness and accurate reporting of medication errors, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medicines. To prevent medication errors in home care, up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers is important when patients are transferred from specialist to home care. It is also important to ensure adequate competence with regard to medication, and that there should be openness when medication errors occur, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fatigue and the delivery of medical care

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-01-01

    Lack of sleep has well established effects on physiological, cognitive and behavioural functionality. Sleep deprivation can adversely affect clinical performance as severely as alcohol according to some sources. Sleep deficiency may be due to loss of one night’s sleep or repeated interruptions of sleep. Chronic sleep degrades the ability to recognise one’s ability to recognise the impairments induced by sleep loss. The problem of sleep deprivation has vexed acute medical practice for decades. Improvement has been painfully slow. The problem is that all 168 hours throughout every week of every year have to be covered and there are a finite number of doctors to shoulder the burden. There are many strongly held views about how best to provide night-time and week-end care. Constructive innovations are thin on the ground. The biggest gap is between administration and doctors with financial considerations being the limiting factor. It is, however, generally accepted on all sides that sleep loss and fatigue can have adverse effects on both patients and doctors.

  11. Palliative care education for medical students: Differences in course evolution, organisation, evaluation and funding: A survey of all UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven; Gibbins, Jane; Paes, Paul; Adams, Astrid; Chandratilake, Madawa; Gishen, Faye; Lodge, Philip; Wee, Bee; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    A proportion of newly qualified doctors report feeling unprepared to manage patients with palliative care and end-of-life needs. This may be related to barriers within their institution during undergraduate training. Information is limited regarding the current organisation of palliative care teaching across UK medical schools. To investigate the evolution and structure of palliative care teaching at UK medical schools. Anonymised, web-based questionnaire. Settings/participants: Results were obtained from palliative care course organisers at all 30 UK medical schools. The palliative care course was established through active planning (13/30, 43%), ad hoc development (10, 33%) or combination of approaches (7, 23%). The place of palliative care teaching within the curriculum varied. A student-selected palliative care component was offered by 29/30 (97%). All medical schools sought student feedback. The course was reviewed in 26/30 (87%) but not in 4. Similarly, a course organiser was responsible for the palliative care programme in 26/30 but not in 4. A total of 22 respondents spent a mean of 3.9 h (median 2.5)/week in supporting/delivering palliative care education (organisers received titular recognition in 18/27 (67%; no title 9 (33%); unknown 3 (11%)). An academic department of Palliative Medicine existed in 12/30 (40%) medical schools. Funding was not universally transparent. Palliative care teaching was associated with some form of funding in 20/30 (66%). Development, organisation, course evaluation and funding for palliative care teaching at UK medical schools are variable. This may have implications for delivery of effective palliative care education for medical students.

  12. Care coordination, medical complexity, and unmet need for prescription medications among children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Chui, Michelle A

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have multiple unmet health care needs including that of prescription medications. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to quantify and compare unmet needs for prescription medications for subgroups of CSHCN without and with medical complexity (CMC)-those who have multiple, chronic, and complex medical conditions associated with severe functional limitations and high utilization of health care resources, and 2) to describe its association with receipt of effective care coordination services and level of medical complexity. A secondary data analysis of the 2009/2010 National Survey of CSHCN, a nationally representative telephone survey of parents of CSHCN, was conducted. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine associations between unmet need for prescription medications and medical complexity and care coordination for families of CSHCN, while controlling for demographic variables such as race, insurance, education level, and household income. Analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling weights. CMC represented about 3% of CSHCN. CMC parents reported significantly more unmet need for prescription medications and care coordination (4%, 68%), compared to Non-CMC parents (2%, 40%). Greater unmet need for prescription medications was associated with unmet care coordination (adjusted OR 3.81; 95% CI: 2.70-5.40) and greater medical complexity (adjusted OR 2.01; 95% CI: 1.00-4.03). Traditional care coordination is primarily facilitated by nurses and nurse practitioners with little formal training in medication management. However, pharmacists are rarely part of the CSHCN care coordination model. As care delivery models for these children evolve, and given the complexity of and numerous transitions of care for these patients, pharmacists can play an integral role to improve unmet needs for prescription medications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health insurance and the demand for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meza, D

    1983-03-01

    With rare exceptions the provision of actuarially fair health insurance tends to substantially increase the demand for medical care by redistributing income from the healthy to the sick. This suggests that previous studies which attribute all the extra demand for medical care to moral hazard effects may overestimate the efficiency costs of health insurance.

  14. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    ... carry out their military missions, and to be prepared to deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides, where space is available, health care services in Department of Defense (DOD...

  15. Veterans Medical Care: FY2010 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    including eyeglasses and hearing aids; home health services, hospice care, palliative care, and institutional respite care; and noninstitutional...claimed and an administrative determination was made regarding the veteran’s ability to bear the cost of such transportation.89 The Veterans

  16. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Don J

    2009-01-01

    .... Known as Tricare, this system of military and private health care offers benefits to active duty personnel and other beneficiaries, including dependents of active duty personnel, military retirees...

  17. Medical Service: 40 years of outpatient care

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On 1st June 2005 the Medical Service will be celebrating its fortieth birthday. This will mark forty years of service to the health of CERN's personnel by the Medical Service's small team of doctors, nurses, laboratory assistants and secretaries. Since 1965, 27 280 medical files have been archived and computerised. The Medical Service. From left to right, front row : Mireille Vosdey, Marloeke Bol and Nicole De Matos. From left to right, back row : Katie Warrilow-Thomson, Dr Eric Reymond, Dr Véronique Fassnacht, Isabelle Auvigne and Françoise Lebrun-Klauser. The Medical Service was founded on 1st June 1965, with a staff of four: the doctor, Jean-Paul Diss, a nurse, a laboratory assistant and a secretary. Previously, a private medical practitioner had come to CERN to perform the medical check-ups on the personnel and the Fire Brigade was responsible for first aid. However, in view of increasing staff numbers and the specific needs of a Laboratory like CERN, an on-site Medical Service had become ess...

  18. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    conditions. Qualifying conditions include: • Diagnosis in an infant or toddler of a neuromuscular developmental condition or other condition expected to...TRICARE and Medicare Payments to Providers and the Sustainable Growth Rate ......... 19 Medicare and TRICARE for Life...training, medical research and development , health information technology, facility planning, public health, medical logistics, acquisition, budget, and

  19. St. Luke's Medical Center: technologizing health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanguil, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The computerization of the St. Luke's Medical Center improved the hospital administration and management, particularly in nuclear medicine department. The use of computer-aided X-ray simulator machine and computerized linear accelerator machine in diagnosing and treating cancer are the most recent medical technological breakthroughs that benefited thousands of Filipino cancer patients. 4 photos

  20. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  1. Patient participation in medication safety during an acute care admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Lauren; Botti, Mari; Duke, Maxine

    2015-10-01

    Patient participation in medication management during hospitalization is thought to reduce medication errors and, following discharge, improve adherence and therapeutic use of medications. There is, however, limited understanding of how patients participate in their medication management while hospitalized. To explore patient participation in the context of medication management during a hospital admission for a cardiac surgical intervention of patients with cardiovascular disease. Single institution, case study design. The unit of analysis was a cardiothoracic ward of a major metropolitan, tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Multiple methods of data collection were used including pre-admission and pre-discharge patient interviews (n = 98), naturalistic observations (n = 48) and focus group interviews (n = 2). All patients had changes made to their pre-operative cardiovascular medications as a consequence of surgery. More patients were able to list and state the purpose and side-effects of their cardiovascular medications at pre-admission than prior to discharge from hospital. There was very little evidence that nurses used opportunities such as medication administration times to engage patients in medication management during hospital admission. Failure to engage patients in medication management and provide opportunities for patients to learn about changes to their medications has implications for the quality and safety of care patients receive in hospital and when managing their medications once discharged. To increase the opportunity for patients to participate in medication management, a fundamental shift in the way nurses currently provide care is required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Follow-up Medical Care After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Follow-Up Medical Care Once you’re done with cancer treatment, ...

  3. Financial burden of medical care: a family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robin A; Kirzinger, Whitney K

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2012. In 2012, more than one in four families experienced financial burdens of medical care. Families with incomes at or below 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) were more likely to experience financial burdens of medical care than families with incomes above 250% of the FPL. Families with children aged 0-17 years were more likely than families without children to experience financial burdens of medical care. The presence of a family member who was uninsured increased the likelihood that a family would experience a financial burden of medical care. Recently published data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that 1 in 5 persons was in a family having problems paying medical bills, and 1 in 10 persons was in a family with medical bills that they were unable to pay at all (1-3). NHIS defines "family" as an individual or a group of two or more related persons living together in the same housing unit. The family perspective is important to consider when examining financial risk because significant expenses for one family member may adversely affect the whole family. Health insurance coverage is one way for a family to mitigate financial risk associated with health care costs, although health insurance status may differ among family members. This report explores selected family demographic characteristics and their association with financial burdens of medical care (problems paying medical bills, paying medical bills over time, and having medical bills that cannot be paid) based on data from the 2012 NHIS. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Medication Therapy Management and Preconception Care: Opportunities for Pharmacist Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As medication therapy management (MTM continues to grow in the profession of pharmacy, careful consideration as to areas for positive patient impact is warranted. Given the current gaps in preconception care in the United States, and the accessibility and expertise of the pharmacist, MTM interventions related to preconception care may be valuable. This paper describes potential for pharmacist intervention in several different areas of preconception care. Notably, targeted medication reviews may be appropriate for interventions such as folic acid recommendations, teratogenic/category X medication management, immunizations, and disease state management. Comprehensive medication reviews may be warranted for selected disease states due to complexity of interventions, such the management of diabetes. Comprehensive medication reviews may also be warranted if several targeted interventions are necessary, or if there are a several medications or disease states requiring intervention. Pharmacists also have important roles in screening, support, and referrals needed for preconception care in the context of MTM. Patients may benefit substantially from pharmacist-directed MTM services related to preconception care. In addition, depending on clinical pharmacy service contracts and billing opportunities, pharmacists may be reimbursed for providing these services, generating sustainable revenue while fulfilling an important public health need.   Type: Idea Paper

  5. Patient-centered medical homes in Louisiana had minimal impact on Medicaid population's use of acute care and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Evan S; Campbell, Claudia; Diana, Mark L; Webber, Larry; Culbertson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model of primary care has received considerable attention for its potential to improve outcomes and reduce health care costs. Yet little information exists about the model's ability to achieve these goals for Medicaid patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of patient-centered medical home certification of Louisiana primary care clinics on the quality and cost of care over time for a Medicaid population. We used a quasi-experimental pre-post design with a matched control group to assess the effect of medical home certification on outcomes. We found no impact on acute care use and modest support for reduced costs and primary care use among medical homes serving higher proportions of chronically ill patients. These findings provide preliminary results related to the ability of the patient-centered medical home model to improve outcomes for Medicaid beneficiaries. The findings support a case-mix-adjusted payment policy for medical homes going forward. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  7. Integrating advanced practice providers into medical critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; O'Rourke, Nancy C; Madison, J Mark

    2013-03-01

    Because there is increasing demand for critical care providers in the United States, many medical ICUs for adults have begun to integrate nurse practitioners and physician assistants into their medical teams. Studies suggest that such advanced practice providers (APPs), when appropriately trained in acute care, can be highly effective in helping to deliver high-quality medical critical care and can be important elements of teams with multiple providers, including those with medical house staff. One aspect of building an integrated team is a practice model that features appropriate coding and billing of services by all providers. Therefore, it is important to understand an APP's scope of practice, when they are qualified for reimbursement, and how they may appropriately coordinate coding and billing with other team providers. In particular, understanding when and how to appropriately code for critical care services (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 99291, critical care, evaluation and management of the critically ill or critically injured patient, first 30-74 min; CPT code 99292, critical care, each additional 30 min) and procedures is vital for creating a sustainable program. Because APPs will likely play a growing role in medical critical care units in the future, more studies are needed to compare different practice models and to determine the best way to deploy this talent in specific ICU settings.

  8. Healthcare information technology and medical-surgical nurses: the emergence of a new care partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, An'Nita; Fisher, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Healthcare information technology in US hospitals and ambulatory care centers continues to expand, and nurses are expected to effectively and efficiently utilize this technology. Researchers suggest that clinical information systems have expanded the realm of nursing to integrate technology as an element as important in nursing practice as the patient or population being served. This study sought to explore how medical surgical nurses make use of healthcare information technology in their current clinical practice and to examine the influence of healthcare information technology on nurses' clinical decision making. A total of eight medical surgical nurses participated in the study, four novice and four experienced. A conventional content analysis was utilized that allowed for a thematic interpretation of participant data. Five themes emerged: (1) healthcare information technology as a care coordination partner, (2) healthcare information technology as a change agent in the care delivery environment, (3) healthcare information technology-unable to meet all the needs, of all the people, all the time, (4) curiosity about healthcare information technology-what other bells and whistles exist, and (5) Big Brother is watching. The results of this study indicate that a new care partnership has emerged as the provision of nursing care is no longer supplied by a single practitioner but rather by a paired team, consisting of nurses and technology, working collaboratively in an interdependent relationship to achieve established goals.

  9. Development and initial feasibility of an organizational measure of behavioral health integration in medical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Urada, Darren; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Sullivan, Steven T; Mazade, Noel A

    2012-12-01

    In the advent of health care reform, models are sought to integrate behavioral health and routine medical care services. Historically, the behavioral health specialty has not itself been integrated, but instead bifurcated by substance use and mental health across treatment systems, care providers and even research. With the present opportunity to transform the health care delivery system, it is incumbent upon policymakers, researchers and clinicians to avoid repeating this historical error, and provide integrated behavioral health services in medical contexts. An organizational measure designed to assess this capacity is described: the Dual Diagnosis Capability in Health Care Settings (DDCHCS). The DDCHCS was used to assess a sample of federally-qualified health centers (N=13) on the degree of behavioral health integration. The measure was found to be feasible and sensitive to detecting variation in integrated behavioral health services capacity. Three of the 13 agencies were dual diagnosis capable, with significant variation in DDCHCS dimensions measuring staffing, treatment practices and program milieu. In general, mental health services were more integrated than substance use. Future research should consider a revised version of the measure, a larger and more representative sample, and linking organizational capacity with patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Medical ADP Systems: Automated Medical Records Hold Promise to Improve Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    automated medical records. The report discusses the potential benefits that automation could make to the quality of patient care and the factors that impede...information systems, but no organization has fully automated one of the most critical types of information, patient medical records. The patient medical record...its review of automated medical records. GAO’s objectives in this study were to identify the (1) benefits of automating patient records and (2) factors

  11. Evaluation of medication errors with implementation of electronic health record technology in the medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao TV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available T Vivian Liao,1 Marina Rabinovich,2 Prasad Abraham,2 Sebastian Perez,3 Christiana DiPlotti,4 Jenny E Han,5 Greg S Martin,5 Eric Honig5 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Mercer Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Pharmacy and Clinical Nutrition, Grady Health System, 3Department of Surgery, Emory University, 4Pharmacy, Ingles Markets, 5Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU are at an increased risk for medication errors (MEs and adverse drug events from multifactorial causes. ME rate ranges from 1.2 to 947 per 1,000 patient days in the medical ICU (MICU. Studies with the implementation of electronic health records (EHR have concluded that it significantly reduced overall prescribing errors and the number of errors that caused patient harm decreased. However, other types of errors, such as wrong dose and omission of required medications increased after EHR implementation. We sought to compare the number of MEs before and after EHR implementation in the MICU, with additional evaluation of error severity.Patients and methods: Prospective, observational, quality improvement study of all patients admitted to a single MICU service at an academic medical center. Patients were evaluated during four periods over 2 years: August–September 2010 (preimplementation; period I, January–February 2011 (2 months postimplementation; period II, August–September 2012 (21 months postimplementation; period III, and January–February 2013 (25 months postimplementation; period IV. All medication orders and administration records were reviewed by an ICU clinical pharmacist and ME was defined as a deviation from established standards for prescribing, dispensing, administering, or documenting medication. The frequency and classification of MEs were compared between groups by chi square; p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: There was a statistically significant increase

  12. Health Care Practices for Medical Textiles in Government Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, B. N.; Anikweze, G. U.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the health care practices for medical textiles in government hospitals Enugu State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the availability and maintenance of medical textiles in government hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample of 1200 hospital personnel were studied. One thousand two hundred…

  13. 42 CFR 431.12 - Medical care advisory committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other representatives of the health professions who are familiar with the medical needs of low-income... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical care advisory committee. 431.12 Section 431.12 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. Providing Medical Care in Yekaterynoslav during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Haponov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing medical care to the ill and wounded persons during World War I in Yekaterynoslav is described. The history of the creation of field hospitals, military hospitals, Red Cross hospitals and church-monument to the fallen heroes is presented. The selfless work of military medical personnel is shown. Biographical information about a doctor, public figure Yefim Pavlovskyi is provided.

  15. The effect of physician staffing model on patient outcomes in a medical progressive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, E J; Damaghi, N; Shakespeare, W G; Sherman, M S

    2016-04-01

    Although evidence supports the impact of intensivist physician staffing in improving intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, the optimal coverage for progressive care units (PCU) is unknown. We sought to determine how physician staffing models influence outcomes for intermediate care patients. We conducted a retrospective observational comparison of patients admitted to the medical PCU of an academic hospital during 12-month periods of high-intensity and low-intensity staffing. A total of 318 PCU patients were eligible for inclusion (143 high-intensity and 175 low-intensity). We found that low-intensity patients were more often stepped up from the emergency department and floor, whereas high-intensity patients were ICU transfers (61% vs 42%, P = .001). However, Mortality Probability Model scoring was similar between the 2 groups. In adjusted analysis, there was no association between intensity of staffing and hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.99; P = .69) or PCU mortality (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.45; P = .69). There was also no difference in subsequent ICU admission rates or in PCU length of stay. We found no evidence that high-intensity intensivist physician staffing improves outcomes for intermediate care patients. In a strained critical care system, our study raises questions about the role of the intensivist in the graded care options between intensive and conventional ward care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional care of medical inpatients: a health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Filip

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inspiration for the present assessment of the nutritional care of medical patients is puzzlement about the divide that exists between the theoretical knowledge about the importance of the diet for ill persons, and the common failure to incorporate nutritional aspects in the treatment and care of the patients. The purpose is to clarify existing problems in the nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients, to elucidate how the nutritional care for these inpatients can be improved, and to analyse the costs of this improvement. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods are deployed to outline how nutritional care of medical inpatients is performed at three Danish hospitals. The practices observed are compared with official recommendations for nutritional care of inpatients. Factors extraneous and counterproductive to optimal nutritional care are identified from the perspectives of patients and professional staff. A review of the literature illustrates the potential for optimal nutritional care. A health economic analysis is performed to elucidate the savings potential of improved nutritional care. Results The prospects for improvements in nutritional care are ameliorated if hospital management clearly identifies nutritional care as a priority area, and enjoys access to management tools for quality assurance. The prospects are also improved if a committed professional at the ward has the necessary time resources to perform nutritional care in practice, and if the care staff can requisition patient meals rich in nutrients 24 hours a day. At the kitchen production level prospects benefit from a facilitator contact between care and kitchen staff, and if the kitchen staff controls the whole food path from the kitchen to the patient. At the patient level, prospects are improved if patients receive information about the choice of food and drink, and have a better nutrition dialogue with the care staff. Better nutritional care of

  17. Medical Assistant-based care management for high risk patients in small primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients with type 2......, and monitoring delivered by medical assistants with usual care. Measurements: All-cause hospitalizations at 12 months (primary outcome) and quality of life scores (Short Form 12 Health Questionnaire [SF-12] and the Euroqol instrument [EQ-5D]). Results: Included patients had, on average, four co-occurring chronic...

  18. Classification Model That Predicts Medical Students' Choices of Primary Care or Non-Primary Care Specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study identified factors in graduating medical students' choice of primary versus nonprimary care specialty. Subjects were 509 students at the Medical College of Georgia in 1988-90. Students could be classified by such factors as desire for longitudinal patient care opportunities, monetary rewards, perception of lifestyle, and perception of…

  19. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  20. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    Tricare Latin America and Canada Area covering Central and South America, the Caribbean Basin, Canada, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. • Tricare...program is designed to fill long-term prescriptions to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma, or diabetes ; it does not include medications

  1. Afraid of medical care school-aged children's narratives about medical fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsner, Maria; Jansson, Lilian; Söderberg, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.

  2. The Culture of General Palliative Nursing Care in Medical Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbæk, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    in medical departments. Methods: An ethnographic study, using Spradley's 12-step method, with observational field studies and interviews with nurses from three medical departments in a Danish regional hospital. Findings: Three cultural themes emerged from the analysis, focusing on the setting, the practice...... and the nurses' reflections on GPNC: (1) GPNC provided in a treatment setting, (2) transition to loving care and the licence to perform palliative care (PC) and (3) potential for team improvement. Conclusions: GPNC as a culture in medical departments seemed to be embedded in a setting not suited for dying...

  3. Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers' strain and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in strain among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash…

  4. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  5. In Connecticut: improving patient medication management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie; Giuliano, Margherita R; Starkowski, Michael P

    2011-04-01

    Medications are a cornerstone of the management of most chronic conditions. However, medication discrepancies and medication-related problems-some of which can cause serious harm-are common. Pharmacists have the expertise to identify, resolve, monitor, and prevent these problems. We present findings from a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services demonstration project in Connecticut, in which nine pharmacists worked closely with eighty-eight Medicaid patients from July 2009 through May 2010. The pharmacists identified 917 drug therapy problems and resolved nearly 80 [corrected] percent of them after four encounters. The result was an estimated annual saving of $1,123 per patient on medication claims and $472 per patient on medical, hospital, and emergency department expenses-more than enough to pay for the contracted pharmacist services. We recommend that the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation support the evaluation of pharmacist-provided medication management services in primary care medical homes, accountable care organizations, and community health and care transition teams, as well as research to explore how to enhance team-based care.

  6. Consumer opinions of emergency room medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, J R; Younger, M S; DeWine, L C

    1984-12-01

    If hospital management is to adapt successfully to an increasingly competitive environment, and to retain a viable emergency department, it well be necessary to objectively and accurately assess the hospital's image in the community served. Knowledge of the consumers' views is an essential input into the formulation of strategic plans. This article reports on a study in which consumer opinions on 15 dimensions of emergency room health care were obtained from 723 respondents using a mail questionnaire. Findings reveal that consumers view the emergency room as being more expensive than other health care providers. Except for being available or convenient, little or no advantage is perceived for the emergency room over the personal physician. Even though the emergency room has specialized staff and equipment, consumers do not believe patients receive better or faster treatment in an emergency room than would be obtained in a physician's office. Unless changed, these perceptions will diminish the role of the emergency room in the delivery of health care services.

  7. [Medical care for the burnt in modern local military conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel'nikov, V O; Paramonov, B A; Tatarin, S N

    2002-07-01

    The article is devoted to the experience of treatment of the servicemen who burned during the hostilities in Afghanistan (1979-1989), Tadjikistan (1992-1994) and in Republic of Chechnya (1994-2996). Medical care rendered in 18,921 cases of burns and combined trauma (the burn prevailed) is analyzed: 1201--in Afghanistan, 205--in Tadjikistan and 415--in Republic of Chechnya. In the structure of sanitary losses of surgical character the burned persons constituted 2.5% in Afghanistan, 7.0%--in Tadjikistan and 3.9%--in Republic of Chechnya. The most effective was the medical-evacuation system in Afghanistan. The optimal medical-evacuation system during the local armed conflicts and wars is the evacuation consisted of two stages: first medical aid--specialized medical care.

  8. The costs of caring: medical costs of Alzheimer's disease and the managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murman, D L

    2001-01-01

    This review summarizes the medical costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, as well as the payers responsible for these medical costs in the US health care system. It is clear from this review that AD and related dementias are associated with substantial medical costs. The payers responsible for a majority of these costs are families of patients with AD and the US government through the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In an attempt to control expenditures, Medicare and Medicaid have turned to managed care principles and managed care organizations. The increase in "managed" dementia care gives rise to several potential problems for patients with AD, along with many opportunities for systematic improvement in the quality of dementia care. Evidence-based disease management programs provide the greatest opportunities for improving managed dementia care but will require the development of dementia-specific quality of care measures to evaluate and continually improve them.

  9. MEDICAL SERVICES OR MEDICAL CARE – AN URGENT ISSUE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pesennikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To consider the relationship between the concepts of “medical service” and “medical care” in the work of public medical institutions, based on the analysis of normative legal documents of the modern period.Materials and methods. In the course of the research, more than 18 legal and regulatory documents that were published during the period from 1990 to 2017 were analyzed, an analysis of judicial practice and related literature sources (periodicals was carried out.Results. The analysis made it possible to distinguish the stages in the development of the organizational and legal framework for the provision of paid medical services in the Russian Federation and the dynamics of the relationship between the terms “medical care” and “medical service”. It was revealed that the concept of “medical services” appeared much later and was associated with the development of paid medical services and the need to establish legal aspects of health care. The provision of medical assistance is regulated mainly by public law, and the provision of medical services is governed by private law. The term “medical care” is broader than the “medical service” from the standpoint of the social aspect. At the same time, the concept of “medical service” can be considered more widely than medical care in cases when it is not only about measures aimed at treating the patient, but also about providing additional services to the patient in the process of receiving medical care.Conclusion. Thus, we concluded that the categories of medical care and medical services should not be identified, but also not completely different concepts, but rather enter into a partial intersection relationship. The need to distinguish between the concepts of “medical care” and “medical service” is dictated not only by the category relations or opinion of the population and the medical community, but also by the need for legal support for the process of

  10. Effectively marketing prepaid medical care with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports a decision support system (DSS) that enables health plan administrators to quickly and easily: (1) manage relevant medical care market (consumer preference and competitors' program) information and (2) convert the information into appropriate medical care delivery and/or payment policies. As the paper demonstrates, the DSS enables providers to design cost efficient and market effective medical care programs. The DSS provides knowledge about subscriber preferences, customer desires, and the program offerings of the competition. It then helps administrators structure a medical care plan in a way that best meets consumer needs in view of the competition. This market effective plan has the potential to generate substantial amounts of additional revenue for the program. Since the system's data base consists mainly of the provider's records, routine transactions, and other readily available documents, the DSS can be implemented at a nominal incremental cost. The paper also evaluates the impact of the information system on the general financial performance of existing dental and mental health plans. In addition, the paper examines how the system can help contain the cost of providing medical care while providing better services to more potential beneficiaries than current approaches.

  11. Alcoholism treatment and medical care costs from Project MATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Cisler, R A; Longabaugh, R; Stout, R L; Treno, A J; Zweben, A

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the costs of medical care prior to and following initiation of alcoholism treatment as part of a study of patient matching to treatment modality. Longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment initiation. The total medical care costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment for patients participating over a span of 3 years post-treatment. Three treatment sites at two of the nine Project MATCH locations (Milwaukee, WI and Providence, RI). Two hundred and seventy-nine patients. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment modalities: a 12-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a four-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or a 12-session Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF) treatment over 12 weeks. Total medical care costs declined from pre- to post-treatment overall and for each modality. Matching effects independent of clinical prognosis showed that MET has potential for medical-care cost-savings. However, patients with poor prognostic characteristics (alcohol dependence, psychiatric severity and/or social network support for drinking) have better cost-savings potential with CBT and/or TSF. Matching variables have significant importance in increasing the potential for medical-care cost-reductions following alcoholism treatment.

  12. Implementation of a 4-Year Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum in a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-Accredited US Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sean P; Mefford, Jason M; Lahham, Shadi; Lotfipour, Shahram; Subeh, Mohammad; Maldonado, Gracie; Spann, Sophie; Fox, John C

    2017-02-01

    The established benefits of point-of-care ultrasound have given rise to multiple new and innovative curriculums to incorporate ultrasound teaching into medical education. This study sought to measure the educational success of a comprehensive and integrated 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum. We integrated a curriculum consisting of traditional didactics combined with asynchronous learning modules and hands-on practice on live models with skilled sonographers into all 4 years of education at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited US Medical School. Each graduating student was administered an exit examination with 48 questions that corresponded to ultrasound milestones. Ninety-five percent (n = 84) of fourth-year medical students completed the exit examination. The mean score was 79.5% (SD, 10.2%), with mean scores on the ultrasound physics and anatomy subsections being 77.1% (SD, 11.0%) and 85.9% (SD, 21.0%), respectively. A comprehensive 4-year point-of-care ultrasound curriculum integrated into medical school may successfully equip graduating medical students with a fundamental understanding of ultrasound physics, anatomy, and disease recognition. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. How Can Medical Students Add Value? Identifying Roles, Barriers, and Strategies to Advance the Value of Undergraduate Medical Education to Patient Care and the Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Dekhtyar, Michael; Hawkins, Richard E; Wolpaw, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    As health systems evolve, the education community is seeking to reimagine student roles that combine learning with meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors sought to identify potential stakeholders regarding the value of student work, and roles and tasks students could perform to add value to the health system, including key barriers and associated strategies to promote value-added roles in undergraduate medical education. In 2016, 32 U.S. medical schools in the American Medical Association's (AMA's) Accelerating Change in Education Consortium met for a two-day national meeting to explore value-added medical education; 121 educators, systems leaders, clinical mentors, AMA staff leadership and advisory board members, and medical students were included. A thematic qualitative analysis of workshop discussions and written responses was performed, which extracted key themes. In current clinical roles, students can enhance value by performing detailed patient histories to identify social determinants of health and care barriers, providing evidence-based medicine contributions at the point-of-care, and undertaking health system research projects. Novel value-added roles include students serving as patient navigators/health coaches, care transition facilitators, population health managers, and quality improvement team extenders. Six priority areas for advancing value-added roles are student engagement, skills, and assessments; balance of service versus learning; resources, logistics, and supervision; productivity/billing pressures; current health systems design and culture; and faculty factors. These findings provide a starting point for collaborative work to positively impact clinical care and medical education through the enhanced integration of value-added medical student roles into care delivery systems.

  14. Medical Malpractice Phenomena: Signals for Changing Medical and Health Care Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Excellent discussion of the economic factors such as medical malpractice and corporate medicine that have begun to interfere with the doctor-patient relationship and why this relationship is so essential in order to prevent medical malpractice. Issues of quality assurance are relevant to the doctor-patient...... relationship and the quality of health care....

  15. Structuring payment to medical homes after the affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Samuel T; Abrams, Melinda K; Baron, Richard J; Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for accountable care organizations, consider opportunities for integration, and discuss implications for policy makers and payers considering ACO models. The PCMH and ACO are complementary approaches to reformed care delivery: the PCMH ultimately requires strong integration with specialists and hospitals as seen under ACOs, and ACOs likely will require a high functioning primary care system as embodied by the PCMH. Aligning payment incentives within the ACO will be critical to achieving this integration and enhancing the care coordination role of primary care in these settings.

  16. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-05-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Childhood accidents: the relationship of family size to incidence, supervision, and rapidity of seeking medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shepard; Eidelman, Arthur I; Zeidan, Amin; Applebaum, David; Raveh, David

    2005-09-01

    Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated. To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident. We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or the Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" - the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought. Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and > or =5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively). The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time

  18. Moral accounts and membership categorization in primary care medical interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between health and morality has been well established, few studies have examined how issues of morality emerge and are addressed in primary care medical encounters. This paper addresses the need to examine morality as it is (re) constructed in everyday health care interactions. A Membership Categorization Analysis of 96 medical interviews reveals how patients orient to particular membership categories and distance themselves from others as a means of accounting (Buttny 1993; Scott and Lyman 1968) for morally questionable health behaviours. More specifically, this paper examines how patients use membership categorizations in order to achieve specific social identity(ies) (Schubert et al. 2009) through two primary strategies: defensive detailing and prioritizing alternative membership categories. Thus, this analysis tracks the emergence of cultural and moral knowledge about social life as it takes place in primary care medical encounters.

  19. Consumerism: forcing medical practices toward patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmon, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Consumerism has been apart of many industries over the years; now consumerism may change the way many medical practices deliver healthcare. With the advent of consumer-driven healthcare, employers are shifting the decision-making power to their employees. Benefits strategies like health savings accounts and high-deductible insurance plans now allow the patients to control how and where they spend their money on medical care. Practices that seek to attract the more affluent and informed consumers are beginning to institute patient-centered systems designs that invite patients to actively participate in their healthcare. This article will outline the changes in the healthcare delivery system facing medical practices, the importance of patient-centered care, and six strategies to implement to change toward more patient-centered care.

  20. Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalu Asrat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%. Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%, omission due to unavailability (29.0% and missed doses (18.3% among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%. Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study.

  1. A clinician's artificial organ? Instant messaging applications in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazegul, Gokhan; Bozoglan, Humeyra; Ogut, Tahir S; Balcı, Mustafa K

    2017-09-15

    After the development of the first phone at the end of 19th century, communication technologies took a great leap forward in the 20th century. With the birth of the "smartphone" in the 21st century, communication technologies exponentially evolved and became an important part of our daily routine. Effective communications between clinicians is critical in medical care and miscommunications are a source of errors. Although telecommunication technologies have proliferated dramatically in the last decade, there is scarce evidence-based information on the use of this technology in medical care. For the purposes of medical communication, we can now consult each other about patients individually and within a group via instant messaging applications by using text messages, photos, audio messages and even videos. In this review, we examine the uses and drawbacks of instant messaging applications in medical communications.

  2. A Strategic Approach to Medical Care for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canga, Michael A.; Shah, Ronak V.; Mindock, Jennifer A.; Antonsen, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration missions will present significant new challenges to crew health, including effects of variable gravity environments, limited communication with Earth-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation for medical events, limited resupply, and limited ability for crew return. Providing health care capabilities for exploration class missions will require system trades be performed to identify a minimum set of requirements and crosscutting capabilities, which can be used in design of exploration medical systems. Medical data, information, and knowledge collected during current space missions must be catalogued and put in formats that facilitate querying and analysis. These data are used to inform the medical research and development program through analysis of risk trade studies between medical care capabilities and system constraints such as mass, power, volume, and training. Medical capability as a quantifiable variable is proposed as a surrogate risk metric and explored for trade space analysis that can improve communication between the medical and engineering approaches to mission design. The resulting medical system design approach selected will inform NASA mission architecture, vehicle, and subsystem design for the next generation of spacecraft.

  3. Nurses' medication administration practices at two Singaporean acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Janet; Johnston, Linda; Manias, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    This study examined registered nurses' overall compliance with accepted medication administration procedures, and explored the distractions they faced during medication administration at two acute care hospitals in Singapore. A total of 140 registered nurses, 70 from each hospital, participated in the study. At both hospitals, nurses were distracted by personnel, such as physicians, radiographers, patients not under their care, and telephone calls, during medication rounds. Deviations from accepted medication procedures were observed. At one hospital, the use of a vest during medication administration alone was not effective in avoiding distractions during medication administration. Environmental factors and distractions can impact on the safe administration of medications, because they not only impair nurses' level of concentration, but also add to their work pressure. Attention should be placed on eliminating distractions through the use of appropriate strategies. Strategies that could be considered include the conduct of education sessions with health professionals and patients about the importance of not interrupting nurses while they are administering medications, and changes in work design. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Exposure management systems in emergencies as comprehensive medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Teruhiko

    2000-01-01

    The emergency management of nuclear hazards relies on a comprehensive medical care system that includes accident prevention administration, environmental monitoring, a health physics organization, and a medical institution. In this paper, the care organization involved in the criticality accident at Tokai-mura is described, and the problems that need to be examined are pointed out. In that incident, even the expert was initially utterly confused and was unable to take appropriate measures. The author concluded that the members of the care organization were all untrained for dealing with nuclear hazards and radiation accidents. The education and training of personnel at the job site are important, and they are even more so for the leaders. Revisions of the regional disaster prevention plans and care manual are needed. (K.H.)

  5. Comradery, community, and care in military medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    Medical ethics prohibits caregivers from discriminating and providing preferential care to their compatriots and comrades. In military medicine, particularly during war and when resources may be scarce, ethical principles may dictate priority care for compatriot soldiers. The principle of nondiscrimination is central to utilitarian and deontological theories of justice, but communitarianism and the ethics of care and friendship stipulate a different set of duties for community members, friends, and family. Similar duties exist among the small cohesive groups that typify many military units. When members of these groups require medical care, there are sometimes moral grounds to treat compatriot soldiers ahead of enemy or allied soldiers regardless of the severity of their respective wounds.

  6. Does Medical Malpractice Law Improve Health Care Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Michael; Jena, Anupam B.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the potential for medical liability forces to deter medical errors and improve health care treatment quality, identifying liability’s influence by drawing on variations in the manner by which states formulate the negligence standard facing physicians. Using hospital discharge records from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and clinically-validated quality metrics inspired by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, we find evidence suggesting that treatment quality may improve upon reforms that expect physicians to adhere to higher quality clinical standards. We do not find evidence, however, suggesting that treatment quality may deteriorate following reforms to liability standards that arguably condone the delivery of lower quality care. Similarly, we do not find evidence of deterioration in health care quality following remedy-focused liability reforms such as caps on non-economic damages awards. PMID:28479642

  7. 42 CFR 456.143 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.143 Section 456.143 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.143 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care...

  8. Medical smart cards: health care access in your pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, R W

    2000-01-01

    The wallet-sized medical smart card, embedded with a programmable computer chip, stores and transmits a cardholder's clinical, insurance coverage and biographical information. When fully deployed, smart cards will conduct many functions at the point of care, from claims submission to medical records updates in real time. Ultimately, the smart card will make the individual patient record and all clinical and economic transactions within that patient log as portable, accessible and secure as an ATM account.

  9. Late presentation of chronic viral hepatitis for medical care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauss, Stefan; Pol, Stanislas; Buti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    , and relevant stakeholders including patient advocacy groups, health policy-makers, international health organisations and surveillance experts, met in 2014 and 2015 to develop a draft consensus definition of late presentation with viral hepatitis for medical care. This was refined through subsequent...... consultations among the group. RESULTS: Two definitions were agreed upon. Presentation with advanced liver disease caused by chronic viral hepatitis for medical care is defined as a patient with chronic hepatitis B and C and significant fibrosis (≥ F3 assessed by either APRI score > 1.5, FIB-4 > 3.25, Fibrotest...

