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Sample records for sought depressed people

  1. Falls and depression in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, Alin; Toubin, Sandrine; Mourey, France; D'Athis, Philippe; Manckoundia, Patrick; Pfitzenmeyer, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common risk factors for falls, but links between falls and depression are still unclear. Few studies have examined the relationship between depression and gait alteration, which may increase the risk of fall. This study aims to assess a possible relationship between depression, postural and gait abnormalities, and falls. We conducted a 1-year prospective study on patients >/=70 years who were admitted to a geriatric unit for 'spontaneous' unexplained falls. Patients were tested for depression using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Their motor performances were assessed using the Mini Motor Test (MMT), which is an easy direct-observation test, validated in France, for assessment of frail old people who present with severe postural and gait impairment. This scale is composed of 4 categories of items: (1) abilities in bed; (2) quality of the sitting position; (3) abilities in the standing position, and (4) quality of gait. Sixty-nine patients were included. Depression was found in 46 patients (66.7%). The MMT score was higher in the non-depressed fallers (NDF) group (GDS 10; p predispose to falls. In clinical practice, more attention should be given to old fallers concerning diagnosis and treatment of associated depression. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60–70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition...... acceptance. This could lead to clinical benefits in fast-paced speciality HIV care settings and better management of depression in HIV-positive patients....

  3. Persuading people with depression to seek help: respect the boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D

    2013-01-01

    People with depression are likely to process information with a negative bias when confronted with self-relevant information. Accordingly, we feared exposing depressed people to a public service announcement (PSA) addressing the stigma of depression would possibly boomerang and result in less intention to seek help and in increased self-stigma. College students (N = 271; Mage  = 22.51, SD = 4.71; 63.1% female; 37.3% White, 31.9% Hispanic, 12.9% Asian, 6.8% multiethnic, 3.4% Black, 7.6% other) were randomly assigned to receive a print ad focused on depression or a nonrelevant comparison ad. A paper-and-pencil survey consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Self-Stigma of Seeking Help scale, help-seeking intentions, and demographics followed. Regression analysis indicated that viewing a depression ad caused people with greater depressive symptoms to experience greater levels of self-stigma than depressed people exposed to a nonrelevant comparison ad. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that for individuals who viewed a depression PSA, self-stigma mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and professional help-seeking intentions. While this current study offers no direct evidence in regard to the utility of current and past depression campaigns, results indicate a definite need for caution when developing materials targeting people with depression to seek help.

  4. Integrating care for people with depression: developments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Adri H.; Leeuw, Rob J. de; Schrijvers, Guus J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we describe the history and present state of integrated care for people with depression in the Netherlands. The central question is: what are the developments in integrated care for people with depression in the Netherlands?Methods: We describe these developments from

  5. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People.

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    Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  6. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Nazir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared people with depressive symp¬toms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts.Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggres¬sion Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression.Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimen-sions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  7. Supporting people with diabetes related\\ud stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gillibrand, Warren P.; Holdich, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes can have a significant detrimental impact on wellbeing and psychological functioning. Warren Gillibrand and Phil Holdich explain how practice nurses can help people with diabetes deal with stress or depressive illness

  8. Interventions to improve return to work in depressed people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Faber, Babs; Verbeek, Jos H.; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela; Hees, Hiske L.; Verhoeven, Arco C.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Bültmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Work disability such as sickness absence is common in people with depression. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing work disability in employees with depressive disorders. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until January 2014.

  9. Physical (in)activity and depression in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink-Vossen, S.; Collard, R.M.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; de Vocht, H.M.; Naarding, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about characteristics explaining low level of physical activity in late-life depression is needed to develop specific interventions aimed at improving physical health in depressed people above the age of 60. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Netherlands Study

  10. Ethnicity, social support, and depression among elderly chilean people

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; Barrón López de Roda, Ana; Arias Astray, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Vario...

  11. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known h...

  12. Gordon's model applied to nursing care of people with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, M; Kutlu, F Y

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric nurses should consider the patient's biological, psychological and social aspects. Marjory Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model ensures a holistic approach for the patient. To examine the effectiveness of Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model in reducing depressive symptoms, increasing self-efficacy, coping with depression and increasing hope in people with depression. A quasi-experimental two-group pre-test and post-test design was adopted. Data were collected from April 2013 to May 2014 from people with depression at the psychiatry clinic of a state hospital in Turkey; they were assigned to the intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). The intervention group received nursing care according to Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model and routine care, while the control group received routine care only. The Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale were used. The intervention group had significantly lower scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale at the post-test and 3-month follow-up; they had higher scores on the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale at the 3-month follow-up when compared with the control group. The study was conducted at only one psychiatry clinic. The intervention and control group patients were at the clinic at the same time and influenced each other. Moreover, because clinical routines were in progress during the study, the results cannot only be attributed to nursing interventions. Nursing models offer guidance for the care provided. Practices based on the models return more efficient and systematic caregiving results with fewer health problems. Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model was effective in improving the health of people with depression and could be introduced as routine care with ongoing evaluation in psychiatric clinics. More research is needed to evaluate Gordon's Nursing Model effect on people with depression. Future