  10. Traveling abroad for medical care: U.S. medical tourists' expectations and perceptions of service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Vequist, David G

    2011-01-01

    The SERVQUAL scale has been widely used to measure service quality in the health care industry. This research is the first study that used SERVQUAL to assess U.S. medical tourists' expectations and perceptions of the service quality of health care facilities located outside the United States. Based on a sample of U.S. consumers, who had traveled abroad for medical care, the results indicated that there were significant differences between U.S. medical tourists' perceived level of service provided and their expectations of the service that should be provided for four of the five dimensions of service quality. Reliability had the largest service quality gap followed by assurance, tangibles, and empathy. Responsiveness was the only dimension without a significantly different gap score. The study establishes a foundation for future research on service quality in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  11. Stoicism, the physician, and care of medical outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical outliers present a medical, psychological, social, and economic challenge to the physicians who care for them. The determinism of Stoic thought is explored as an intellectual basis for the pursuit of a correct mental attitude that will provide aid and comfort to physicians who care for medical outliers, thus fostering continued physician engagement in their care. Discussion The Stoic topics of good, the preferable, the morally indifferent, living consistently, and appropriate actions are reviewed. Furthermore, Zeno's cardinal virtues of Justice, Temperance, Bravery, and Wisdom are addressed, as are the Stoic passions of fear, lust, mental pain, and mental pleasure. These concepts must be understood by physicians if they are to comprehend and accept the Stoic view as it relates to having the proper attitude when caring for those with long-term and/or costly illnesses. Summary Practicing physicians, especially those that are hospital based, and most assuredly those practicing critical care medicine, will be emotionally challenged by the medical outlier. A Stoic approach to such a social and psychological burden may be of benefit.

  12. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  13. [The forensic medical aspects of the inappropriate medical care in the modern-day Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchuk, V V

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that the ever growing relevance of the problem of the inappropriate medical care was long ago brought to the worldwide attention, it has not been practically addressed in the Ukraine since the country gained independence in 1991. The objective of the present study was to consider the specific features of expert examination of the cases of inappropriate medical care as exemplified by the materials of the legal actions and lawsuits instituted against healthcare specialists violating their occupational duties. The results of forensic medical examination by the local Bureaux of forensic medical expertise concerning the 350 so-called malpractice suits instituted in the Ternopol, Zhitomir, and Chernovtsy regions during the period from 207 to 2016 were available for the analysis. The facts of inadequate and inappropriate medical care were documented in 245 (72.0%) cases. The frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic errors amounted to 29.7% and 26.9% respectively while the improper formulation of the medical documentation was recorded in 21.3% of the cases. The cases of poor organization of the diagnostic and treatment process accounted for 14.6% of the total whereas the improper behaviour of the medical personnel was reported in 7.5% of all the known cases of provision of the healthcare services. It is concluded that in the majority of the cases, the citizens of the modern-day Ukraine receive the inappropriate (insufficient and untimely) medical care. Over 80% of the cases of the inappropriate medical care currently provided in the country can be accounted for by the objective reasons, with each fifths case being due to the violation of professional responsibilities by the healthcare providers.

  14. Medical charge of asthma care in admitted Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Durongpisitkul, Worawan; Uoonpan, Srisakul; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2005-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Due to high admission rate for acute asthmatic attack, children often miss their schools and parents have to stop working to take care of them. These affect both mental and physical health as well as socioeconomic status of the family and the country. To evaluate medical charge of asthma care in children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. The study was a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from children with asthmatic attack admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 1st, 2000 to June 30th, 2003. Cost of room, food, drugs, devices, laboratory study and service charge were recorded. Total medical charges per year, per patient per admission and per patient per day were calculated. Data were analyzed with Chi square test, ANOVA and Post Hoc test. A p value of attack admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital increased between 2000-2002 (113,147 and 176 in 2000, 2001, and 2002). Seventy two percent of the patients were asthma. The average duration of hospitalization was 4 days (95% CI, 3.6-4.3). Average medical charge per patient per admission and per day was 3236.20 and 998.60 Bahts respectively. There was no significant difference in the medical charge per patient among the admitted years. Medical charge of admission was significantly associated with the asthma severity. (p attack in children at Siriraj Hospital and the total medical charge per year increased between 2000-2002. Nevertheless, medical charge of asthma admission per person was unchanged. Main expense in medical charge of asthma admission was the cost of medication and room. Severity of asthma was related directly to medical charge.

  15. Principles of medical ethics in supportive care: a reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Daniel G

    2004-02-01

    The possibility of medical-moral controversy in contemporary health care delivery is occasioned by the interfacing of expanding technology with both professional and personal value systems, frequent and significant knowledge deficits on the part of health care consumers, and increased circumspection of and economic constraints experienced by health care providers. Particularly in an era of increasing regulatory mandates and the frequent and lamentable decrease in the availability of human, natural, and institutional resources, an understanding of the function of ethical analysis is indigenous to care, which is simultaneously medically appropriate and morally indicated. But while a familiarity with and an appreciation of the potential contribution of ethical reasoning is essential in all health care delivery, it assumes critical importance in supportive care. In that venue, where the rigors and demands of aggressively therapeutic interventions have ceased and the goal and the demeanor of care have shifted to the palliative mode, heightened attention to the principles of medical ethics is necessary for the balancing of rights and responsibilities for health care consumers and providers alike. This issue ultimately can be singularly salient in providing care that is patient centered and directed. Individuals acting as moral agents, suggesting what "ought" to be done in a given situation, either for themselves or as they are involved in rendering or supporting decisions proffered for or by other moral agents, particularly those in extremis, those in the throes of terminal illness following the collapse of the curative mode, need recourse to principles to facilitate their reasoning. Although the employment of each principle of medical ethics offers guidelines for reflection on the most comprehensive and appropriate care, it is attention to autonomy, informed consent, and beneficence that promotes the most effective supportive care. For even as the question of medical

  16. Primary health eye care: evaluation of the competence of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-17

    Oct 17, 2009 ... The ability of fifth-year medical students to perform fundoscopy on ... Keywords: primary health eye care; teaching fundoscopy; essential basic ... treatment is implemented at an early stage in the disease.3-5. Such screening and early treatment can reduce the risk of ... Students with a refractive error were.

  17. Opioid use in palliative care | Hosking | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opioid use in palliative care. M Hosking. Abstract.

  18. Team-based primary care: The medical assistant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Bethany; Chien, Alyna T; Peters, Antoinette S; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Brooks, Joanna Veazey; Singer, Sara J

    Team-based care has the potential to improve primary care quality and efficiency. In this model, medical assistants (MAs) take a more central role in patient care and population health management. MAs' traditionally low status may give them a unique view on changing organizational dynamics and teamwork. However, little empirical work exists on how team-based organizational designs affect the experiences of low-status health care workers like MAs. The aim of this study was to describe how team-based primary care affects the experiences of MAs. A secondary aim was to explore variation in these experiences. In late 2014, the authors interviewed 30 MAs from nine primary care practices transitioning to team-based care. Interviews addressed job responsibilities, teamwork, implementation, job satisfaction, and learning. Data were analyzed using a thematic networks approach. Interviews also included closed-ended questions about workload and job satisfaction. Most MAs reported both a higher workload (73%) and a greater job satisfaction (86%) under team-based primary care. Interview data surfaced four mechanisms for these results, which suggested more fulfilling work and greater respect for the MA role: (a) relationships with colleagues, (b) involvement with patients, (c) sense of control, and (d) sense of efficacy. Facilitators and barriers to these positive changes also emerged. Team-based care can provide low-status health care workers with more fulfilling work and strengthen relationships across status lines. The extent of this positive impact may depend on supporting factors at the organization, team, and individual worker levels. To maximize the benefits of team-based care, primary care leaders should recognize the larger role that MAs play under this model and support them as increasingly valuable team members. Contingent on organizational conditions, practices may find MAs who are willing to manage the increased workload that often accompanies team-based care.

  19. Towards a fully-fledged integration of spiritual care and medical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, R.; Scherer-Rath, M.; Schilderman, J. B. A. M.; Puchalski, C. M.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we aim to set out current problems that hinder a fully-fledged integration of spiritual and medical care that address these obstacles. We discuss the following five statements: 1. Spiritual care requires a clear and inclusive definition of spirituality; 2. Empirical evidence for

  20. Towards a fully-fledged integration of spiritual care and medical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, R.; Scherer-Rath, M.; Schilderman, J.B.A.M.; Puchalski, C.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we aimed to set out current problems that hinder a fully fledged integration of spiritual and medical care, which address these obstacles. We discuss the following five statements: 1) spiritual care requires a clear and inclusive definition of spirituality; 2) empirical evidence for

  1. Medical staffing in Ontario neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, B; Mitchell, A; Hunsberger, M; Blatz, S; Watts, J; Dent, P; Sinclair, J; Southwell, D

    1989-06-01

    Advances in technology have improved the survival rates of infants of low birth weight. Increasing service commitments together with cutbacks in Canadian training positions have caused concerns about medical staffing in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Ontario. To determine whether an imbalance exists between the supply of medical personnel and the demand for health care services, in July 1985 we surveyed the medical directors, head nurses and staff physicians of nine tertiary level NICUs and the directors of five postgraduate pediatric residency programs. On the basis of current guidelines recommending an ideal neonatologist:patient ratio of 1:6 (assuming an adequate number of support personnel) most of the NICUs were understaffed. Concern about the heavy work pattern and resulting lifestyle implications has made Canadian graduates reluctant to enter this subspecialty. We propose strategies to correct staffing shortages in the context of rapidly increasing workloads resulting from a continuing cutback of pediatric residency positions and restrictions on immigration of foreign trainees.

  2. A mobility program for an inpatient acute care medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Winnie; Tschannen, Dana; Trotsky, Alyssa; Grunawalt, Julie; Adams, Danyell; Chang, Robert; Kendziora, Sandra; Diccion-MacDonald, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    For many patients, hospitalization brings prolonged periods of bed rest, which are associated with such adverse health outcomes as increased length of stay, increased risk of falls, functional decline, and extended-care facility placement. Most studies of progressive or early mobility protocols designed to minimize these adverse effects have been geared toward specific patient populations and conducted by multidisciplinary teams in either ICUs or surgical units. Very few mobility programs have been developed for and implemented on acute care medical units. This evidence-based quality improvement project describes how a mobility program, devised for and put to use on a general medical unit in a large Midwestern academic health care system, improved patient outcomes.

  3. Magnetic resonance image examinations in emergency medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Takanobu; Yoshizumi, Tohru; Ogura, Akio; Hongou, Takaharu; Kikumoto, Rikiya

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing consensus in terms of the need for effective use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic devices in emergency medical care. However, a thorough assessment of risk management in emergency medical care is required because of the high magnetic field in the MRI room. To understand the conditions required for the execution of emergency MRI examinations in individual medical facilities, and to prepare guidelines for emergency MRI examinations, we carried out a questionnaire survey concerning emergency MRI examinations. We obtained responses from 71% of 230 medical facilities and used this information in considering a system of emergency MRI examinations. Moreover, some difficulties were experienced in half of the facilities where emergency MRI examinations had been enacted, the main cause of which was the medics. Based on the results of the questionnaire, guidelines are necessary to maintain an urgent system for MRI examinations. Moreover, we were able to comprehend the current state of emergency MRI examinations in other medical facilities through this investigation, and we are preparing a system for the implementation of emergency MRI examinations. (author)

  4. Gatekeepers as Care Providers: The Care Work of Patient-centered Medical Home Clerical Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimeo, Samantha L; Ono, Sarah S; Stewart, Kenda R; Lampman, Michelle A; Rosenthal, Gary E; Stewart, Greg L

    2017-03-01

    International implementation of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model for delivering primary care has dramatically increased in the last decade. A majority of research on PCMH's impact has emphasized the care provided by clinically trained staff. In this article, we report our ethnographic analysis of data collected from Department of Veterans Affairs staff implementing PACT, the VA version of PCMH. Teams were trained to use within-team delegation, largely accomplished through attention to clinical licensure, to differentiate staff in providing efficient, patient-centered care. In doing so, PACT may reinforce a clinically defined culture of care that countermands PCMH ideals. Such competing rubrics for care are brought into relief through a focus on the care work performed by clerks. Ethnographic analysis identifies clerks' care as a kind of emotional dirty work, signaling important areas for future anthropological study of the relationships among patient-centered care, stigma, and clinical authority. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Developing a medication communication framework across continuums of care using the Circle of Care Modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication errors are a common type of preventable errors in health care causing unnecessary patient harm, hospitalization, and even fatality. Improving communication between providers and between providers and patients is a key aspect of decreasing medication errors and improving patient safety. Medication management requires extensive collaboration and communication across roles and care settings, which can reduce (or contribute to) medication-related errors. Medication management involves key recurrent activities (determine need, prescribe, dispense, administer, and monitor/evaluate) with information communicated within and between each. Despite its importance, there is a lack of conceptual models that explore medication communication specifically across roles and settings. This research seeks to address that gap. Methods The Circle of Care Modeling (CCM) approach was used to build a model of medication communication activities across the circle of care. CCM positions the patient in the centre of his or her own healthcare system; providers and other roles are then modeled around the patient as a web of relationships. Recurrent medication communication activities were mapped to the medication management framework. The research occurred in three iterations, to test and revise the model: Iteration 1 consisted of a literature review and internal team discussion, Iteration 2 consisted of interviews, observation, and a discussion group at a Community Health Centre, and Iteration 3 consisted of interviews and a discussion group in the larger community. Results Each iteration provided further detail to the Circle of Care medication communication model. Specific medication communication activities were mapped along each communication pathway between roles and to the medication management framework. We could not map all medication communication activities to the medication management framework; we added Coordinate as a separate and distinct recurrent activity

  6. Developing a medication communication framework across continuums of care using the Circle of Care Modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Nicole A; Price, Morgan; Lau, Francis Y; Showler, Grey

    2013-10-17

    Medication errors are a common type of preventable errors in health care causing unnecessary patient harm, hospitalization, and even fatality. Improving communication between providers and between providers and patients is a key aspect of decreasing medication errors and improving patient safety. Medication management requires extensive collaboration and communication across roles and care settings, which can reduce (or contribute to) medication-related errors. Medication management involves key recurrent activities (determine need, prescribe, dispense, administer, and monitor/evaluate) with information communicated within and between each. Despite its importance, there is a lack of conceptual models that explore medication communication specifically across roles and settings. This research seeks to address that gap. The Circle of Care Modeling (CCM) approach was used to build a model of medication communication activities across the circle of care. CCM positions the patient in the centre of his or her own healthcare system; providers and other roles are then modeled around the patient as a web of relationships. Recurrent medication communication activities were mapped to the medication management framework. The research occurred in three iterations, to test and revise the model: Iteration 1 consisted of a literature review and internal team discussion, Iteration 2 consisted of interviews, observation, and a discussion group at a Community Health Centre, and Iteration 3 consisted of interviews and a discussion group in the larger community. Each iteration provided further detail to the Circle of Care medication communication model. Specific medication communication activities were mapped along each communication pathway between roles and to the medication management framework. We could not map all medication communication activities to the medication management framework; we added Coordinate as a separate and distinct recurrent activity. We saw many examples of

  7. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S

    2015-01-01

    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.

  8. A qualitative exploration of how Canadian informal caregivers in medical tourism use experiential resources to cope with providing transnational care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Canadians travelling abroad for privately arranged surgeries paid for out-of-pocket are engaging in what has come to be known as medical tourism. They are often accompanied by friends or family members, who we call caregiver-companions. Caregiver-companions provide care in and across a variety of formal and informal settings, such as in hotels, airplanes and at home. This qualitative study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism to learn more about the lived experiences or 'experiential resources' they draw upon to cope with providing care and avoiding caregiver burden. The care-giving literature has demonstrated that such burden can negatively impact caregivers' well-being. The unique, transnational context of care-giving in medical tourism and recent growth in popularity of this practice means that there are few supports or resources currently in place to assist informal caregivers. In this article, we report on an analysis that sought to detail how caregiver-companions draw upon their previous lived experiences to cope with providing transnational care and to minimise or avoid the onset of caregiver burden. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery between September 2013 and January 2014. Thematic analysis revealed the ways that participants had developed practical strategies to deal with the challenges they faced in medical tourism. The interviews revealed three important experiential resources drawn upon by participants: (i) previous experiences of international travel; (ii) previous experiences of informal care-giving; and (iii) dimensions of the existing relationship with the care recipient. Differences in access to and use of these experiential resources related to participants' perspectives on medical tourism and the outcomes of the trip. By identifying the experiential resources drawn upon by informal caregivers in medical tourism

  9. [Community coordination of dental care needs in a home medical care support ward and at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Yasunori; Ozawa, Nobuyoshi; Miura, Hiroko; Miura, Hisayuki; Toba, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the current statuses and problems of dental home care patients by surveying the oral care status and needs of patients in the home medical care support ward at the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology. Patients that required continuous oral management even after discharge from the hospital were referred to local dental clinics to receive home dental care. We investigated the suitability and problems associated with such care, and identified the dental care needs of home patients and the status of local care coordination, including those in hospitals. The subjects were 82 patients. We ascertained their general condition and oral status, and also investigated the problems associated with patients judged to need specialized oral care by a dentist during oral treatment. Patients who required continuous specialized oral care after discharge from hospital were referred to dental clinics that could provide regular care, and the problems at the time of referral were identified. Dry mouth was reported by many patients. A large number of patients also needed specialized dental treatment such as the removal of dental calculus or tooth extraction. Problems were seen in oral function, with 38 of the patients (46%) unable to gargle and 23 (28%) unable to hold their mouths open. About half of the patients also had dementia, and communication with these patients was difficult. Of the 43 patients who were judged to need continuing oral care after discharge from hospital, their referral to a dental clinic for regular care was successful for 22 (51%) patients and unsuccessful for 21 (49%) patients. The reasons for unsuccessful referrals included the fact that the family, patient, nurse, or caregiver did not understand the need for specialized oral care. The present results suggest the need for specialized oral treatment in home medical care. These findings also suggest that coordinating seamless dental care among primary physicians

  10. Scoping review protocol: education initiatives for medical psychiatry collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abi Jaoude, Alexxa; Bailey, Sharon M; Bernier, Thérèse; Freeland, Alison; Hawa, Aceel; Hollenberg, Elisa; Woldemichael, Bethel; Wiljer, David

    2017-09-03

    The collaborative care model is an approach providing care to those with mental health and addictions disorders in the primary care setting. There is a robust evidence base demonstrating its clinical and cost-effectiveness in comparison with usual care; however, the transitioning to this new paradigm of care has been difficult. While there are efforts to train and prepare healthcare professionals, not much is known about the current state of collaborative care training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to understand how widespread these collaborative care education initiatives are, how they are implemented and their impacts. The scoping review methodology uses the established review methodology by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy was developed by a medical librarian and will be applied in eight different databases spanning multiple disciplines. A two-stage screening process consisting of a title and abstract scan and a full-text review will be used to determine the eligibility of articles. To be included, articles must report on an existing collaborative care education initiative for healthcare providers. All articles will be independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers, and all eligible articles will be abstracted and charted in duplicate using a standardised form. The extracted data will undergo a 'narrative review' or a descriptive analysis of the contextual or process-oriented data and simple quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics. Research ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a collaborative care training initiative emerging from the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a four-institution philanthropic partnership in Ontario, Canada. The results will also be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  11. Embedding care management in the medical home: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Hay, Sherry; Prentice, Amy; Gwynne, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Care managers are playing increasingly significant roles in the redesign of primary care and in the evolution of patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), yet their adoption within day-to-day practice remains uneven and approaches for implementation have been minimally reported. We introduce a strategy for incorporating care management into the operations of a PCMH and assess the preliminary effectiveness of this approach. A case study of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Family Medicine Center used an organizational model of innovation implementation to guide the parameters of implementation and evaluation. Two sources were used to determine the effectiveness of the implementation strategy: data elements from the care management informatics system in the health record and electronic survey data from the Family Medicine Center providers and care staff. A majority of physicians (75%) and support staff (82%) reported interactions with the care manager, primarily via face-to-face, telephone, or electronic means, primarily for facilitating referrals for behavioral health services and assistance with financial and social and community-based resources. Trend line suggests an absolute decrease of 8 emergency department visits per month for recipients of care management services and an absolute decrease of 7.5 inpatient admissions per month during the initial 2-year implementation period. An organizational model of innovation implementation is a potentially effective approach to guide the process of incorporating care management services into the structure and workflows of PCMHs.

  12. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  13. [Beyond the horizon of health-care delivery - medical marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Großterlinden, L G; Rueger, J M; Ruecker, A H

    2014-12-01

    The progress in medical health care and demographic changes cause increasing financial expenses. The rising competitive environment on health-care delivery level calls for economisation and implementation of a professional marketing set-up in order to ensure long-term commercial success. The survey is based on a questionnaire-analysis of 100 patients admitted to a trauma department at a university hospital in Germany. Patients were admitted either for emergency treatment or planned surgical procedures. Competence and localisation represent basic criteria determing hospital choice with a varying focus in each collective. Both collectives realise a trend toward economisation, possibly influencing medical care decision-making. Patients admitted for planned surgical treatment are well informed about their disease, treatment options and specialised centres. The main source of information is the internet. Both collectives claim amenities during their in-hospital stay. Increasing economisation trends call for a sound and distinct marketing strategy. The marketing has to be focused on the stakeholders needs. Concomitant factors are patient satisfaction, the establishment of cooperation networks and maintenance/improvement of medical health-care quality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Accountable care organization readiness and academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Scott A; Pahira, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    As academic medical centers (AMCs) consider becoming accountable care organizations (ACOs) under Medicare, they must assess their readiness for this transition. Of the 253 Medicare ACOs prior to 2014, 51 (20%) are AMCs. Three critical components of ACO readiness are institutional and ACO structure, leadership, and governance; robust information technology and analytic systems; and care coordination and management to improve care delivery and health at the population level. All of these must be viewed through the lens of unique AMC mission-driven goals.There is clear benefit to developing and maintaining a centralized internal leadership when it comes to driving change within an ACO, yet there is also the need for broad stakeholder involvement. Other important structural features are an extensive primary care foundation; concomitant operation of a managed care plan or risk-bearing entity; or maintaining a close relationship with post-acute-care or skilled nursing facilities, which provide valuable expertise in coordinating care across the continuum. ACOs also require comprehensive and integrated data and analytic systems that provide meaningful population data to inform care teams in real time, promote quality improvement, and monitor spending trends. AMCs will require proven care coordination and management strategies within a population health framework and deployment of an innovative workforce.AMC core functions of providing high-quality subspecialty and primary care, generating new knowledge, and training future health care leaders can be well aligned with a transition to an ACO model. Further study of results from Medicare-related ACO programs and commercial ACOs will help define best practices.

  15. [Medical care of injuries caused intentionally by domestic violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar-Medina, Martha; Flores-Regata, Lilí; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Blanco, Julia

    2003-01-01

    To describe and analyze the causes of emergency care services for intentional injuries, especially those caused by domestic violence, at four public hospitals in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 1998, which included variables related with the victim, the aggressor, and the medical care provided to the victim. A questionnaire was applied to individuals who had been injured intentionally. Statistical analysis of data consisted of simple frequencies, the chi 2 test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was also used to adjust for variables associated with the injury requiring emergency medical care. A total of 598 cases of intentional injuries were analyzed, 16% of which were due to domestic violence. Females were the most frequent victims (76%), followed by young people between 15 and 29 years old (46%). Variables associated with medical care due to injuries by domestic violence were: age 30 or older (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.90), female gender (OR 8.60 95% CI 4.25-17.40), history of injuries (OR 4.93 95% CI 2.03-11.95), home as place of occurrence (OR 36.25 95% CI 16.59-79.18), and low education level (OR 2.33 95% CI 1.03-5.26). Study findings are consistent with those from other studies and call for enforcement of the Mexican Official Norm for Medical Care of Domestic Violence (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Atención Médica de la Violencia Familiar) established in March 2000.

  16. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35 Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. The Secretary may furnish hospital care and... associated with and held to be aggravating a service-connected disability; (b) If the care is furnished to a...

  17. Medication errors in outpatient care in Colombia, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; Moncada, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea

    2016-06-03

    Medication errors outside the hospital have been poorly studied despite representing an important threat to patient safety. To describe the characteristics of medication errors in outpatient dispensing pharmacists reported in a pharmaco-surveillance system between 2005 and 2013 in Colombia. We conducted a descriptive study by reviewing and categorizing medication error reports from outpatient pharmacy services to a national medication dispensing company between January, 2005 and September, 2013. Variables considered included: process involved (administration, dispensing, prescription and transcription), wrong drug, time delay for the report, error type, cause and severity. The analysis was conducted in the SPSS® software, version 22.0. A total of 14,873 medication errors were reviewed, of which 67.2% in fact occurred, 15.5% reached the patient and 0.7% caused harm. Administration (OR=93.61, CI 95%: 48.510-180.655, perrors (OR=5.64; CI 95%: 3.488-9.142, perror reaching the patient. It is necessary to develop surveillance systems for medication errors in ambulatory care, focusing on the prescription, transcription and dispensation processes. Special strategies are needed for the prevention of medication errors related to anti-infective drugs.

  18. Medical care at mass gatherings: emergency medical services at large-scale rave events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Jan; Sanou, Björn; Swart, Eleonara L; Girbes, Armand R J

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive guidelines for medical care during mass gatherings based on the experience of providing medical support during rave parties. Study design was a prospective, observational study of self-referred patients who reported to First Aid Stations (FASs) during Dutch rave parties. All users of medical care were registered on an existing standard questionnaire. Health problems were categorized as medical, trauma, psychological, or miscellaneous. Severity was assessed based on the Emergency Severity Index. Qualified nurses, paramedics, and doctors conducted the study after training in the use of the study questionnaire. Total number of visitors was reported by type of event. During the 2006-2010 study period, 7,089 persons presented to FASs for medical aid during rave parties. Most of the problems (91.1%) were categorized as medical or trauma, and classified as mild. The most common medical complaints were general unwell-being, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Contusions, strains and sprains, wounds, lacerations, and blisters were the most common traumas. A small portion (2.4%) of the emergency aid was classified as moderate (professional medical care required), including two cases (0.03%) that were considered life-threatening. Hospital admission occurred in 2.2% of the patients. Fewer than half of all patients presenting for aid were transported by ambulance. More than a quarter of all cases (27.4%) were related to recreational drugs. During a five-year field research period at rave dance parties, most presentations on-site for medical evaluation were for mild conditions. A medical team of six healthcare workers for every 10,000 rave party visitors is recommended. On-site medical staff should consist primarily of first aid providers, along with nurses who have event-specific training on advanced life support, event-specific injuries and incidents, health education related to self-care deficits, interventions for

  19. Facing medical care problems of victims of sexual violence in Goma/Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dünser Martin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has been torn by a military conflict. A particular atrocity of the war is widespread sexual violence. Methods In this combined retrospective analysis and prospective survey, we sought to identify hospital facilities and resources available to treat victims of sexual violence in Goma, the capital city of the North Kivu province. Results Of twenty-three acute care hospitals registered in the area of Goma, four (17% regularly cared for victims of sexual violence. One hospital had all resources always available to appropriately care for victims of sexual violence. From Jan 2009 until Oct 2010, 7,048 females sought medical care because of physical or psychological sequelae from sexual violence in the four hospitals of Goma. Only half of the hospitals had physicians specialized in gynaecology or gynaecological surgery available. Similarly, anaesthetists and psychiatrists/psychologists were available in two (50% and one (25% hospital, respectively. Post-discharge care facilities, material resources, such as surgical and anaesthesiological equipment and drugs, were inconsistently available in the hospitals caring for sexually abused females. At one selected hospital, acyclovir and/or antibiotics were administered to 1,202 sexually abused females (89.5%, whereas post-exposure HIV prophylaxis and surgery because of vesico-vaginal fistula was provided to only 75 (5.6% and 121 (9% patients, respectively. Conclusions This study provides data that only few hospitals in Goma care for victims of sexual violence. In addition, these hospitals suffer from a relevant shortage of human and material resources to provide adequate care for sexually abused females. Aside from establishment of adequate protection strategies, steps must be taken to increase the availability of trained health care professionals and resources to provide adequate care for victims of sexual violence in Goma and the

  20. Breaks in continuity of care and the rural senior transferred for medical care under regionalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jay Biem

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of care, defined as the patient experiencing coherent care over time and place, is challenged when a rural senior with multiple medical problems is transferred to a regional hospital for acute care. From an illustrative case of an older patient with pneumonia and atrial fibrillation, we catalogue potential breaks in continuity of care. Optimal continuity of care is characterised not only by regular contact with the providers who establish collaboration with patients and their caregivers, but also by communication, co-ordination, contingency, convenience, and consistency. Because it is not possible to have the same providers continuously available (relational continuity, for continuity of care, there is a need for integrative system approaches, such as: (1 policy and standards, disease management programs, integrated clinical pathways (management continuity, (2 electronic health information systems and telecommunications technology (communication continuity. The evaluation of these approaches requires measures that account for the multi-faceted nature of continuity of care.

  1. Mental health care roles of non-medical primary health and social care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Penny

    2009-02-01

    Changes in patterns of delivery of mental health care over several decades are putting pressure on primary health and social care services to increase their involvement. Mental health policy in countries like the UK, Australia and New Zealand recognises the need for these services to make a greater contribution and calls for increased intersectoral collaboration. In Australia, most investment to date has focused on the development and integration of specialist mental health services and primary medical care, and evaluation research suggests some progress. Substantial inadequacies remain, however, in the comprehensiveness and continuity of care received by people affected by mental health problems, particularly in relation to social and psychosocial interventions. Very little research has examined the nature of the roles that non-medical primary health and social care services actually or potentially play in mental health care. Lack of information about these roles could have inhibited development of service improvement initiatives targeting these services. The present paper reports the results of an exploratory study that examined the mental health care roles of 41 diverse non-medical primary health and social care services in the state of Victoria, Australia. Data were collected in 2004 using a purposive sampling strategy. A novel method of surveying providers was employed whereby respondents within each agency worked as a group to complete a structured survey that collected quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. This paper reports results of quantitative analyses including a tentative principal components analysis that examined the structure of roles. Non-medical primary health and social care services are currently performing a wide variety of mental health care roles and they aspire to increase their involvement in this work. However, these providers do not favour approaches involving selective targeting of clients with mental disorders.

  2. Preparing for International Travel and Global Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2017-05-01

    Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries. Consideration should also be given to other high-risk travel scenarios, including the provision of health care overseas, adventure and extreme sports, water environments and diving, high altitude, and terrorism/unstable political situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic......Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests...

  4. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Home iv antibiotic therapy through a medical day care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gourdeau, Marie; Deschênes, Louise; Caron, Martine; Desmarais, Marc

    1993-01-01

    An out-patient parenteral antibiotic therapy program provided through a medical day care unit was evaluated in a tertiary care hospital. From July 11, 1988 to December 31, 1990, 122 patients were treated either on site at the unit or at home with self-administered intravenous antibiotics. In all, 142 courses of parenteral antibiotics (mostly cephalosporins and clindamycin) were given for a total of 124 infections, mostly bone and soft tissue infections (67 of 124, 54%). The duration of out-pa...

  6. [Intercultural aspects of medical care for undocumented migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Hegerl, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation.

  7. Law on advance health care directives: a medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, A; Del Rio, A; Bosco, M; Di Luca, N M

    2018-01-01

    The paper's authors aim to elaborate on law 22 dicembre 2017, n. 219 , designed to regulate informed consent practices and advance health care directives", which has sparked a passionate debate centered on the substantial innovation achieved over the past decades in bio-medical science and at the same time, the noteworthy accomplishments made in enforcing human and personal rights. Within the paper, article three is delved into, which covers the creation of the so-called DAT ("Disposizioni anticipate di trattamento", advance health care directives), by which patients, in light of possible future incapacity to choose, can express their convictions and decisions on how to be treated and their consent or dissent to undergo treatments and procedures, including artificial nutrition and hydration. The authors peruse the new law's provisions through a medical perspective, and observe how they are heavily tilted towards patient choice, thus making doctors little more than mere tools of such decisions.

  8. Medical Home Implementation Gaps for Seniors: Perceptions and Experiences of Primary Care Medical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy; DePuccio, Matthew

    2018-07-01

    The study objective was to better understand specific implementation gaps for various aspects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivered to seniors. The study illuminates the physician and staff experience by focusing on how individuals make sense of and respond behaviorally to aspects of PCMH implementation. Qualitative data from 51 in-depth, semi-structured interviews across six different National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)-accredited primary care practices were collected and analyzed. Physicians and staff identified PCMH implementation gaps for their seniors: (a) performing in-depth clinical assessments, (b) identifying seniors' life needs and linking them with community resources, and (c) care management and coordination, in particular self-management support for seniors. Prior experiences trying to perform these aspects of PCMH care for older adults produced collective understandings that led to inaction and avoidance by medical practices around the first two gaps, and proactive behavior that took strategic advantage of external incentives for addressing the third gap. Greater understanding of physician and staff's PCMH implementation experiences, and the learning that accumulates from these experiences, allows for a deeper understanding of how primary care practices choose to enact the medical home model for seniors on an everyday basis.

  9. The economics of health care quality and medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, Charles; Davidow, Stephen L; Hollander, Mark; Moreno, David A

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals have been looking for ways to improve quality and operational efficiency and cut costs for nearly three decades, using a variety of quality improvement strategies. However, based on recent reports, approximately 200,000 Americans die from preventable medical errors including facility-acquired conditions and millions may experience errors. In 2008, medical errors cost the United States $19.5 billion. About 87 percent or $17 billion were directly associated with additional medical cost, including: ancillary services, prescription drug services, and inpatient and outpatient care, according to a study sponsored by the Society for Actuaries and conducted by Milliman in 2010. Additional costs of $1.4 billion were attributed to increased mortality rates with $1.1 billion or 10 million days of lost productivity from missed work based on short-term disability claims. The authors estimate that the economic impact is much higher, perhaps nearly $1 trillion annually when quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are applied to those that die. Using the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) estimate of 98,000 deaths due to preventable medical errors annually in its 1998 report, To Err Is Human, and an average of ten lost years of life at $75,000 to $100,000 per year, there is a loss of $73.5 billion to $98 billion in QALYs for those deaths--conservatively. These numbers are much greater than those we cite from studies that explore the direct costs of medical errors. And if the estimate of a recent Health Affairs article is correct-preventable death being ten times the IOM estimate-the cost is $735 billion to $980 billion. Quality care is less expensive care. It is better, more efficient, and by definition, less wasteful. It is the right care, at the right time, every time. It should mean that far fewer patients are harmed or injured. Obviously, quality care is not being delivered consistently throughout U.S. hospitals. Whatever the measure, poor quality is costing payers and

  10. Home Health Nursing Care and Hospital Use for Medically Complex Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, James C; Thurm, Cary W; Hall, Matthew; Fassino, Michael J; Fowler, Lisa; Palusci, John V; Berry, Jay G

    2016-11-01

    Home health nursing care (HH) may be a valuable approach to long-term optimization of health for children, particularly those with medical complexity who are prone to frequent and lengthy hospitalizations. We sought to assess the relationship between HH services and hospital use in children. Retrospective, matched cohort study of 2783 hospitalized children receiving postdischarge HH services by BAYADA Home Health Care across 19 states and 7361 matched controls not discharged to HH services from the Children's Hospital Association Case Mix database between January 2004 and September 2012. Subsequent hospitalizations, hospital days, readmissions, and costs of hospital care were assessed over the 12-month period after the initial hospitalization. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparisons between HH and non-HH users. Although HH cases had a higher percentage of complex chronic conditions (68.5% vs 65.4%), technology assistance (40.5% vs 35.7%), and neurologic impairment (40.7% vs 37.3%) than matched controls (P ≤ .003 for all), 30-day readmission rates were lower in HH patients (18.3% vs 21.5%, P = .001). At 12 months after the index admission, HH patients averaged fewer admissions (0.8 vs 1.0, P < .001), fewer days in the hospital (6.4 vs 6.6, P < .001), and lower hospital costs ($22 511 vs $24 194, P < .001) compared with matched controls. Children discharged to HH care experienced less hospital use than children with similar characteristics who did not use HH care. Further investigation is needed to understand how HH care affects the health and health services of children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Emergency Medical Services Capacity for Prehospital Stroke Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-05

    In this audio podcast, lead author and Preventing Chronic Disease’s 2013 Student Research Contest Winner, Mehul D. Patel, talks about his article on stroke care and emergency medical services.  Created: 9/5/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/5/2013.

  12. Organization of prehospital medical care for patients with cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Anatolyevich Shamalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tasks of prehospital medical care are to make a correct diagnosis of stroke and to minimize patient transportation delays. Stroke is a medical emergency so all patients with suspected stroke must be admitted by a first arrived ambulance team to a specialized neurology unit for stroke patients. Most rapidly transporting the patient to hospital, as well as reducing the time of examination to verify the pattern of stroke are a guarantee of successful thrombolytic therapy that is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. Substantially reducing the time of in-hospital transfers (the so-called door-to-needle time allows stroke patients to be directly admitted to the around the clock computed tomography room, without being sent to the admission unit. Prehospital stroke treatment policy (basic therapy is to correct the body’s vital functions and to maintain respiration, hemodynamics, and water-electrolyte balance and it can be performed without neuroimaging verification of the pattern of stroke. The application of current organizational, methodical, and educational approaches is useful in improving the quality of medical care for stroke patients, in enhancing the continuity between prehospital and hospital cares, and in promoting new effective technologies in stroke therapy.