  13. Decision making in young people at familial risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, Z N; Williams, C; Browning, M; Cowen, P J

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is associated with abnormalities in reward processing at neural and behavioural levels. Neural abnormalities in reward have been described in young people at familial risk of depression but behavioural changes in reward-based decision making have been less studied in this group. We studied 63 young people (mean age 18.9 years) with a parent with a diagnosis of major depression but who had never been depressed themselves, that is with a positive family history of depression (the FH+ group). Participants performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), which provides several measures of decision making including deliberation time, quality of decision making, risk taking, risk adjustment and delay aversion. A control group of 49 age- and gender-matched young people with no history of mood disorder in a first-degree relative undertook the same task. Both FH+ participants and controls had low and equivalent scores on anxiety and depression self-rating scales. Compared to controls, the FH+ participants showed overall lower risk taking, although like controls they made more risky choices as the odds of a favourable outcome increased. No other measures of decision making differed between the two groups. Young people at increased familial risk of depression have altered risk taking that is not accounted for by current affective symptomatology. Lowered risk taking might represent an impairment in reward seeking, which is one of several changes in reward-based behaviours seen in acutely depressed patients; however, our findings suggest that decreased reward seeking could be part of a risk endophenotype for depression.

  14. Ethnicity, Social Support, and Depression Among Elderly Chilean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; López De Roda, Ana Barrón; Arias Astray, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Various dimensions of social support were considered: structural elements, functional social support according to source, and community participation. The results show the existence of significant differences in the characteristics and dimensions of social support depending on sex, ethnicity, and marital status. Further, the central role of the family group is observed for both Aymara and nonindigenous elderly people. The hierarchical regression models obtained result in notable differences in the role of the structural, functional, and community elements of support in explaining depression for the ethnic groups considered.

  15. Disability, depression and suicide ideation in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V M; Williams, K; KoKo, C; Woolmore, J; Jones, C; Powell, T

    2017-01-15

    Depressive symptoms occur frequently in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and rates of suicide ideation are higher than the general population. There is evidence for a direct association between disability and depression, disability and suicide ideation, and depression and suicide ideation in MS. However, the relationship between all three, i.e. the mediating role of depression between disability and suicidal ideation, has not been investigated. Exploring this relationship could highlight risk factors, alerting clinicians to the need for timely intervention. Seventy five people with progressive MS attending two out-patient clinics took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Beck Suicide Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale and Guy's Neurological Disability Scale. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between perceived and actual disability and suicide ideation. Different types of disability were associated with suicidality, including: 'tremors' and 'taking longer to do things'. A small sub-group of participants were identified who reported suicide ideation in the presence of only mild levels of depression. There may be a sample bias in this study as all participants were attending out-patient clinics and receiving support which may not be available to everyone with MS. It is important for clinicians to screen regularly for both depression and suicide ideation, to be alert to specific types of disability for which a higher level of suicide ideation might be present and to consider the possibility of suicidal thoughts being present in people who show minimal or no depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Meaning of Pharmacological Treatment for Families of People With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Souza, Jacqueline de; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Telles Filho, Paulo Celso Prado; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is related to patient satisfaction with family support. This research aimed to understand the meaning of pharmacotherapy to families of people with major depressive disorder. This qualitative study employed Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Seventeen families of people with depression from a Brazilian clinic were included. Data was collected from 2013 to 2014, using open interviews, which were analyzed by open, axial, and selective coding. Medication represented "Tranquility and worry" because it re-established tranquility in family routine, but generated concerns. Thus, families were conflicted and ambivalent about medications, and they interfered with the promotion or impairment of adherence.

  17. Migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression among people with IBS: a prevalence study

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    Cabral Howard J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case descriptions suggest IBS patients are more likely to have other disorders, including migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression. We sought to examine the prevalence of these conditions in cohorts of people with and without IBS. Methods The source of data was a large U.S. health plan from January 1, 1996 though June 30, 2002. We identified all people with a medical claim associated with an ICD-9 code for IBS. A non-IBS cohort was a random sample of people with an ICD-9 code for routine medical care. In the cohorts, we identified all claims for migraine, depression, and fibromyalgia. We estimated the prevalence odds ratios (PORs of each of the three conditions using the Mantel-Haenszel method. We conducted quantitative sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of residual confounding and in differential outcome identification. Results We identified 97,593 people in the IBS cohort, and a random sample of 27,402 people to compose the non-IBS comparison cohort. With adjustment, there was a 60% higher odds in the IBS cohort of having any one of the three disorders relative to the comparison cohort (POR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 – 1.7. There was a 40% higher odds of depression in the IBS cohort (POR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 – 1.4. The PORs for fibromyalgia and migraine were similar (POR for fibromyalgia 1.8, 95% CI 1.7 – 1.9; POR for migraine 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 – 1.7. Differential prevalence of an unmeasured confounder, or imperfect sensitivity or specificity of outcome detection would have impacted the observed results. Conclusion People in the IBS cohort had a 40% to 80% higher prevalence odds of migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression.