  13. Optimization of Medication Use at Accountable Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Chrisanne; Krisle, Erik; Westrich, Kimberly; Lunner, Kristina; Muhlestein, David; Dubois, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Optimized medication use involves the effective use of medications for better outcomes, improved patient experience, and lower costs. Few studies systematically gather data on the actions accountable care organizations (ACOs) have taken to optimize medication use. To (a) assess how ACOs optimize medication use; (b) establish an association between efforts to optimize medication use and achievement on financial and quality metrics; (c) identify organizational factors that correlate with optimized medication use; and (d) identify barriers to optimized medication use. This cross-sectional study consisted of a survey and interviews that gathered information on the perceptions of ACO leadership. The survey contained a medication practices inventory (MPI) composed of 38 capabilities across 6 functional domains related to optimizing medication use. ACOs completed self-assessments that included rating each component of the MPI on a scale of 1 to 10. Fisher's exact tests, 2-proportions tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to test for associations between ACO scores on the MPI and performance on financial and quality metrics, and on ACO descriptive characteristics. Of the 847 ACOs that were contacted, 49 provided usable survey data. These ACOs rated their own system's ability to manage the quality and costs of optimizing medication use, providing a 64% and 31% affirmative response, respectively. Three ACOs achieved an overall MPI score of 8 or higher, 45 scored between 4 and 7.9, and 1 scored between 0 and 3.9. Using the 3 score groups, the study did not identify a relationship between MPI scores and achievement on financial or quality benchmarks, ACO provider type, member volume, date of ACO creation, or the presence of a pharmacist in a leadership position. Barriers to optimizing medication use relate to reimbursement for pharmacist integration, lack of health information technology interoperability, lack of data, feasibility issues, and physician buy

  14. Integrating medical humanities into a pharmaceutical care seminar on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of a medical humanities teaching module that focuses on pharmaceutical care for dementia patients.Design. Visual and textual dementia narratives were presented using a combination of teacher and learner-centered approaches with the aim being to highlight patients' and caregivers' needs for empathy and counselling.Assessment. As gauged from pre- and post-experience questionnaires, students highly rated this approach to teaching medical humanities. In-class presentations demonstrated students' increased sensitivity to patient and caregiver needs, while objective learning outcomes demonstrated students' increased knowledge and awareness.Conclusions. Pharmacy students were open to and successfully learned from reading and discussing patient and caregiver narratives, which furthers the discussion on the value of integrating the medical humanities into the curricula of pharmacy and other health sciences.

  15. Further studies into the emergency medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1989-01-01

    The emergency medical care of radiation accidents constitute a peculier characteristics of radiation protection including the works of the administrative management, environmental radiological monitoring and health physics around the clinical medicine. It is thought to be an interdisciplinary medical field which is designated as a comprehensive medicine for radiation hazard. Moreover, it will be thought that the radiological medicine is not only the medical science which deals with the use of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, but also the art and science of maintenance of health and cure for radiation injuries, just as the two wheels of a cart. It should reward the needs of today. We would like to expect that this symposium will be a clue to the theoretical systematization of the comprehensive medicine of radiation accidents. (author)

  16. Acute care in Tanzania: Epidemiology of acute care in a small community medical centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Little

    2013-12-01

    Discussion: Respiratory infections, malaria, and skin or soft tissue infections are leading reasons for seeking medical care at a small community medical centre in Arusha, Tanzania, highlighting the burden of infectious diseases in this type of facility. Males may be more likely to present with trauma, burns, and laceration injuries than females. Many patients required one or no procedures to determine their diagnosis, most treatments administered were inexpensive, and most patients were discharged home, suggesting that providing acute care in this setting could be accomplished with limited resources.

  17. Boxing: medical care in and out of the ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Robert C

    2007-10-01

    Boxing may well be the oldest sport known to mankind and probably the most controversial. Injuries are common in boxing, occurring most often to the head, neck, face, and hands. Brain injury, both acute and chronic, is the major risk for potential catastrophe. Medical care for the boxer extends beyond the competition in the boxing ring; the ringside physician is responsible for protecting both boxers and must make quick decisions about their continued participation based upon a limited examination. A thorough knowledge of the rules and regulations of boxing is necessary for the ringside physician to effectively care for the athlete. In spite of the perceived brutality associated with the sport, most injuries are minor, although serious injuries and deaths do occur, most commonly due to brain injury. Given the potential for catastrophic injury, the ringside physician must be prepared and equipped to care for the boxer.

  18. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  19. A Comprehensive Pregnancy and Family Medical Care Leave Program for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayre, Batte

    1999-01-01

    .... It also provides an option for extended family care for all medical needs with a family medical care leave of up to one year to assist unit readiness, improve quality of life, and increase soldier...

  20. Traditional healers, faith healers and medical practitioners: the contribution of medical pluralism to bottlenecks along the cascade of care for HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshabela, Mosa; Bukenya, Dominic; Darong, Gabriel; Wamoyi, Joyce; McLean, Estelle; Skovdal, Morten; Ddaaki, William; Ondeng'e, Kenneth; Bonnington, Oliver; Seeley, Janet; Hosegood, Victoria; Wringe, Alison

    2017-07-01

    There are concerns that medical pluralism may delay patients' progression through the HIV cascade-of-care. However, the pathways of impact through which medical pluralism influence the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in African settings remain unclear. We sought to establish the manifestation of medical pluralism among PLHIV, and explore mechanisms through which medical pluralism contributes bottlenecks along the HIV care cascade. We conducted a multicountry exploratory qualitative study in seven health and demographic surveillance sites in six eastern and southern African countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. We interviewed 258 PLHIV at different stages of the HIV cascade-of-care, 48 family members of deceased PLHIV and 53 HIV healthcare workers. Interviews were conducted using shared standardised topic guides, and data managed through NVIVO 8/10/11. We conducted a thematic analysis of healthcare pathways and bottlenecks related to medical pluralism. Medical pluralism, manifesting across traditional, faith-based and biomedical health-worlds, contributed to the care cascade bottlenecks for PLHIV through three pathways of impact. First, access to HIV treatment was delayed through the nature of health-related beliefs, knowledge and patient journeys. Second, HIV treatment was interrupted by availability of alternative options, perceived failed treatment and exploitation of PLHIV by opportunistic traders and healers. Lastly, the mixing of biomedical healthcare providers and treatment with traditional and faith-based options fuelled tensions driven by fear of drug-to-drug interactions and mistrust between providers operating in different health-worlds. Medical pluralism contributes to delays and interruptions of care along the HIV cascade, and mistrust between health providers. Region-wide interventions and policies are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa to minimise potential harm and consequences of medical pluralism for PLHIV

  1. Antidepressant Medication Management among Older Patients Receiving Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Shao, Huibo; Bruce, Martha L.; Press, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant management for older patients receiving home health care (HHC) may occur through two pathways: nurse-physician collaboration (without patient visits to the physician) and physician management through office visits. This study examines the relative contribution of the two pathways and how they interplay. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted using Medicare claims of 7,389 depressed patients 65 or older who received HHC in 2006–7 and who possessed antidepressants at the start of HHC. A change in antidepressant therapy (vs. discontinuation or refill) was the main study outcome and could take the form of a change in dose, switch to a different antidepressant, or augmentation (addition of a new antidepressant). Logistic regressions were estimated to examine how use of home health nursing care, patient visits to physicians, and their interactions predict a change in antidepressant therapy. Results About 30% of patients experienced a change in antidepressants versus 51% who refilled and 18% who discontinued. Receipt of mental health specialty care was associated with a statistically significant, 10–20 percentage-point increase in the probability of antidepressant change; receipt of primary care was associated with a small and statistically significant increase in the probability of antidepressant change among patients with no mental health specialty care and above-average utilization of nursing care. Increased home health nursing care in absence of physician visits was not associated with increased antidepressant change. Conclusions Active antidepressant management resulting in a change in medication occurred on a limited scale among older patients receiving HHC. Addressing knowledge and practice gaps in antidepressant management by primary care providers and home health nurses and improving nurse-physician collaboration will be promising areas for future interventions. PMID:25158915

  2. [The medical social aspects of ambulatory medical care to victims of road traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunkov, V Ia; Bugaev, D A; Derevianko, D V

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of the organization of medical care to victims of road traffic accidents. The analysis of primary appealability of patients to the first-aid center of Stavropol and Novorossiysk during 2008-2010 is presented. The sampling consisted of 904 cases of this kind of trauma. It is established that among victims of road traffic accident appealed to first-aid centers the pedestrians consist the major part. The traumas of limbs are among the most frequently occurred cases. The victims with cranio-cerebral injuries are among those who appealed most frequently for medical aid. Besides that in most cases (63.4%) the victims with cranio-cerebral injuries were transported not to the neurologic surgery clinic but to the first-aid center This action increased the number of transport stages and duration of time gap before specialized medical care was applied. The conclusion is made concerning the need of further development of out-patient urgent medical care to victims of road traffic accidents.

  3. Medical teams and the standard of care in negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappideen, Carolyn

    2015-09-01

    Medical teams are essential to the delivery of modern, patient-centred health care in hospitals. A collective model of responsibility envisaged by team care is inconsistent with common law tort liability which focuses on the individual rather than the team. There is no basis upon which a team can be liable as a collective at common law. Nor does the common law'countenance liability for the conduct of other team members absent some form of agency, vicarious liability or non-delegable duty. Despite the barriers to the adoption of a team standard of care in negligence, there is scope for team factors to have a role in determining the standard of care so that being a team player is part and parcel of what it is to be a competent professional. If this is the case, the skill set, and the standard of care expected of the individual professional, includes skills based on team models of communication, cross-monitoring and trust.

  4. The Role of Medical Informatics in Primary Care Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ McCullagh

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of a group of Primary Care professionals to acquire appropriate document retrieval skills, so that they can apply evidence based health care techniques to their various Primary Care roles. The participants, most of whom had little prior experience of the Internet, were enrolled on a two-year part-time Postgraduate Diploma / MSc in Primary Care. As part of the course, they took a compulsory 12-week module in Medical Informatics. A specific task was set: to find appropriate information on Meningococcal Meningitis and Public Health, by using National Library of Medicine's PUBMED bibliographic retrieval system and other unspecified Internet sources. A supplementary piece of coursework required the group to become information providers by providing tutorials on the world wide web. Analysis of the reports showed that the participants were able to learn and use the information tools successfully and that appropriate skills can be transferred in a short time. Overall nine were positive as to the benefits of the evidence-based approach contributing to local health care, with nine expressing mixed views and two having more negative opinions.

  5. Biomaterials in medical devices: an interview with Jörg Vienken of Fresenius Medical Care, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Biomaterial and biopolymer research have significant impact on the development as well as application of biotechnology. Biotechnology Journal recently attended the "Nanomaterials for Biomedical Technologies 2012" conference. We were privileged to have the opportunity to ask Prof. Dr. Jörg Vienken, VP of BioSciences at Fresenius Medical Care, a few questions relating to medical devices, the importance of publishing for industry, and also his advice for young scientists/engineers looking for a career in industry. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computerized health information and the demand for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Todd H; Jimison, Holly B

    2003-01-01

    Consumer health information, once the domain of books and booklets, has become increasingly digitized and available on the Internet. This study assessed the effect of using computerized health information on consumers' demand for medical care. The dependent variable was self-reported number of visits to the doctor in the past year. The key independent variable was the use of computerized health information, which was treated as endogenous. We tested the effect of using computerized health information on physician visits using ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, fixed effects, and fixed-effects instrumental variables models. The instrumental variables included exposure to the Healthwise Communities Project, a community-wide health information intervention; computer ownership; and Internet access. Random households in three cities were mailed questionnaires before and after the Healthwise Communities Project. In total, 5909 surveys were collected for a response rate of 54%. In both the bivariate and the multivariate analyses, the use of computerized health information was not associated with self-reported entry into care or number of visits. The instrumental variables models also found no differences, with the exception that the probability of entering care was significantly greater with the two-stage conditional logit model (P information is intuitively appealing, we found little evidence of an association between using a computer for health information and self-reported medical visits in the past year. This study used overall self-reported utilizations as the dependent variable, and more research is needed to determine whether health information affects the health production function in other important ways, such as the location of care, the timing of getting care, or the intensity of treatment.

  7. 42 CFR 456.243 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.243 Section 456.243 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.243 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each...

  8. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  9. Patient satisfaction in Malaysia's busiest outpatient medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Jadoo, Saad Ahmed Ali; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore factors associated with patient satisfaction of outpatient medical care in Malaysia. A cross-sectional exit survey was conducted among 340 outpatients aged between 13 and 80 years after successful clinical consultations and treatment acquirements using convenience sampling at the outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Malaysia, being the country's busiest medical outpatient facility. A survey that consisted of sociodemography, socioeconomic, and health characteristics and the validated Short-Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) scale were used. Patient satisfaction was the highest in terms of service factors or tangible priorities, particularly "technical quality" and "accessibility and convenience," but satisfaction was low in terms of service orientation of doctors, particularly the "time spent with doctor," "interpersonal manners," and "communication" during consultations. Gender, income level, and purpose of visit to the clinic were important correlates of patient satisfaction. Effort to improve service orientation among doctors through periodical professional development programs at hospital and national level is essential to boost the country's health service satisfaction.

  10. Transgender and gender nonconforming adolescent care: psychosocial and medical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2015-08-01

    Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female, or being elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression is not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one's birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents.

  11. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2015-01-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  12. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database. In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases.

  13. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2013-05-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Incremental cost of PACS in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Cleff, Bridget; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Bozzo, Mary T.; Redfern, Regina O.; Brikman, Inna; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose is to determine the incremental costs (or savings) due to the introduction of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Our economic analysis consists of three measurement methods. The first method is an assessment of the direct costs to the radiology department, implemented in a spreadsheet model. The second method consists of a series of brief observational studies to measure potential changes in personnel costs that might not be reflected in administrative claims. The third method (results not reported here) is a multivariate modeling technique which estimates the independent effect of PACS/CR on the cost of care (estimated from administrative claims data), while controlling for clinical case- mix variables. Our direct cost model shows no cost savings to the radiology department after the introduction of PACS in the medical intensive care unit. Savings in film supplies and film library personnel are offset by increases in capital equipment costs and PACS operation personnel. The results of observational studies to date demonstrate significant savings in clinician film-search time, but no significant change in technologist time or lost films. Our model suggests that direct radiology costs will increase after the limited introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU. Our observational studies show a small but significant effect on clinician film search time by the introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU, but no significant effect on other variables. The projected costs of a hospital-wide PACS are currently under study.

  15. Should Health Care Aides Assist With Medications in Long-Term Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Arain PhD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether health care aides (HCAs could safely assist in medication administration in long-term care (LTC. Method: We obtained medication error reports from LTC facilities that involve HCAs in oral medication assistance and we analyzed Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI data from these facilities. Standard ratings of error severity were “no apparent harm,” “minimum harm,” and “moderate harm.” Results: We retrieved error reports from two LTC facilities with 220 errors reported by all health care providers including HCAs. HCAs were involved in 137 (63% errors, licensed practical nurses (LPNs/registered nurses (RNs in 77 (35%, and pharmacy in four (2%. The analysis of error severity showed that HCAs were significantly less likely to cause errors of moderate severity than other nursing staff (2% vs. 7%, chi-square = 5.1, p value = .04. Conclusion: HCAs’ assistance in oral medications in LTC facilities appears to be safe when provided under the medication assistance guidelines.

  16. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Knowlton, Amy R; Alexander, Kamila A; Williams, Chyvette T; Boodram, Basmattee

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates, treatment access, and outcomes. Social network analysis is a valuable tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low-cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, optimizing HIV medical care, and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.

  17. How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns from the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Morgan, Jeff; Adams, Krystyna

    2017-06-01

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: (1) Inbound medical tourism to Canada's public hospitals; (2) Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; (3) Canadian patients opting to go abroad for medical tourism; and (4) Canadian patients traveling abroad with a Canadian surgeon. These patterns of medical tourism affect preferential access to health care by Canadians by circumventing domestic regulation of care, creating jurisdictional tensions over the provision of health care, and undermining solidarity with the Canadian health system.

  18. Medication Review and Transitions of Care: A Case Report of a Decade-Old Medication Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Rachel; Lizer, Mitsi

    2017-10-01

    A 69-year-old Caucasian male with a 25-year history of paranoid schizophrenia was brought to the emergency department because of violence toward the staff in his nursing facility. He was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection and was admitted to the behavioral health unit for medication stabilization. History included a five-year state psychiatric hospital admission and nursing facility placement. Because of poor cognitive function, the patient was unable to corroborate medication history, so the pharmacy student on rotation performed an in-depth chart review. The review revealed a transcription error in 2003 deleting amantadine 100 mg twice daily and adding amiodarone 100 mg twice daily. Subsequent hospitalization resulted in another transcription error increasing the amiodarone to 200 mg twice daily. All electrocardiograms conducted were negative for atrial fibrillation. Once detected, the consulted cardiologist discontinued the amiodarone, and the primary care provider was notified via letter and discharge papers. An admission four months later revealed that the nursing facility restarted the amiodarone. Amiodarone was discontinued and the facility was again notified. This case reviews how a 10-year-old medication error went undetected in the electronic medical records through numerous medication reconciliations, but was uncovered when a single comprehensive medication review was conducted.

  19. Crowdfunding FOR MEDICAL CARE: Ethical Issues in an Emerging Health Care Funding Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding websites allow users to post a public appeal for funding for a range of activities, including adoption, travel, research, participation in sports, and many others. One common form of crowdfunding is for expenses related to medical care. Medical crowdfunding appeals serve as a means of addressing gaps in medical and employment insurance, both in countries without universal health insurance, like the United States, and countries with universal coverage limited to essential medical needs, like Canada. For example, as of 2012, the website Gofundme had been used to raise a total of 8.8 million dollars (U.S.) for seventy-six hundred campaigns, the majority of which were health related. This money can make an important difference in the lives of crowdfunding users, as the costs of unexpected or uninsured medical needs can be staggering. In this article, I offer an overview of the benefits of medical crowdfunding websites and the ethical concerns they raise. I argue that medical crowdfunding is a symptom and cause of, rather than a solution to, health system injustices and that policy-makers should work to address the injustices motivating the use of crowdfunding sites for essential medical services. Despite the sites' ethical problems, individual users and donors need not refrain from using them, but they bear a political responsibility to address the inequities encouraged by these sites. I conclude by suggesting some responses to these concerns and future directions for research. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  20. Performance and palliative care: a drama module for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Ewan James; Goddard, Jen; Jeffrey, David

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes an innovative 2 weeks module for medical students facilitated by drama educators and a palliative medicine doctor. The module incorporates drama, end-of-life care, teamwork and reflective practice. The module contents, practical aspects of drama teaching and learning outcomes are discussed. Various themes emerged from a study of Harold Pinter's play, The Caretaker, which were relevant to clinical practice: silence, power, communication, uncertainty and unanswered questions. Drama teaching may be one way of enhancing students' confidence, increasing self- awareness, developing ethical thinking and fostering teamworking.

  1. HALOTHERAPY FOR PREVENTION AND MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina V. Chervinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of medical rehabilitation is the approach of model simulation of natural environment. Halotherapy is one of the nonpharmacological methods widely used in Russian public health care delivery including prophylaxis and rehabilitation in children. This method is based on the recreation of the air environment of a natural underground salt mine. The article presents an innovative method using a next generation of equipment for halotherapy: a guided halocomplex where the control on dosage regiments and aerodisperse medium parameters is implemented. The mechanisms of the effect of halotherapy are considered, the data of the clinical effectiveness for various paediatric diseases are outlined. 

  2. [Public and private: insurance companies and medical care in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, S; Bodek, C; Eibenschutz, C

    1995-01-01

    During the late 70's and early 80's in Mexico, as in the rest of Latin-America, sanitary policies were directed to support the growth of the private sector of health care at the expense of the public sector. This work analyzes the evolution of the health insurance market as a part of the privatization process of health care. The analysis based on economic data, provides the political profile behind the privatization process as well as the changes in the relations between the State and the health sector. The central hypothesis is that the State promotes and supports the growth of the private market of medical care via a series of legal, fiscal and market procedures. It also discusses the State roll in the legal changes related to the national insurance activity. A comparative analysis is made about the evolution of the insurance industry in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico during the period 1986-1992, with a particular enfasis in the last country. One of the principal results is that the Premium/GNP and Premium/per capita, display a general growth in the 4 countries. This growth is faster for Mexico for each one) because the privatization process occurred only during the most recent years. For the 1984-1991 period in Mexico the direct premium as percentage of the GNP raised from 0.86% to 1.32%. If one focussed only in the insurance for health and accidents branches the rice goes form 8.84% in 1984 to 19.08% in 1991. This indicates that the insurance industry is one of the main targets of the privatization process of the health care system in Mexico. This is also shown by the State support to fast expansion of the big medical industrial complex of the country. Considering this situation in the continuity of the neoliberal model of Mexico, this will profound the inequity and inequality.

  3. Enhanced risk prediction model for emergency department use and hospitalizations in patients in a primary care medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Heien, Herbert C; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Shah, Nilay D; Naessens, James M

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of healthcare payment reform, identifying high-risk populations has become more important to providers. Existing risk-prediction models often focus on chronic conditions. This study sought to better understand other factors to improve identification of the highest risk population. A retrospective cohort study of a paneled primary care population utilizing 2010 data to calibrate a risk prediction model of hospital and emergency department (ED) use in 2011. Data were randomly split into development and validation data sets. We compared the enhanced model containing the additional risk predictors with the Minnesota medical tiering model. The study was conducted in the primary care practice of an integrated delivery system at an academic medical center in Rochester, Minnesota. The study focus was primary care medical home patients in 2010 and 2011 (n = 84,752), with the primary outcome of subsequent hospitalization or ED visit. A total of 42,384 individuals derived the enhanced risk-prediction model and 42,368 individuals validated the model. Predictors included Adjusted Clinical Groups-based Minnesota medical tiering, patient demographics, insurance status, and prior year healthcare utilization. Additional variables included specific mental and medical conditions, use of high-risk medications, and body mass index. The area under the curve in the enhanced model was 0.705 (95% CI, 0.698-0.712) compared with 0.662 (95% CI, 0.656-0.669) in the Minnesota medical tiering-only model. New high-risk patients in the enhanced model were more likely to have lack of health insurance, presence of Medicaid, diagnosed depression, and prior ED utilization. An enhanced model including additional healthcare-related factors improved the prediction of risk of hospitalization or ED visit.

  4. Evaluation of cardiology consultations sought from the anaesthesia clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, F.N.; Kamal, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the criteria for cardiology referrals and to assess the perioperative relevance of the cardiology advice given in patients evaluated for non-cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: A review of case files of 70 patients, scheduled for non-cardiac surgery, who were referred for cardiology consultations from the Anaesthesia Clinic at AKUH during the study period. The clinical criteria for seeking cardiology advice, the cardiology advice given, its influence on patient management, as well as number of adverse cardiac events in the perioperative period were documented. Results: A history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and ECG abnormalities were the major criteria for seeking opinion on cardiac status. Cardiology advice frequently resulted in the ordering of extensive cardiac investigations. Among the patients identified for further tests by the cardiologists, 75% had no evidence of ischemic heart disease or myocardial dysfunction; none of them were monitored invasively intraoperatively or had adverse cardiac events in the perioperative period requiring intensive care or prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: No definite criteria or pattern for referrals was identified. Most of the referrals did not fall within the AHA guidelines. Cardiology advice given had very little influence on the perioperative management. (author)

  5. Financial impact of tertiary care in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T S; Carlton, L M; O'Hern, D G; Hardt, N S; Keith Ozaki, C; Flynn, T C; Seeger, J M

    2000-06-01

    To analyze the financial impact of three complex vascular surgical procedures to both an academic hospital and a department of surgery and to examine the potential impact of decreased reimbursements. The cost of providing tertiary care has been implicated as one potential cause of the financial difficulties affecting academic medical centers. Patients undergoing revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia, elective thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and treatment of infected aortic grafts at the University of Florida were compared with those undergoing elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction and carotid endarterectomy. Hospital costs and profit summaries were obtained from the Clinical Resource Management Office. Departmental costs and profit summary were estimated based on the procedural relative value units (RVUs), the average clinical cost per RVU ($33.12), surgeon charges, and the collection rate for the vascular surgery division (30.2%) obtained from the Faculty Group Practice. Surgeon work effort was analyzed using the procedural work RVUs and the estimated total care time. The analyses were performed for all payors and the subset of Medicare patients, and the potential impact of a 15% reduction in hospital and physician reimbursement was analyzed. Net hospital income was positive for all but one of the tertiary care procedures, but net losses were sustained by the hospital for the mesenteric ischemia and infected aortic graft groups among the Medicare patients. In contrast, the estimated reimbursement to the department of surgery for all payors was insufficient to offset the clinical cost of providing the RVUs for all procedures, and the estimated losses were greater for the Medicare patients alone. The surgeon work effort was dramatically higher for the tertiary care procedures, whereas the reimbursement per work effort was lower. A 15% reduction in reimbursement would result in an estimated net loss to the hospital for each of the tertiary

  6. Pediatric palliative care and pediatric medical ethics: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Nathanson, Pamela G

    2014-02-01

    The fields of pediatric palliative care (PPC) and pediatric medical ethics (PME) overlap substantially, owing to a variety of historical, cultural, and social factors. This entwined relationship provides opportunities for leveraging the strong communication skills of both sets of providers, as well as the potential for resource sharing and research collaboration. At the same time, the personal and professional relationships between PPC and PME present challenges, including potential conflict with colleagues, perceived or actual bias toward a palliative care perspective in resolving ethical problems, potential delay or underuse of PME services, and a potential undervaluing of the medical expertise required for PPC consultation. We recommend that these challenges be managed by: (1) clearly defining and communicating clinical roles of PPC and PME staff, (2) developing questions that may prompt PPC and PME teams to request consultation from the other service, (3) developing explicit recusal criteria for PPC providers who also provide PME consultation, (4) ensuring that PPC and PME services remain organizationally distinct, and (5) developing well-defined and broad scopes of practice. Overall, the rich relationship between PPC and PME offers substantial opportunities to better serve patients and families facing difficult decisions.

  7. Mass-Gathering Medical Care in Electronic Dance Music Festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGibbon, Kathleen M; Nable, Jose V; Ayd, Benjamin; Lawner, Benjamin J; Comer, Angela C; Lichenstein, Richard; Levy, Matthew J; Seaman, Kevin G; Bussey, Ian

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Electronic dance music (EDM) festivals represent a unique subset of mass-gathering events with limited guidance through literature or legislation to guide mass-gathering medical care at these events. Hypothesis/Problem Electronic dance music festivals pose unique challenges with increased patient encounters and heightened patient acuity under-estimated by current validated casualty predication models. This was a retrospective review of three separate EDM festivals with analysis of patient encounters and patient transport rates. Data obtained were inserted into the predictive Arbon and Hartman models to determine estimated patient presentation rate and patient transport rates. The Arbon model under-predicted the number of patient encounters and the number of patient transports for all three festivals, while the Hartman model under-predicted the number of patient encounters at one festival and over-predicted the number of encounters at the other two festivals. The Hartman model over-predicted patient transport rates for two of the three festivals. Electronic dance music festivals often involve distinct challenges and current predictive models are inaccurate for planning these events. The formation of a cohesive incident action plan will assist in addressing these challenges and lead to the collection of more uniform data metrics. FitzGibbon KM , Nable JV , Ayd B , Lawner BJ , Comer AC , Lichenstein R , Levy MJ , Seaman KG , Bussey I . Mass-gathering medical care in electronic dance music festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):563-567.

  8. 38 CFR 17.90 - Medical care for veterans receiving vocational training under 38 U.S.C. chapter 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. chapter 15. Hospital care, nursing home care and medical services may be provided to any... and medical services means class V dental care, priority III medical services, nursing home care and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical care for veterans...

  9. Breaking the silence. Battered women's perspectives on medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M A; Quiroga, S S; Bauer, H M

    1996-03-01

    To determine the barriers to identification and management of domestic violence from the battered women's perspective. Qualitative research methods using semistructured focus groups. Urban and suburban community-based organizations serving women and their families in the San Francisco Bay (Calif) area. Fifty-one women with histories of domestic violence comprised eight focus groups divided as follows: two groups of Latino (n=14), two groups of white (n=14), Asian (n=14), and two groups of African-American (n=9) women. Participants from all ethnic groups identified major factors that affect identification and management of battered women in the health care setting. Factors that interfere with patient disclosure included threats of violence from the partner, embarrassment, adherence to gender roles, concerns about police involvement and lack of trust in the health care provider. One factor that predisposed a woman to seek help from providers was a need for the providers to exhibit compassion, awareness, and respect for the patient's need to make the final decisions about her situation. Most participants said that providers should take the initiative to ask directly about domestic violence, establish a supportive patient-provider relationship, and refer battered women to available community resources. The major institutional barriers to using the health care system included the high cost of medical care and long waiting periods. Many battered women experience social, institutional, and provider barriers to obtaining help from the health care system for problems related to domestic violence. Providers as well as institutions can overcome these barriers through an understanding of the social context of domestic violence and the victim's needs. Identification may be improved through a trusting patient-provider relationship and by direct questioning about domestic violence.

  10. [Challenges for the future of psychiatry and psychiatric medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the prolonged economic recession and global financial crisis, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 has caused great fear and devastation in Japan. In the midst of these, Japanese people have felt to lose the traditional values and common sense they used to share, and it has become necessary to build a new consciousness. Engaged in psychiatry and psychiatric care under these circumstances, we have to analyze the challenges we face and to brainstorm on appropriate prescriptions that can be applied to solve the problems. Five points in particular were brought up: [1] The persistently high number of suicides. [2] The increase in depression and overflowing numbers of patients visiting clinics and outpatient departments at hospitals. [3] The absolute shortage of child psychiatrists. [4] Little progress with the transition from hospitalization-centered to community-centered medical care. [5] The disappearance of beds for psychiatry patients from general hospitals. The situations surrounding these five issues were briefly analyzed and problems were pointed out. The following are five problems that psychiatry is facing: 1) A lack of large clinical trials compared to the rest of the world. 2) The drug lag and handling of global trials. 3) The lack of staff involved in education and research (in the field of psychiatry). 4) Following the DSM diagnostic criteria dogmatically, without differentiating therapeutics. 5) Other medical departments, the industry, patients, and their families are demanding objective diagnostic techniques. After analyzing the problems, and discussing to some extent what kind of prescription may be considered to solve the problems, I gave my opinion. (1) The first problem is the deep-rooted prejudice and discrimination against psychiatric disorders that continue to be present among Japanese people. The second problem is the government's policy of low remuneration (fees) for psychiatric services. The third problem, symbolic of the

  11. Care bundle for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a medical intensive care unit in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP occurs in patients requiring mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in intensive care units (ICUs. Materials and Methods: Two historical comparison groups of 375 patients who used mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h in the medical ICU (MICU from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012 and December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014 were enrolled in this study. There were 194 adult patients in the control group that received traditional care, and there were 181 patients in the experimental VAP care bundle group. Our VAP care bundle entailed several preventive strategies including daily assessments of sedation, daily consideration of weaning and extubation by the doctors and respiratory therapists charged with the care of the patients, maintenance of the intra-cuff pressure values at approximately 20-30 cm H 2 O, hand hygiene, daily oral hygiene, personal protective equipment for suctioning, the placement of patients in semi-recumbent positions with the head of the bed elevated to at least 30°, aspiration of an endotracheal tube and oral cavity prior to position changes, daily cleaning of the ventilator and suction bottle with sterile distilled water, weekly replacement of the ventilator circuit and heater, sterilization of the circuit by pasteurization, and the use of an independent care room. The data were collected by reviewing the patients′ medical records and by retrieving information from the Nosocomial Infection Control Unit of one medical center in Northern Taiwan. Results: The incidence of VAP in the VAP care bundle group (0.281 cases per 1000 ventilator days was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.495 cases per 1000 ventilator days. We estimated that the occurrence of VAP in the MICU increased the medical costs by an average of NT $68317 per patient. Conclusions: VAP care bundle is an

  12. Scrutinising the duty of care and standard of care in English medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromek-Broc, Katarzyna

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the difficulties that claimants encounter in civil law action in English medical negligence cases. It argues that the current legal framework, in particular in relation to the existence of the duty of care and the assessment of standard of care, is haphazard and flawed. It suggests that the law should provide the boundaries that would encompass a moral obligation to rescue and to treat. In conclusion it discusses some timid attempts to reform the law in order to facilitate redress and compensation.

  13. [Decentralization of health care and medical teaching: the Chilean experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro; Armas, Rodolfo

    2003-07-01

    In Chile there has been a close interaction between medical teaching and health care. In 1943, the University of Chile School of Medicine (founded in 1833) created Chairs in several public hospitals. The University of Chile School of Public Health (founded in 1943) played a key role in the creation in 1952 of a centralized National Health Service (NHS). The NHS had outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country and was responsible for health care and for the promotion of health and disease prevention programs. In 1954, the NHS and the School of Medicine set up Residencies and General Practitioners programs aimed at improving the distribution of specialists and general practitioners throughout the country. In 1979, the NHS was replaced with 27 autonomous Health Services headed by the Ministry of Health, while the administration of primary care outpatient clinics was transferred to the municipal government. However, sanitary programs were still managed at the central level. Higher education also expanded and was decentralized. There are currently 60 universities and 17 medical schools, compared to eight and six, respectively, in 1981. The number of students in higher education has increased by 370% in 20 years. At the present time, the Chilean health case system is a predominantly public system with a strong and sizeable private system. Sixty two percent of the population is covered by public health insurance, while 27% is covered by private insurance. New and well equipped private clinics have multiplied. Private non profit institutions manage the prevention and treatment of work related injuries and diseases. Chile's outstanding health indicators (fertility rate: 17.2 x 1,000; mortality: 5.4 x 1,000; maternal mortality: 2.3 x 10,000; neonatal mortality: 4.5 x 1,000; life expectancy: 76 years) are a direct consequence of the improved social, cultural and economic condition of the general populations as well as of the sanitary programs sustained over the past

  14. Home iv Antibiotic Therapy through a Medical Day Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gourdeau

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An out-patient parenteral antibiotic therapy program provided through a medical day care unit was evaluated in a tertiary care hospital. From July 11, 1988 to December 31, 1990, 122 patients were treated either on site at the unit or at home with self-administered intravenous antibiotics. In all, 142 courses of parenteral antibiotics (mostly cephalosporins and clindamycin were given for a total of 124 infections, mostly bone and soft tissue infections (67 of 124, 54%. The duration of out-patient therapy ranged from two to 62 days with a mean duration of 9.4 days if treated at the unit, or 13.2 days in the home care model (1476 patient-days. Vein access was peripheral and catheters remained functional for an average of 4.9 days (range 0.5 to 22 days. Only two patients experienced adverse drug reactions that necessitated modification of treatment. One other case was readmitted to the hospital for surgical debridement. The average cost per patient-day was $66 compared with $375 for in-hospital therapy. This program proved to be safe, efficient, and cost-effective.

  15. Preclinical diagnosis and emergency medical care in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1990-01-01

    Reference is made to preclinical diagnosis and emergency medical care at the site of a potential radiation accident. Possibilities and limits, respectively, of the medical measures are shown. Cooperation between the experts of the technical and medical rescue services is described. Exposition to radiation for the emergency medical staff resulting from the medical care of contaminated persons, is negligible if the personal precautions are observed. (orig.) [de

  16. Care bundle for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a medical intensive care unit in Northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ping Zeng; Han Su; Chein-Wen Chen; Shu-Meng Cheng; Li-Fang Chang; Wen-Chii Tzeng; Bing-Hsiean Tzeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in patients requiring mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in intensive care units (ICUs). Materials and Methods: Two historical comparison groups of 375 patients who used mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h in the medical ICU (MICU) from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012 and December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014 were enrolled in this stud...

  17. Insufficiency of Medical Care for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dats

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research: to analyze insufficiency of medical care for patients with acute respiratory failure in the ICU.Materials and methods. It was a retrospective study of 160 patients' medical records (age from 15 to 84 years with acute respiratory failure (ARF hospitalized in the ICUs of 24 regional and municipal hospitals of the Irkutsk Oblast. Medical records were provided by the Territorial Fund of Compulsory Medical Insurance of citizens of Irkutsk region.The results. The basic defects in conducting mechanical ventilation were associated with improper lung function evaluation, microbiological tests of sputum and radiology. ARF was not diagnosed in 32 of 160 ICU patients (20%. In 23% of cases the causes of ARF were not diagnosed. The greatest part of the defects in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure was found during the treatment of hypoxemia: no recovery of the respiratory tract patency, no prescription of oxygen for hypoxemia, no mechanical ventilation for persistent hypoxemia on the background of maximum oxygen supply and late switching to mechanical ventilation at the stage of hypoxic cardiac arrest.Conclusions. The use of pulse oximetry alone in the absence of arterial blood gas analysis in 98% of patients with acute respiratory failure and failure to perform the lung X-ray and/or MSCT imaging in 21% of patients were accompanied by a high level of undiagnosed acute respiratory distress syndrome (78%, lung contusion (60%, pulmonary embolism (40%, cardiogenic pulmonary edema (33%, and nosocomial pneumonia (28%. Defects of treatment of patients with ARF in 46% of cases were caused by inadequate management of hypoxemia associated with the recovery of the respiratory tract patency, prescription of oxygen, and mechanical ventilation. 

  18. Patient Satisfaction with Hospital Inpatient Care: Effects of Trust, Medical Insurance and Perceived Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Linghan; Li, Ye; Ding, Ding; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Hao, Yanhua; Han, Yuzhen; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Jiejing; Wang, Lan; Xu, Weilan; Ren, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Deteriorations in the patient-provider relationship in China have attracted increasing attention in the international community. This study aims to explore the role of trust in patient satisfaction with hospital inpatient care, and how patient-provider trust is shaped from the perspectives of both patients and providers. We adopted a mixed methods approach comprising a multivariate logistic regression model using secondary data (1200 people with inpatient experiences over the past year) from the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS, 2013) in Heilongjiang Province to determine the associations between patient satisfaction and trust, financial burden and perceived quality of care, followed by in-depth interviews with 62 conveniently selected key informants (27 from health and 35 from non-health sectors). A thematic analysis established a conceptual framework to explain deteriorating patient-provider relationships. About 24% of respondents reported being dissatisfied with hospital inpatient care. The logistic regression model indicated that patient satisfaction was positively associated with higher level of trust (OR = 14.995), lower levels of hospital medical expenditure (OR = 5.736-1.829 as compared with the highest quintile of hospital expenditure), good staff attitude (OR = 3.155) as well as good ward environment (OR = 2.361). But patient satisfaction was negatively associated with medical insurance for urban residents and other insurance status (OR = 0.215-0.357 as compared with medical insurance for urban employees). The qualitative analysis showed that patient trust-the most significant predictor of patient satisfaction-is shaped by perceived high quality of service delivery, empathic and caring interpersonal interactions, and a better designed medical insurance that provides stronger financial protection and enables more equitable access to health care. At the core of high levels of patient dissatisfaction with hospital care is the lack of trust. The

  19. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  20. Fly-By medical care: Conceptualizing the global and local social responsibilities of medical tourists and physician voluntourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Dharamsi, Shafik; Crooks, Valorie A

    2011-04-06

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel abroad to receive health care. Voluntourism is a practice where physicians travel abroad to deliver health care. Both of these practices often entail travel from high income to low and middle income countries and both have been associated with possible negative impacts. In this paper, we explore the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists to identify commonalities and distinctions that can be used to develop a wider understanding of social responsibility in global health care practices. Social responsibility is a responsibility to promote the welfare of the communities to which one belongs or with which one interacts. Physicians stress their social responsibility to care for the welfare of their patients and their domestic communities. When physicians choose to travel to another county to provide medical care, this social responsibility is expanded to this new community. Patients too have a social responsibility to use their community's health resources efficiently and to promote the health of their community. When these patients choose to go abroad to receive medical care, this social responsibility applies to the new community as well. While voluntourists and medical tourists both see the scope of their social responsibilities expand by engaging in these global practices, the social responsibilities of physician voluntourists are much better defined than those of medical tourists. Guidelines for engaging in ethical voluntourism and training for voluntourists still need better development, but medical tourism as a practice should follow the lead of voluntourism by developing clearer norms for ethical medical tourism. Much can be learned by examining the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists when they engage in global health practices. While each group needs better guidance for engaging in responsible forms of these practices, patients are at a

  1. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  2. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential im...