  18. The association between depression and health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Saima; Stone, Margaret; Skinner, Timothy Chas

    2010-01-01

    in people with type 2 diabetes. Articles for a systematic review were obtained via a search performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO (1980-2007). Fourteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies indicated that self-reported depressive symptoms markedly impaired HRQOL on several domains......The relationships between co-morbid depression in people with diabetes and adverse outcomes including poor HbA1c control, adherence to medication and mortality have been examined and confirmed. However, as the awareness of the decrement to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people...... with diabetes and its clinical consequences grows, investigators have become increasingly interested in measuring HRQOL in clinical trials. Given that the psychological factors such as depression may contribute to diminished HRQOL, the present review sought to summarize the association between these variables...

  19. Predictors of depression and life satisfaction in visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtović, Ana; Ivančić, Helena

    2017-12-18

    Visual impairment can lead loss of functional ability, necessity of accommodations and assistive technologies or having to rely on others for help. This can bring about feelings of sadness, dependency, inadequacy, and fear, which can put a person at risk for depression and affect one's satisfaction with life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors, disability-related factors, optimism, pessimism, self-esteem and social support on depression, and life satisfaction in visually impaired people. A total of 94 visually impaired people completed the measures of socio-demographic and disability-related characteristics, optimism and pessimism, self-esteem, social support, depression and life satisfaction, administered by the authors. Correlational and hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relations and test the model for predicting depression and life satisfaction. The results have shown that depression was negatively related to the level of education, optimism, self-liking, self-competence, support from friends, family and coworkers, and positively related to comorbidity and pessimism. Life satisfaction was positively related to education, socio-economic status, optimism, self-liking, self-competence and support from friends, family and coworkers, and negatively to pessimism. Results have further shown that depression levels were predicted by education, comorbidity, optimism and self-liking, and that self-liking mediated the relationship between optimism and depression. Life satisfaction was predicted by optimism, pessimism, self-liking, friends' support, and depression. Further analysis suggested that the path from optimism to life satisfaction goes through self-liking, friends' support, and depression. Pessimism showed indirect effects through self-liking but also had direct effects on life satisfaction. Focusing on optimism, pessimism, self-esteem, and social functioning of visually impaired is important in

  20. Integrating care for people with depression: developments in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri H. Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this article we describe the history and present state of integrated care for people with depression in the Netherlands. The central question is: what are the developments in integrated care for people with depression in the Netherlands?Methods: We describe these developments from the role of an observer, and make use of several sources: important Dutch policy documents and research documents, our own national survey carried out in 2007, a number of reports and project descriptions and searches in PubMed and Google. Also key people were contacted to supply additional information.Results: In the Netherlands two separate phases can be distinguished within integrated care for people with depression. From the beginning of the 1990s, specialized secondary Mental Health Care (MHC began to develop care programmes, including programmes for people with depression. The implementation of these care programmes has taken years. Mass usage of care programmes only went ahead once the large-scale mergers between ambulatory and clinical MHC organizations around 2000 had taken effect. An analysis of these programmes shows, that they did not lead to integration with primary care. This changed in the second phase from around 2000. Then attention was directed more towards strengthening the GP within the treatment of depression, collaboration between primary and specialized care and the development of collective integrated care packages.Discussion: We relate these developments to projects in other countries and discuss the scientific basis by using evidence of international literature reviews and metastudies. Some general recommendations are given about functional costing, the physical presence of MHC specialists in the primary care sector and the use of a common national standard for both primary care and specialized MHC.

  1. Group Rumination: Social Interactions Around Music in People with Depression

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    Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014

  2. Continuation and maintenance treatments for depression in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Philip; Izmeth, Zehanah

    2016-09-09

    Depressive illness is common in old age. Prevalence in the community of case level depression is around 15% and milder forms of depression are more common. It causes significant distress and disability. The number of people over the age of 60 years is expected to double by 2050 and so interventions for this often long-term and recurrent condition are increasingly important. The causes of late-life depression differ from depression in younger adults and so it is appropriate to study it separately.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2012. To examine the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapies in preventing the relapse and recurrence of depression in older people. We performed a search of the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's specialised register (the CCMDCTR) to 13 July 2015. The CCMDCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also conducted a cited reference search on 13 July 2015 of the Web of Science for citations of primary reports of included studies. Both review authors independently selected studies. We included RCTs involving people aged 60 years and over successfully treated for an episode of depression and randomised to receive continuation and maintenance treatment with antidepressants, psychological therapies, or a combination. Two review authors independently extracted data. The primary outcome for benefit was recurrence rate of depression (reaching a cut-off on any depression rating scale) at 12 months and the primary outcome for harm was drop-outs at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included relapse/recurrence rates at other time points, global impression of change, social functioning, and deaths. We performed meta-analysis using risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence

  3. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kiki Gustryanti; Sunanta Thongpat; Sonthaya Maneerat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cima...

  4. Depressive symptoms and depression in people screened positive for dementia in primary care - results of the DelpHi-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Reimann, Melanie; Wucherer, Diana; Dreier, Adina; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Dementia and depression are common syndromes in the elderly. There is lack of knowledge concerning the frequency of depressive symptoms in people with dementia (PWD) and factors associated with depression. The aim of this analysis is to (a) describe the frequency of depressive symptoms in people screened positive for dementia, (b) describe differences between PWD with and without depressive symptoms, and (c) analyze associations between depressive symptoms and other dementia-related variables. Analyses are based on data of the GP-based intervention trial DelpHi-MV. A sample of 430 (6.29%) people screened positive for dementia in primary care was analyzed regarding depression according to the German version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, 15-items), demographic variables, and dementia/depression-related variables. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The mean GDS-score of depressive symptoms in n = 430 PWD was m = 3.21 (SD 2.45) with 67 PWD (15.55%) showing clinically relevant depression (GDS depression and n = 62 (14.42%) received antidepressive drug treatment. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with age (OR = 0.93), functional impairment (OR = 1.36), and quality of life (OR = 0.01, CI: 0.00-0.06). Our results support previous findings that clinically relevant depressive symptoms are more common in people screened positive for dementia than in the general population and are often missed or mismanaged. Our findings underline the importance of managing quality of life, functional status, or depressive symptoms. Also, the results highlight the benefit of including the partner (and probably other carers) for adequate treatment of PWD.

  5. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  6. Use of health services in people with multiple sclerosis with and without depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Lundqvist, Sanna; Johansson, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To organize tailored healthcare for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), knowledge about patterns in the use of healthcare among subgroups, such as those with depressive symptoms, is essential. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare the use of health services...... in people with MS and depressive symptoms, and without depressive symptoms over a period of 30 months. METHODS: Data on the use of health services by 71 people with MS and depressive symptoms, and 102 with no depressive symptoms were collected from a computerised register and by interview, then categorized....... CONCLUSIONS: The issues underlying the differences in the use of healthcare need to be explored further, as well as the plausible implications for the organization of healthcare services for people with MS and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the life situations of caregivers of people with MS and depressive...

  7. An exploratory analysis of factors associated with depression in a vulnerable group of young people living in informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Govender, Kaymarlin; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-07-01

    Depression amongst young people is a major health challenge and is often shaped by social marginalisation. Informal settlements are growing rapidly. There is a need to deepen understandings of depression amongst young people in these contexts. We sought to understand factors associated with depressive symptomology amongst 232 young people (122 women, 110 men) aged 18-30 in urban informal settlements in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected for the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures pilot. Logistic regression modelled relationships between depressive symptomology, livelihoods and violence. Symptomatic depression in this population was 49.5% for men and 57.9% for women. In multiple regression, depression in men was associated with stealing because of hunger (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 5.78, p = .03), being more controlling in relationships (aOR 0.81, p = .008) and being more ashamed about lack of work (aOR 0.75, p = .01). For women, depressive symptoms were associated with greater stress about lack of work (aOR 0.72, p < .0001) and food insecurity (aOR 5.57, p = .039). The study emphasises that socio-economic factors, shaped by local understandings of gender, play a significant role in depressive symptomology. We suggest reducing economic distress may have an important role in reducing depression in this population.

  8. Musical Neurofeedback for Treating Depression in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eRamirez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new neurofeedback approach, which allows users to manipulate expressive parameters in music performances using their emotional state, and present the results of a pilot clinical experiment applying the approach to alleviate depression in elderly people. Ten adults (9 female, mean=84, SD=5.8 with normal hearing participated in the neurofeedback study consisting of 10 sessions of 15 minutes each. EEG data was acquired using the Emotiv EPOC EEG device. In all sessions, participants listened to music pieces preselected according to their music preferences, and were encouraged to increase the loudness and tempo of the pieces, based on their arousal and valence levels. Increased arousal, computed as beta to alpha activity ratio in the frontal cortex corresponded to increased loudness, and increased valence, computed as relative frontal alpha activity in the right lobe compared to the left lobe, corresponded to increased tempo. Pre and post evaluation of 6 participants was performed using the BDI depression test, showing an average improvement of 17.2% (1.3 in their BDI scores at the end of the study. In addition, an analysis of the collected EEG data of the participants showed a significant decrease of relative alpha activity in their left frontal lobe.

  9. Depression and anxiety disorder among epileptic people at Amanuel Specialized Mental Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare

    2015-09-02

    Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among epileptic people were 33.5 and 32.8%, respectively. Monthly income, frequency of seizure and side effects of anti convulsants were found to be significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. Being divorced/widowed was associated with anxiety while using poly-therapy of anti convulsants, perceived stigma, and inability to read or write were associated with depression. The prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression was found to be high among people with epilepsy. Early identification of co-morbid depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy and managing epilepsy to become seizure free should be of great concern for health care providers.