  3. 32 CFR 732.25 - Accounting classifications for nonnaval medical and dental care expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and dental care expenses. 732.25 Section 732.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Accounting Classifications for Nonnaval Medical and Dental Care Expenses and Standard Document Numbers § 732.25 Accounting classifications for...

  4. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  5. Health Insurance, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes: A Model of Elderly Health Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Norton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug coverage creates a change in medical care consumption, beyond standard moral hazard, arising both from the differential cost-sharing and the relative effectiveness of different types of care. We model the dynamic supplemental health insurance decisions of Medicare beneficiaries, their medical care demand, and subsequent health…

  6. Even 'safe' medications need to be administered with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Howland, Mary Ann; Gambetta, Rosemarie; Dill, Curt

    2013-01-02

    A 60-year-old man with a history of hepatic cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy underwent transoesophageal echocardiogram. He received mild sedation and topical lidocaine. During the recovery period the patient developed ataxia and diplopia for about 30 mins, a result of lidocaine toxicity. The patient was administered a commonly used local anaesthetic, a combination of 2% viscous lidocaine, 4% lidocaine gargle and 5% lidocaine ointment topically to the oropharnyx. The total dose was at least 280 mg. Oral lidocaine undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and its clearance is quite dependent on rates of liver blood flow as well as other factors. The patient's central nervous system symptoms were mild and transient but remind us that to avoid adverse side effects, orally administered drugs with fairly high hepatic extraction ratio given to patients with chronic liver disease need to be given in reduced dosages. Even 'Safe' medications need to be carefully administered.

  7. The effect of a clinical medical librarian on in-patient care outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Julia M.; Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry; Comegys, Marianne; Banks, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine the effect of a clinical medical librarian (CML) on outcomes of in-patients on the internal medicine service. Methods: A prospective study was performed with two internal medicine in-patient teams. Team 1 included a CML who accompanied the team on daily rounds. The CML answered questions posed at the point of care immediately or in emails post-rounds. Patients on Team 2, which did not include a CML, as well as patients who did not require consultation by the CML on Team 1, served as the control population. Numerous clinical and library metrics were gathered on each question. Results: Patients on Team 1 who required an answer to a clinical question were more ill and had a longer length of stay, higher costs, and higher readmission rates compared to those in the control group. Using a matched pair analysis, we showed no difference in clinical outcomes between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusions: This study is the largest attempt to prospectively measure changes in patient outcomes when physicians were accompanied by a CML on rounds. This approach may serve as a model for further studies to define when and how CMLs are most effective. PMID:23930088

  8. The effect of a clinical medical librarian on in-patient care outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Julia M; Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry; Comegys, Marianne; Banks, Daniel E

    2013-07-01

    The research sought to determine the effect of a clinical medical librarian (CML) on outcomes of in-patients on the internal medicine service. A prospective study was performed with two internal medicine in-patient teams. Team 1 included a CML who accompanied the team on daily rounds. The CML answered questions posed at the point of care immediately or in emails post-rounds. Patients on Team 2, which did not include a CML, as well as patients who did not require consultation by the CML on Team 1, served as the control population. Numerous clinical and library metrics were gathered on each question. Patients on Team 1 who required an answer to a clinical question were more ill and had a longer length of stay, higher costs, and higher readmission rates compared to those in the control group. Using a matched pair analysis, we showed no difference in clinical outcomes between the intervention group and the control group. This study is the largest attempt to prospectively measure changes in patient outcomes when physicians were accompanied by a CML on rounds. This approach may serve as a model for further studies to define when and how CMLs are most effective.

  9. Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN receive a medical care plan, outlining the child’s major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs of children with medical complexity (CMC. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15 and parents (n = 15 of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. Results A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Conclusions Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how

  10. Cultural crossings of care: An appeal to the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Julia; Moro, Marie Rose; Ødemark, John; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2018-03-01

    Modern medicine is confronted with cultural crossings in various forms. In facing these challenges, it is not enough to simply increase our insight into the cultural dimensions of health and well-being. We must, more radically, question the conventional distinction between the 'objectivity of science' and the 'subjectivity of culture'. This obligation creates an urgent call for the medical humanities but also for a fundamental rethinking of their grounding assumptions.Julia Kristeva (JK) has problematised the biomedical concept of health through her reading of the anthropogony of Cura (Care), who according to the Roman myth created man out of a piece of clay. JK uses this fable as an allegory for the cultural distinction between health construed as a 'definitive state', which belongs to biological life ( bios ), and healing as a durative 'process with twists and turns in time' that characterises human living ( zoe ). A consequence of this demarcation is that biomedicine is in constant need of 'repairing' and bridging the gap between bios and zoe, nature and culture. Even in radical versions, the medical humanities are mostly reduced to such an instrument of repairment, seeing them as what we refer to as a soft, 'subjective' and cultural supplement to a stable body of 'objective', biomedical and scientific knowledge. In this article, we present a prolegomenon to a more radical programme for the medical humanities, which calls the conventional distinctions between the humanities and the natural sciences into question, acknowledges the pathological and healing powers of culture, and sees the body as a complex biocultural fact. A key element in such a project is the rethinking of the concept of 'evidence' in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon

    2017-02-01

    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic image quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfandzelter, R.; Wuelfing, U.; Boedeker, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A total of 79 115 mammograms from statutory health insurance (SHI) physicians within German outpatient care were evaluated with respect to the diagnostic image quality. Materials and Methods: Mammograms were randomly selected between 2006 and 2008 by the regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians and submitted to regional boards of experts for external evaluation. The mammogram quality was evaluated using a 3-point scale (adequate, borderline, failure) and documented using a nationally standardized protocol. Results: 87.6 % of the mammograms were classified as adequate, 11.0 % as borderline and 1.4 % as failure. Mediolateral oblique mammograms (mlo) had worse ratings than craniocaudal mammograms (cc). Main reasons for classifying the mammograms as borderline or failure were 'inframammary fold not adequately visualized' (mlo), 'pectoral muscle not in the correct angle or not to the level with the nipple' (mlo), 'the nipple not in profile' (mlo, cc) and 'breast not completely or not adequately visualized' (cc). Conclusion: The results show a good overall quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care. Failures can be associated predominantly with incorrect positioning of the breast. More precisely defined quality criteria using objective measures are recommended, especially for craniocaudal mammograms (cc). (orig.)

  13. Attitudes of medical oncologists in Qatar toward palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinah, Ghaith F Abu; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Hassan, Azza Adel

    2013-09-01

    The first and only palliative care (PC) unit in Qatar was established in 2008 to serve adult patients with cancer. As PC was only recently introduced to oncology practice in Qatar and the region, raising awareness among physicians is crucial. This survey study is designed to outline the level of awareness and knowledge of oncologists in Qatar toward PC. In this cross-sectional survey study, copies of a self-constructed questionnaire were distributed to 49 physicians at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research in Qatar during January 2012 and collected for data analysis. The physician response rate was 100%. Less than half of the responders (36.7%) had official training in PC, but the majority (89.8%) showed interest in the field. Only 57.8% of the physicians reported self-competence in providing good PC to the dying patient. On the other hand, up to 69.4% are aware of the guidelines for pain relief and 58.7% apply them in their clinical practice. The concept of PC hospice was familiar to 77.1% of participants. On one hand, 85.7% of the physicians advocated that every medical center should have PC service, while up to 70.8% preferred that patients with short survival expectancy die in the community, rather than in a hospital setting. There is relatively good awareness and knowledge among health care providers specialized in cancer treatment in our hospital, despite the lack of formal training. Further training and informative sessions are required to raise awareness among oncologists and encourage utilization of PC services and thus optimize patient accessibility to PC.

  14. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  15. Comparison of stress among medical and not medical personnel in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mujakić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Does the opinion of the medical and non - medical staff varies on (1 the level of stress depending on seniority, (2 the staircase of stress in relation to education, and (3 how motivation affects the level of stress. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether in health care and higher education contribute to increased job stress. Also, we wanted to know whether they are more motivated workers are less exposed to occupational stress and / or employees with higher seniority also more exposed to stress. Method: We did quantitative research in public health institute. Overview of theoretical principles based on domestic and foreign professional literature. Articles and expert input was obtained in electronic databases ProQuest Online Information Service, Ebsco and SpringerLink. Statistical part of the study, we calculated the statistical program where we used the Mann - Whitney U- statistics and Wilcox W-statistics. Results: The results indicate that there is a statistical difference in understanding the importance of seniority and education on occupational stress among medical and non - medical sector. Employees in the medical sector more statistically argue that education and working life affect the career stress. We rejected our second hypothesis, which says that there is a difference between the two sectors regarding the impact of motivation on occupational stress. Both sectors they consider to be less motivated workers exposed to occupational stress. Organization: The survey can further highlight the risks that may be possible due to congestion and occupational stress. Society: positive influence on the social understanding of diversity obtained service of a single profession and thus routing problem in a disproportionate burden of healthcare workers. Healthcare professionals who work under less stress effectively and positively affect the quality of services rendered. Originality: This kind of research by

  16. Why do patients receive care from a short-term medical mission? Survey study from rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Micaela M; Chen, Joy C; Woo, Russell K; Siegler, Nora; Maldonado-Sifuentes, Francisco A; Carlos-Ochoa, Jehidy S; Cardona-Diaz, Andy R; Uribe-Leitz, Tarsicio; Siegler, Dennis; Weiser, Thomas G; Yang, George P

    2017-07-01

    Hospital de la Familia was established to serve the indigent population in the western highlands of Guatemala and has a full-time staff of Guatemalan primary care providers supplemented by short-term missions of surgical specialists. The reasons for patients seeking surgical care in this setting, as opposed to more consistent care from local institutions, are unclear. We sought to better understand motivations of patients seeking mission-based surgical care. Patients presenting to the obstetric and gynecologic, plastic, ophthalmologic, general, and pediatric surgical clinics at the Hospital de la Familia from July 27 to August 6, 2015 were surveyed. The surveys assessed patient demographics, surgical diagnosis, location of home, mode of travel, and reasons for seeking care at this facility. Of 252 patients surveyed, 144 (59.3%) were female. Most patients reported no other medical condition (67.9%, n = 169) and no consistent income (83.9%, n = 209). Almost half (44.9%, n = 109) traveled >50 km to receive care. The most common reasons for choosing care at this facility were reputation of high quality (51.8%, n = 130) and affordability (42.6%, n = 102); the least common reason was a lack of other options (6.4%, n = 16). Despite long travel distances and the availability of other options, reputation and affordability were primarily cited as the most common reasons for choosing to receive care at this short-term surgical mission site. Our results highlight that although other surgical options may be closer and more readily available, reputation and cost play a large role in choice of patients seeking care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togt, R. van der; Lieshout, E.J. van; Hensbroek, R.; Beinat, E.; Binnekade, J.M.; Bakker, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never

  18. Are you a Canadian thinking about going abroad for surgery or other medical care?

    OpenAIRE

    SFU Medical Tourism Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Are you considering going abroad for medical care? The Simon Fraser University Medical Tourism Research Group has developed the following guide to help inform your decision. This information sheet was developed in consultation with health workers, medical tourism professionals, and researchers in order to help you consider the pros and cons of engaging in medical tourism.

  19. Improving the Quality of Home Health Care for Children With Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Golden, Shannon L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the quality of home health care services for children with medical complexity, identify barriers to delivering optimal home health care, and discuss potential solutions to improve home health care delivery. In this qualitative study, we conducted 20 semistructured in-depth interviews with primary caregivers of children with medical complexity, and 4 focus groups with 18 home health nurses. During an iterative analysis process, we identified themes related to quality of home health care. There is substantial variability between home health nurses in the delivery of home health care to children. Lack of skills in nurses is common and has serious negative health consequences for children with medical complexity, including hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and need for medical procedures. Inadequate home health care also contributes to caregiver burden. A major barrier to delivering optimal home health care is the lack of training of home health nurses in pediatric care and technology use. Potential solutions for improving care include home health agencies training nurses in the care of children with medical complexity, support for nurses in clinical problem solving, and reimbursement for training nurses in pediatric home care. Caregiver-level interventions includes preparation of caregivers about: providing medical care for their children at home and addressing problems with home health care services. There are problems in the quality of home health care delivered to children with medical complexity. Training nurses in the care of children with medical complexity and preparing caregivers about home care could improve home health care quality. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in the Care of Children with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Samuels

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs.

  1. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  2. 78 FR 55671 - Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... chemicals found in the drinking water included perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, benzene, and vinyl..., Drug abuse, Health care, Health facilities, Health professions, Health records, Homeless, Medical...

  3. Readmissions for Selected Infections Due to Medical Care: Expanding the Definition of a Patient Safety Indicator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Brian; Cen, Liyi; Hannan, Edward L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicator that identifies patients with selected infections that result from medical care during hospital inpatient treatment...

  4. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipins Lucy A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.

  5. Development of a Medical Care Terminal for Efficient Monitoring of Bedridden Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Filipe; Carvalho, Vítor; Soares, Filomena; Machado, José; Bezerra, Karolina; Silva, Rui; Matos, Demétrio

    2016-01-01

    This work is developed in the context of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) and has as main objective the development of a mechatronic system that allows the care of bedridden patients with ongoing medical care handled by a single person. The developed Medical Care Terminal (MCT) improves autonomy in home care, safety, comfort, and hygiene of bedridden patients. The MCT has six biomedical sensors and four environmental sensors. Data acquisition and processing is performed using Arduino and Lab VIE...

  6. Primary Care Providers' experiences with Pharmaceutical Care-based Medication Therapy Management Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Maracle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored primary care providers' (PCPs experiences with the practice of pharmaceutical care-based medication therapy management (MTM. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six PCPs who have experiences working with MTM pharmacists for at least three years. The first author conducted the interviews that were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded independently. The codes were then harmonized via discussion and consensus with the other authors. Data were analyzed for themes using the hermeneutic-phenomenological method as proposed by Max van Manen. Three men and three women were interviewed. On average, the interviewees have worked with MTM pharmacists for seven years. The six (6 themes uncovered from the interviews included: (1 "MTM is just part of our team approach to the practice of medicine": MTM as an integral part of PCPs' practices; (2 "Frankly it's education for the patient but it's also education for me": MTM services as a source of education; (3 "It's not exactly just the pharmacist that passes out the medicines at the pharmacy": The MTM practitioner is different from the dispensing pharmacist; (4 "So, less reactive, cleaning up the mess, and more proactive and catching things before they become so involved": MTM services as preventative health care efforts; (5"I think that time is the big thing": MTM pharmacists spend more time with patients; (6 "There's an access piece, there's an availability piece, there's a finance piece": MTM services are underutilized at the clinics. In conclusion, PCPs value having MTM pharmacists as part of their team in ambulatory clinics. MTM pharmacists are considered an important source of education to patients as well as to providers as they are seen as having a unique body of knowledge äóñmedication expertise. All PCPs highly treasure the time and education provided by the MTM pharmacists, their ability to manage and adjust patients' medications, and their capability to

  7. Primary Care Providers’ experiences with Pharmaceutical Care-based Medication Therapy Management Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Maracle, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored primary care providers’ (PCPs experiences with the practice of pharmaceutical care-based medication therapy management (MTM. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six PCPs who have experiences working with MTM pharmacists for at least three years. The first author conducted the interviews that were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded independently. The codes were then harmonized via discussion and consensus with the other authors. Data were analyzed for themes using the hermeneutic-phenomenological method as proposed by Max van Manen. Three men and three women were interviewed. On average, the interviewees have worked with MTM pharmacists for seven years. The six (6 themes uncovered from the interviews included: (1 “MTM is just part of our team approach to the practice of medicine”: MTM as an integral part of PCPs’ practices; (2 “Frankly it’s education for the patient but it’s also education for me”: MTM services as a source of education; (3 “It’s not exactly just the pharmacist that passes out the medicines at the pharmacy”: The MTM practitioner is different from the dispensing pharmacist; (4 “So, less reactive, cleaning up the mess, and more proactive and catching things before they become so involved”: MTM services as preventative health care efforts; (5“I think that time is the big thing”: MTM pharmacists spend more time with patients; (6 “There’s an access piece, there’s an availability piece, there’s a finance piece”: MTM services are underutilized at the clinics. In conclusion, PCPs value having MTM pharmacists as part of their team in ambulatory clinics. MTM pharmacists are considered an important source of education to patients as well as to providers as they are seen as having a unique body of knowledge –medication expertise. All PCPs highly treasure the time and education provided by the MTM pharmacists, their ability to manage and adjust patients

  8. [Career planning for explanation of clinical test results and program of inspections: developing medical technologists for team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Misuko

    2013-04-01

    Current medical care is subdivided according to medical advances, and sophistication and new techniques are necessary. In this setting, doctors and nurses have been explaining to and consulting patients about their medical examinations; however, in recent years, medical technologists have performed these duties at the start of the team's medical care. Therefore, we think it is possible for patients to receive clear and convincing explanations. Most patients cannot understand their examination data, which are written using numbers and charts, etc. Recently, the Nagano Medical Technologist Society has been developing technologists who could explain examination results to patients. This development training included hospitality and communication. The certificate of completion will be issued in March when the program starts.

  9. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet

  10. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists' perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory

    2013-12-06

    Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants' desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should

  11. Traditional healers, faith healers and medical practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshabela, Mosa; Bukenya, Dominic; Darong, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are concerns that medical pluralism may delay patients’ progression through the HIV cascade-of-care. However, the pathways of impact through which medical pluralism influence the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in African settings remain unclear. We sought to establish...

  12. Missed or Delayed Medical Care Appointments by Older Users of Nonemergency Medical Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Kara E.; Ragland, David R.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Irmiter, Cheryl; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified factors associated with canceling nonemergency medical transportation appointments among older adult Medicaid patients. Design and Methods: Data from 125,913 trips for 2,913 Delaware clients were examined. Mediation analyses, as well as, multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. Results: Over half of canceled trips were attributed to client reasons (e.g., no show, refusal). Client characteristics (e.g., race, sex, functional status) were associated with cancelations; however, these differed based on the cancelation reason. Regularly scheduled trips were less likely to be canceled. Implications: The evolving American health care system may increase service availability. Additional policies can improve service accessibility and overcome utilization barriers. PMID:24558264

  13. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  14. Acute medical assessment units: an efficient alternative to in-hospital acute medical care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watts, M

    2011-02-01

    Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.

  15. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

  16. Primary care providers and medical homes for individuals with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William O

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of primary care providers to the successful care of children with spina bifida cannot be underestimated. Overcoming systemic barriers to their integration into a comprehensive care system is essential. By providing routine and disability specific care through the structure of a Medical Home, they are often the first line resource and support for individuals and their families. The Medical Home model encourages primary care providers to facilitate discussions on topics as varied as education and employment. Knowledge of specific medical issues unique to this population allows the primary care provider to complement the efforts of other specialty clinics and providers in often neglected areas such as sexual health, obesity and latex sensitization. As individuals with spina bifida live into adulthood, and access to traditional multidisciplinary care models evolves, these skills will take on increasing importance within the scope of providing comprehensive and coordinated care.

  17. Medical tourism and its impact on the US health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Dana A; Smith, Pamela C

    2007-01-01

    The health care industry within the United States continues to face unprecedented increases in costs, along with the task of providing care to an estimated 46 million uninsured or underinsured patients. These patients, along with both insurers and employers, are seeking to reduce the costs of treatment through international outsourcing of medical and surgical care. Knows as medical tourism, this trend is on the rise, and the US health care system has not fully internalized the effects this will have on its economic structure and policies. The demand for low-cost health care services is driving patients to seek treatment on a globally competitive basis, while balancing important quality of care issues. In this article, we outline some of the issues facing legislators, health care policy makers, providers, and health service researchers regarding the impact of medical tourism on the US health care system.

  18. 20 CFR 702.418 - Procedure for requesting medical care; employee's duty to notify employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... medical care; employee's duty to notify employer. (a) As soon as practicable, but within 30 days after... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for requesting medical care; employee's duty to notify employer. 702.418 Section 702.418 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS...

  19. [What is parents' and medical health care specialists knowledge about vaccinations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarczoń, Izabela; Domaradzka, Ewa; Czajka, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to become familiar with parents' and Medical Health Care specialists knowledge and attitude towards vaccinations. The influence of information, provided to patients from various sources, on general opinion about immunization and its coverage within the last year were evaluated. Analysis of questionnaires about vaccinations performed among 151 parents and 180 Medical Health Care specialists. Medical Health Care specialists knowledge was considerably higher in comparison to questioned parents. Surprisingly enough, only approximately 90% of Medical Health Care workers knew about prophylaxis of Hib infections. A doctor is the main and the most reliable source of information for parents. Significant impact on parents' attitude to vaccinations is made not only by campaigns promoting vaccinations, but also by widespread opinions about their harmfulness. The doctor is the major source of reliable information about vaccinations for parents. Therefore, there is the need of continuous improvement of Medical Health Care specialists knowledge, but also the ability of successfully communicating it to parents.

  20. Fly-By medical care: Conceptualizing the global and local social responsibilities of medical tourists and physician voluntourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel abroad to receive health care. Voluntourism is a practice where physicians travel abroad to deliver health care. Both of these practices often entail travel from high income to low and middle income countries and both have been associated with possible negative impacts. In this paper, we explore the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists to identify commonalities and distinctions that can be used to develop a wider understanding of social responsibility in global health care practices. Discussion Social responsibility is a responsibility to promote the welfare of the communities to which one belongs or with which one interacts. Physicians stress their social responsibility to care for the welfare of their patients and their domestic communities. When physicians choose to travel to another county to provide medical care, this social responsibility is expanded to this new community. Patients too have a social responsibility to use their community's health resources efficiently and to promote the health of their community. When these patients choose to go abroad to receive medical care, this social responsibility applies to the new community as well. While voluntourists and medical tourists both see the scope of their social responsibilities expand by engaging in these global practices, the social responsibilities of physician voluntourists are much better defined than those of medical tourists. Guidelines for engaging in ethical voluntourism and training for voluntourists still need better development, but medical tourism as a practice should follow the lead of voluntourism by developing clearer norms for ethical medical tourism. Summary Much can be learned by examining the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists when they engage in global health practices. While each group needs better guidance for engaging in

  1. Fly-By medical care: Conceptualizing the global and local social responsibilities of medical tourists and physician voluntourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel abroad to receive health care. Voluntourism is a practice where physicians travel abroad to deliver health care. Both of these practices often entail travel from high income to low and middle income countries and both have been associated with possible negative impacts. In this paper, we explore the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists to identify commonalities and distinctions that can be used to develop a wider understanding of social responsibility in global health care practices. Discussion Social responsibility is a responsibility to promote the welfare of the communities to which one belongs or with which one interacts. Physicians stress their social responsibility to care for the welfare of their patients and their domestic communities. When physicians choose to travel to another county to provide medical care, this social responsibility is expanded to this new community. Patients too have a social responsibility to use their community's health resources efficiently and to promote the health of their community. When these patients choose to go abroad to receive medical care, this social responsibility applies to the new community as well. While voluntourists and medical tourists both see the scope of their social responsibilities expand by engaging in these global practices, the social responsibilities of physician voluntourists are much better defined than those of medical tourists. Guidelines for engaging in ethical voluntourism and training for voluntourists still need better development, but medical tourism as a practice should follow the lead of voluntourism by developing clearer norms for ethical medical tourism. Summary Much can be learned by examining the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists when they engage in global health practices. While each group needs better guidance for engaging in responsible forms of these practices

  2. Antidepressant medication use for primary care patients with and without medical comorbidities: a national electronic health record (EHR) network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James M; Klinkman, Michael S; Chen, Ying Xia

    2010-01-01

    Because comorbid depression can complicate medical conditions (eg, diabetes), physicians may treat depression more aggressively in patients who have these conditions. This study examined whether primary care physicians prescribe antidepressant medications more often and in higher doses for persons with medical comorbidities. This secondary data analysis of electronic health record data was conducted in the Centricity Health Care User Research Network (CHURN), a national network of ambulatory practices that use a common outpatient electronic health record. Participants included 209 family medicine and general internal medicine providers in 40 primary care CHURN offices in 17 US states. Patients included adults with a new episode of depression that had been diagnosed during the period October 2006 through July 2007 (n = 1513). Prescription of antidepressant medication and doses of antidepressant medication were compared for patients with and without 6 comorbid conditions: diabetes, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. 20.7% of patients had at least one medical comorbidity whereas 5.8% had multiple comorbidities. Overall, 77% of depressed patients were prescribed antidepressant medication. After controlling for age and sex, patients with multiple comorbidities were less likely to be prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96), but there was no significant difference by individual comorbidities. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were less likely to be prescribed a full dose of medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.88), but there were no differences for other comorbidities or for multiple comorbidities, and there was no difference for any comorbidities in the prescription of minimally effective doses. Patients with new episodes of depression who present to a primary care practice are not treated more aggressively if they have medical

  3. Prescription data improve the medication history in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, S K; Poulsen, H E

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete medication lists increase the risk of medication errors and adverse drug effects. In Denmark, dispensing data and pharmacy records are available directly online to treating physicians. We aimed (1) to describe if use of pharmacy records improved the medication history among patients...... consulting their general practitioner and (2) to characterise inconsistencies between the medication history reported by the patient and the general practitioner's recordings....

  4. The patient-centered medical home neighbor: A primary care physician's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsky, Christine A

    2011-01-04

    The American College of Physicians' position paper on the patient-centered medical home neighbor (PCMH-N) extends the work of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as a means of improving the delivery of health care. Recognizing that the PCMH does not exist in isolation, the PCMH-N concept outlines expectations for comanagement, communication, and care coordination and broadens responsibility for safe, effective, and efficient care beyond primary care to include physicians of all specialties. As such, it is a fitting follow-up to the PCMH and moves further down the road toward improved care for complex patients. Yet, there is more work to be done. Truly transforming the U.S. health care system around personalized medical homes embedded in highly functional medical neighborhoods will require better staffing models; more robust electronic information tools; aligned incentives for quality and efficiency within payment and regulatory policies; and a culture of greater engagement of patients, their families, and communities.

  5. Medical students' learning orientation regarding interracial interactions affects preparedness to care for minority patients: a report from Medical Student CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke A; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel R; Hou, Yuefeng; Nelson, David B; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-29

    There is a paucity of evidence on how to train medical students to provide equitable, high quality care to racial and ethnic minority patients. We test the hypothesis that medical schools' ability to foster a learning orientation toward interracial interactions (i.e., that students can improve their ability to successfully interact with people of another race and learn from their mistakes), will contribute to white medical students' readiness to care for racial minority patients. We then test the hypothesis that white medical students who perceive their medical school environment as supporting a learning orientation will benefit more from disparities training. Prospective observational study involving web-based questionnaires administered during first (2010) and last (2014) semesters of medical school to 2394 white medical students from a stratified, random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. Analysis used data from students' last semester to build mixed effects hierarchical models in order to assess the effects of medical school interracial learning orientation, calculated at both the school and individual (student) level, on key dependent measures. School differences in learning orientation explained part of the school difference in readiness to care for minority patients. However, individual differences in learning orientation accounted for individual differences in readiness, even after controlling for school-level learning orientation. Individual differences in learning orientation significantly moderated the effect of disparities training on white students' readiness to care for minority patients. Specifically, white medical students who perceived a high level of learning orientation in their medical schools regarding interracial interactions benefited more from training to address disparities. Coursework aimed at reducing healthcare disparities and improving the care of racial minority patients was only effective when white medical students perceived their

  6. Prescription data improve the medication history in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Andersen, S K; Poulsen, H E

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete medication lists increase the risk of medication errors and adverse drug effects. In Denmark, dispensing data and pharmacy records are available directly online to treating physicians. We aimed (1) to describe if use of pharmacy records improved the medication history among patients co...

  7. Identifying medication errors in the neonatal intensive care unit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Paediatric patients are particularly prone to medication errors as they are classified as the most fragile population in a hospital setting. Paediatric medication errors in the South African healthcare setting are comparatively understudied. Objectives. To determine the incidence of medication errors in neonatal ...

  8. Nurses\\' perception of caring behaviors in intensive care units in hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi SE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Caring is the core of nursing however, different individules have different perceptions of it. Continuous assessment and measurement of caring behaviors results in the identification of their problems. The careful planning of interventions and problem solving will improve care. The aim of this study was to identify nurses' perception of caring behaviors in the intensive care units. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 140 nurses were selected from intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the census method in 2012. The data collection tool was the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E. This questionnaire consisted of two parts including demographic information and 28 items related to care. Face and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire were provided by professionals, and after deletion of 4 items a 24-item questionnaire was provided. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess reliability (&alpha = 0.71. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and descriptive-analytic statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Based on the findings, nurses paid more attention to the physical–technical aspects (95.71 ± 12.76 of care in comparison to its psychosocial aspects (75.41 ± 27.91. Nurses had the highest score in care behavior of "timely performance of medical procedures and medication administration". Conclusion: Since nurses paid more attention to the technical aspects of care than its psychosocial aspects, by providing nurses with a correct perception of care, patients can be provided with needs-based care. This will increase patient satisfaction with nursing care, and indirectly result in the positive attitude of patients and society toward the nursing profession and its services. Moreover, nursing education officials can use these results to assist nurses in meeting

  9. Medical futility at the end of life: the perspectives of intensive care and palliative care clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jox, Ralf J; Schaider, Andreas; Marckmann, Georg; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2012-09-01

    Medical futility at the end of life is a growing challenge to medicine. The goals of the authors were to elucidate how clinicians define futility, when they perceive life-sustaining treatment (LST) to be futile, how they communicate this situation and why LST is sometimes continued despite being recognised as futile. The authors reviewed ethics case consultation protocols and conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 physicians and 11 nurses from adult intensive and palliative care units at a tertiary hospital in Germany. The transcripts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Futility was identified in the majority of case consultations. Interviewees associated futility with the failure to achieve goals of care that offer a benefit to the patient's quality of life and are proportionate to the risks, harms and costs. Prototypic examples mentioned are situations of irreversible dependence on LST, advanced metastatic malignancies and extensive brain injury. Participants agreed that futility should be assessed by physicians after consultation with the care team. Intensivists favoured an indirect and stepwise disclosure of the prognosis. Palliative care clinicians focused on a candid and empathetic information strategy. The reasons for continuing futile LST are primarily emotional, such as guilt, grief, fear of legal consequences and concerns about the family's reaction. Other obstacles are organisational routines, insufficient legal and palliative knowledge and treatment requests by patients or families. Managing futility could be improved by communication training, knowledge transfer, organisational improvements and emotional and ethical support systems. The authors propose an algorithm for end-of-life decision making focusing on goals of treatment.

  10. Medication error in anaesthesia and critical care: A cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kothari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication error is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in medical profession, and anaesthesia and critical care are no exception to it. Man, medicine, machine and modus operandi are the main contributory factors to it. In this review, incidence, types, risk factors and preventive measures of the medication errors are discussed in detail.

  11. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  12. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons

  13. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariani Ahmad Nizaruddin, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adliah Mhd-Ali, Mohd Makmor-Bakry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs.Participants and methods: A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner.Results and discussion: Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents’ medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes.Conclusion: There are important issues

  14. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  15. MEDICAL INFORMATICS: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR HEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH IN ACUTE CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W.; Smith, Vernon D.; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and adminis...

  16. Medical Informatics: An Essential Tool for Health Sciences Research in Acute Care

    OpenAIRE

    Man Li; Brian W. Pickering; Vernon D. Smith; Mirsad Hadzikadic; Ognjen Gajic; Vitaly Herasevich

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and adminis...

  17. U.S. academic medical centers under the managed health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K

    1999-06-01

    This research investigates the impact of managed health care on academic medical centers in the United States. Academic medical centers hold a unique position in the U.S. health care system through their missions of conducting cutting-edge biomedical research, pursuing clinical and technological innovations, providing state-of-the-art medical care and producing highly qualified health professionals. However, policies to control costs through the use of managed care and limiting resources are detrimental to academic medical centers and impede the advancement of medical science. To survive the threats of managed care in the health care environment, academic medical centers must rely on their upper level managers to derive successful strategies. The methods used in this study include qualitative approaches in the form of key informants and case studies. In addition, a survey questionnaire was sent to 108 CEOs in all the academic medical centers in the U.S. The findings revealed that managers who perform the liaison, monitor, entrepreneur and resource allocator roles are crucial to ensure the survival of academic medical centers, so that academic medical centers can continue their missions to serve the general public and promote their well-being.

  18. Telemedicine to Reduce Medical Risk in Austere Medical Environments: The Virtual Critical Care Consultation (VC3) Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas; McLeroy, Robert D; Riesberg, Jamie; Vasios, William N; Miles, Ethan A; Dellavolpe, Jeffrey; Keenan, Sean; Pamplin, Jeremy C

    One of the core capabilities of prolonged field care is telemedicine. We developed the Virtual Critical Care Consult (VC3) Service to provide Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics with on-demand, virtual consultation with experienced critical care physicians to optimize management and improve outcomes of complicated, critically injured or ill patients. Intensive-care doctors staff VC3 continuously. SOF medics access this service via phone or e-mail. A single phone call reaches an intensivist immediately. An e-mail distribution list is used to share information such as casualty images, vital signs flowsheet data, and short video clips, and helps maintain situational awareness among the VC3 critical care providers and other key SOF medical leaders. This real-time support enables direct communication between the remote provider and the clinical subject matter expert, thus facilitating expert management from near the point of injury until definitive care can be administered. The VC3 pilot program has been extensively tested in field training exercises and validated in several real-world encounters. It is an immediately available capability that can reduce medical risk and is scalable to all Special Operations Command forces. 2016.

  19. Resident and Staff Satisfaction of Pediatric Graduate Medical Education Training on Transition to Adult Care of Medically Complex Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Matthew; Cole, Brandon; Flake, Eric; Roy, Daniel

    2018-04-11

    This study aims to describe the quantity and satisfaction current residents and experienced pediatricians have with graduate medical education on transitioning medically complex patients to adult care. There is an increasing need for transitioning medically complex adolescents to adult care. Over 90% now live into adulthood and require transition to adult healthcare providers. The 2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs found that only 40% of youth 12-17 yr receive the necessary services to appropriately transition to adult care. Prospective, descriptive, anonymous, web-based survey of pediatric residents and staff pediatricians at Army pediatric residency training programs was sent in March 2017. Questions focused on assessing knowledge of transition of care, satisfaction with transition training, and amount of education on transition received during graduate medical education training. Of the 145 responders (310 potential responders, 47% response rate), transition was deemed important with a score of 4.3 out of 5. The comfort level with transition was rated 2.6/5 with only 4.2% of participants receiving formal education during residency. The most commonly perceived barriers to implementing a curriculum were time constraints and available resources. Of the five knowledge assessment questions, three had a correct response rate of less than 1/3. The findings show the disparity between the presence of and perceived need for a formal curriculum on transitioning complex pediatric patients to adult care. This study also highlighted the knowledge gap of the transition process for novice and experienced pediatricians alike.

  20. Discrimination and Delayed Health Care Among Transgender Women and Men: Implications for Improving Medical Education and Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Kim D; Shires, Deirdre A; Stroumsa, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    The transgender community experiences health care discrimination and approximately 1 in 4 transgender people were denied equal treatment in health care settings. Discrimination is one of the many factors significantly associated with health care utilization and delayed care. We assessed factors associated with delayed medical care due to discrimination among transgender patients, and evaluated the relationship between perceived provider knowledge and delayed care using Anderson's behavioral model of health services utilization. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to test whether predisposing, enabling, and health system factors were associated with delaying needed care for transgender women and transgender men. A sample of 3486 transgender participants who took part in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey in 2008 and 2009. Predisposing, enabling, and health system environment factors, and delayed needed health care. Overall, 30.8% of transgender participants delayed or did not seek needed health care due to discrimination. Respondents who had to teach health care providers about transgender people were 4 times more likely to delay needed health care due to discrimination. Transgender patients who need to teach their providers about transgender people are significantly more likely to postpone or not seek needed care. Systemic changes in provider education and training, along with health care system adaptations to ensure appropriate, safe, and respectful care, are necessary to close the knowledge and treatment gaps and prevent delayed care with its ensuing long-term health implications.