  10. Prevalence of People Showing over Threshold Depressive Symptom in 40 Years and Over Aged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tozun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of threshold over depressive symptoms and to determine depression related risk factors among 40 years and over aged population in Kaymaz municipality of Sivrihisar county of Eskisehir city. MATERIAL-METHOD: This cross-sectional study was done from May 1st to June 30th 2007. In the study sample, there were 269 (50.1% men, 268 (49.9 % women, and total 537 people. The mean age of the study sample was 59.94 ± 10.94 year, and the range was 40 - 87 years. The questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and some depression related risk factors was filled out by interview Beck Depression Scale was used in determination of depression. Chi-square test was used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Prevalence of people showing over threshold depressive symptoms was found 15.1% (n=81 in the study sample. Prevalence of people showing over threshold depressive symptoms was found significantly higher among women, unemployed people, uninsured people, smokers, people with physical defect, people with chronic disease, people with living negative event that is effect to his/her life in the last month, and people with family history of depression (for each one p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In the end of this study, it was suggested that health education for preventive precautions of depression in adults, frequent periodic screening for early diagnosis and treatment of depression, and directed to specialist doctors of people with depression should be made. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 485-490

  11. Self-worth therapy used to help older people manage depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-05

    Depression is very common in older people in western countries. It can be treated with anti-depressants but the safety of drug therapy in older people is questionable due to age-related changes in the way drugs are stored and eliminated by the body.

  12. The Diagnosis of Depression in People with Severe Limitations in Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Haleigh; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) were once considered immune to developing psychopathology, including affective disorders such as depression. Now research has shown that people with ID do suffer from depression, and the focus is on understanding how to best diagnose and provide treatment. Research has come a long way in adapting the…

  13. Anxiety and depression symptoms in young people with perinatally acquired HIV and HIV affected young people in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prevost, Marthe; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Melvin, Diane; Parrott, Francesca; Foster, Caroline; Ford, Deborah; Evangeli, Michael; Winston, Alan; Sturgeon, Kate; Rowson, Katie; Gibb, Diana M; Judd, Ali

    2018-03-04

    Adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) may be at higher risk of anxiety and depression than HIV negative young people. We investigated prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in 283 PHIV and 96 HIV-affected (HIV-negative) young people in England recruited into the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort. We used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and linear regression investigated predictors of higher (worse) scores.115 (41%) and 29 (30%) PHIV and HIV-affected young people were male, median age was 16 [interquartile range 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years and 241 (85%) and 71 (74%) were black African, respectively. There were no differences in anxiety and depression scores between PHIV and HIV-affected participants. Predictors of higher anxiety scores were a higher number of carers in childhood, speaking a language other than English at home, lower self-esteem, ever thinking life was not worth living and lower social functioning. Predictors of higher depression scores were male sex, death of one/both parents, school exclusion, lower self-esteem and lower social functioning. In conclusion, HIV status was not associated with anxiety or depression scores, but findings highlight the need to identify and support young people at higher risk of anxiety and depression..

  14. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Gustryanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cimahi. The instruments comprised socio-demographic questionnaires, General Health Perceptions questionnaire, Chula Activities of Daily Living Index (CADLI, and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic, chi-square, and point-biserial. Results: The result revealed that 56.2% respondents was no depression and 43.8% respondents was depression. The results also showed that age, marital status, family history of depression, perceived health status, and activities of daily living was significant relationship with depression a mong older people (p<.01; p<.05. Conclusion: This finding can be used as a reference to implement new strategies to decrease depression among older people.

  15. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  16. Impact of Food Insecurity on Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-HCV Co-infected People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibibula, Wusiman; Cox, Joseph; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Moodie, Erica E M; Naimi, Ashley I; McLinden, Taylor; Klein, Marina B; Brassard, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) is associated with depressive symptoms among HIV mono-infected people. Our objective was to examine to what extent this association holds among HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected people. We used data from a prospective cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected people in Canada. FI was measured using the ten-item adult scale of Health Canada's Household Food Security Survey Module and was classified into three categories: food secure, moderate FI, and severe FI. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and was classified into absence or presence of depressive symptoms. FI, depressive symptoms, and other covariates were updated every 6 months. The association between FI and depressive symptoms was assessed using a stabilized inverse probability weighted marginal structural model. The study sample included 725 HIV-HCV co-infected people with 1973 person-visits over 3 years of follow up. At baseline, 23% of participants experienced moderate food insecurity, 34% experienced severe food insecurity and 52% had depressive symptoms. People experiencing moderate FI had 1.63 times (95% CI 1.44-1.86) the risk of having depressive symptoms and people experiencing severe FI had 2.01 times (95% CI 1.79-2.25) the risk of having depressive symptoms compared to people who were food secure. FI is a risk factor for developing depressive symptoms among HIV-HCV co-infected people. Food supplementation, psychosocial support and counseling may improve patient health outcomes.

  17. A study of intent of suicide in people with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashish Shukla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is most important underlying diagnosis among the cases of suicide. There is dearth of information regarding suicidal intent among people of depression and its relationship with hopelessness among Indians. Aims & Objective: To describe the intent of suicide in people with depression among the north Indian population. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at department of psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. Subjects between age group of 18-60 years with major depressive disorder as per DSM-IV TR criteria were screened and included in the study. Each subject was assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRS, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS and Suicide Intent Questionnaire (SIQ. Results: Suicidal intent was observed among 68.1% (n=49 of sample (n=72. There was no significant (p>0.05 association of suicidal intent with socio-demographic factors except domicile status. Suicidal intent was common among people with moderate to severe depression and those with hopelessness. The hopelessness was present among 70.8% of subjects. Conclusion: Suicidal intent is common among people with major depression. The authors emphasize the need of exploration of suicidal intent in people with depression.

  18. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among People Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validated Patient Health, Duke University of North Carolina functional social support questionnaires were used as interviewer-administered tools. The study revealed 14.4% prevalence of depression, with the mild category (9.5%) as the predominant subtype. Factors associated with the risk of developing depression ...

  19. Vaikoloa: Understanding depression in Tokelauan people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Iain; Cunningham, Wayne; Jaye, Chrystal

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND The Tokelauan language lacks a word for 'depression' and this can make diagnosing and treating depression in Tokelauan patients difficult for general practitioners. AIMS To describe the experience of depression in Tokelauans and thereby assist diagnosis and treatment of the illness. METHOD Ten semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. The transcripts were thematically analysed using an immersion crystallisation technique. RESULTS An illness involving profound sadness exists in the Tokelauan culture. Tokelauans recognise isolation and withdrawal from family and community activities as indicators of extreme sadness. Privacy and pride are important cultural characteristics, which may be barriers to recognising sadness. Often the smiling Tokelauan face becomes the mask hiding sadness. CONCLUSION This research demonstrates the complexity of relationships between patients, their illness and their culture, that impacts on how depression manifests. This research indicates that therapy must have a whole person approach involving family, church, community and patients' spiritual beliefs. KEYWORDS Depression; Pacific health.

  20. Development of practice principles for the management of ongoing suicidal ideation in young people diagnosed with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon M; Simmons, Magenta B; Bailey, Alan P; Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E; Davey, Christopher G; Phelan, Mark; Blaikie, Simon; Edwards, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of clear guidance regarding the management of ongoing suicidality in young people experiencing major depressive disorder. This study utilised an expert consensus approach in identifying practice principles to complement relevant clinical guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder in young people. The study also sought to outline a broad treatment framework for clinical intervention with young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. In-depth focus groups were undertaken with a specialist multidisciplinary clinical team (the Youth Mood Clinic at Orygen Youth Health Clinical Program, Melbourne) working with young people aged 15-25 years experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Each focus group was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim using orthographic conventions. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were used to analyse and code the resultant data. The identified codes were subsequently synthesised into eight practice principles reflecting engagement and consistency of care, ongoing risk assessment and documentation, individualised crisis planning, engaging systems of support, engendering hopefulness, development of adaptive coping, management of acute risk, and consultation and supervision. The identified practice principles provide a broad management framework, and may assist to improve treatment consistency and clinical management of young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. The practice principles may be of use to health professionals working within a team-based setting involved in the provision of care, even if peripherally, to young people with ongoing suicidal ideation. Findings address the lack of treatment consistency and shared terminology and may provide containment and guidance to multidisciplinary clinicians working with this at-risk group.

  1. Leisure Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older People: A National Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore older people's subjective leisure experiences and to further examine associations of such experiences with their depressive symptoms in Taiwan. Known correlates of depression, such as demographics, physical health, and social support, were taken into account. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using…

  2. The Relationship Between Disability and Variables of Depression, Cognitive Status, and Morale Among Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Disability in older people had a significant relationship with their depression, cognitive status, and morale. Thus, the degree of their disability can be lowered by prevention and early treatment of depression, promotion of memory, delaying cognitive disorders, as well as providing morale enhancement programs, creating a positive attitude toward old age, and increasing life satisfaction in older people

  3. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  4. Depression symptoms in people with diabetes attending outpatient podiatry clinics for the treatment of foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Sue; Nash, Toni; Ireland, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management, and quality of life in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Ulcer status, mortality and amputations were also assessed at six months follow-up. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of people attending outpatient podiatry clinics at a major tertiary referral hospital. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Diabetes self-care was ass...

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  6. Depression among older people in Sri Lanka: With special reference to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltar, Amartuvshin; Priyadarshani, Neelawala Gw; Delpitiya, Nisansala Y; Jayasinghe, Chandrika; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2017-12-01

    To ascertain if the factors associated with depression differ among ethnic groups in community-dwelling older people in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was carried out of people aged ≥60 years living in a single divisional secretariat of Kandy District. The participants were asked about ethnicity (Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim), sociodemographic characteristics and depression status by face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Depression was measured by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the total score of ≥6 was considered as depression. The χ 2 -test and multivariate logistic regression with two-way interaction terms between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity were carried out. Participants (n = 778) consisted of 56.6% Sinhalese, 22.1% Tamils and 21.3% Muslims. Of the participants, the prevalence of depression was 31.8% (27.3% in Sinhalese, 42.1% in Tamils and 32.9% in Muslims). Multivariate analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity. However, low economic status, low perceived social support and more than two self-reported diseases were significantly associated with depression in all ethnic groups. Some factors were found to be significantly associated with depression, but did not differ among ethnic groups. The findings would help practitioners to identify older people with a high risk of depression, and to intervene in its development or exacerbation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2414-2420. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Depression in people, that live with HIV in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoshka Fasce Cayo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the depression in a group 55 adults (14 women and 41 men who live with VJH, between 18 and 58 years, oflow and medium low socioeconomic leve! which attend public health centers, NGO and mutual support groups (MSG of Lima. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to study the level of depression, as well as the five factors found in this population.The descriptive results were correlated with the following demographic variables: age,sex, time of diagnosis, the presence or absence of symptoms associated to VIH, the participationor not in a MSG, sexual orientation and sex. Results indicated that depression varies depending on whether the person belongs or not to a MSG, sex and sexual orientation.