  1. Ethics of care in medical tourism: Informal caregivers' narratives of responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism through an ethics of care lens. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery, asking questions that dealt with their experiences prior to, during and after travel. Thematic analysis revealed three themes central to an ethics of care: responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality. Ethics of care theorists have highlighted how care has been historically devalued. We posit that medical tourism reproduces dominant narratives about care in a novel care landscape. Informal care goes unaccounted for by the industry, as it occurs in largely private spaces at a geographic distance from the home countries of medical tourists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S

    2017-09-01

    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated with Attitude and Knowledge Toward Hospice Palliative Care Among Medical Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Life and work experience improve the accuracy of medical staff in providing hospice palliative care. A culture-based, case-oriented continuing education program and a timely revision of the Hospice Palliative Care Article are recommended to increase the consistency between the principle and the practice of hospice palliative care.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of potentially inappropriate medications among home care elderly patients in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmoud, Eman; Khalifa, Sabah; Bahi, Asma Abdulaziz

    2015-10-01

    Older patients receiving home health care are particularly at risk of receiving potentially inappropriate medications compared to community-dwelling population. Data on appropriateness of prescribing in these patients is limited. To investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of potentially inappropriate medications among elderly patients receiving Home Health Care Services in Qatar. Home Health Care Services department in Hamad Medical Corporation-Qatar. A cross-sectional study, conducted over a 3 months period. Patients 65 years and older, taking at least one medication and receiving home care services were included. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified and classified in accordance with the American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications using updated Beers criteria. A total of 191 patients (38.2%) had at least one potentially inappropriate medication. As per Beers criteria, 35% of medications were classified as medications to be avoided in older adults regardless of conditions and 9% as potentially inappropriate medications when used with certain diseases or syndromes. The majority of potentially inappropriate medications (56%) were classified as medications to be used with caution. The two leading classes of potentially inappropriate medications were antipsychotics (27.4%) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (16%). Significant predictors of inappropriate prescribing were hypertension [adjusted OR 1.7; 95% CI (1.0, 2.8)], dementia [adjusted OR 2.0; 95% CI (1.2, 3.1)], depression [adjusted OR 21.6; 95% CI (2.8, 168.4)], and taking more than ten prescribed medications [adjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)]. Prescribing potentially inappropriate medications is common among older adults receiving home health care services in Qatar, a finding that warrants further attention. Polypharmacy, hypertension, depression and dementia were significantly associated with potentially

  5. Implementing a Pharmacist-Led Medication Management Pilot to Improve Care Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Root, PharmD, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this project was to design and pilot a pharmacist-led process to address medication management across the continuum of care within a large integrated health-system.Summary: A care transitions pilot took place within a health-system which included a 150-bed community hospital. The pilot process expanded the pharmacist’s medication management responsibilities to include providing discharge medication reconciliation, a patient-friendly discharge medication list, discharge medication education, and medication therapy management (MTM follow-up.Adult patients with a predicted diagnosis-related group (DRG of congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical-surgical and intensive care units who utilized a primary care provider within the health-system were included in the pilot. Forty patients met the inclusion criteria and thirty-four (85% received an intervention from an inpatient or MTM pharmacist. Within this group of patients, 88 drug therapy problems (2.6 per patient were identified and 75% of the drug therapy recommendations made by the pharmacist were accepted by the care provider. The 30-day all-cause readmission rates for the intervention and comparison groups were 30.5% and 35.9%, respectively. The number of patients receiving follow-up care varied with 10 (25% receiving MTM follow-up, 26 (65% completing a primary care visit after their first hospital discharge, and 23 (58% receiving a home care visit.Conclusion: Implementation of a pharmacist-led medication management pilot across the continuum of care resulted in an improvement in the quality of care transitions within the health-system through increased identification and resolution of drug therapy problems and MTM follow-up. The lessons learned from the implementation of this pilot will be used to further refine pharmacy care transitions programs across the health-system.

  6. Shifting subjects of health-care: placing "medical tourism" in the context of Malaysian domestic health-care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Meghann

    2011-01-01

    "Medical tourism" has frequently been held to unsettle naturalised relationships between the state and its citizenry. Yet in casting "medical tourism" as either an outside "innovation" or "invasion," scholars have often ignored the role that the neoliberal retrenchment of social welfare structures has played in shaping the domestic health-care systems of the "developing" countries recognised as international medical travel destinations. While there is little doubt that "medical tourism" impacts destinations' health-care systems, it remains essential to contextualise them. This paper offers a reading of the emergence of "medical tourism" from within the context of ongoing health-care privatisation reform in one of today's most prominent destinations: Malaysia. It argues that "medical tourism" to Malaysia has been mobilised politically both to advance domestic health-care reform and to cast off the country's "underdeveloped" image not only among foreign patient-consumers but also among its own nationals, who are themselves increasingly envisioned by the Malaysian state as prospective health-care consumers.

  7. Availability of Care Concordant With Patient-centered Medical Home Principles Among Those With Chronic Conditions: Measuring Care Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Charles, Shana A; Snyder, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Care delivery redesign in the form of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is considered as a potential solution to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs, particularly for patients with chronic conditions. But studies of prevalence or impact at the population level are rare. We aimed to assess whether desired outcomes indicating better care delivery and patient-centeredness were associated with receipt of care according to 3 important PCMH principles. We analyzed data from a representative population survey in California in 2009, focusing on a population with chronic condition who had a usual source of care. We used bivariate, logistic, and negative-binomial regressions. The indicators of PCMH concordant care included continuity of care (personal doctor), care coordination, and care management (individual treatment plan). Outcomes included flu shots, count of outpatient visits, any emergency department visit, timely provider communication, and confidence in self-care. We found that patients whose care was concordant with all 3 PCMH principles were more likely to receive flu shots, more outpatient care, and timely response from providers. Concordance with 2 principles led to some desired outcomes. Concordance with only 1 principle was not associated with desired outcomes. Patients who received care that met 3 key aspects of PCMH: coordination, continuity, and management, had better quality of care and more efficient use of the health care system.

  8. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  9. Payment and Care for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Patients: Toward a Specialized Medical Home for Complex Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, James L; McClellan, Mark B; Majhail, Navneet S; Hari, Parameswaran N; Bredeson, Christopher N; Maziarz, Richard T; LeMaistre, Charles F; Lill, Michael C; Farnia, Stephanie H; Komanduri, Krishna V; Boo, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Patient-centered medical home models are fundamental to the advanced alternative payment models defined in the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Plan Reauthorization Act (MACRA). The patient-centered medical home is a model of healthcare delivery supported by alternative payment mechanisms and designed to promote coordinated medical care that is simultaneously patient-centric and population-oriented. This transformative care model requires shifting reimbursement to include a per-patient payment intended to cover services not previously reimbursed such as disease management over time. Payment is linked to quality measures, including proportion of care delivered according to predefined pathways and demonstrated impact on outcomes. Some medical homes also include opportunities for shared savings by reducing overall costs of care. Recent proposals have suggested expanding the medical home model to specialized populations with complex needs because primary care teams may not have the facilities or the requisite expertise for their unique needs. An example of a successful care model that may provide valuable lessons for those creating specialty medical home models already exists in many hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) centers that deliver multidisciplinary, coordinated, and highly specialized care. The integration of care delivery in HCT centers has been driven by the specialty care their patients require and by the payment methodology preferred by the commercial payers, which has included bundling of both inpatient and outpatient care in the peritransplant interval. Commercial payers identify qualified HCT centers based on accreditation status and comparative performance, enabled in part by center-level comparative performance data available within a national outcomes database mandated by the Stem Cell Therapeutic and Research Act of 2005. Standardization across centers has been facilitated via voluntary accreditation implemented by Foundation for

  10. Medical surgical nurses describe missed nursing care tasks-Evaluating our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Rottet, Kendra; Schmitt, Abby; Wathen, Ellen; Wilson, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the nurse work environment by evaluating the self-report of missed nursing care and the reasons for the missed care. A convenience sample of medical surgical nurses from four hospitals was invited to complete the survey for this descriptive study. The sample included 168 nurses. The MISSCARE survey assessed the frequency and reason of 24 routine nursing care elements. The most frequently reported missed care was ambulation as ordered, medications given within a 30 minute window, and mouth care. Moderate or significant reasons reported for the missed care were: unexpected rise in volume/acuity, heavy admissions/discharges, inadequate assistants, inadequate staff, meds not available when needed, and urgent situations. Identifying missed nursing care and reasons for missed care provides an opportunity for exploring strategies to reduce interruptions, develop unit cohesiveness, improve the nurse work environment, and ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Population Health and Tailored Medical Care in the Home: the Roles of Home-Based Primary Care and Home-Based Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Christine S; Leff, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    With the growth of value-based care, payers and health systems have begun to appreciate the need to provide enhanced services to homebound adults. Recent studies have shown that home-based medical services for this high-cost, high-need population reduce costs and improve outcomes. Home-based medical care services have two flavors that are related to historical context and specialty background-home-based primary care (HBPC) and home-based palliative care (HBPalC). Although the type of services provided by HBPC and HBPalC (together termed "home-based medical care") overlap, HBPC tends to encompass longitudinal and preventive care, while HBPalC often provides services for shorter durations focused more on distress management and goals of care clarification. Given workforce constraints and growing demand, both HBPC and HBPalC will benefit from working together within a population health framework-where HBPC provides care to all patients who have trouble accessing traditional office practices and where HBPalC offers adjunctive care to patients with high symptom burden and those who need assistance with goals clarification. Policy changes that support provision of medical care in the home, population health strategies that tailor home-based medical care to the specific needs of the patients and their caregivers, and educational initiatives to assure basic palliative care competence for all home-based medical providers will improve access and reduce illness burden to this important and underrecognized population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An ecological perspective on medical care: environmental, occupational, and public health impacts of medical supply and pharmaceutical chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatovec, Christine; Senier, Laura; Bell, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Healthcare organizations are increasingly examining the impacts of their facilities and operations on the natural environment, their workers, and the broader community, but the ecological impacts of specific healthcare services provided within these institutions have not been assessed. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of healthcare practices that takes into account the life-cycle impacts of a variety of materials used in typical medical care. We conducted an ethnographic study of three medical inpatient units: a conventional cancer ward, palliative care unit, and a hospice center. Participant observations (73 participants) of healthcare and support staff including physicians, nurses, housekeepers, and administrators were made to inventory materials and document practices used in patient care. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into common practices. We identified three major domains that highlight the cumulative environmental, occupational health, and public health impacts of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals used at our research sites: (1) medical supply procurement; (2) generation, handling, and disposal of medical waste; and (3) pharmaceutical handling and disposal. Impacts discovered through ethnographic inquiry included occupational exposures to chemotherapy and infectious waste, and public health exposures to pharmaceutical waste. This study provides new insight into the environmental, occupational, and public health impacts resulting from medical practices. In many cases, the lack of clear guidance and regulations regarding environmental impacts contributed to elevated harms to the natural environment, workers, and the broader community.

  13. Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

  14. Primary health eye care: evaluation of the competence of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the skill of fifth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town in the performance of fundoscopy at the end of their ophthalmology rotation. Methods: The design was a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town. The ability of fifth-year medical ...

  15. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This unit has guided the development of various types of adverse event reporting, ... iatrogenic medi cation errors in children at healthcare facilities in industrialised .... A pharmacist dispenses electronically submitted medication orders but ..... Hand-held devices such as smartphones with medication dosage applications.

  16. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Errors most frequently encountered included failure to calculate rates of infusion and the conversion of mL to mEq or mL to mg for potassium, phenobarbitone and digoxin. Of the 117 children admitted, 111 (94.9%) were exposed to at least one medication error. Two or more medication errors occurred in 34.1% of cases.

  17. Facilities and medical care for on-site nuclear power plant radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The operation of a nuclear power plant introduces risks of injury or accidents that could also result in the exposure of personnel to radiation or radioactive materials. It is important in such an event to have adequate first aid and medical facilities, supplies, equipment, transportation capabilities and trained personnel available to provide necessary care. This standard provides guidance for first aid during an emergency and for initial medical care of those overexposed to penetrating radiation or contaminated with radioactive material or radionuclides. Recommendations cover facilities, supplies, equipment and the extent of care on-site, where first aid and initial care may be provided, and off-site at a local hospital, where further medical and surgical care may be provided. Additional recommendations are also provided for the transportation of patients and the training of personnel. A brief discussion of specialized care is provided in an appendix

  18. Holistic Health Care for the Medically Uninsured: The Church Health Center of Memphis

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, G. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry,...

  19. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  20. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  1. Physician self-care | Kirby | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They make significant sacrifices in family life, sleep, personal time and hobbies to be able to pursue this ideal. Moving away from cure to compassionate care of dying patients, is a paradigm shift. This can be particularly difficult when caring for children with terminal illness. It is easier to accept death in the elderly as it is part ...

  2. Social determinants of self-care subsequent to major medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that education, residential status, marital status, and availability and ability to convert social network into social capital constitute major social determinants of self-care. It was recommended among others that the social determinants of self-care identified above should ...

  3. Social Determinants of Self-Care Subsequent to Major Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... determinants, therefore, have a big role in self-care after hospital ... whose profile met the study's objectives purposively chosen to provide the data for the ..... The study also explored how social network features in self-care .... made to run effectively it would ease the pressure on the heavy traffic of people to.

  4. Holistic Health Care: A Challenge to Podiatric Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Leonard A.; Levine, Peter M.

    1980-01-01

    As the profession of podiatric medicine becomes more closely identified with the delivery of primary care, it is suggested that it is essential for practicing podiatrists and students to have more educational opportunities in the field of holistic health care, psychiatry, and the behavioral sciences. (Author/MLW)

  5. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: In-Flight Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Pettyjohn, Frank S; Alves, Paulo M

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. All airlines are required to provide first aid training for cabin crew, and the crew are responsible for managing any in-flight medical events. There are also regulatory requirements for the carriage of first aid and medical kits. AsMA has developed recommendations for first aid kits, emergency medical kits, and universal precaution kits.

  6. Improving medical graduates' training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head BA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara A Head,1 Tara J Schapmire,1 Lori Earnshaw,1 John Chenault,2 Mark Pfeifer,1 Susan Sawning,3 Monica A Shaw,3 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Palliative Care and Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 2Kornhouser Health Sciences Library, University of Louisville, 3Undergraduate Medical Education Office, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. Keywords: medical education, palliative care, end-of-life care

  7. A tertiary care-primary care partnership model for medically complex and fragile children and youth with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John B; Colby, Holly H; Bartelt, Tera; Jablonski, Debra; Krauthoefer, Mary L; Havens, Peter

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of a tertiary care center special needs program that partners with families and primary care physicians to ensure seamless inpatient and outpatient care and assist in providing medical homes. Up to 3 years of preenrollment and postenrollment data were compared for patients in the special needs program from July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2005. A tertiary care center pediatric hospital and medical school serving urban and rural patients. A total of 227 of 230 medically complex and fragile children and youth with special needs who had a wide range of chronic disorders and were enrolled in the special needs program. Care coordination provided by a special needs program pediatric nurse case manager with or without a special needs program physician. Preenrollment and postenrollment tertiary care center resource utilization, charges, and payments. A statistically significant decrease was found in the number of hospitalizations, number of hospital days, and tertiary care center charges and payments, and an increase was found in the use of outpatient services. Aggregate data revealed a decrease in hospital days from 7926 to 3831, an increase in clinic visits from 3150 to 5420, and a decrease in tertiary care center payments of $10.7 million. The special needs program budget for fiscal year 2005 had a deficit of $400,000. This tertiary care-primary care partnership model improved health care and reduced costs with relatively modest institutional support.

  8. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  9. APIC position paper: Safe injection, infusion, and medication vial practices in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Susan A; Arias, Kathleen Meehan; Felizardo, Gwen; Barnes, Sue; Kraska, Susan; Patrick, Marcia; Bumsted, Amelia

    2016-07-01

    The transmission of bloodborne viruses and other microbial pathogens to patients during routine health care procedures continues to occur because of the use of improper injection, infusion, medication vial, and point-of-care testing practices by health care personnel. These unsafe practices occur in various clinical settings and result in unacceptable and devastating events for patients. This document updates the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology 2010 position paper on safe injection, infusion, and medication vial practices in health care. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  11. Economic evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Kow, Chia Siang; Ghori, Muhammad Usman; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-10-01

    Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.

  12. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster.

  13. Multi-professional clinical medication reviews in care homes for the elderly: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sach Tracey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence demonstrates that measures are needed to optimise therapy and improve administration of medicines in care homes for older people. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of a novel model of multi-professional medication review. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial design, involving thirty care homes. In line with current practice in medication reviews, recruitment and consent will be sought from general practitioners and care homes, rather than individual residents. Care homes will be segmented according to size and resident mix and allocated to the intervention arm (15 homes or control arm (15 homes sequentially using minimisation. Intervention homes will receive a multi-professional medication review at baseline and at 6 months, with follow-up at 12 months. Control homes will receive usual care (support they currently receive from the National Health Service, with data collection at baseline and 12 months. The novelty of the intervention is a review of medications by a multi-disciplinary team. Primary outcome measures are number of falls and potentially inappropriate prescribing. Secondary outcome measures include medication costs, health care resource use, hospitalisations and mortality. The null hypothesis proposes no difference in primary outcomes between intervention and control patients. The primary outcome variable (number of falls will be analysed using a linear mixed model, with the intervention specified as a fixed effect and care homes included as a random effect. Analyses will be at the level of the care home. The economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. The study is not measuring the impact of the intervention on professional working relationships, the medicines culture in care homes or the generic health-related quality of life of

  14. Medical Education and Health Care Delivery: A Call to Better Align Goals and Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, David P; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    The transformation of the U.S. health care system is under way, driven by the needs of an aging population, rising health care spending, and the availability of health information. However, the speed and effectiveness of the transformation of health care delivery will depend, in large part, upon engagement of the health professions community and changes in clinicians' practice behaviors. Current efforts to influence practice behaviors emphasize changes in the health payment system with incentives to move from fee-for-service to alternative payment models.The authors describe the potential of medical education to augment payment incentives to make changes in clinical practice and the importance of aligning the purpose and goals of medical education with those of the health care delivery system. The authors discuss how curricular and assessment changes and faculty development can align medical education with the transformative trends in the health care delivery system. They also explain how the theory of situated cognition offers a shared conceptual framework that could help address the misalignment of education and clinical care. They provide examples of how quality improvement, health care innovation, population care management, and payment alignment could create bridges for joining health care delivery and medical education to meet the health care reform goals of a high-performing health care delivery system while controlling health care spending. Finally, the authors illustrate how current payment incentives such as bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and population-based payments can work synergistically with medical education to provide high-value care.

  15. Beyond the standard of care: a new model to judge medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lawrence H; Brenner, Alison Tytell; Awerbuch, Eric J; Horwitz, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The term "standard of care" has been used in law and medicine to determine whether medical care is negligent. However, the precise meaning of this concept is often unclear for both medical and legal professionals. Our purposes are to (1) examine the limitations of using standard of care as a measure of negligence, (2) propose the use of the legal concepts of justification and excuse in developing a new model of examining medical conduct, and (3) outline the framework of this model. We applied the principles of tort liability set forth in the clinical and legal literature to describe the difficulty in applying standard of care in medical negligence cases. Using the concepts of justification and excuse, we propose a judicial model that may promote fair and just jury verdicts in medical negligence cases. Contrary to conventional understanding, medical negligence is not simply nonconformity to norms. Two additional concepts of legal liability, ie, justification and excuse, must also be considered to properly judge medical conduct. Medical conduct is justified when the benefits outweigh the risks; the law sanctions the conduct and encourages future conduct under similar circumstances. Excuse, on the other hand, relieves a doctor of legal liability under specific circumstances even though his/her conduct was not justified. Standard of care is an inaccurate measure of medical negligence because it is premised on the faulty notion of conformity to norms. An alternative judicial model to determine medical negligence would (1) eliminate standard of care in medical malpractice law, (2) reframe the court instruction to jurors, and (3) establish an ongoing consensus committee on orthopaedic principles of negligence.

  16. The evolution of dependent medical care in the U.S. Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Thomas J S

    2011-10-01

    There is great focus within the military medical community regarding the ever growing cost of medical care overall and dependent care specifically. A great deal of discussion relates to the delivery of care through a growing military-civilian partnership, where an increased amount of health care will be referred to an ever growing network of civilian providers. The U.S. military establishment now stands at an important crossroad leading into the future of dependent care. However, the special concerns, which arise from the responsibility of caring for military dependents, are not a solely recent phenomenon. Ever since the establishment of a permanent standing U.S. Army in the late 1700s, there have been families in need of medical treatment. Although changes occurred continuously, the development and evolution of policies regulating the delivery of medical care to dependants can be divided into three periods. The first is the longest and ranges from the establishment of the Army until the year 1900. The second period spans from 1900 to the post-Korean War year of 1956. The third and final period is from 1956 to 1975. Special changes and advances in each of these periods have served to shape the face of dependent care in today's Army Medical Department.

  17. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  18. Improving care planning and coordination for service users with medical co-morbidity transitioning between tertiary medical and primary care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, K; Polacsek, M; McCann, T V

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing and receiving appropriate treatment in emergency departments. Service users frequently experience fragmented care planning and coordinating between tertiary medical and primary care services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives about how to address these problems. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Emergency department clinicians' poor communication and negative attitudes have adverse effects on service users and the quality of care they receive. The findings contribute to the international evidence about mental health nurses' perspectives of service users feeling confused and frustrated in this situation, and improving coordination and continuity of care, facilitating transitions and increasing family and caregiver participation. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate if adoption of these measures leads to sustainable improvements in care planning and coordination, and how service users with medical co-morbidity are treated in emergency departments in particular. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Effective planning and coordination of care are essential to enable smooth transitions between tertiary medical (emergency departments in particular) and primary care services for service users with medical co-morbidity. Ongoing professional development education and support is needed for emergency department clinicians. There is also a need to develop an organized and systemic approach to improving service users' experience in emergency departments. Introduction Mental health service users with medical co-morbidity frequently experience difficulties accessing appropriate treatment in medical hospitals, and often there is poor collaboration within and between services. Little is known about mental health nurses' perspectives on how to address these problems. Aim To explore mental health nurses

  19. Relationship between patient dependence and direct medical-, social-, indirect-, and informal-care costs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens2 1Department of Economics, University of Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, Spain Objective: The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' dependence on others relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of patient dependence measured by the Dependence Scale on costs for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD in Spain. Methods: The Co-Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease study is an 18 multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients with AD according to the clinical dementia rating score and their caregivers in Spain. This study also gathered data on resource utilization for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. The data of 343 patients and their caregivers were collected through the completion of a clinical report form during one visit/assessment at an outpatient center or hospital, where all instruments were administered. The data collected (in addition to clinical measures also included sociodemographic data concerning the patients and their caregivers. Cost analysis was based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Resource unit costs were applied to value direct medical-, social-, and indirect-care costs. A replacement cost method was used to value informal care. Patient dependence on others was measured using the Dependence Scale, and the Cumulative Index Rating Scale was administered to the patient to assess multi-morbidity. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of dependence and other sociodemographic and clinical variables on cost of care. Results: The mean (standard deviation costs per patient

  20. Ethical decisions in endof- life care | Norval | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trigger tool method rather than a real-time reporting tool in both ... Therapeutic skills of healthcare professionals working in the PICU need to be improved to decrease ..... devices such as smartphones with medication dosage applications.

  2. Characteristics associated with purchasing antidepressant or antianxiety medications through primary care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Yaari, Aviv; Feldhamer, Elan; Balicer, Ran; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the role of patient and physician characteristics associated with the purchase of antidepressant or antianxiety medications in Israel, a country that has a universal health care system. A national sample of 30,000 primary care patients over the age of 22 was randomly drawn from the registry of the largest health care fund in Israel. Data concerning medication purchase between January and December 2006 were extracted. Physician and patient characteristics were merged with Israel's unique identification number. Multilevel analysis was conducted to identify patient- and physician-level predictors of medication purchase. Overall, 19% (N = 4,762) of the sample purchased antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Individuals with greater general medical and psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to purchase antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Older adults, women, those of higher socioeconomic status, and immigrants (with the exception of Jews born in Asia or Africa) were also more likely to purchase medications. Arabs and Jews born in Asia and Africa were less likely to purchase medications even after all other variables were accounted for. Physician characteristics were minimally associated with the purchase of medications. The findings demonstrate that despite universal health care access, there were variations by population groups. Educational efforts should target patients as well as physicians.

  3. Pharmacist medication reviews to improve safety monitoring in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Casey E; Sokhal, Dimmy; Zeidler Schreiter, Elizabeth; Margolis, Amanda R

    2016-06-01

    Patients prescribed psychotropic medications within primary care are at risk of suboptimal monitoring. It is unknown whether pharmacists can improve medication safety through targeted monitoring of at risk populations. Access Community Health Centers implemented a quality improvement pilot project that included pharmacists on an integrated care team to provide medication reviews for patients. Aims were to determine whether inclusion of a pharmacist performing medication reviews within a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) practice is feasible and facilitates safe medication use. Pharmacists performed medication reviews of the electronic health record for patients referred for psychiatry consultation. Reviews were performed 1-3 months following consultation and focused on medications with known suboptimal monitoring rates. Reviews were documented within the EHR and routed to the primary care provider. Primary outcome measures were change in percentage up-to-date on monitoring and AIMS assessment, and at risk of experiencing drug interaction(s) between baseline and 3 months postreview. Secondary outcome was provider opinion of medication reviews collected via electronic survey. Reviews were performed for 144 patients. Three months postreview, percentage up-to-date on recommended monitoring increased 18% (p = .0001), at risk for drug interaction decreased 20% (p improved safety monitoring of psychotropic medications. Results identify key areas for improvement that other clinics considering integration of similar pharmacy services should consider. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Nurse-to-nurse shift handoffs on medical-surgical units: A process within the flow of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Katherine M; McComb, Sara A; Ley, Cathaleen

    2018-03-01

    To qualitatively investigate the medical-surgical nurse shift handoff as a process within the workflow of the exchanging nurses. Specifically, this study sought to identify the ideal handoff, ways the handoff deviated from ideal, and subsequent effect on nursing care. The functions as well as information content of the handoff have been studied. However, typical studies look at the handoff as an isolated activity utilising nurse perceptions as the primary measure of quality. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted to discuss nurses' perspectives on ideal handoffs, ways handoffs deviate from the ideal including frequent and significant deviations and the effects on subsequent care. Twenty-one medical-surgical nurses participated in one of five audio-taped focus group sessions. Three sessions were conducted at hospital A; two sessions at unaffiliated hospital B. The general inductive approach was used to analyse verbatim transcripts. Transcript segments relevant for answering the research questions were coded as ideal or not ideal. Conceptual themes were then developed. Two major themes were identified: teams/teamwork and constructing and communicating a shared understanding of the patients' conditions. The importance of nurse preparatory activities was revealed including the incoming nurses reading patients' health records and outgoing nurses rounding on patients. The impact of shared expectations was identified across the team, where teams include, in addition to the two nurses, the electronic health record, other hospital staff and patients/families with a bedside handoff. New potential nurse-centred process and outcome measures were proposed. Evaluating handoffs by their effect on the nursing performance both during and after the handoff offers a new framework to objectively assess handoff effectiveness. The handoff is a process which may significantly affect the incoming nurse's transition into and administration of nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Medical Education in Decentralized Settings: How Medical Students Contribute to Health Care in 10 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Zohray; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Couper, Ian; Pattanaik, Swaha; Turay, Khadija; Sagay, Atiene S; Baingana, Rhona; Baird, Sarah; Gaede, Bernhard; Iputo, Jehu; Kibore, Minnie; Manongi, Rachel; Matsika, Antony; Mogodi, Mpho; Ramucesse, Jeremais; Ross, Heather; Simuyeba, Moses; Haile-Mariam, Damen

    2017-12-01

    African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban. Qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used to gather information about the sites, student activities, and staff perspectives between March 2015 and February 2016. Interviews with site staff were analyzed using a collaborative directed approach to content analysis, and frequencies were generated to describe site characteristics and student experiences. The clinical sites varied in level of care but were similar in scope of clinical services and types of clinical and nonclinical student activities. Staff indicated that students have a positive effect on job satisfaction and workload. Respondents reported that students improved the work environment, institutional reputation, and introduced evidence-based approaches. Students also contributed to perceived improvements in quality of care, patient experience, and community outreach. Staff highlighted the need for resources to support students. Students were seen as valuable resources for health facilities. They strengthened health care quality by supporting overburdened staff and by bringing rigor and accountability into the work environment. As medical schools expand, especially in low-resource settings, mobilizing new and existing resources for decentralized clinical training could transform health facilities into vibrant service and learning environments.

  6. Mothers’ Experiences of Participating in the Medical Care of their Child with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning Lund, Line; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    Background: Only a few research studies have addressed parents’ experiences of participating in the medical care and treatment of their child diagnosed with cancer. Objective: To explore how mothers of children diagnosed with cancer experienced participating in the medical care of their child both...... at hospital and at home. Design and methods: A qualitative study with a hermeneutical approach. The empirical data consisted of three semi-structured interviews with mothers of children diagnosed with cancer within the last three months. The interviews were analysed in accordance with Kvale and Brinkmann....... Findings/results: Six themes were found: "Distraction, control and security", "Difficulty dealing with the child's psychological reaction", "Fluctuating surplus of mental resources calls for match of expectation", "Preparing systems for the medical care on their own", "Complying with the medical care...

  7. Health Care: Reprocessed Medical Single-Use Devices in DoD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... for decontamination and resterilization. The emergence of new materials and sterilization methods, and the increasing costs of health care, resulted in the development of medical single-use devices and the practice of reprocessing the devices...

  8. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  9. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  10. Health Care Professionals’ Pain Narratives in Hospitalized Children’s Medical Records. Part 1: Pain Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Rashotte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although documentation of children’s pain by health care professionals is frequently undertaken, few studies have explored the nature of the language used to describe pain in the medical records of hospitalized children.

  11. Justice and care: the implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan debate for medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, V A

    1992-12-01

    Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant 'justice orientation' and the under-valued 'care orientation'. Based on her discernment of a 'voice of care', Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically, I question whether the medical moral domain is adequately described by the norms of impartiality, universality, and equality that characterize the liberal ideal. My analysis of justice-oriented medical ethics, focuses on the libertarian theory of H.T. Engelhardt and the contractarian theory of R.M. Veatch. I suggest that in the work of E.D. Pellegrino and D.C. Thomasma we find not only a more authentic representation of medical morality but also a project that is compatible with the care orientation's emphasis on human need and responsiveness to particular others.

  12. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Y.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  13. Proceedings of the tenth annual symposium on computer applications in medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthner, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the tenth annual symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. The papers include: Image processing in cardiovascular radiology and radiologic automated diagnosis (RAD)

  14. Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Belew, John L

    2017-06-06

    The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system's inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.

  15. Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda G. Cady

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.

  16. Opportunities to Support Medication Intake across Boundaries of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    This paper depicts findings from a project focusing on designing medicine management support for nonclinical settings. In particular, we discuss how we can support older adults across boundaries of care in planning, informing, reminding and documenting activities. Additionally, we present...

  17. Self-Perceived End-of-Life Care Competencies of Health-Care Providers at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Marcos; Smith, Heather M; Price, Deborah M; Ghosh, Bidisha; Strodtman, Linda

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most deaths occur in hospitals, with approximately 25% of hospitalized patients having palliative care needs. Therefore, the provision of good end-of-life (EOL) care to these patients is a priority. However, research assessing staff preparedness for the provision of EOL care to hospitalized patients is lacking. To assess health-care professionals' self-perceived competencies regarding the provision of EOL care in hospitalized patients. Descriptive study of self-perceived EOL care competencies among health-care professionals. The study instrument (End-of-Life Questionnaire) contains 28 questions assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to the provision of EOL care. Health-care professionals (nursing, medicine, social work, psychology, physical, occupational and respiratory therapist, and spiritual care) at a large academic medical center participated in the study. Means were calculated for each item, and comparisons of mean scores were conducted via t tests. Analysis of variance was used to identify differences among groups. A total of 1197 questionnaires was completed. The greatest self-perceived competency was in providing emotional support for patients/families, and the least self-perceived competency was in providing continuity of care. When compared to nurses, physicians had higher scores on EOL care attitudes, behaviors, and communication. Physicians and nurses had higher scores on most subscales than other health-care providers. Differences in self-perceived EOL care competencies were identified among disciplines, particularly between physicians and nurses. The results provide evidence for assessing health-care providers to identify their specific training needs before implementing educational programs on EOL care.

  18. Factors associated with medication information in diabetes care: differences in perceptions between patients and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längst G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gerda Längst,1 Hanna Marita Seidling,2,3 Marion Stützle,2,3 Dominik Ose,1 Ines Baudendistel,1 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Michel Wensing,1,4 Cornelia Mahler1 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Cooperation Unit Clinical Pharmacy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: This qualitative study in patients with type 2 diabetes and health care professionals (HCPs aimed to investigate which factors they perceive to enhance or impede medication information provision in primary care. Similarities and differences in perspectives were explored.Methods: Eight semistructured focus groups were conducted, four with type 2 diabetes patients (n=25 and four with both general practitioners (n=13 and health care assistants (n=10. Sessions were audio and video recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis.Results: Diabetes patients and HCPs broadly highlighted similar factors as enablers for satisfactory medication information delivery. Perceptions substantially differed regarding impeding factors. Both patients and HCPs perceived it to be essential to deliver tailored information, to have a trustful and continuous patient–provider relationship, to regularly reconcile medications, and to provide tools for medication management. However, substantial differences in perceptions related to impeding factors included the causes of inadequate information, the detail required for risk-related information, and barriers to medication reconciliation. Medication self-management was a prevalent topic among patients, whereas HCPs’ focus was on fulfilling therapy and medication management responsibilities

  19. Pediatric сlinic of Odessa National Medical University: the quality of emergency medical care for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Starets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to discuss the issue of improving the quality of emergency care for children with the most common diseases. Materials and methods. The quality of medical care includes 6 characteristics: 1 effectiveness — evidencebased health care results in improved health outcomes; 2 relevancy: health care is delivered in a manner that maximizes resource use and avoids wasting and provided in a setting where skills and resources are appropriate to medical need; 3 accessibility: health care is provided timely, reasonable and affordable; 4 acceptability/patient-centered: health care provided takes into account the preferences and aspirations of individual service users; 5 equity: health care provided does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics or socioeconomic status; 6 safety: health care provided minimizes risks and harm to service users and providers. Results. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU started working in the Pediatric Clinic of the Odessa National Medical University on February 1, 2017. The main task of ICU is the treatment of children with emergency conditions (who needs monitoring of breathing and cardiac activity, oxygen therapy, large-volume rehydration therapy, etc. The patients admit to the ICU according the results of triage. Triage is the process of rapidly screening of sick children soon after their addmission to hospital and in ICU, in order to identify those with emergency signs — obstruc-ted breathing or severe respiratory distress; central cyanosis; signs of shock; signs of severe dehydration; those with priority signs — very high temperature, severe pallor, respiratory distress etc. The local guidelines for the most common diseases in children have been developed in the Pediatric Clinic. These local guidelines are based on: 1 modern national guidelines; 2 WHO: Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common childhood illnesses (2013; clinical

  20. Relationship Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Care and Medication Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, William B; Baum, Rebecca; Kelleher, Kelly J; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care practices and subsequent medication use. A retrospective cohort from a random sample of medical records in 50 pediatric practices with 188 providers, including 1,352 children who started ADHD medication, was studied. Independent variables included physician behaviors related to medication titration and monitoring of treatment response. Primary outcomes were number of days covered with ADHD medication during the first year of treatment and time from starting medicine to the first 30-day gap in medication supply. Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazards regression models were conducted. Children had an average medication supply of 217 days in the first year. Half experienced a 30-day gap in medication supply in the first 3 months. Nearly three-fourths had a medication adjustment in the first year with the first adjustment usually being a dosage change. The average time to the first medication adjustment was over 3 months. Physician's first contact with parents occurred in the first month of treatment for less than half, with the average time being over 2 months. Little variation related to ADHD care quality was accounted for at the physician level. Early titration and early contact were related to greater medication supply and continuity of treatment. Earlier physician-delivered ADHD care (e.g., contact with parent after starting medication and medication adjustment) is related to greater medication supply and continuity. It remains to be determined whether interventions that improve the quality of titration and monitoring practices for children with ADHD would also improve medication continuity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tax Credits and the Use of Medical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Smart; Mark Stabile

    2003-01-01

    Several recent proposals have advocated using the income tax system to collect user fees to help fund the health care system. While there is a considerable amount of research investigating both how individuals respond to tax incentives for employer provided health insurance and on the effects of user fees payable at the point of service on the use of health care services, there is limited evidence on how individuals respond to tax incentives when these are not realized until taxes are paid. T...

  2. The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael; Crampton, Peter; Mansoor, Osman

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. Methods The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta) was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners). Results At its peak (week 4) the pandemic would lead to...

  3. Strategies for diversity: medical clowns in dementia care - an ethnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    R?mg?rd, Margareta; Carlson, Elisabeth; Mangrio, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background As nursing homes become increasingly diverse, dementia care needs a wider range of culturally responsive strategies for individual and collective social interactions. While previous studies conclude that medical clowns have positive effects on verbal and non verbal social interactions, research is lacking from the perspective of residents' cultural background. The aim of this study was to identify interaction strategies employed by medical clowns in culturally diverse dementia care...

  4. Brand Medications and Medicare Part D: How Eye Care Providers' Prescribing Patterns Influence Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Woodward, Maria A; Niziol, Leslie M; Lee, Paul P; De Lott, Lindsey B

    2018-03-01

    To quantify costs of eye care providers' Medicare Part D prescribing patterns for ophthalmic medications and to estimate the potential savings of generic or therapeutic drug substitutions and price negotiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Eye care providers prescribing medications through Medicare Part D in 2013. Medicare Part D 2013 prescriber public use file and summary file were used to calculate medication costs by physician specialty and drug. Savings from generic or therapeutic drug substitutions were estimated for brand drugs. The potential savings from price negotiation was estimated using drug prices negotiated by the United States Veterans Administration (USVA). Total cost of brand and generic medications prescribed by eye care providers. Eye care providers accounted for $2.4 billion in total Medicare part D prescription drug costs and generated the highest percentage of brand name medication claims compared with all other providers. Brand medications accounted for a significantly higher proportion of monthly supplies by volume, and therefore, also by total cost for eye care providers compared with all other providers (38% vs. 23% by volume, P total cost, P total cost attributable to eye care providers is driven by glaucoma medications, accounting for $1.2 billion (54% of total cost; 72% of total volume). The second costliest category, dry eye medications, was attributable mostly to a single medication, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion (Restasis, Allergan, Irvine, CA), which has no generic alternative, accounting for $371 million (17% of total cost; 4% of total volume). If generic medications were substituted for brand medications when available, $148 million would be saved (7% savings); if generic and therapeutic substitutions were made, $882 million would be saved (42% savings). If Medicare negotiated the prices for ophthalmic medications at USVA rates, $1.09 billion would be saved (53% savings). Eye care providers prescribe more brand

  5. Prospects for rebuilding primary care using the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Bruce E; Gill, James M; Antonelli, Richard C; Rich, Eugene C

    2010-05-01

    Existing research suggests that models of enhanced primary care lead to health care systems with better performance. What the research does not show is whether such an approach is feasible or likely to be effective within the U.S. health care system. Many commentators have adopted the model of the patient-centered medical home as policy shorthand to address the reinvention of primary care in the United States. We analyze potential barriers to implementing the medical home model for policy makers and practitioners. Among others, these include developing new payment models, as well as the need for up-front funding to assemble the personnel and infrastructure required by an enhanced non-visit-based primary care practice and methods to facilitate transformation of existing practices to functioning medical homes.