  8. Social identity shapes stress appraisals in people with a history of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Alexandra; Martin, Peter; Kaufmehl, Jan; Heinrichs, Markus; Domes, Gregor; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Ingroup perception or the views people with depression have about their group, may influence their vulnerability to social identity threat and lead to enhanced stress reactions and impaired performance. It is unclear how ingroup perception can influence stress appraisals in performance situations among people with a history of depression who are currently in remission. We investigated the impact of ingroup perception on primary stress appraisal, i.e. how threatening a test situation is perceived, as well as on secondary stress appraisal, or perceived coping resources. Sixty people with a history of depression and currently in remission underwent computerized performance tests. Ingroup perception (group identification, group value and entitativity) and stress appraisals were assessed by self-report. In multiple linear regressions higher group identification predicted stronger perception of the situation as stressful if participants perceived people with depression as a coherent group (high entitativity) and held this group in low regard (low group value). In turn, stronger group identification was related to more perceived coping resources especially if participants did not regard people with depression as a coherent group. Our findings highlight the relevance of ingroup perception for stress and coping processes in people with a history of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of foreign caregiving on depression among older people in Taiwan: model testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chia-Yi; Schepp, Karen G

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a study of predicting the factors that influence depression in the older people in Taiwan. Background.  In 1991, Taiwan opened the labour market to foreign caregivers for the older people who needed long-term care. With the differences in language, culture and lifestyle between foreign caregivers and older people in Taiwan, it was hypothesized that the older people would not be able to relate to them, and therefore become depressed.   The data were collected from 116 Taiwanese older people from July to September, 2005. Path analysis using multiple regression analyses was conducted to estimate the direct and indirect effects of caregiving communication, activities of daily living, income and social support on depression among older people in Taiwan. To evaluate the hypotheses for this research, bi-variate linear regression and multiple regression analyses were used.   The results indicated that the level of activities of daily living (β = -0·201, P = 0·010), care-giving communication (β = -0·272, P = 0·002) income (β = -0·305, P = 0·000) and social support (β = -0·276, P = 0·002) were the predictors of depression in older people in Taiwan. Social support was a mediating factor for caregiving communication and depression. Furthermore, foreign caregiver care was not correlated with depression among older people in Taiwan.   The findings influence the public awareness of depression in older people, and provide the foundational information to influence the policy makers of Taiwan to evaluate the foreign caregiver policy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Associations between the dimensions of perceived togetherness, loneliness, and depressive symptoms among older Finnish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynnönen, Katja; Rantanen, Taina; Kokko, Katja; Tiikkainen, Pirjo; Kallinen, Mauri; Törmäkangas, Timo

    2017-07-06

    We studied the associations between perceived togetherness, depressive symptoms, and loneliness over a six-month period among 222 people aged 75-79 who reported loneliness or depressive mood at baseline. The present cross-lagged models utilized baseline and six-month follow-up data of a randomized controlled trial that examined the effects of a social intervention on loneliness and depression (ISRCTN78426775). Dimensions of perceived togetherness, i.e. attachment, social integration, guidance, alliance, nurturance, and reassurance of worth, were measured with the Social Provisions Scale, depressive symptoms with a short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale, and loneliness with a single item. After controlling for baseline loneliness and depressive symptoms, baseline higher attachment in all participants and baseline higher opportunity for nurturance in the social intervention group predicted lower depressive mood at follow-up. No cross-lagged associations between the dimensions of perceived togetherness at baseline and loneliness at follow-up were observed. In addition, depressive symptoms and loneliness at baseline tended to negatively predict the dimensions of perceived togetherness at follow-up. Depressive symptoms and loneliness appear to be precursor for perceived togetherness, rather than dimensions of perceived togetherness to be antecedents of loneliness and depressiveness among older people.

  11. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  12. Depression among older people in Europe: the EURODEP studies

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, John RM; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Braam, Arjan W; Dewey, Michael E; Delespaul, Philippe; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Hooijer, Christopher; Lawlor, Brian A; Kivela, Sirkka-Liisa; Lobo, Anthony; Magnusson, Halgrimur; Mann, Anthony H; Meller, Ingeborg; Prince, Martin J; Reischies, Friedel

    2004-01-01

    The data from nine centres in Europe which had used the Geriatric Mental Scale (GMS) AGECAT were analysed to compare prevalence of diagnoses in subjects aged 65 years and over living in the community. Levels of depressive illness were: Iceland 8.8%, Liverpool 10.0%; Zaragoza 10.7%; Dublin 11.9%; Amsterdam 12.0%; Berlin 16.5%; London 17.3%; Verona 18.3% and Munich 23.6%. Taking all levels of depression, five high (Amsterdam, Berlin, Munich, London and Verona) and four low (Du...