  6. GPs' and community pharmacists' opinions on medication management at transitions of care in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Patrick; Carroll, Hailey; Grimes, Tamasine; Galvin, Rose; McDonnell, Ronan; Boland, Fiona; McDowell, Ronald; Hughes, Carmel; Fahey, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to survey GPs and community pharmacists (CPs) in Ireland regarding current practices of medication management, specifically medication reconciliation, communication between health care providers and medication errors as patients transition in care. A national cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically to 2364 GPs, 311 GP Registrars and 2382 CPs. Multivariable associations comparing GPs to CPs were generated and content analysis of free text responses was undertaken. There was an overall response rate of 17.7% (897 respondents-554 GPs/Registrars and 343 CPs). More than 90% of GPs and CPs were positive about the effects of medication reconciliation on medication safety and adherence. Sixty per cent of GPs reported having no formal system of medication reconciliation. Communication between GPs and CPs was identified as good/very good by >90% of GPs and CPs. The majority (>80%) of both groups could clearly recall prescribing errors, following a transition of care, they had witnessed in the previous 6 months. Free text content analysis corroborated the positive relationship between GPs and CPs, a frustration with secondary care communication, with many examples given of prescribing errors. While there is enthusiasm for the benefits of medication reconciliation there are limited formal structures in primary care to support it. Challenges in relation to systems that support inter-professional communication and reduce medication errors are features of the primary/secondary care transition. There is a need for an improved medication management system. Future research should focus on the identified barriers in implementing medication reconciliation and systems that can improve it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Care coordination, the family-centered medical home, and functional disability among children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; McCormick, Marie C

    2015-01-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are at increased risk for functional disabilities. Care coordination has been shown to decrease unmet health service use but has yet been shown to improve functional status. We hypothesize that care coordination services lower the odds of functional disability for CSHCN and that this effect is greater within the context of a family-centered medical home. A secondary objective was to test the mediating effect of unmet care needs on functional disability. Our sample included children ages 0 to 17 years participating the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Care coordination, unmet needs, and disability were measured by parent report. We used logistic regression models with covariate adjustment for confounding and a mediation analysis approach for binary outcomes to assess the effect of unmet needs. There were 34,459 children in our sample. Care coordination was associated with lower odds of having a functional disability (adjusted odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.77, 0.88). This effect was greater for care coordination in the context of a medical home (adjusted odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.66, 0.76). The relationship between care coordination and functional disability was mediated by reducing unmet services. Care coordination is associated with lower odds of functional disability among CSHCN, especially when delivered in the setting of a family-centered medical home. Reducing unmet service needs mediates this effect. Our findings support a central role for coordination services in improving outcomes for vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shaping the future medical workforce: take care with selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Phillippa; Shulruf, Boaz

    2013-12-01

    Medical school selection is a first step in developing a general practice workforce. To determine the relationship between medical school selection scores and intention to pursue a career in general practice. A longitudinal cohort study of students selected in 2006 and 2007 for The University of Auckland medical programme, who completed an exit survey on career intentions. Students are ranked for selection into year 2 of a six-year programme by combining grade point average from prior university achievement (60%), interview (25%) and Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) scores (15%). The main outcome measure was level of interest in general practice at exit. Logistic regression assessed whether any demographic variables or admission scores predicted a 'strong' interest in general practice. None of interview scores, grade point average, age, gender, or entry pathway predicted a 'strong' interest in general practice. Only UMAT scores differentiated between those with a 'strong' interest versus those with 'some' or 'no' interest, but in an inverse fashion. The best predictor of a 'strong' interest in general practice was a low UMAT score of between 45 and 55 on all three UMAT sections (OR 3.37, p=0.020). Yet, the academic scores at entry of students with these UMAT scores were not lower than those of their classmates. Setting inappropriately high cut-points for medical school selection may exclude applicants with a propensity for general practice. These findings support the use of a wider lens through which to view medical school selection tools.

  9. An Expanded Conceptual Framework of Medical Students' Primary Care Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarrwaller, Eva; Audétat, Marie-Claude; Sommer, Johanna; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Bischoff, Thomas; Nendaz, Mathieu; Baroffio, Anne; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2017-11-01

    In many countries, the number of graduating medical students pursuing a primary care career does not meet demand. These countries face primary care physician shortages. Students' career choices have been widely studied, yet many aspects of this process remain unclear. Conceptual models are useful to plan research and educational interventions in such complex systems.The authors developed a framework of primary care career choice in undergraduate medical education, which expands on previously published models. They used a group-based, iterative approach to find the best way to represent the vast array of influences identified in previous studies, including in a recent systematic review of the literature on interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing a primary care career. In their framework, students enter medical school with their personal characteristics and initial interest in primary care. They complete a process of career decision making, which is subject to multiple interacting influences, both within and outside medical school, throughout their medical education. These influences are stratified into four systems-microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem-which represent different levels of interaction with students' career choices.This expanded framework provides an updated model to help understand the multiple factors that influence medical students' career choices. It offers a guide for the development of new interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing primary care careers and for further research to better understand the variety of processes involved in this decision.

  10. Criteria of medical care evaluation in daily in-patient department in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozdova T.U.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to work out criteria for the evaluation of medical care quality. Materials included 386 medical cards of daily in-patients, 216 medical cards of in-patients; 602 cards of analysis of case histories; 4 computer data bases. Methods of mathematical statistics were successfully used in the study. The comparative method of data analysis was applied to the research work. Intensity of medical care in values from 0,1 to 0,5 conditional units corresponded to requirements of criterion of estimation of medical care quality. Parameters of medicinal treatment were close to the standards of treatment in interval from 44,4 to 100%, as criterion of quality of medical care. Specific weight of apparatus and instrumental researches constituted an interval from 7, 4% to 22, 6%, forming corresponding criterion. Interval of effectiveness according to standards of consultations is from 0, 26 to 1, 04 conditional units. In conclusion the article stated that the characteristics for criteria to evaluate medical care in daily in-patient departments were worked out on the basis of indices obtained during the research work

  11. Medical Students' Death Anxiety: Severity and Association With Psychological Health and Attitudes Toward Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...

  13. Training on handover of patient care within UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much evidence exists to demonstrate that poor handover can directly impact patient safety. There have been calls for formal education on handover, but evidence to guide intervention design and implementation is limited. It is unclear how undergraduate medical schools are tackling this issue and what barrier or facilitators exist to handover education. We set out to determine curriculum objectives, teaching and assessment methods, as well as institutional attitudes towards handover within UK medical schools. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study design was used. A locally developed online questionnaire survey was sent to all UK Medical Schools, after piloting. Descriptive statistics were calculated for closed-ended responses, and free text responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach, with constant comparison taking place through several stages of analysis. Results: Fifty percent of UK medical schools took part in the study. Nine schools (56% reported having curriculum outcomes for handover. Significant variations in the teaching and assessments employed were found. Qualitative analysis yielded four key themes: the importance of handover as an education issue, when to educate on handover, the need for further provision of teaching and the need for validated assessment tools to support handover education. Conclusions: Whilst undergraduate medical schools recognised handover as an important education issue, they do not feel they should have the ultimate responsibility for training in this area and as such are responding in varying ways. Undergraduate medical educators should seek to reach consensus as to the extent of provision they will offer. Weaknesses in the literature regarding how to design such education have exacerbated the problem, but the contemporaneous and growing published evidence base should be employed by educators to address this issue.

  14. Medical Students' Personal Qualities and Values as Correlates of Primary Care Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    2004-01-01

    Medical schools must use selection methods that validly measure applicants' noncognitive qualities, but primary-care (PC) schools have a particular need. This study correlated entering students' personality and values scores with their professed interest in PC. 93 medical students completed instruments assessing personality (16PF & PSP), values,…

  15. Supervising Family Therapy Trainees in Primary Care Medical Settings: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd M.; Patterson, Jo Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify and describe four essential skills for effective supervision of family therapy trainees in primary care medical settings. The supervision skills described include: (1) Understand medical culture; (2) Locate the trainee in the treatment system; (3) Investigate the biological/health issues; and (4) Be…

  16. QUANTITATIVE СHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND INTEGRATED MEDICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2015-05-01

    i mportant elements of state regulation of the pharmaceutical sector health. For the first time creation of two information systems: integrated medication management infor mation system and integrated health care system in an integrated medical infor mation area, operating based on th e principle of complementarity was justified. Global and technological coefficients of these systems’ functioning were introduced.

  17. Medical Schools in the Era of Managed Care: An Interview with Arnold Relman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1999

    1999-01-01

    An interview with the former editor of "The New England Journal of Medicine" examines the impact on medical education of corporatization of the health-care system, including pressures to see more patients, less time spent with each patient, financial pressures limiting medical research, issues related to tenure, and concerns that young doctors are…

  18. Prescribing of pain medication in palliative care: a survey in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, S.D.; Deliens, L.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Schellevis, F.; Willems, D.L.; Wal, G. van der; Eijk, J.T.M. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine what pain and adjuvant medication is prescribed in palliative care patients at home in The Netherlands. METHODS: In a nationwide, representative, prospective study in general practice in The Netherlands, prescribed medication was registered in 95 general practices with a listed

  19. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  20. CONTROVERSY AND CONFLICTS DUE TO IMPROPER MEDICAL CARE AND LEGAL PRACTICE OF THEIR RESOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Perepechina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the statistical data on the Russian Federation, showing how often controversy and conflicts due to improper medical care occurs in medical practice, as well as what are the ways to resolve them.

  1. Prescribing of pain medication in palliative care. A survey in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, Sander D.; Deliens, Luc; Zuurmond, Wouter W. A.; Schellevis, François G.; Willems, Dick L.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van Eijk, Jacques Th M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine what pain and adjuvant medication is prescribed in palliative care patients at home in The Netherlands. Methods In a nationwide, representative, prospective study in general practice in The Netherlands, prescribed medication was registered in 95 general practices with a listed

  2. Medical negligence. An overview of legal theory and neurosurgical practice: duty of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicholas V

    2014-04-01

    A working knowledge of the legal principles of medical negligence is helpful to neurosurgeons. It helps them to act in a "reasonable, responsible and logical" manner, that is a practice that is consistent with the surgical practice of their peers. This article will review and explain the relevant medical law in relation to duty of care with illustrative neurosurgical cases.

  3. A positive deviance approach to understanding key features to improving diabetes care in the medical home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, R.A.; Friedberg, M.W.; Miller-Day, M.; Cronholm, P.F.; Adelman, A.; Schneider, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The medical home has gained national attention as a model to reorganize primary care to improve health outcomes. Pennsylvania has undertaken one of the largest state-based, multipayer medical home pilot projects. We used a positive deviance approach to identify and compare factors driving

  4. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  5. [work motivation -- assessment instruments and their relevance for medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Rolf G; Ranft, Andreas; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2005-11-01

    The relevance of work motivation for medical research and healthcare, in particular rehabilitation, is described. Four diagnostic instruments in the German language are introduced which can assess work motivation using a scale system: AVEM, JDS, LMI and FBTM. Their possible application and potential usage for the clinical area are discussed. Apart from the FBTM, none of these instruments can be directly used as a general instrument in a normal medical clinical setting. Finally, a current model for work motivation (compensatory model of work motivation and volition) is presented that contains basis concepts, which are judged as important for future research questions concerning the development of motivation diagnostic instruments.

  6. Seniors managing multiple medications: using mixed methods to view the home care safety lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariella; Macdonald, Marilyn; Marck, Patricia; Toon, Lynn; Griffin, Melissa; Easty, Tony; Fraser, Kimberly; MacKinnon, Neil; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lang, Eddy; Goodwin, Sharon

    2015-12-12

    Patient safety is a national and international priority with medication safety earmarked as both a prevalent and high-risk area of concern. To date, medication safety research has focused overwhelmingly on institutional based care provided by paid healthcare professionals, which often has little applicability to the home care setting. This critical gap in our current understanding of medication safety in the home care sector is particularly evident with the elderly who often manage more than one chronic illness and a complex palette of medications, along with other care needs. This study addresses the medication management issues faced by seniors with chronic illnesses, their family, caregivers, and paid providers within Canadian publicly funded home care programs in Alberta (AB), Ontario (ON), Quebec (QC) and Nova Scotia (NS). Informed by a socio-ecological perspective, this study utilized Interpretive Description (ID) methodology and participatory photographic methods to capture and analyze a range of visual and textual data. Three successive phases of data collection and analysis were conducted in a concurrent, iterative fashion in eight urban and/or rural households in each province. A total of 94 participants (i.e., seniors receiving home care services, their family/caregivers, and paid providers) were interviewed individually. In addition, 69 providers took part in focus groups. Analysis was iterative and concurrent with data collection in that each interview was compared with subsequent interviews for converging as well as diverging patterns. Six patterns were identified that provide a rich portrayal of the complexity of medication management safety in home care: vulnerabilities that impact the safe management and storage of medication, sustaining adequate supports, degrees of shared accountability for care, systems of variable effectiveness, poly-literacy required to navigate the system, and systemic challenges to maintaining medication safety in the home

  7. Quality and correlates of medical record documentation in the ambulatory care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steven R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documentation in the medical record facilitates the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Few studies have assessed the quality of outpatient medical record documentation, and to the authors' knowledge, none has conclusively determined the correlates of chart documentation. We therefore undertook the present study to measure the rates of documentation of quality of care measures in an outpatient primary care practice setting that utilizes an electronic medical record. Methods We reviewed electronic medical records from 834 patients receiving care from 167 physicians (117 internists and 50 pediatricians at 14 sites of a multi-specialty medical group in Massachusetts. We abstracted information for five measures of medical record documentation quality: smoking history, medications, drug allergies, compliance with screening guidelines, and immunizations. From other sources we determined physicians' specialty, gender, year of medical school graduation, and self-reported time spent teaching and in patient care. Results Among internists, unadjusted rates of documentation were 96.2% for immunizations, 91.6% for medications, 88% for compliance with screening guidelines, 61.6% for drug allergies, 37.8% for smoking history. Among pediatricians, rates were 100% for immunizations, 84.8% for medications, 90.8% for compliance with screening guidelines, 50.4% for drug allergies, and 20.4% for smoking history. While certain physician and patient characteristics correlated with some measures of documentation quality, documentation varied depending on the measure. For example, female internists were more likely than male internists to document smoking history (odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 – 2.83 but were less likely to document drug allergies (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 – 0.75. Conclusions Medical record documentation varied depending on the measure, with room for improvement in most domains. A variety of

  8. A Study to Determine the Correlation between Continuity of Care and Patient Medication Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    U (III FILE ’Y TO DETERMINE THE CORRELATION BETWEEN CONTINUITY OF CARE AND PATIENT MEDICATION COMPLIANCE IA Graduate Research Project Submitted to...43 APPENDIX A. PATIENT MEDICATION COMPLIANCE QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . 45 B. COMPUTER CODED INPUT FORMAT . . . . . . . ...... 48 C. RESEARCH DATA...and that adhered to by the patient . This failure to comply with medical recommendations results in a waste of health resources, frustration to the

  9. Evaluation of a hybrid paper-electronic medication management system at a residential aged care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rohan A; Lee, Cik Yin; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were to investigate discrepancies between general practitioners' paper medication orders and pharmacy-prepared electronic medication administration charts, back-up paper charts and dose-administration aids, as well as delays between prescribing, charting and administration, at a 90-bed residential aged care facility that used a hybrid paper-electronic medication management system. Methods A cross-sectional audit of medication orders, medication charts and dose-administration aids was performed to identify discrepancies. In addition, a retrospective audit was performed of delays between prescribing and availability of an updated electronic medication administration chart. Medication administration records were reviewed retrospectively to determine whether discrepancies and delays led to medication administration errors. Results Medication records for 88 residents (mean age 86 years) were audited. Residents were prescribed a median of eight regular medicines (interquartile range 5-12). One hundred and twenty-five discrepancies were identified. Forty-seven discrepancies, affecting 21 (24%) residents, led to a medication administration error. The most common discrepancies were medicine omission (44.0%) and extra medicine (19.2%). Delays from when medicines were prescribed to when they appeared on the electronic medication administration chart ranged from 18min to 98h. On nine occasions (for 10% of residents) the delay contributed to missed doses, usually antibiotics. Conclusion Medication discrepancies and delays were common. Improved systems for managing medication orders and charts are needed. What is known about the topic? Hybrid paper-electronic medication management systems, in which prescribers' orders are transcribed into an electronic system by pharmacy technicians and pharmacists to create medication administration charts, are increasingly replacing paper-based medication management systems in Australian residential aged care

  10. [Creation of a medical work station for use in community-based care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Samuel; Desauty, Fabrice; Lamache, Christophe; Lefort, Hugues

    2017-03-01

    In community-based care, the teams must adapt to the environment and perform a number of technical procedures. Foldable medical equipment has been developed and patented, enabling the care provision to approach hospital standards and improving working conditions in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire;

  12. Medical Service Utilization among Youth with School-Identified Disabilities in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…

  13. Evidence-Based Quality Improvement: A recipe for improving medication safety and handover of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulers, M.

    2016-01-01

    In healthcare we strive to provide the highest possible quality of care. Even though healthcare professionals work together with the intention to provide safe care, medical errors still threaten patient safety. Patient safety has received considerable attention since the beginning of this century,

  14. Patient Care Physician Supply and Requirements: Testing COGME Recommendations. Council on Graduate Medical Education, Eighth Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Graduate Medical Education.

    This report reassesses recommendations made by the Council on Graduate Medical Education in earlier reports which had, beginning in 1992, addressed the problems of physician oversupply. In this report physician supply and requirements are examined in the context of a health care system increasingly dominated by managed care. Patterns of physician…

  15. Workplace Violence and Safety Issues in Long-Term Medical Care Facilities: Nurses' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole K. Fasanya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: WPV is an epidemic problem that affects all health-care professionals. The findings of this study could help long-term medical care facilities' management identify the areas to focus on mitigating, controlling, and/or eliminating incidents of WPV.

  16. Medical Care Expenditure in Suicides From Non-illness-related Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoo Sohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several epidemiological studies on medical care utilization prior to suicide have considered the motivation of suicide, but focused on the influence of physical illnesses. Medical care expenditure in suicide completers with non-illness-related causes has not been investigated. Methods: Suicides motivated by non-illness-related factors were identified using the investigator’s note from the National Police Agency, which was then linked to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. We investigated the medical care expenditures of cases one year prior to committing suicide and conducted a case-control study using conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender, area of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 4515 suicides motivated by non-illness-related causes, medical care expenditures increased in only the last 3 months prior to suicide in the adolescent group. In the younger group, the proportion of total medical expenditure for external injuries was higher than that in the older groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant associations with being a suicide completer and having a rural residence, low socioeconomic status, and high medical care expenditure. After stratification into the four age groups, a significant positive association with medical care expenditures and being a suicide completer was found in the adolescent and young adult groups, but no significant results were found in the elderly groups for both men and women. Conclusions: Younger adults who committed suicide motivated by non-illness-related causes had a higher proportion of external injuries and more medical care expenditures than their controls did. This reinforces the notion that suicide prevention strategies for young people with suicidal risk factors are needed.

  17. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity.

  18. Medical Care of the Homeless: An American and International Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Sheryl B; Nash, Robertson

    2017-03-01

    Homeless persons die significantly younger than their housed counterparts. In many cases, relatively straightforward primary care issues escalate into life-threatening, expensive emergencies. Poor health outcomes driven by negative interactions between comorbid symptoms meet the definition of a health syndemic in this population. Successful primary care of patients struggling with homelessness may result in long-term lifesaving measures along with decreased expenditure to hospital systems. This primary prevention requires patience, creativity, and acknowledgment that the source of many confounders may lay outside the control of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Medical futility and end-of-life care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... It is based on the probability of a treatment not having the desired effect ... as empathetic participants in end-of-life decision-making is underscored. .... growing awareness of the limits of medical science's propensity to cure ...

  20. Organisational measures and medical care after indicents involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, W.

    1980-01-01

    West Germany has emergency plans for all kinds of catastrophes, from conventional causes to nuclear accidents. Emergency provisions refer to organisational measures, technical equipment, and medical equipment for the treatment of radiation injuries. These provisions require constant training of responsible persons. Emergency plans and provisions in the Federal Republic of Germany have not been optimized yet. (DG) [de

  1. Medical Informatics Impact of Information Society in Health Care Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2005), s. 269-274 ISSN 1335-2393. [YBERC 2005. Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers Conference. Stará Lesná, 13.07.2005-15.07.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : medical informatics * information society * telemedicine * education * research and development Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  2. Health Care Consumer's Perception of the Electronic Medical Record

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A structured questionnaire was developed, validated and utilized in this quantitative research project. Quantitative data were collected ... Electronic Medical Records (EMR), as a health information technology innovation, has ... EMR will provide a highly effective, reliable, secure, and innovative information system.

  3. Commentary - Cancer and palliative care | Chan | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'The rise of cancer in less affluent countries is an impending disaster' Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (4) 2008: pp. 108-108. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v20i4.10978 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  4. Palliative care in Salima district | Finch | Malawi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  5. Commentary - Cancer and palliative care | Chan | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  6. Medical Abortion in Primary Care : Pitfalls and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A. A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe jive pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained

  7. Elder Specialists: Psychosocial Aspects of Medical Education in Geriatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…

  8. Immigrant Families, Children With Special Health Care Needs, and the Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kristin; Choi, Hwajung; Davis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant children in the United States historically experience lower-quality health care. Such disparities areconcerning for immigrant children with special health care needs (CSHCNs). Our study assesses the medical home presence for CSHCN by immigrant family type and evaluates which medical home components are associated with disparities. We used the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health, comparing the prevalence and odds of a parent-reported medical home and 5 specific medical home components by immigrant family types using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Foreign-born CSHCNs were less likely than CSHCNs with US-born parents to have a medical home (adjusted odds ratio = 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.85). The adjusted prevalence of having a medical home was 28% among foreign-born CSHCNs (P special needs also had a lower odds of a medical home, compared with children with US-born parents (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 0.46-0.83). The medical home component most frequently absent for immigrant children without special needs and CSHCNs with a foreign-born parent was family-centered care. In contrast, foreign-born CSHCNs most often lacked care coordination (adjusted prevalence = 37% versus 56% for CSHCNs with US-born parents; P < .05). Disparities in medical home presence for CSHCNs appear to be exacerbated by immigrant family type. Efforts focused on improving family-centered care and care coordination may provide the greatest benefit for immigrant CSHCNs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Medical futility and end-of-life care | Sidler | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treating physician is responsible for guiding this process by demonstrating sensitivity and compassion, respecting the values of patients, their families and the medical staff. The need for training to equip medical staff to take responsibility as empathetic participants in end-of-life decision-making is underscored. South African ...

  10. Primary medical care and reductions in addiction severity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J; Larson, Mary Jo; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether receipt of primary medical care can lead to improved outcomes for adults with addictions. We studied a prospective cohort of adults enrolled in a randomized trial to improve linkage with primary medical care. Subjects at a residential detoxification unit with alcohol, heroin or cocaine as a substance of choice, and no primary medical care were enrolled. Receipt of primary medical care was assessed over 2 years. Outcomes included (1) alcohol severity, (2) drug severity and (3) any substance use. For the 391 subjects, receipt of primary care (> or = 2 visits) was associated with a lower odds of drug use or alcohol intoxication (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.69, 2 d.f. chi(2)P = 0.002). For 248 subjects with alcohol as a substance of choice, alcohol severity was lower in those who received primary care [predicted mean Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scores for those reporting > or = 2, 1 and 0 visits, respectively, 0.30, 0.26 and 0.34, P = 0.04]. For 300 subjects with heroin or cocaine as a substance of choice, drug severity was lower in those who received primary care (predicted mean ASI drug scores for those reporting > or = 2, 1 and 0 visits, respectively, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.16, P = 0.01). Receipt of primary medical care is associated with improved addiction severity. These results support efforts to link patients with addictions to primary medical care services.

  11. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Patient Care: Medical Students' Preparedness and Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William; Brenman, Stephanie; Paradis, Elise; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenon: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant barriers in accessing appropriate and comprehensive medical care. Medical students' level of preparedness and comfort caring for LGBT patients is unknown. An online questionnaire (2009-2010) was distributed to students (n = 9,522) at 176 allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States, followed by focus groups (2010) with students (n = 35) at five medical schools. The objective of this study was to characterize LGBT-related medical curricula, to determine medical students' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content, and to evaluate their comfort and preparedness in caring for LGBT patients. Of 9,522 survey respondents, 4,262 from 170 schools were included in the final analysis. Most medical students (2,866/4,262; 67.3%) evaluated their LGBT-related curriculum as "fair" or worse. Students most often felt prepared addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 3,254/4,147; 78.5%) and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (2,851/4,136; 68.9%). They felt least prepared discussing sex reassignment surgery (1,061/4,070; 26.1%) and gender transitioning (1,141/4,068; 28.0%). Medical education helped 62.6% (2,669/4,262) of students feel "more prepared" and 46.3% (1,972/4,262) of students feel "more comfortable" to care for LGBT patients. Four focus group sessions with 29 students were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis suggested students have significant concerns in addressing certain aspects of LGBT health, specifically with transgender patients. Insights: Medical students thought LGBT-specific curricula could be improved, consistent with the findings from a survey of deans of medical education. They felt comfortable, but not fully prepared, to care for LGBT patients. Increasing curricular coverage of LGBT-related topics is indicated with emphasis on exposing students to LGBT patients in clinical settings.

  12. Quality in health care and globalization of health services: accreditation and regulatory oversight of medical tourism companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh G

    2011-02-01

    Patients are crossing national borders in search of affordable and timely health care. Many medical tourism companies are now involved in organizing cross-border health services. Despite the rapid expansion of the medical tourism industry, few standards exist to ensure that these businesses organize high-quality, competent international health care. Addressing the regulatory vacuum, 10 standards are proposed as a framework for regulating the medical tourism industry. Medical tourism companies should have to undergo accreditation review. Care should be arranged only at accredited international health-care facilities. Standards should be established to ensure that clients of medical tourism companies make informed choices. Continuity of care needs to become an integral feature of cross-border care. Restrictions should be placed on the use of waiver of liability forms by medical tourism companies. Medical tourism companies must ensure that they conform to relevant legislation governing privacy and confidentiality of patient information. Restrictions must be placed on the types of health services marketed by medical tourism companies. Representatives of medical tourism agencies should have to undergo training and certification. Medical travel insurance and medical complications insurance should be included in the health-care plans of patients traveling for care. To protect clients from financial losses, medical tourism companies should be mandated to contribute to compensation funds. Establishing high standards for the operation of medical tourism companies should reduce risks facing patients when they travel abroad for health care.

  13. How sequestration cuts affect primary care physicians and graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bindiya; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time.

  14. medical tourism in nigeria: challenges and remedies to health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    Jun 1, 2018 ... distinct services namely: healthcare and tourism. .... Despite Nigeria‟s strategic position as the giant of Africa and her position in the .... adapted, the lost glory of the country‟s health care system would be restored and the.

  15. Medical Information Management System (MIMS) CareWindows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiphout, R. M.; Schiffman, R. M.; Christner, M. F.; Ward, R.; Purves, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    The demonstration of MIMS/CareWindows will include: (1) a review of the application environment and development history, (2) a demonstration of a very large, comprehensive clinical information system with a cost effective graphic user server and communications interface. PMID:1807755

  16. The prescription of addiction medications after implementation of chronic care management for substance dependence in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Woo; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Kim, Theresa W.; Fitzgerald, Anna; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    People with addictive disorders commonly do not receive efficacious medications. Chronic care management (CCM) is designed to facilitate delivery of effective therapies. Using data from the CCM group in a trial testing its effectiveness for addiction (n=282), we examined factors associated with the prescription of addiction medications. Among participants with alcohol dependence, 17% (95%CI 12.0–22.1%) were prescribed alcohol dependence medications. Among those with drug dependence, 9% (95%CI 5.5–12.6%) were prescribed drug dependence medications. Among those with opioids as a substance of choice, 15% (95%CI 9.3–20.9%) were prescribed opioid agonist therapy. In contrast, psychiatric medications were prescribed to 64% (95%CI 58.2–69.4%). Absence of co-morbid drug dependence was associated with prescription of alcohol dependence medications. Lower alcohol addiction severity and recent opioid use were associated with prescription of drug dependence medications. Better understanding of infrequent prescription of addiction medications, despite a supportive clinical setting, might inform optimal approaches to delivering addiction medications. PMID:25524751

  17. Medication prescribing errors in the medical intensive care unit of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Oumer; Melkie, Addisu; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2015-09-16

    Medication errors (MEs) are important problems in all hospitalized populations, especially in intensive care unit (ICU). Little is known about the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of hospitals in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital using retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient cards and medication charts. About 220 patient charts were reviewed with a total of 1311 patient-days, and 882 prescription episodes. 359 MEs were detected; with prevalence of 40 per 100 orders. Common prescribing errors were omission errors 154 (42.89%), 101 (28.13%) wrong combination, 48 (13.37%) wrong abbreviation, 30 (8.36%) wrong dose, wrong frequency 18 (5.01%) and wrong indications 8 (2.23%). The present study shows that medication errors are common in medical ICU of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. These results suggest future targets of prevention strategies to reduce the rate of medication error.

  18. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  19. Medical Informatics: An Essential Tool for Health Sciences Research in Acute Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU. We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms – “sniffers”, administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  20. Public policy and medical tourism: ethical implications for the Egyptian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Egypt's medical tourism industry has been experiencing tremendous growth. However, Egypt continues to lack the necessary investment in its public health system to effectively care for its population. Current policy and the emergence of medical tourism have led to unequal health care access, resulting in high a prevalence of infectious diseases and lack of resources for its most vulnerable populations. As a new Egyptian government emerges, it is important for policymakers to understand the critical issues and ethical concerns of existing health policy. This understanding may be used to propose new policy that more effectively allocates to care for Egypt's population.

  1. A spoonful of care ethics: The challenges of enriching medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reenen, Eva; van Nistelrooij, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Nursing Ethics has featured several discussions on what good care comprises and how to achieve good care practices. We should "nurse" ethics by continuously reflecting on the way we "do" ethics, which is what care ethicists have been doing over the past few decades and continue to do so. Ethics is not limited to nursing but extends to all caring professions. In 2011, Elin Martinsen argued in this journal that care should be included as a core concept in medical ethical terminology because of "the harm to which patients may be exposed owing to a lack of care in the clinical encounter," specifically between doctors and patients. However, Martinsen leaves the didactical challenges arising from such a venture open for further enquiry. In this article, we explore the challenges arising from implementing care-ethical insights into medical education. Medical education in the Netherlands is investigated through a "care-ethical lens". This means exploring the possibility of enriching medical education with care-ethical insights, while at the same time discovering possible challenges emerging from such an undertaking. Participants and research context: This paper has been written from the academic context of a master in care ethics and policy. Ethical considerations: We have tried to be fair and respectful to the authors discussed and take a neutral stance towards the findings portrayed. Several challenges are identified, which we narrow down to two types: didactical and non-didactical. In order to overcome these challenges, we must not underestimate the possible resistance to a paradigm shift. Our efforts should mainly target the learning that takes place in the clinical phases of medical training and should be accompanied by the creation of awareness in healthcare practice.

  2. Teaching advance care planning to medical students with a computer-based decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Levi, Benjamin H

    2011-03-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n = 60) outperformed the Standard Group (n = 61) in terms of students' knowledge (p satisfaction with their learning experience (p student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients.

  3. Writing, self-reflection, and medical school performance: the Human Context of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Reamy, Brian V; Anderson, Denise; Olsen, Cara; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J; Auster, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Finding ways to improve communication and self-reflection skills is an important element of medical education and continuing professional development. This study examines the relationship between self-reflection and educational outcomes. We correlate performance in a preclinical course that focuses on self-reflection as it relates to contextual elements of patient care (Human Context of Health Care), with educational measures such as overall grade point average, clinical clerkship scores, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. Student performance in Human Context of Health Care correlated with MCAT-Verbal scores, MCAT-writing sample scores, clerkship grades, and overall medical school grade point average (R = 0.3; p self-reflection skills are often neglected in undergraduate medical curricula. Our findings suggest that these skills are important and correlate with recognized long-term educational outcomes.

  4. The impact of medical technology on sense of security in the palliative home care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Berit; Sandgren, Anna

    2017-03-02

    The increase in the use of medical devices in palliative home care requires that patients and next-of-kin feel secure. Therefore, the aim was to describe medical technology's impact on the sense of security for patients, next-of-kin and district nurses. Deductive content analysis was conducted on data from three previous studies, using the theoretical framework 'palliative home care as a secure base'. The use of medical technology was shown to have an impact on the sense of security for all involved. A sense of control was promoted by trust in staff and their competence in managing the technology, which was linked to continuity. Inner peace and being in comfort implied effective symptom relief facilitated by pain pumps and being relieved of responsibility. Health care professionals need to have practical knowledge about medical technology, but at the same time have an awareness of how to create and maintain a sense of security.

  5. Evolving paradigm of illnesses presented to medical Intensive Care Unit in body builders: Cases from tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sunil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature. With the rise in number of persons adopting this activity, there is evolving paradigm of illnesses presented to intensive care in this population subset. Strict adherence to details of bodybuilding and avoidance of unsupervised medications are essential to prevent untoward effects.

  6. Using attachment theory in medical settings: implications for primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; Newman, Caroline R

    2012-02-01

    Mental health researchers, clinicians and clinical psychologists have long considered a good provider-patient relationship to be an important factor for positive treatment outcomes in a range of therapeutic settings. However, primary care physicians have been slow to consider how attachment theory may be used in the context of patient care in medical settings. In the current article, John Bowlby's attachment theory and proposed attachment styles are proffered as a framework to better understand patient behaviors, patient communication styles with physicians and the physician-patient relationship in medical settings. The authors recommend how primary care physicians and other health care providers can translate attachment theory to enhance practice behaviors and health-related communications in medical settings.

  7. The physician-administrator as patient: distinctive aspects of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2011-01-01

    This article examines distinctive aspects of medical care experienced by a 55-year-old hospitalized for quintuple coronary artery bypass surgery who was also a senior physician-administrator (chief of gastroenterology) at the same hospital. The article describes eight distinctive aspects of administrator-physicians as patients, including special patient treatment; exalted patient expectations by hospital personnel; patient suppression of emotions; patient denial; self-doctoring; job stress contributing to disease; self-sacrifice to achieve better health; and rational medical decisions when not under stress. Health-care workers should recognize how these distinctive aspects of medical care and behavior affect administrator-physicians as patients, in order to mitigate their negative effects, potentiate their positive effects, and optimize the care of these patients.

  8. Medical Care in a Free Clinic: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Patient Experience, Incentives, and Barriers to Optimal Medical Care with Consideration of a Facility Fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birs, Antoinette; Liu, Xinwei; Nash, Bee; Sullivan, Sara; Garris, Stephanie; Hardy, Marvin; Lee, Michael; Simms-Cendan, Judith; Pasarica, Magdalena

    2016-02-19

    Free and charitable clinics are important contributors to the health of the United States population. Recently, funding for these clinics has been declining, and it is, therefore, useful to identify what qualities patients value the most in clinics in an effort to allocate funding wisely. In order to identify targets and incentives for improvement of patients' health, we performed a comprehensive analysis of patients' experience at a free clinic by analyzing a patient survey (N=94). The survey also assessed patient opinions of a small facility fee, which could be used to offset the decrease in funds. Interestingly, our patients believed it is appropriate to be charged a facility fee (78%) because it increases involvement in their care (r = 0.69, p fee. Barriers include affordable housing, transportation, medication, and accessible information. In order to improve medical care in the uninsured population, our study suggested that we need to: 1) offer continuity of medical care; 2) offer affordable preventive health screenings; 3) support affordable transportation, housing, and medications; and 4) consider including a facility fee.

  9. Safety in home care: A research protocol for studying medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easty Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is an ongoing global priority, with medication safety considered a prevalent, high-risk area of concern. Yet, we have little understanding of the supports and barriers to safe medication management in the Canadian home care environment. There is a clear need to engage the providers and recipients of care in studying and improving medication safety with collaborative approaches to exploring the nature and safety of medication management in home care. Methods A socio-ecological perspective on health and health systems drives our iterative qualitative study on medication safety with elderly home care clients, family members and other informal caregivers, and home care providers. As we purposively sample across four Canadian provinces: Alberta (AB, Ontario (ON, Quebec (QC and Nova Scotia (NS, we will collect textual and visual data through home-based interviews, participant-led photo walkabouts of the home, and photo elicitation sessions at clients' kitchen tables. Using successive rounds of interpretive description and human factors engineering analyses, we will generate robust descriptions of managing medication at home within each provincial sample and across the four-province group. We will validate our initial interpretations through photo elicitation focus groups with home care providers in each province to develop a refined description of the phenomenon that can inform future decision-making, quality improvement efforts, and research. Discussion The application of interpretive and human factors lenses to the visual and textual data is expected to yield findings that advance our understanding of the issues, challenges, and risk-mitigating strategies related to medication safety in home care. The images are powerful knowledge translation tools for sharing what we learn with participants, decision makers, other healthcare audiences, and the public. In addition, participants engage in knowledge exchange

  10. Use of information technology for medication management in residential care facilities: correlates of facility characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Powell, M Paige; Kim, Jungyoon; Shiyanbola, Olayinka; Zhu, He; Shiyanbola, Oyewale

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of information technology in resolving medication problems has been well documented. Long-term care settings such as residential care facilities (RCFs) may see the benefits of using such technologies in addressing the problem of medication errors among their resident population, who are usually older and have numerous chronic conditions. The aim of this study was two-fold: to examine the extent of use of Electronic Medication Management (EMM) in RCFs and to analyze the organizational factors associated with the use of EMM functionalities in RCFs. Data on RCFs were obtained from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The association between facility, director and staff, and resident characteristics of RCFs and adoption of four EMM functionalities was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The four EMM functionalities included were maintaining lists of medications, ordering for prescriptions, maintaining active medication allergy lists, and warning of drug interactions or contraindications. About 12% of the RCFs adopted all four EMM functionalities. Additionally, maintaining lists of medications had the highest adoption rate (34.5%), followed by maintaining active medication allergy lists (31.6%), ordering for prescriptions (19.7%), and warning of drug interactions or contraindications (17.9%). Facility size and ownership status were significantly associated with adoption of all four EMM functionalities. Medicaid certification status, facility director's age, education and license status, and the use of personal care aides in the RCF were significantly associated with the adoption of some of the EMM functionalities. EMM is expected to improve the quality of care and patient safety in long-term care facilities including RCFs. The extent of adoption of the four EMM functionalities is relatively low in RCFs. Some RCFs may strategize to use these functionalities to cater to the increasing demands from the market and also to

  11. Facilitators and barriers to initiating change in medical intensive care unit survivors with alcohol use disorders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brendan J; Jones, Jacqueline; Cook, Paul; Tian, Karen; Moss, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are collectively referred to as alcohol use disorders (AUD). An AUD is present in up to one third of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to understand the barriers and facilitators to change in ICU survivors with an AUD to provide a foundation upon which to tailor alcohol-related interventions. We used a qualitative approach with a broad constructivist framework, conducting semistructured interviews in medical ICU survivors with an AUD. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 2 medical ICUs and were excluded if they refused participation, were unable to participate, or did not speak English. Digitally recorded and professionally transcribed interviews were analyzed using a general inductive approach and grouped into themes. Nineteen patients were included, with an average age of 51 (interquartile range, 36-51) years and an average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 9 (interquartile range, 5-13); 68% were white, 74% were male, and the most common reason for admission was alcohol withdrawal (n=8). We identified 5 facilitators of change: empathy of the inpatient health care environment, recognition of accumulating problems, religion, pressure from others to stop drinking, and trigger events. We identified 3 barriers to change: missed opportunities, psychiatric comorbidity, and cognitive dysfunction. Social networks were identified as either a barrier or facilitator to change depending on the specific context. Alcohol-related interventions to motivate and sustain behavior change could be tailored to ICU survivors by accounting for unique barriers and facilitators. © 2013.

  12. Parental Perceptions of Family Centered Care in Medical Homes of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Long, Toby M; Farber, Jon Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Life course theory sets the framework for strong inclusion of family centered care (FCC) in quality medical homes of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (CNDD). The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of families with their experiences of FCC in medical homes for CNDD. Using a structured questionnaire, the Family-Centered Care Self-Assessment Tool developed by Family Voices, this study surveyed 122 parents of CNDD in a large urban area during 2010-2012. Data collected information on FCC in the provision of primary health care services for CNDD and focused on family-provider partnerships, care setting practices and policies, and community services. Frequency analysis classified participants' responses as strengths in the "most of the time" range, and weaknesses in the "never" range. Only 31 % of parents were satisfied with the primary health care their CNDD received. Based on an accepted definition of medical home services, 16 % of parents reported their CNDD had most aspects of a medical home, 64 % had some, and 20 % had none. Strengths in FCC were primarily evident in the family-provider partnership and care settings when focused on meeting the medical care needs of the child. Weaknesses in FCC were noted in meeting the needs of families, coordination, follow-up, and support with community resources. Improvements in key pediatric health care strategies for CNDD are recommended. CNDD and their families have multifaceted needs that require strong partnerships among parents, providers, and communities. Quality medical homes must include FCC and valued partnerships with diverse families and community-based providers.

  13. The ethics of medical tourism: from the United Kingdom to India seeking medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Is the practice of UK patients traveling to India as medical tourists morally justified? This article addresses that question by examining three ethically relevant issues. First, the key factor motivating citizens of the United Kingdom to seek medical treatment in India is identified and analyzed. Second, the life prospects of the majority of the citizens of the two nations are compared to determine whether the United Kingdom is morally warranted in relying on India to meet the medical needs of its citizens. Third, as neoliberal reforms are justified on the grounds that they will help the indigent populations affected by them, the impact of medical tourism--a neoliberal initiative--on India's socially and economically marginalized groups is scrutinized.

  14. Automated drug dispensing system reduces medication errors in an intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Claire; Roustit, Matthieu; Bal, Gaëlle; Schwebel, Carole; Pansu, Pascal; David-Tchouda, Sandra; Foroni, Luc; Calop, Jean; Timsit, Jean-François; Allenet, Benoît; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Bedouch, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    We aimed to assess the impact of an automated dispensing system on the incidence of medication errors related to picking, preparation, and administration of drugs in a medical intensive care unit. We also evaluated the clinical significance of such errors and user satisfaction. Preintervention and postintervention study involving a control and an intervention medical intensive care unit. Two medical intensive care units in the same department of a 2,000-bed university hospital. Adult medical intensive care patients. After a 2-month observation period, we implemented an automated dispensing system in one of the units (study unit) chosen randomly, with the other unit being the control. The overall error rate was expressed as a percentage of total opportunities for error. The severity of errors was classified according to National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention categories by an expert committee. User satisfaction was assessed through self-administered questionnaires completed by nurses. A total of 1,476 medications for 115 patients were observed. After automated dispensing system implementation, we observed a reduced percentage of total opportunities for error in the study compared to the control unit (13.5% and 18.6%, respectively; perror (20.4% and 13.5%; perror showed a significant impact of the automated dispensing system in reducing preparation errors (perrors caused no harm (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention category C). The automated dispensing system did not reduce errors causing harm. Finally, the mean for working conditions improved from 1.0±0.8 to 2.5±0.8 on the four-point Likert scale. The implementation of an automated dispensing system reduced overall medication errors related to picking, preparation, and administration of drugs in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, most nurses favored the new drug dispensation organization.

  15. Encountering aged care: a mixed methods investigation of medical students' clinical placement experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Lea, Emma; Lo, Amanda; Tierney, Laura; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-02-04

    Residential aged care is an increasingly important health setting due to population ageing and the increase in age-related conditions, such as dementia. However, medical education has limited engagement with this fast-growing sector and undergraduate training remains primarily focussed on acute presentations in hospital settings. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dementia-related content in undergraduate medical curricula, while research has found mixed attitudes among students towards the care of older people. This study explores how medical students engage with the learning experiences accessible in clinical placements in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), particularly exposure to multiple comorbidity, cognitive impairment, and palliative care. Fifth-year medical students (N = 61) completed five-day clinical placements at two Australian aged care facilities in 2013 and 2014. The placements were supported by an iterative yet structured program and academic teaching staff to ensure appropriate educational experiences and oversight. Mixed methods data were collected before and after the clinical placement. Quantitative data included surveys of dementia knowledge and questions about attitudes to the aged care sector and working with older adults. Qualitative data were collected from focus group discussions concerning medical student expectations, learning opportunities, and challenges to engagement. Pre-placement surveys identified good dementia knowledge, but poor attitudes towards aged care and older adults. Negative placement experiences were associated with a struggle to discern case complexity and a perception of an aged care placement as an opportunity cost associated with reduced hospital training time. Irrespective of negative sentiment, post-placement survey data showed significant improvements in attitudes to working with older people and dementia knowledge. Positive student experiences were explained by in

  16. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, P S; Hu, T W; Henderson, R A; Cleary, P D; Tokuhata, G

    1984-02-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small.

  17. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Hu, T.W.; Henderson, R.A.; Cleary, P.D.; Tokuhata, G.

    1984-01-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small

  18. Bodies or organisms? Medical encounter as a control apparatus at a primary care centre in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaballos Samper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical practice is driven by technology, discourses, and knowledge about health and illness. This has resulted in its gaining a dominating position in power relations achieved by means of diagnosis, medicalization, and habit and conduct creation and maintenance. Interaction at primary care centres is built on mainstream biomedical views of both the medical discourse and the social practices related to health, illness and the human body. Moreover, it is also rooted on the ideologies conveyed by those social concepts, which in turn, permeate interaction all through with power relations. The present paper takes ethnographic data and in-depth interviews as a departing point to analyse how diagnosis, medicalization, and biopolicies for health prevention and improvement carried out in primary care centres in Barcelona make up a control apparatus. Furthermore, this essay also explores how the apparatus is developed in the medical encounter and turns the body into an organism.

  19. Oncology Education in Medical Schools: Towards an Approach that Reflects Australia's Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Cancer has recently overtaken heart disease to become the number 1 cause of mortality both globally and in Australia. As such, adequate oncology education must be an integral component of medical school if students are to achieve learning outcomes that meet the needs of the population. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current state of undergraduate oncology education and identify how Australian medical schools can improve oncology learning outcomes for students and, by derivative, improve healthcare outcomes for Australians with cancer. The review shows that oncology is generally not well represented in medical school curricula, that few medical schools offer mandatory oncology or palliative care rotations, and that junior doctors are exhibiting declining oncology knowledge and skills. To address these issues, Australian medical schools should implement the Oncology Education Committee's Ideal Oncology Curriculum, enact mandatory oncology and palliative care clinical rotations for students, and in doing so, appreciate the importance of students' differing approaches to learning.

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy G Dévieux

    Full Text Available Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti.A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year.The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%, nurses (49.0%, and other health care professionals (20.0%. Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71 times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%.Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies

  1. Nurses' strategies to address self-care aspects related to medication adherence and symptom recognition in heart failure patients: an in-depth look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Nikolova-Simons, Mariana; van der Wal, Martje H L

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing body of knowledge on self-care in heart failure patients, the need for effective interventions remains. We sought to deepen the understanding of interventions that heart failure nurses use in clinical practice to improve patient adherence to medication and symptom monitoring. A qualitative study with a directed content analysis was performed, using data from a selected sample of Dutch-speaking heart failure nurses who completed booklets with two vignettes involving medication adherence and symptom recognition. Nurses regularly assess and reassess patients before they decide on an intervention. They evaluate basic/factual information and barriers in a patient's behavior, and try to find room for improvement in a patient's behavior. Interventions that heart failure nurses use to improve adherence to medication and symptom monitoring were grouped into the themes of increasing knowledge, increasing motivation, and providing patients with practical tools. Nurses also described using technology-based tools, increased social support, alternative communication, partnership approaches, and coordination of care to improve adherence to medications and symptom monitoring. Despite a strong focus on educational strategies, nurses also reported other strategies to increase patient adherence. Nurses use several strategies to improve patient adherence that are not incorporated into guidelines. These interventions need to be evaluated for further applications in improving heart failure management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse; Kohler, Jillian C; Orbinski, James; Howard, Andrew

    2012-05-03

    Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants' experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher wages and benefits for workers could be

  3. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Maryse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct

  4. Corruption in the health care sector: A barrier to access of orthopaedic care and medical devices in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, injuries cause approximately as many deaths per year as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. Given not all injuries kill, the disability burden, particularly from orthopaedic injuries, is much higher but is poorly measured at present. The orthopaedic services and orthopaedic medical devices needed to manage the injury burden are frequently unavailable in these countries. Corruption is known to be a major barrier to access of health care, but its effects on access to orthopaedic services is still unknown. Methods A qualitative case study of 45 open-ended interviews was conducted to investigate the access to orthopaedic health services and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. Participants included orthopaedic surgeons, related healthcare professionals, industry and government representatives, and patients. Participants’ experiences in accessing orthopaedic medical devices were explored. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and code the transcripts. Results Analysis of the interview data identified poor leadership in government and corruption as major barriers to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices. Corruption was perceived to occur at the worker, hospital and government levels in the forms of misappropriation of funds, theft of equipment, resale of drugs and medical devices, fraud and absenteeism. Other barriers elicited included insufficient health infrastructure and human resources, and high costs of orthopaedic equipment and poverty. Conclusions This study identified perceived corruption as a significant barrier to access of orthopaedic care and orthopaedic medical devices in Uganda. As the burden of injury continues to grow, the need to combat corruption and ensure access to orthopaedic services is imperative. Anti-corruption strategies such as transparency and accountability measures, codes of conduct, whistleblower protection, and higher

  5. The Integration of Medical Toxicology and Addiction Medicine: a New Era in Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, JoAn R

    2016-03-01

    Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties.

  6. Problematic use of social network sites: the interactive relationship between gratifications sought and privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Kim, Yonghwan

    2013-11-01

    Problematic Internet use has long been a matter of concern; however, few studies extend this line of research from general Internet use to the use of social network sites (SNSs), or explicate the problematic use of SNSs by understanding what factors may enhance or reduce users' compulsive behaviors and excessive form of use on SNSs. Building on literature that found a positive relationship between gratifications sought from the Internet and problematic Internet use, this study first explores the types of gratifications sought from SNSs and examines their relationship with problematic SNS use. It found that three types of gratifications-diversion, self-presentation, and relationship building-were positively related to problematic SNS use. In addition, with a growing body of research on SNS privacy, a moderating role of privacy concerns on SNSs has been proposed to understand how it can influence the relationship between gratifications sought from SNSs and problematic SNS use. The findings suggest that different subdimensions of privacy concerns interact with gratifications sought in different manners. In other words, privacy concerns, including unauthorized secondary use and improper access, play a more influential role in constraining the positive relationship between gratifications sought and problematic SNS use when individuals seek to build relationships on SNSs. However, if individuals seek to have diversion on SNSs, their privacy concerns will be overridden by their gratifications sought, which in turn leads to problematic SNS use. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  7. [Outpatient specialist medical care: what is possible, what will come?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschuschke, C; Uhthoff, H

    2013-08-01

    The guidelines on outpatient specialist medical treatment (ASV) according to § 116b of the Social Act were published by the Federal Joint Committee on 21 March 2013. The guidelines regulate the framework conditions for the new area of healthcare and the requirements for potential participants. The ASV guidelines are designed to ultimately bridge the sectorial borders for the treatment of rare diseases and those with unusual courses. In the past the reforms in § 116b have not fulfilled the criteria expected by the legislation. The reforms have already led to an increase in the costs for medical services by a factor of 50 within 6 years. The spectrum of diseases to be treated has remained practically unchanged. The healthcare providers must now fulfil a catalogue of prerequisites which will be formulated by the Federal Joint Committee for each entity in the still to be provided annexes to the guidelines in order to be approved on notification by the extended National Committee. The guidelines are based on the prototype further education regulations according to the old law. An important detail is the obligatory formation of cooperation and teams for all participants outside the traditional sectorial limits. Each partner must perform the duties at least 1 day in the week at the site of the team leader. Specific and organizational requirements, extent of treatment and lower limits will be regulated by the still to be formulated annexes. Costing and business effectiveness will be tested by the medical services. No patient has yet been treated under the ASV but the winner is already known: bureaucracy.

  8. Patient-centered medical homes improve care for adults with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Snyder, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    The success of health care reform implementation in 2014 partly depends on more efficient delivery of care to the millions of California residents eligible to gain insurance. Emerging evidence supports the effectiveness of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as a potential model of care delivery, which improves health outcomes and reduces costs. Among other principles, PCMH entails receipt of care from a personal doctor, who coordinates the patient's care and develops an individualized treatment plan for the patient. These principles are particularly essential in delivery of care to those with chronic conditions who require more intensive care management. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2009), this policy brief indicates that patients who reported meeting these fundamental PCMH principles were more likely to have visited the doctor and to have received flu shots, and they also had better communication with providers than those who did not report meeting these PCMH principles. The data also showed that uninsured individuals, Medi-Cal beneficiaries, those at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, Latinos, and Asian-Americans were less likely to report meeting all three PCMH principles. These findings highlight the population groups that would most benefit from the PCMH care delivery model, particularly Medi-Cal beneficiaries and those eligible for Covered California, the California health benefits exchange.

  9. Induced Innovation and Social Inequality: Evidence from Infant Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Meara, Ellen; Richards-Shubik, Seth

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model of induced innovation that applies to medical research. Our model yields three empirical predictions. First, initial death rates and subsequent research effort should be positively correlated. Second, research effort should be associated with more rapid mortality declines. Third, as a byproduct of targeting the most common conditions in the population as a whole, induced innovation leads to growth in mortality disparities between minority and majority groups. Using information on infant deaths in the U.S. between 1983 and 1998, we find support for all three empirical predictions.

  10. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  11. SatCom Systems for Health and Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Hubert

    2002-01-01

    Convinced since 1997 that the satellite was capable of providing a real added value either autonomously or as a complement to terrestrial infrastructures, CNES (the French Space Agency) began a determined study, validation and demonstration procedure for new satellite services. At a national but also European and worldwide level, several experiments or projects have been set-up. In each of them (tele-consultations, distant education, tele-epidemiology, tele-echography, assistance to people, training and therapeutic assistance, disaster telemedicine, etc...) well suited satcoms are used. (telecommunications for broadcasting, multicasting, downloading,...- localization, positioning, - low medium and high data rate bidirectional systems,). Medical reference people are associated in each pilot projects first to define the needs but also to manage the medical validation aspects. Our aim is always to test, validate and adapt these new services to bring them into line with the users' expectations. The value added of these technologies in sustainable healthcare services are systematically demonstrated in real situations, with real users, both in terms of quality of service and of economic validity. For several projects CNES has developed typical hardware, or technical on as technical platform. The main projects and their relevant satcom systems will be presented and discussed : - Tele-consultation, - Distance learning and training, - Assistance to people, - Tele-epidemiology, - Disaster telemedicine.

  12. Medical futility in the care of non-competent terminally ill patient: nursing perspectives and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Andrew; Murphy, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Debate continues on the use of medical technology to prolong life independent of the quality of the outcomes. As a consequence, acute care nurses often find themselves in situations where they are asked to carry out physician's orders, in the context of a patient's deteriorating condition, which may be at odds with professional and personal ethical standards. This can cause nurses to become distressed when struggling with the ethical dilemmas involved with medical futility. This paper is a perspective on nursing considerations of our Code of Ethics and the concept of medical futility in acute nursing care. The utility of the Code is examined through a clinical vignette. A database search using the keywords medical futility and acute care limited to 2008 to 2012 and a secondary hand search of these references identified thirty journal publications. The Code of Ethics was examined via a clinical scenario pertinent to an acute environment. This paper examines the ethical principles that underpin nursing and illustrates how the code of ethics may serve as sign posts when faced with caring for a terminally ill patient that is inappropriately managed. Understanding how individual nurses may address ethical dilemmas when faced with medical futility can better enable the nurse to fulfil their role as patient advocate, health promoter and alleviator of suffering. Ongoing education and communication to decrease any ambiguity or anguish associated with a patient's impending death optimises apt outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Evaluation of the quality of care of transient tachypnea in newborns affiliated with the Medical Insurance Siglo XXI program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Jasso Gutiérrez, Luis; Doubova, Svetlana; Flores Hernández, Sergio; Mantilla Trollé, Clara; González Guerra, Eduardo; Muñoz Hernández, Onofre

    Evaluation of the quality of care of the newborn with complications is an indispensable element for the improvement of strategies directed to reduce newborn mortality rates. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of technical and interpersonal care in the management of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) of patients affiliated with the program "Medical Insurance Siglo XXI". A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61 hospitals affiliated with the Health Ministry with at least two cases of TTN during the first semester of 2011. Variables such as mother's health, pregnancy, birth and birth complication characteristics were analyzed. Also, newborn interventions and health conditions upon discharge were included. To measure the quality of care according to prevention, diagnosis and treatment, quality indicators were defined and validated. We analyzed 256 case files with a diagnosis of TTN; 8.9% of the mothers presented risk factors (asthma, diabetes) and 53.5% had complications during pregnancy. There were 60% of cases with TTN born by cesarean delivery; one third of these children had low birth weight and 14% were transferred to another hospital. As for the quality indicators in the area of prevention, more than 90% of risk factors (smoking, asthma, cesarean delivery) were identified. Diagnostic indicators showed that 86-98% of respiratory distress symptoms were sought. Indicators of treatment achieved satisfactory figures for monitoring and support measures. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment indicators made it possible to consider that most TTN cases received appropriate treatment. It is advisable to develop effective strategies to prevent TTN, such as increasing efforts to reduce the increasing rates of cesarean deliveries. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. [Variables determining the amount of care for very preterm neonates: the concept of medical stance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, A; Menget, A; Chary-Tardy, A-C; Savajols, E; Abed, N; Thiriez, G

    2014-02-01

    To compare the amount of medical interventions on very preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in two French university tertiary care centers, one of which is involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. A secondary objective is to assess whether this difference in medical interventions can be linked to a difference in mortality and morbidity rates. We prospectively included all very preterm neonates free from lethal malformation born live in these two centers between 2006 and 2010. These inclusion criteria were met by 1286 patients, for whom we compared the rate of five selected medical interventions: birth by caesarean section, chest intubation in the delivery room, surfactant therapy, pharmacological treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, and red blood cell transfusion. The rates of the five medical interventions were systematically lower in the center that is involved in Neonatal Developmental Care. There was no significant difference in survival at discharge with no severe cerebral ultrasound scan abnormalities between the two centers. There were, however, significantly higher rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and nosocomial sepsis and longer hospital stays when the patients were not involved in a Neonatal Developmental Care program. This benchmarking study shows that in France, in the first decade of the 21st century, there are as many ways to handle very preterm neonates as there are centers in which they are born. This brings to light the concept of medical stance, which is the general care approach prior to the treatment itself. This medical stance creates the overall framework for the staff's decision-making regarding neonate care. The different parameters structuring medical stance are discussed. Moreover, this study raises the problematic issue of the aftermath of benchmarking studies when the conclusion is an increase of morbidity in cases where procedure leads to more interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  15. The association between trust in health care providers and medication adherence among Black women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie M. Abel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens.Methods: Black women (N=80 who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence.Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67% were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend=0.015.Conclusions: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension.

  16. Establishing Relationships and Navigating Boundaries When Caring for Children With Medical Complexity at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Golden, Shannon L

    Children with medical complexity receive care from many healthcare providers including home healthcare nurses. The objective of our study, based on a conceptual framework, was to describe the relationships between parents/caregivers of children with medical complexity and home healthcare nurses caring for these children. We collected qualitative data in 20 semistructured in-depth interviews (15 English, 5 Spanish) with 26 primary caregivers of children with medical complexity, and 4 focus groups of 18 home healthcare nurses inquiring about their experiences about home healthcare nursing services for children with medical complexity. During an iterative analysis process, we identified recurrent themes related to caregiver-nurse relationships. Our study showed that: (1) caregiver-nurse relationships evolved over time and were determined by multiple factors; (2) communication and trust were essential to the establishment of caregiver-nurse relationships; (3) both caregivers and nurses described difficulties of navigating physical, professional, personal, and emotional boundaries, and identified strategies to maintain these boundaries; and (4) good caregiver-nurse relationships helped in the care of children with medical complexity, reduced caregiver burden, resulted in less stress for nurses, and was a factor in nurse retention. We conclude that trusted relationships between caregivers and nurses are important to the home care of children with medical complexity. Interventions to develop and maintain good caregiver-nurse relationships are necessary.

  17. Prioritizing medication safety in care of people with cancer: clinicians’ views on main problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Lorainne Tudor; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Urch, Catherine; Majeed, Azeem; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer care is liable to medication errors due to the complex nature of cancer treatment, the common presence of comorbidities and the involvement of a number of clinicians in cancer care. While the frequency of medication errors in cancer care has been reported, little is known about their causal factors and effective prevention strategies. With a unique insight into the main safety issues in cancer treatment, frontline staff can help close this gap. In this study, we aimed to identify medication safety priorities in cancer patient care according to clinicians in North West London using PRIORITIZE, a novel priority–setting approach. Methods The project steering group determined the scope, the context and the criteria for prioritization. We then invited North West London cancer care clinicians to identify and prioritize main causes for, and solutions to, medication errors in cancer care. Forty cancer care providers submitted their suggestions which were thematically synthesized into a composite list of 20 distinct problems and 22 solutions. A group of 26 clinicians from the initial cohort ranked the composite list of suggestions using predetermined criteria. Results The top ranked problems focused on patients’ poor understanding of treatments due to language or education difficulties, clinicians’ insufficient attention to patients’ psychological distress, and inadequate information sharing among health care providers. The top ranked solutions were provision of guidance to patients and their carers on what to do when unwell, pre–chemotherapy work–up for all patients and better staff training. Overall, clinicians considered improved communication between health care providers, quality assurance procedures (during prescription and monitoring stages) and patient education as key strategies for improving cancer medication safety. Prescribing stage was identified as the most vulnerable to medication safety threats. The highest ranked suggestions

  18. Medication communication between nurses and doctors for paediatric acute care: An ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrott, Narelle; Kinney, Sharon; Newall, Fiona; Williams, Allison; Cranswick, Noel; Wong, Ian; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    To examine how communication between nurses and doctors occurred for managing medications in inpatient paediatric settings. Communication between health professionals influences medication incidents' occurrence and safe care. An ethnographic study was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews, observations and focus groups were conducted in three clinical areas of an Australian tertiary paediatric hospital. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using the Medication Communication Model. The actual communication act revealed health professionals' commitment to effective medication management and the influence of professional identities on medication communication. Nurses and doctors were dedicated to providing safe, effective medication therapy for children, within their scope of practice and perceived role responsibilities. Most nurses and junior doctors used tentative language in their communication while senior doctors tended to use direct language. Irrespective of language style, nurses actively engaged with doctors to promote patients' needs. Yet, the medical hierarchical structure, staffing and attendant expectations influenced communication for medication management, causing frustration among nurses and doctors. Doctors' lack of verbal communication of documented changes to medication orders particularly troubled nurses. Nurses persisted in their efforts to acquire appropriate orders for safe medication administration to paediatric patients. Collaborative practice between nurses and doctors involved complex, symbiotic relationships. Their dedication to providing safe medication therapy to paediatric patients facilitated effective medication management. At times, shortcomings in interdisciplinary communication impacted on potential and actual medication incidents. Understanding of the complexities affecting medication communication between nurses and doctors helps to ensure interprofessional respect for each other's roles and inherent demands

  19. Is psychotropic medication use related to organisational and treatment culture in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Scahill, Shane; Chen, Charlotte; Hong, Jae Beom; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organisational culture and psychotropic medication use in residential care. Cross-sectional analyses of staff and resident's record survey in residential aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). The competing values framework categorised organisational culture as clan, hierarchical, market driven or adhocracy and was completed by all staff. The treatment culture tool categorised facilities as having resident centred or traditional culture and was completed by registered nursing staff and general practitioners (GP). Functional and behavioural characteristics of residents were established by staff report and health characteristics and medications used were ascertained from the health record. Multiple regression was used to test for associations between measures of culture with psychotropic medication use (anxiolytics, sedatives, major tranquillisers). In total 199 staff, 27 GP and 527 residents participated from 14 facilities. On average 8.5 medications per resident were prescribed and 42 per cent of residents received psychotropic medication. Having a diagnosis of anxiety or depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.71, 5.91), followed by persistent wandering (OR 2.53, 95 per cent CI 1.59, 4.01) and being in a dementia unit (OR 2.45, 95 per cent CI 1.17, 5.12) were most strongly associated with psychotropic use. Controlling for resident- and facility-level factors, health care assistants' assignation of hierarchical organisational culture type was independently associated with psychotropic medication use, (OR 1.29, CI 1.08, 1.53) and a higher treatment culture score from the GP was associated with lower use of psychotropic medication (OR 0.95, CI 0.92, 0.98). Psychotropic medication use remains prevalent in residential care facilities in NZ. Interventions aimed at changing organisational culture towards a less hierarchical and more resident-centred culture

  20. Nature and frequency of exchanges on medications during primary care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2006-12-01

    To describe the exchanges, related to discussion of all medications during primary care medical consultations. Descriptive study of audio recordings of 422 medical encounters. Coding was done with MEDICODE, a validated instrument developed to analyse verbal exchanges on medications. The unit of analysis is the medication. An average of 3.9 medications (S.D.=2.8; range 1-21) are discussed per interview and 4.2 themes are broached for each drug (S.D.=2.6; range 1-17). "Active Discussed", "Represcribed" and "Newly Prescribed" drugs account for 43.1, 16.3 and 10.6%, respectively of all medications discussed. Themes most often discussed are Name, Instructions, Observed Main Effect, Class, Reasons for Taking the Drug, General Use of the Medication, Expected Effect on Symptoms, Form of the Medication, Indications Another Consultation Needed, and Alternative Medication. The least often discussed themes include clinically significant ones such as Possible Adverse Effects, Observed Adverse Effects, Expression of Attitudes and Emotions with regard to the medication, Compliance and Warnings. The average number of themes discussed differed between medications that were prescribed during the encounter, either New prescriptions or Represcribed drugs, compared to medications that were only discussed during the encounter. Our results show that medication discussions are heterogeneous and vary with the status of the medication and the theme. Also, the nature and extent of the discussions about medications do not support the shared-decision making model. Though it is too soon to make specific recommendations about discussions on medications, it seems clear that information-sharing about medications during medical encounters is a process that extends beyond any single encounter. Although communication skills are now part of most medical curriculums, there is an obvious need to put forth the concept of patient medication knowledge-building over multiple physician-patient encounters and

  1. Health Care Professional Factors Influencing Shared Medical Decision Making in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae-Hwa Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Till date, the medical decision-making process in Korea has followed the paternalist model, relying on the instructions of physicians. However, in recent years, shared decision making at the end-of-life between physicians and nurses is now emphasized in Korea. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore how health care professionals’ characteristics, attitude toward dignified dying, and moral sensitivity affect their shared medical decision making. The design was descriptive survey. This study was undertaken in two university hospitals in two metropolitan cities, South Korea. The participants were 344 nurses and 80 physicians who work at university hospitals selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected from January 10 through March 20, 2014 using the Dignified Dying Scale, Moral Sensitivity Scale, and Shared Medical Decision-Making Scale. Shared medical decision making, attitude toward dignified dying, moral sensitivity, age, and working experience had a significant correlation with each other. The factors affecting shared medical decision making of Korean health care professionals were moral sensitivity and attitude toward dignified dying. These variables explained 22.4% of the shared medical decision making. Moral sensitivity and a positive attitude toward dignified dying should be promoted among health care professionals as a part of an educational program for shared medical decision making.

  2. Higher Referrals for Diabetes Education in a Medical Home Model of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, William T; Syberg, Kevin; Behera, Anit; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David; Armbrecht, Eric; Hooks-Anderson, Denise; Crannage, Erica; Scherrer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The medical home model has been gaining attention from the health care community as a strategy for improved outcomes for management of chronic disease, including diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare referrals for diabetes education among patients receiving care from a medical home model versus a traditional practice. Data were obtained from a large, university-affiliated primary care patient data registry. All patients (age 18-96 years) with a diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes and seen by a physician at least twice during 2011 to 2013 were selected for inclusion. Multivariate regression models measuring the association between medical home status and referral to diabetes education were computed before and after adjusting for covariates. A significantly (P patients in a medical home than without a medical home (23.9% vs 13.5%) received a referral for diabetes education. After adjusting for covariates, medical home patients were 2.7 times more likely to receive a referral for diabetes education (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.35). Patients in a medical home model were more likely to receive referrals for diabetes education than patients in a standard university-affiliated family medicine practice. Future longitudinal designs that match characteristics of patients with a medical home with those of patients without one will provide strong evidence to determine whether referral to diabetes education is a result of the medical home model of care independent of confounding factors. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Organizational forms of medical care in the event of radiation accidents in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack, P.; Arndt, D.; Schuettmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Medical care of radiation casualties in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is organized on two levels. On the level of users the responsible Medical Officers guarantee both the routine control of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and first aid in the event of accidents. On the second level medical treatment is given either in the Clinical Department of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection or in specialized national health system clinics having facilities for intensive medical care. A decision on hospitalization is made according to the conditions of the accident and the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic measures as a rule are based on consultations between the responsible Medical Officer and the departments of the Board (Emergency Assistance Service, Clinical Department, Consultative Committee). For serious cases where haematological complications can be expected, a central medical clinic with facilities for bone-marrow transplants is available. The casualties are treated in local clinics which are provided with continuous support and advice by the Board. This support consists in: (i) immediate activity by a consultative committee of the Board's physicians and scientists experienced and trained in radiation protection and the treatment of radiation accidents; (ii) the requirement of compulsory examination methods and take-over of specialized laboratory investigations; and (iii) the use of a mobile emergency measuring system in cases of additional incorporation. It is the main principle of medical care in case of radiation accidents to consult, as early as possible, a medical consultative committee of the Board in the field of radiation protection at each step of medical care. (author)

  4. Medical and surgical evaluation and care of illness in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, John H.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done on the contract NAG9-567, which was activated at the New Jersey Medical School-UMDNJ in April 1992 and carried on during the 1992-93 year to the present 1993-94 year which was terminated in May 1994. The initial examination stage was completed of an interactive program for the recording of physical and physiologic injury information obtained from examination of an injured person, who might be an astronaut sustaining traumatic injury, due to a burn or physical trauma, either in space or in an earth bound training environment. In this report three aspects will be discussed: 1) a description of the system of diagnostic examination graphics, 2) a description of the organization of the therapeutic advisory systems with a demonstration of two specific modules, and 3) a brief technical description of the organization of the programming system carried out on a UNIX based work station using a WINDOWS environment.

  5. Marketing and the medical specialist in the managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, N W

    1997-01-01

    Marketing means more than just communicating or advertising to potential patients; marketing means identifying your customers and working to meet or exceed their expectations. There are five key areas of a marketing plan: (1) Establish the foundation, beginning with your mission statement; (2) Assess your marketing environment by internal and external research; (3) Target your efforts, looking at image and perception; (4) Develop your particular mix of product, price, place of distribution, and promotion; and (5) implement and evaluate your marketing process. This article discusses the importance of a marketing plan for the medical specialist and highlights the features unique to a practice working in a system of capitated reimbursement. Applying these principles will help to demonstrate added value, protect the fundamental role of the patient-physician relationship, ensure that our efforts are aligned with professional missions and goals, and ultimately increase profitability and professional success.

  6. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  7. Efforts made for health and medical care by International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The author, being a former senior medical officer and currently a consultant of the Nuclear Medicine Section, the Division of Human Health, the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to standardize the isotope and radiation technologies for health and medical care and transfer them to the IAEA member states to address their health issues, participated in an international cooperation project to survey the current situation of the health and medical care in Viet Nam and exchange opinions with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Regional Office Viet Nam Office and the Viet Nam Health Department coordinated by the Japan Public Health Association from 10th to 15th January 2016 and perceived efforts made and action plans for the health and medical care in Viet Nam by the international organizations of the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO). IAEA has verified various isotopes and radiation technologies up to now in the international field of health and medical care and has being offered them to the member states under the sustainable frame work of technical co-operation. However, the activity in the health and medical care field of IAEA is hardly recognized by the public health professionals in Japan. In order to attain the objective to improve and maintain human health under the umbrella of the United Nations system, the peaceful use of nuclear technology has been promoted in the field of non-electric applications of nuclear energy including human health and medical care by the IAEA. There are several discrepancies seen with the field and tactics of health and medical care between the IAEA and the WHO. In terms of measures to fight NCDs which should be an urgent issue in most of the member states, a comprehensive approach is often needed beyond the capability of IAEA as isotopes and radiation technologies. The IAEA should strive to solve issues on human health and medical care maintaining much

  8. Doctor-patient interaction in Finnish primary health care as perceived by first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntyselkä Pekka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the

  9. A comparison of medication administration errors from original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids in care homes: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin-Thomas, Julia Fiona-Maree; Smith, Felicity; Wolfe, Rory; Jani, Yogini

    2017-07-01

    No published study has been specifically designed to compare medication administration errors between original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids in care homes, using direct observation. Compare the effect of original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids on medication administration accuracy. Prospective observational. Ten Greater London care homes. Nurses and carers administering medications. Between October 2014 and June 2015, a pharmacist researcher directly observed solid, orally administered medications in tablet or capsule form at ten purposively sampled care homes (five only used original medication packaging and five used both multi-compartment compliance aids and original medication packaging). The medication administration error rate was calculated as the number of observed doses administered (or omitted) in error according to medication administration records, compared to the opportunities for error (total number of observed doses plus omitted doses). Over 108.4h, 41 different staff (35 nurses, 6 carers) were observed to administer medications to 823 residents during 90 medication administration rounds. A total of 2452 medication doses were observed (1385 from original medication packaging, 1067 from multi-compartment compliance aids). One hundred and seventy eight medication administration errors were identified from 2493 opportunities for error (7.1% overall medication administration error rate). A greater medication administration error rate was seen for original medication packaging than multi-compartment compliance aids (9.3% and 3.1% respectively, risk ratio (RR)=3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4 to 6.1, ppackaging (from original medication packaging-only care homes) and multi-compartment compliance aids (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.1 to 4.9, p=0.03), and between original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids within care homes that used a combination of both medication administration

  10. Medical overuse and quaternary prevention in primary care - A qualitative study with general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Kathrin; Kuehlein, Thomas; Schedlbauer, Angela; Schaffer, Susann

    2017-12-08

    Medical overuse is a topic of growing interest in health care systems and especially in primary care. It comprises both over investigation and overtreatment. Quaternary prevention strategies aim at protecting patients from unnecessary or harmful medicine. The objective of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of relevant aspects of medical overuse in primary care from the perspective of German general practitioners (GPs). We focused on the scope, consequences and drivers of medical overuse and strategies to reduce it (=quaternary prevention). We used the qualitative Grounded Theory approach. Theoretical sampling was carried out to recruit GPs in Bavaria, Germany. We accessed the field of research through GPs with academic affiliation, recommendations by interview partners and personal contacts. They differed in terms of primary care experience, gender, region, work experience abroad, academic affiliation, type of specialist training, practice organisation and position. Qualitative in-depth face-to-face interviews with a semi-structured interview guide were conducted (n = 13). The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was carried out using open and axial coding. GPs defined medical overuse as unnecessary investigations and treatment that lack patient benefit or bear the potential to cause harm. They observed that medical overuse takes place in all three German reimbursement categories: statutory health insurance, private insurance and individual health services (direct payment). GPs criticised the poor acceptance of gate-keeping in German primary care. They referred to a low-threshold referral policy and direct patient access to outpatient secondary care, leading to specialist treatment without clear medical indication. The GPs described various direct drivers of medical overuse within their direct area of influence. They also emphasised indirect drivers related to system or societal processes. The proposed strategies for

  11. An exploration of contextual dimensions impacting goals of care conversations in postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael; Sarti, Aimee; Ajjawi, Rola

    2016-03-21

    Postgraduate medical trainees are not well prepared difficult conversations about goals of care with patients and families in the acute care clinical setting. While contextual nuances within the workplace can impact communication, research to date has largely focused on individual communication skills. Our objective was to explore contextual factors that influence conversations between trainees and patients/families about goals of care in the acute care setting. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study involving five focus groups with Internal Medicine trainees (n = 20) and a series of interviews with clinical faculty (n = 11) within a single Canadian centre. Thematic framework analysis was applied to categorize the data and identify themes and subthemes. Challenges and factors enabling goals of care conversations emerged within individual, interpersonal and system dimensions. Challenges included inadequate preparation for these conversations, disconnection between trainees, faculty and patients, policies around documentation, the structure of postgraduate medical education, and resource limitations; these challenges led to missed opportunities, uncertainty and emotional distress. Enabling factors were awareness of the importance of goals of care conversations, support in these discussions, collaboration with colleagues, and educational initiatives enabling skill development; these factors have resulted in learning, appreciation, and an established foundation for future educational initiatives. Contextual factors impact how postgraduate medical trainees communicate with patients/families about goals of care. Attention to individual, interpersonal and system-related factors will be important in designing educational programs that help trainees develop the capacities needed for challenging conversations.

  12. Specific Components of Pediatricians' Medication-Related Care Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua M

    2017-06-01

    The development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care quality measurements is a prerequisite to improving the quality of community-based pediatric care of children with ADHD. Unfortunately, the evidence base for existing ADHD care quality metrics is poor. The objective of this study was to identify which components of ADHD care best predict patient outcomes. Parents of 372 medication-naïve children in grades 1 to 5 presenting to their community-based pediatrician (N = 195) for an ADHD-related concern and who were subsequently prescribed ADHD medication were identified. Parents completed the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (VAPRS) at the time ADHD was raised as a concern and then approximately 12 months after starting ADHD medication. Each patient's chart was reviewed to measure 12 different components of ADHD care. Across all children, the mean decrease in VAPRS total symptom score during the first year of treatment was 11.6 (standard deviation 10.1). Of the 12 components of ADHD care, shorter times to first contact and more teacher ratings collected in the first year of treatment significantly predicted greater decreases in patient total symptom scores. Notably, it was timeliness of contacts, defined as office visits, phone calls, or email communication, that predicted more ADHD symptom decreases. Office visits alone, in terms of number or timeliness, did not predict patient outcomes. The magnitude of ADHD symptom decrease that can be achieved with the use of ADHD medications was associated with specific components of ADHD care. Future development and modifications of ADHD quality care metrics should include these ADHD care components. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Process and Outcomes of Patient-Centered Medical Care With Alaska Native People at Southcentral Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David L.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Johnston, Janet M.; Norman, Sara; Reilly, Katie M.; Shaw, Jennifer; Smith, Julia; Szafran, Quenna N.; Dillard, Denise

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study describes key elements of the transition to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model at Southcentral Foundation (SCF), a tribally owned and managed primary care system, and evaluates changes in emergency care use for any reason, for asthma, and for unintentional injuries, during and after the transition. METHODS We conducted a time series analyses of emergency care use from medical record data. We also conducted 45 individual, in-depth interviews with PCMH patients (customer-owners), primary care clinicians, health system employees, and tribal leaders. RESULTS Emergency care use for all causes was increasing before the PCMH implementation, dropped during and immediately after the implementation, and subsequently leveled off. Emergency care use for adult asthma dropped before, during, and immediately after implementation, subsequently leveling off approximately 5 years after implementation. Emergency care use for unintentional injuries, a comparison variable, showed an increasing trend before and during implementation and decreasing trends after implementation. Interview participants observed improved access to primary care services after the transition to the PCMH tempered by increased staff fatigue. Additional themes of PCMH transformation included the building of relationships for coordinated, team-based care, and the important role of leadership in PCMH implementation. CONCLUSIONS All reported measures of emergency care use show a decreasing trend after the PCMH implementation. Before the implementation, overall use and use for unintentional injuries had been increasing. The combined quantitative and qualitative results are consistent with decreased emergency care use resulting from a decreased need for emergency care services due to increased availability of primary care services and same-day appointments. PMID:23690385

  14. Implementation of Patient-Centered Medical Homes in Adult Primary Care Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Markovitz, Amanda R; Paustian, Michael L; Wise, Christopher G; El Reda, Darline K; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    There has been relatively little empirical evidence about the effects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) implementation on patient-related outcomes and costs. Using a longitudinal design and a large study group of 2,218 Michigan adult primary care practices, our study examined the following research questions: Is the level of, and change in, implementation of PCMH associated with medical surgical cost, preventive services utilization, and quality of care in the following year? Results indicated that both level and amount of change in practice implementation of PCMH are independently and positively associated with measures of quality of care and use of preventive services, after controlling for a variety of practice, patient cohort, and practice environmental characteristics. Results also indicate that lower overall medical and surgical costs are associated with higher levels of PCMH implementation, although change in PCMH implementation did not achieve statistical significance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A description of medication errors reported by pharmacists in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Shane; Jaam, Myriam; Hazi, Fatima; Al Hail, Moza Sulaiman; El Kassem, Wessam; Khalifa, Hanan; Thomas, Binny; Abdul Rouf, Pallivalappila

    2017-02-01

    Background Patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at an increased risk for medication errors. Objective The objective of this study is to describe the nature and setting of medication errors occurring in patients admitted to an NICU in Qatar based on a standard electronic system reported by pharmacists. Setting Neonatal intensive care unit, Doha, Qatar. Method This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on medication errors reported electronically by pharmacists in the NICU between January 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015. Main outcome measure Data collected included patient information, and incident details including error category, medications involved, and follow-up completed. Results A total of 201 NICU pharmacists-reported medication errors were submitted during the study period. All reported errors did not reach the patient and did not cause harm. Of the errors reported, 98.5% occurred in the prescribing phase of the medication process with 58.7% being due to calculation errors. Overall, 53 different medications were documented in error reports with the anti-infective agents being the most frequently cited. The majority of incidents indicated that the primary prescriber was contacted and the error was resolved before reaching the next phase of the medication process. Conclusion Medication errors reported by pharmacists occur most frequently in the prescribing phase of the medication process. Our data suggest that error reporting systems need to be specific to the population involved. Special attention should be paid to frequently used medications in the NICU as these were responsible for the greatest numbers of medication errors.

  16. Identification of priorities for improvement of medication safety in primary care: a PRIORITIZE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Gallagher, Joseph; Samra, Rajvinder; Wazny, Kerri; El-Khatib, Mona; Bull, Adrian; Majeed, Azeem; Aylin, Paul; Atun, Rifat; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip; Bell, Helen; Vincent, Charles; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2016-11-16

    Medication error is a frequent, harmful and costly patient safety incident. Research to date has mostly focused on medication errors in hospitals. In this study, we aimed to identify the main causes of, and solutions to, medication error in primary care. We used a novel priority-setting method for identifying and ranking patient safety problems and solutions called PRIORITIZE. We invited 500 North West London primary care clinicians to complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify three main problems and solutions relating to medication error in primary care. 113 clinicians submitted responses, which we thematically synthesized into a composite list of 48 distinct problems and 45 solutions. A group of 57 clinicians randomly selected from the initial cohort scored these and an overall ranking was derived. The agreement between the clinicians' scores was presented using the average expert agreement (AEA). The study was conducted between September 2013 and November 2014. The top three problems were incomplete reconciliation of medication during patient 'hand-overs', inadequate patient education about their medication use and poor discharge summaries. The highest ranked solutions included development of a standardized discharge summary template, reduction of unnecessary prescribing, and minimisation of polypharmacy. Overall, better communication between the healthcare provider and patient, quality assurance approaches during medication prescribing and monitoring, and patient education on how to use their medication were considered the top priorities. The highest ranked suggestions received the strongest agreement among the clinicians, i.e. the highest AEA score. Clinicians identified a range of suggestions for better medication management, quality assurance procedures and patient education. According to clinicians, medication errors can be largely prevented with feasible and affordable interventions. PRIORITIZE is a new, convenient, systematic, and replicable method

  17. Paramedic-Initiated Home Care Referrals and Use of Home Care and Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol A; Klich, John; Thurston, Adam; Scantlebury, Jordan; Kiss, Alex; Seddon, Gayle; Sinha, Samir K

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between paramedic-initiated home care referrals and utilization of home care, 9-1-1, and Emergency Department (ED) services. This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals who received a paramedic-initiated home care referral after a 9-1-1 call between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Home care, 9-1-1, and ED utilization were compared in the 6 months before and after home care referral. Nonparametric longitudinal regression was performed to assess changes in hours of home care service use and zero-inflated Poisson regression was performed to assess changes in the number of 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED. During the 24-month study period, 2,382 individuals received a paramedic-initiated home care referral. After excluding individuals who died, were hospitalized, or were admitted to a nursing home, the final study cohort was 1,851. The proportion of the study population receiving home care services increased from 18.2% to 42.5% after referral, representing 450 additional people receiving services. In longitudinal regression analysis, there was an increase of 17.4 hours in total services per person in the six months after referral (95% CI: 1.7-33.1, p = 0.03). The mean number of 9-1-1 calls per person was 1.44 (SD 9.58) before home care referral and 1.20 (SD 7.04) after home care referral in the overall study cohort. This represented a 10% reduction in 9-1-1 calls (95% CI: 7-13%, p home care referral and 0.79 (SD 6.27) after home care referral, representing a 7% reduction (95% CI: 3-11%, p home care records were included in the analysis, the reductions in 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED were attenuated but remained statistically significant. Paramedic-initiated home care referrals in Toronto were associated with improved access to and use of home care services and may have been associated with reduced 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED.

  18. Medication incidents in primary care medicine: a prospective study in the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network (Sentinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnädinger, Markus; Conen, Dieter; Herzig, Lilli; Puhan, Milo A; Staehelin, Alfred; Zoller, Marco; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2017-07-26

    To describe the type, frequency, seasonal and regional distribution of medication incidents in primary care in Switzerland and to elucidate possible risk factors for medication incidents. Prospective surveillance study. Swiss primary healthcare, Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. Patients with drug treatment who experienced any erroneous event related to the medication process and interfering with normal treatment course, as judged by their physician. The 180 physicians in the study were general practitioners or paediatricians participating in the Swiss Federal Sentinel reporting system in 2015. Primary: medication incidents; secondary: potential risk factors like age, gender, polymedication, morbidity, care-dependency, previous hospitalisation. The mean rates of detected medication incidents were 2.07 per general practitioner per year (46.5 per 1 00 000 contacts) and 0.15 per paediatrician per year (2.8 per 1 00 000 contacts), respectively. The following factors were associated with medication incidents (OR, 95% CI): higher age 1.004 per year (1.001; 1.006), care by community nurse 1.458 (1.025; 2.073) and care by an institution 1.802 (1.399; 2.323), chronic conditions 1.052 (1.029; 1.075) per condition, medications 1.052 (1.030; 1.074) per medication, as well as Thurgau Morbidity Index for stage 4: 1.292 (1.004; 1.662), stage 5: 1.420 (1.078; 1.868) and stage 6: 1.680 (1.178; 2.396), respectively. Most cases were linked to an incorrect dosage for a given patient, while prescription of an erroneous medication was the second most common error. Medication incidents are common in adult primary care, whereas they rarely occur in paediatrics. Older and multimorbid patients are at a particularly high risk for medication incidents. Reasons for medication incidents are diverse but often seem to be linked to communication problems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  19. Total cost of care lower among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries receiving care from patient-centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hasselt, Martijn; McCall, Nancy; Keyes, Vince; Wensky, Suzanne G; Smith, Kevin W

    2015-02-01

    To compare health care utilization and payments between NCQA-recognized patient-centered medical home (PCMH) practices and practices without such recognition. Medicare Part A and B claims files from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2010, 2009 Census, 2007 Health Resources and Services Administration and CMS Utilization file, Medicare's Enrollment Data Base, and the 2005 American Medical Association Physician Workforce file. This study used a longitudinal, nonexperimental design. Three annual observations (July 1, 2008-June 30, 2010) were available for each practice. We compared selected outcomes between practices with and those without NCQA PCMH recognition. Individual Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries and their claims and utilization data were assigned to PCMH or comparison practices based on where they received the plurality of evaluation and management services between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. Relative to the comparison group, total Medicare payments, acute care payments, and the number of emergency room visits declined after practices received NCQA PCMH recognition. The decline was larger for practices with sicker than average patients, primary care practices, and solo practices. This study provides additional evidence about the potential of the PCMH model for reducing health care utilization and the cost of care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. [Medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals: essential for safe patient care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, M J M

    2008-12-06

    The Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate investigated the quality of medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals. By and large the laboratories fulfilled the requirements for appropriate care, although some processes were unsatisfactory and some were insufficiently formalised. In the Netherlands, laboratories for medical microbiology are integrated within hospitals and medical microbiologists are responsible for the diagnostic processes as well as for co-treatment of patients, infection prevention and research. This integrated model contrasts to the more industrialised model in many other countries, where such laboratories are physically distinct from hospitals with a strong focus on diagnostics. The Inspectorate also concludes that the current position of medical microbiology in Dutch hospitals is necessary for patient safety and that outsourcing of these facilities is considered unacceptable.

  1. [The low consumption of outpatient medical care in the department of Ardennes (France) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, T; Sailly, J C

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the research explained in this article was to build up a methodology which allows to set up a map of low consumption of outpatient medical care and to find out to which extent the low recorded demand is attributable tho the medical aids supply. French National Health Service files were the basic data for this research which was led into the department of Ardennes. First and foremost the investigation was to identify on a district level with low consumer families after having eliminated demands' factors. Thus one could set up maps of low consumption in comparison with maps of low prescription. The investigation showed that low consumer families live generally in the cantons of low medical care consumption concerned mainly with low medical aids suppliers.

  2. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine.

  3. Mental health self-care in medical students: a comprehensive look at help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jessica A; Johnson, Benjamin; Leydon, Gary; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Wilkins, Kirsten M

    2015-02-01

    The authors characterize medical student help-seeking behaviors and examine the relationship with stress, burnout, stigma, depression, and personal health behaviors. In 2013, the authors administered an electronic survey of all enrolled students at Yale School of Medicine (183 responders, response rate=35 %), inquiring about students' primary medical and mental health care, personal health behaviors, support systems, and help-seeking behaviors. Students completed the Attitudes to Mental Health Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, and a modified Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analyzed the results with logistic regression, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, or a test for significance of Kendall rank correlation. Most students reported having a primary care provider (PCP), yet few reported seeking care when sick (33 %). Nineteen percent of students reported having a mental health provider, fewer than reported having a PCP (pstudents reported increased mental health needs since beginning medical school, and these students were more likely to agree that their needs were untreated. The majority of students endorsed stress, which correlated with increased and unmet mental health needs (pstudents and correlated with stress and increased and untreated needs. Most students reported comfort with asking for academic help; those uncomfortable were more likely to have mental health needs for which they did not seek treatment (p=0.004). Mental health stigma was low. Medical students had a significant unmet need for health care, influenced by barriers to accessing care, stress, burnout, and depression. Academic help seeking and supportive faculty relationships appear related to mental health treatment seeking. Targeted interventions for stress and burnout reduction, as well as incorporation of reflective practice, may have an impact on overall care seeking among medical students. Future studies should expand to other medical and professional

  4. The Association between Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Medical Care Cost of Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared comorbidity-related medical care cost associated with different types of cancer, by examining breast (N=287, colon (N=272, stomach (N=614, and lung (N=391 cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods. Using medical benefits claims data, we calculated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI and total medical cost. The effect of comorbidity on the medical care cost was investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models and controlling for demographic characteristics and cancer stage. Results. The treatment costs incurred by stomach and colon cancer patients were 1.05- and 1.01-fold higher, respectively, in patients with higher CCI determined. For breast cancer, the highest costs were seen in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the increase in cost reduced as CCI increased. Colon cancer patients with diabetes mellitus and a CCI = 1 score had the highest medical costs. The lowest medical costs were incurred by lung cancer patients with COPD and a CCI = 2 score. Conclusion. The comorbidities had a major impact on the use of medical resources, with chronic comorbidities incurring the highest medical costs. The results indicate that comorbidities affect cancer outcomes and that they must be considered strategies mitigating cancer’s economic and social impact.

  5. Teaching Medical Students About "The Conversation": An Interactive Value-Based Advance Care Planning Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Dukes, Joanna; Church, Skotti; Abbott, Jean; Youngwerth, Jean M

    2018-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes care consistent with patient wishes. Medical education should teach how to initiate value-based ACP conversations. To develop and evaluate an ACP educational session to teach medical students a value-based ACP process and to encourage students to take personal ACP action steps. Groups of third-year medical students participated in a 75-minute session using personal reflection and discussion framed by The Conversation Starter Kit. The Conversation Project is a free resource designed to help individuals and families express their wishes for end-of-life care. One hundred twenty-seven US third-year medical students participated in the session. Student evaluations immediately after the session and 1 month later via electronic survey. More than 90% of students positively evaluated the educational value of the session, including rating highly the opportunities to reflect on their own ACP and to use The Conversation Starter Kit. Many students (65%) reported prior ACP conversations. After the session, 73% reported plans to discuss ACP, 91% had thought about preferences for future medical care, and 39% had chosen a medical decision maker. Only a minority had completed an advance directive (14%) or talked with their health-care provider (1%). One month later, there was no evidence that the session increased students' actions regarding these same ACP action steps. A value-based ACP educational session using The Conversation Starter Kit successfully engaged medical students in learning about ACP conversations, both professionally and personally. This session may help students initiate conversations for themselves and their patients.

  6. Cost of Transformation among Primary Care Practices Participating in a Medical Home Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Kandrack, Ryan; Gabbay, Robert A; Friedberg, Mark W

    2016-07-01

    Medical home initiatives encourage primary care practices to invest in new structural capabilities such as patient registries and information technology, but little is known about the costs of these investments. To estimate costs of transformation incurred by primary care practices participating in a medical home pilot. We interviewed practice leaders in order to identify changes practices had undertaken due to medical home transformation. Based on the principles of activity-based costing, we estimated the costs of additional personnel and other investments associated with these changes. The Pennsylvania Chronic Care Initiative (PACCI), a statewide multi-payer medical home pilot. Twelve practices that participated in the PACCI. One-time and ongoing yearly costs attributed to medical home transformation. Practices incurred median one-time transformation-associated costs of $30,991 per practice (range, $7694 to $117,810), equivalent to $9814 per clinician ($1497 to $57,476) and $8 per patient ($1 to $30). Median ongoing yearly costs associated with transformation were $147,573 per practice (range, $83,829 to $346,603), equivalent to $64,768 per clinician ($18,585 to $93,856) and $30 per patient ($8 to $136). Care management activities accounted for over 60% of practices' transformation-associated costs. Per-clinician and per-patient transformation costs were greater for small and independent practices than for large and system-affiliated practices. Error in interviewee recall could affect estimates. Transformation costs in other medical home interventions may be different. The costs of medical home transformation vary widely, creating potential financial challenges for primary care practices-especially those that are small and independent. Tailored subsidies from payers may help practices make these investments. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  7. 38 CFR 17.108 - Copayments for inpatient hospital care and outpatient medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...); (12) Weight management counseling (individual and group); (13) Smoking cessation counseling... associated with military service; (4) Counseling and care for sexual trauma as authorized under 38 U.S.C... dental care provided under 38 U.S.C. 1712; (8) Readjustment counseling and related mental health services...

  8. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, G; Nandwani, S; Singhal, S

    2015-01-01

    Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%).

  9. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bhagawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.

  10. Study of relation of continuing medical education to quality of family physicians' care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, E V; Bass, M J; Williams, J I; Borgiel, A E; MacDonald, P; Spasoff, R A

    1988-10-01

    A random sample of 120 physicians in Ontario was studied to assess quality of care in primary care and test an hypothesis that quality of care was related to continuing medical education (CME) activities. The quality-of-care scores were obtained by an in-office audit of a random selection of charts. The scores were global scores for charting, prevention, the use of 13 classes of drugs, and care of a two-year period for 182 different diagnoses. There were no relationships between global quality-of-care scores based on these randomly chosen charts and either the type or quantity of the physicians' CME activities. These activities were reading journals, attending rounds, attending scientific conferences, having informal consultations, using audio and video cassettes, and engaging in self-assessment. The implications of these findings are significant for future research in CME and for planners of present CME programs.

  11. Use of an electronic medical record improves the quality of urban pediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William G; Mann, Adriana M; Bauchner, Howard

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of pediatric primary care, including preventive services, before and after the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) developed for use in an urban pediatric primary care center. A pre-postintervention analysis was used in the study. The intervention was a pediatric EMR. Routine health care maintenance visits for children eye-to-eye contact with patients was reduced, and 4 of 7 reported that use of the system increased the duration of visits (mean: 9.3 minutes longer). All users recommended continued use of the system. Use of the EMR in this study was associated with improved quality of care. This experience suggests that EMRs can be successfully used in busy urban pediatric primary care centers and, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, must play a central role in the redesign of the US health care system.

  12. Regional differences in antihyperglycemic medication are not explained by individual socioeconomic status, regional deprivation, and regional health care services. Observational results from the German DIAB-CORE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This population-based study sought to extend knowledge on factors explaining regional differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus medication patterns in Germany.Individual baseline and follow-up data from four regional population-based German cohort studies (SHIP [northeast], CARLA [east], HNR [west], KORA [south] conducted between 1997 and 2010 were pooled and merged with both data on regional deprivation and regional health care services. To analyze regional differences in any or newer anti-hyperglycemic medication, medication prevalence ratios (PRs were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression models with a robust error variance adjusted gradually for individual and regional variables.The study population consisted of 1,437 people aged 45 to 74 years at baseline, (corresponding to 49 to 83 years at follow-up with self-reported type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of receiving any anti-hyperglycemic medication was 16% higher in KORA (PR 1.16 [1.08-1.25], 10% higher in CARLA (1.10 [1.01-1.18], and 7% higher in SHIP (PR 1.07 [1.00-1.15] than in HNR. The prevalence of receiving newer anti-hyperglycemic medication was 49% higher in KORA (1.49 [1.09-2.05], 41% higher in CARLA (1.41 [1.02-1.96] and 1% higher in SHIP (1.01 [0.72-1.41] than in HNR, respectively. After gradual adjustment for individual variables, regional deprivation and health care services, the effects only changed slightly.Neither comprehensive individual factors including socioeconomic status nor regional deprivation or indicators of regional health care services were able to sufficiently explain regional differences in anti-hyperglycemic treatment in Germany. To understand the underlying causes, further research is needed.

  13. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Katja Goetz,1 Jessica Bungartz,2 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Jost Steinhaeuser3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Praxis Medizin im Zentrum, München, Germany; 3Institute of Family Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany Background: Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities.Methods: The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8 or Turkish (n=9 general practitioners (GPs.Results: A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%. Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6% than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%. Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4% and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%. Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores.Conclusion: The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies

  14. Critical Care Organizations in Academic Medical Centers in North America: A Descriptive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastores, Stephen M; Halpern, Neil A; Oropello, John M; Kostelecky, Natalie; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    With the exception of a few single-center descriptive reports, data on critical care organizations are relatively sparse. The objectives of our study were to determine the structure, governance, and experience to date of established critical care organizations in North American academic medical centers. A 46-item survey questionnaire was electronically distributed using Survey Monkey to the leadership of 27 identified critical care organizations in the United States and Canada between September 2014 and February 2015. A critical care organization had to be headed by a physician and have primary governance over the majority, if not all, of the ICUs in the medical center. We received 24 responses (89%). The majority of the critical care organizations (83%) were called departments, centers, systems, or operations committees. Approximately two thirds of respondents were from larger (> 500 beds) urban institutions, and nearly 80% were primary university medical centers. On average, there were six ICUs per academic medical center with a mean of four ICUs under critical care organization governance. In these ICUs, intensivists were present in-house 24/7 in 49%; advanced practice providers in 63%; hospitalists in 21%; and telemedicine coverage in 14%. Nearly 60% of respondents indicated that they had a separate hospital budget to support data management and reporting, oversight of their ICUs, and rapid response teams. The transition from the traditional model of ICUs within departmentally controlled services or divisions to a critical care organization was described as gradual in 50% and complete in only 25%. Nearly 90% indicated that their critical care organization governance structure was either moderately or highly effective; a similar number suggested that their critical care organizations were evolving with increasing domain and financial control of the ICUs at their respective institutions. Our survey of the very few critical care organizations in North American

  15. Critical care clinician perceptions of factors leading to Medical Emergency Team review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Judy; Allen, Josh; Jones, Daryl

    2018-03-01

    The introduction of rapid response systems has reduced the incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest; however, many instances of clinical deterioration are unrecognised. Afferent limb failure is common and may be associated with unplanned intensive care admissions, heightened mortality and prolonged length of stay. Patients reviewed by a Medical Emergency Team are inherently vulnerable with a high in-hospital mortality. To explore perceptions of intensive care unit (ICU) staff who attend deteriorating acute care ward patients regarding current problems, barriers and potential solutions to recognising and responding to clinical deterioration that culminates in a Medical Emergency Team review. A descriptive exploratory design was used. Registered intensive care nurses and medical staff (N=207) were recruited during a professional conference using purposive sampling for experience in attending deteriorating patients. Written response surveys were used to address the study aim. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four major themes were identified: Governance, Teamwork, Clinical Care Delivery and End of Life Care. Participants perceived there was a lack of sufficient and senior staff with the required theoretical knowledge; and inadequate assessment and critical thinking skills for anticipating, recognising and responding to clinical deterioration. Senior doctors were perceived to inappropriately manage End of Life Care issues and displayed Teamwork behaviours rendering ward clinicians feeling fearful and intimidated. A lack of System and Clinical Governance hindered identification of clinical deterioration. To improve patient safety related to recognising and responding to clinical deterioration, suboptimal care due to professionals' knowledge, skills and behaviours need addressing, along with End of Life Care and Governance. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16.  Nutritional care of Danish medical in-patients - patients' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Karin Østergaard; Kruse, Filip; Bjerrum, Merete

    2005-01-01

    with the nutritional care.The patients includeed a total of 91 medical inpatients at two internal medical wards, aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Their average age was 72 (+/-) 11 yerars. They were individually interviewed about the fodd service ad the nutritinal care upon discharge.Patients satifaction...... with the meals was overall high (90%). About 80% found the meals to be very important, but they lacked information about the food service, and the patient-staff communication about the food service was poor. The reults indicate that the nursing staff was exercising a 'knowledge monopoly' in relation to the food...... service. In conclusion, a majority of the patients dis not perceive the nutritional care as part of the therapy and nursing care during their hospitalization....

  17. Unhealthy lifestyle practices and medical-care costs in the military

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Timothy H.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The majority of all medical illnesses, and associated costs. can be prevented through personal decisions not to use unhealthy lifest)·Je practices (e.g., smoking. not exercising). A statistical analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a cost impact on medical care as a result of military· personnel engaging in unhealthy lifestyle practices. The approach taken for this anal...

  18. Medical students as health coaches, and more: adding value to both education and patient care

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Raymond H.

    2017-01-01

    New ways of thinking about medicine and health care demand new methods in medical education. Over the past two decades, as both the practice and the study of medicine have become increasingly concerned with demonstrable outcomes, medical schools have developed new curricula in health systems science and are increasingly emphasizing students’ development and demonstration of skills essential to a systems-based, outcomes-oriented practice environment. Polak and colleagues recently reported the ...

  19. Factors influencing a nurse's decision to question medication administration in a neonatal clinical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Zimmer, Margo; Murdoch, Jamee

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence nurse's decisions to question concerning aspects of medication administration within the context of a neonatal clinical care unit. Medication error in the neonatal setting can be high with this particularly vulnerable population. As the care giver responsible for medication administration, nurses are deemed accountable for most errors. However, they are recognised as the forefront of prevention. Minimal evidence is available around reasoning, decision making and questioning around medication administration. Therefore, this study focuses upon addressing the gap in knowledge around what nurses believe influences their decision to question. A critical incident design was employed where nurses were asked to describe clinical incidents around their decision to question a medication issue. Nurses were recruited from a neonatal clinical care unit and participated in an individual digitally recorded interview. One hundred and three nurses participated between December 2013-August 2014. Use of the constant comparative method revealed commonalities within transcripts. Thirty-six categories were grouped into three major themes: 'Working environment', 'Doing the right thing' and 'Knowledge about medications'. Findings highlight factors that influence nurses' decision to question issues around medication administration. Nurses feel it is their responsibility to do the right thing and speak up for their vulnerable patients to enhance patient safety. Negative dimensions within the themes will inform planning of educational strategies to improve patient safety, whereas positive dimensions must be reinforced within the multidisciplinary team. The working environment must support nurses to question and ultimately provide safe patient care. Clear and up to date policies, formal and informal education, role modelling by senior nurses, effective use of communication skills and a team approach can facilitate nurses to

  20. The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crampton Peter

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. Methods The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners. Results At its peak (week 4 the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88% would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%, and then premature death (4%. Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64% of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%, hospitalisation (4%, and then premature death (1%. Conclusion Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.

  1. The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael; Crampton, Peter; Mansoor, Osman

    2005-08-11

    Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta) was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners). At its peak (week 4) the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88%) would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%), and then premature death (4%). Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64%) of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%), hospitalisation (4%), and then premature death (1%). Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.

  2. Medical tourism in plastic surgery: ethical guidelines and practice standards for perioperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Matthew L; Verma, Kapil; Ashktorab, Samaneh; Davison, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this review was to identify the safety and medical care issues that surround the management of patients who had previously undergone medical care through tourism medicine. Medical tourism in plastic surgery occurs via three main referral patterns: macrotourism, in which a patient receives treatments abroad; microtourism, in which a patient undergoes a procedure by a distant plastic surgeon but requires postoperative and/or long-term management by a local plastic surgeon; and specialty tourism, in which a patient receives plastic surgery from a non-plastic surgeon. The ethical practice guidelines of the American Medical Association, International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and American Board of Plastic Surgeons were reviewed with respect to patient care and the practice of medical tourism. Safe and responsible care should start prior to surgery, with communication and postoperative planning between the treating physician and the accepting physician. Complications can arise at any time; however, it is the duty and ethical responsibility of plastic surgeons to prevent unnecessary complications following tourism medicine by adequately counseling patients, defining perioperative treatment protocols, and reporting complications to regional and specialty-specific governing bodies. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  3. A medical assistant-based program to promote healthy behaviors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Robert L; Mody-Bailey, Priti; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Gott, Sherrie; Araujo, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Most primary care patients have at least 1 major behavioral risk: smoking, risky drinking, low physical activity, or unhealthy diet. We studied the effectiveness of a medical assistant-based program to identify and refer patients with risk behaviors to appropriate interventions. We undertook a randomized control trial in a practice-based research network. The trial included 864 adult patients from 6 primary care practices. Medical assistants screened patients for 4 risk behaviors and applied behavior-specific algorithms to link patients with interventions. Primary outcomes were improved risk behaviors on standardized assessments. Secondary outcomes included participation in a behavioral intervention and the program's effect on the medical assistants' workflow and job satisfaction. Follow-up data were available for 55% of participants at a mean of 12 months. The medical assistant referral arm referred a greater proportion of patients than did usual care (67.4 vs 21.8%; P effects on program adoption. Engaging more primary care team members to address risk behaviors improved referral rates. More extensive medical assistant training, changes in practice culture, and sustained behavioral interventions will be necessary to improve risk behavior outcomes.

  4. Improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for android medical care IOT using modified parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chiang, Yen-Chun

    2012-12-01

    This study examines wireless sensor network with real-time remote identification using the Android study of things (HCIOT) platform in community healthcare. An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is proposed to efficiently enhance physiological multi-sensors data fusion measurement precision in the Internet of Things (IOT) system. Improved PSO (IPSO) includes: inertia weight factor design, shrinkage factor adjustment to allow improved PSO algorithm data fusion performance. The Android platform is employed to build multi-physiological signal processing and timely medical care of things analysis. Wireless sensor network signal transmission and Internet links allow community or family members to have timely medical care network services.

  5. Self-care and adherence to medication: a survey in the hypertension outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lip Gregory YH

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-care practices for patients with hypertension include adherence to medication, use of blood pressure self-monitoring and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAM The prevalence of CAM use and blood pressure self-monitoring have not been described in a UK secondary care population of patients with hypertension and their impact on adherence to medication has not been described. Adherence to medication is important for blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-care behaviours in patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. 196 patients attending a secondary care hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital serving a multiethnic population, Birmingham, UK. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of use of CAM, home monitors, adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Results CAM use in previous 12 months was reported by 66 (43.1% respondents. CAM users did not differ statistically from non-CAM users by age, gender, marital status or education. Vitamins, prayer a dietary supplements were the most commonly used CAM. Nine (12.7% women reported using herbal CAM compared to one man (1.2%, (p = 0.006. Ten (6.7% respondents reported ever being asked by a doctor about CAM use. Perfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication was reported by 26 (44.8% CAM-users and 46 (60.5% non-CAM users (p = 0.07. Being female and a CAM user was significantly associated with imperfect adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Older and white British respondents were significantly more likely to report perfect adherence. Blood pressure monitors were used by 67 (43.8% respondents, which was not associated with gender, CAM use or adherence to medication. Conclusion Hypertensive patients use a variety of self-care methods, including CAM, home blood pressure monitors, and adherence to prescribed medication. This study found the

  6. Health insurance and the demand for medical care: Instrumental variable estimates using health insurer claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Abe

    2016-07-01

    This paper takes a different approach to estimating demand for medical care that uses the negotiated prices between insurers and providers as an instrument. The instrument is viewed as a textbook "cost shifting" instrument that impacts plan offerings, but is unobserved by consumers. The paper finds a price elasticity of demand of around -0.20, matching the elasticity found in the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. The paper also studies within-market variation in demand for prescription drugs and other medical care services and obtains comparable price elasticity estimates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Censored Quantile Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Price Elasticity of Expenditure on Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Amanda

    2016-01-02

    Efforts to control medical care costs depend critically on how individuals respond to prices. I estimate the price elasticity of expenditure on medical care using a censored quantile instrumental variable (CQIV) estimator. CQIV allows estimates to vary across the conditional expenditure distribution, relaxes traditional censored model assumptions, and addresses endogeneity with an instrumental variable. My instrumental variable strategy uses a family member's injury to induce variation in an individual's own price. Across the conditional deciles of the expenditure distribution, I find elasticities that vary from -0.76 to -1.49, which are an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates.

  8. Teaching evidence-based medical care: description and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, R; Macaulay, A C; Warner, M

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes and evaluates several years of a seminar series designed to stimulate residents to seek evidence-based answers to their clinical questions and incorporate this evidence into practice. At the first session, 86 of 89 (97%) residents completed a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Post-course self-assessment questionnaires measured change from the first to the final seminar session in six domains of interest and skill, as well as residents' preferred sources of information for clinical problem solving up to 2 years after the course. Before the seminars, 48% of residents reported that textbooks were their most important source of information for solving clinical problems. A total of 58 of 75 (77%) residents completed the first post-course questionnaire. Residents reported significant increases in skill at formulating clinical questions and searching for evidence-based answers, appraising reviews, and deciding when and how to incorporate new findings into practice. Use of secondary sources of information such as "Best Evidence," moved up in importance from before the course to after the course. First-year family practice residents who completed our seminar series have reported increased skill at blending consideration of a clinical problem with the use of secondary sources of information to access evidence to support their health care decisions.

  9. The emotions of graduating medical students about prior patient care experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Alison S; Ross, Elizabeth; Chudgar, Saumil M; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Tulsky, James A; Shapiro, Dan

    2015-03-01

    To determine the emotional responses to patient care activities described by fourth year medical students. Qualitative content analysis for emerging themes in letters written by graduating medical students to patients during a Capstone Course. The patient need not be alive and the letter would never be sent. Six themes emerged from student letters: (1) Sorrow for the depths of patient suffering; (2) Gratitude towards patients and their families; (3) Personal responsibility for care provided to patients; (4) Regret for poor care provided by the student or student's team; (5) Shattered expectations about medicine and training; and (6) Anger towards patients. Students expressed sensitivity to vulnerable patients, including those who were alone, unable to communicate, or for whom care was biased. Students' expressed powerlessness (inability to cure, managing a work-life balance, and challenges with hierarchy) in some essays. At graduation, medical students describe strong emotions about previous patient care experiences, including difficulty witnessing suffering, disappointment with medicine, and gratitude to patients and their families Providing regular opportunities for writing throughout medical education would allow students to recognize their emotions, reflect upon them and promote wellness that would benefit students and their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Are medical marijuana users different from recreational users? The view from primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter; Maynard, Charles; Bumgardner, Kristin; Krupski, Antoinette; Dunn, Chris; West, Imara I; Donovan, Dennis; Atkins, David C; Ries, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana is currently approved for medical use in 23 states. Both clinicians and the lay public have questioned whether users of marijuana for medical purposes are different from users of marijuana for recreational purposes. This study examined similarities and differences in important clinical characteristics between users of medical marijuana and users of recreational marijuana. The sample consisted of 868 adult primary care patients in Washington State, who reported use of medical marijuana (n = 131), recreational marijuana (n = 525), or drugs other than marijuana (n = 212). Retention was over 87% at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month assessments. The majority of medical, psychiatric, substance use, and service utilization characteristic comparisons were not significant. However, medical marijuana users had significantly more medical problems, a significantly larger proportion reported >15 days medical problems in the past month, and significantly smaller proportions reported no pain and no mobility limitations (p marijuana users also had significantly lower drug problem severity, lower alcohol problem severity, and significantly larger proportions reported using marijuana alone and concomitant opioid use only (p marijuana with at least two additional substances (48% vs. 58%, respectively, p = .05). Although our results suggest that there are few distinct differences between medical and recreational users of marijuana, the differences observed, while mostly very small in effect size (marijuana to relieve symptoms and distress associated with medical illness. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Preparing for Electronic Medical Record Implementation: Carolina Care Communication in an Electronic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Tracy; Tonges, Mary; Ray, Joel

    2017-11-01

    This article describes 1 organization's successful approach to mitigating the potential negative effects of a new electronic medical record on patient experience. The Carolina Care model, developed at the University of North Carolina Hospitals to actualize caring theory in practice, helped to structure and greatly facilitate this work. Seven focus areas were integrated to create the "Communication in an Electronic Environment" program with a strong emphasis on nurse-patient communication.

  12. Medical Device Innovation in the Era of the Affordable Care Act: The End of Sexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Liu, Hangsheng; Orr, Patrick

    2016-06-20

    In this article, the authors explore why medical device innovation has traditionally been geared so thoroughly toward improving performance, with little regard to cost. They argue that the changing incentives in the health care sector and the move to value-based payment models, accelerated by the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, will force device manufacturers to redirect investments from the spectacular toward the prudent, which they dub "the end of sexy." The authors explore consequences for manufacturers, investors, and policymakers.

  13. Patients' family satisfaction with needs met at the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-05-01

    The current study investigated the perceived importance and the perceived met needs of family members in the medical intensive