  13. Understandings of depression: an interview study of Yoruba, Bangladeshi and White British people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Hilary; Khondoker, Abul Hussain; Jones, Roger

    2006-12-01

    Depression remains a major public health problem, but little is known about the views and understandings of depression held by many ethnic groups. Aim. To explore views and understandings of depression in three ethnic groups-Yoruba, Sylheti-speaking Bangladeshi and White British-living in South London. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews, using vignettes describing depressed individuals. General practice and the community in Southwark, South London, UK. Participants. 20 Yoruba, 20 Bangladeshi and 20 White British people, recruited from primary care. Interviews (in English for Yoruba and White British, in Sylheti for the Bangladeshi participants) were recorded and transcribed. Atlas ti software was used to organize the data. Views on the causes and cures for depression were diverse. A diagnosis of depression can have adverse social consequences in all groups. Magic had a role in both causation and cure in the Yoruba and to a lesser extent in the Bangladeshi groups. Religion was important for many people in all groups. Family factors were dominant in the Bangladeshi participants, whilst the White British often identified more 'psychological' causes of depression. Coping methods and health-seeking behaviours included religion, family, friends and neighbours, and becoming more active. Formal psychiatric interventions and taking antidepressants were not priorities. Cultural models of depression, including its causes and treatment, are diverse, and are different among cultural groups. This study raises questions about the value of Western approaches to mild and moderate depression in these groups of patients.

  14. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  15. The Effect of Participation in Support Groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimers: Randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Taati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.

  16. Depressive symptoms and social support among people living with HIV in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Caihong; Ruan, Ye; Li, Xianhong; Fennie, Kristopher; Williams, Ann B

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, China. Sixty-two percent (n = 309) of participants scored 16 or more on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, indicating moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms. Independent predictors of depressive symptoms included active heroin use, lack of a stable job, female gender, and limited social support. These data suggest that interventions addressing depressive symptoms should be included in HIV care programs provided by the Chinese government, with a special focus on PLWH who are heroin users, female, unemployed, or socially isolated. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of music on depression in older people: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Wong, Zi Yang; Onishi, Hideaki; Thayala, Naidu Vellasamy

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of music on depression levels in older adults. Background.  Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in older adults, and its impacts on this group of people, along with its conventional treatment, merit our attention. Conventional pharmacological methods might result in dependence and impairment in psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Listening to music, which is a non-pharmacological method, might reduce depression. A randomised controlled study. The study was conducted from July 2009-June 2010 at participants' home in Singapore. In total, 50 older adults (24 using music and 26 control) completed the study after being recruited. Participants listened to their choice of music for 30 minutes per week for eight weeks. Depression scores were collected once a week for eight weeks. Depression levels reduced weekly in the music group, indicating a cumulative dose effect, and a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the music group compared with non-music group. Listening to music can help older people to reduce their depression level. Music is a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive therapeutic method of improving life quality in community-dwelling older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Depression and a sense of coherence in case of people with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kurowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety and depressive disorders belong to the most prevalent mental diseases. Concomitance of anx‑ iety and depression is very strongly correlated with increased sense of guilt, low self-esteem and hopelessness, which significantly contributes to worse social functioning. The sense of coherence (SOC is a factor which influences the ability to cope with stress and is inseparably related with health. A high level of SOC makes people more self-confi‑ dent and gives them strength to fight with the disease. Aim: Defining the correlation between the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression in people treated for anxiety disorders, as a determinant having an influence on maintaining the optimal health. Material and methods: The research was carried out among 96 patients treated in the Anxiety and Affective Disorders Ward in Bydgoszcz. The sense of coherence was assessed using Antonovsky’s Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29 and the level of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results: People suffering from anxiety disorders have a low level of the sense of coherence and a high level of depression. A strong negative correlation was found between the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression: with a lower level of the sense of coherence the level of depression grows and vice versa. Conclusions: The obtained results may significantly affect the level of understanding and accepting the people with anxiety disor‑ ders. Determining the level of the sense of coherence and the level of depression may have a significant impact on therapy and may be used as a determinant in prediction and planning of the care for the patient.

  19. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=-1.99). The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus, this program should be scaled up and

  20. Frailty and incident depression in community-dwelling older people: results from the ELSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Maggi, Stefania; Noale, Marianna; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Prina, A Matthew; Fornaro, Michele; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-01

    Frailty and pre-frailty are two common conditions in the older people, but whether these conditions could predict depression is still limited to a few longitudinal studies. In this paper, we aimed to investigate whether frailty and pre-frailty are associated with an increased risk of depression in a prospective cohort of community-dwelling older people. Four thousand seventy-seven community-dwelling men and women over 60 years without depression at baseline were included from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Frailty status was defined according to modified Fried's criteria (weakness, weight loss, slow gait speed, low physical activity and exhaustion) and categorized as frailty (≥3 criteria), pre-frailty (1-2 criteria) or robustness (0 criterion). Depression was diagnosed as ≥4 out of 8 points of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, after 2 years of follow-up. Over a 2-year follow-up, 360 individuals developed depression. In a logistic regression analysis, adjusted for 18 potential baseline confounders, pre-frailty (odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.46; p = 0.64) and frailty (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.90-1.64; p = 0.21) did not predict the onset of depression at follow-up. Among the criteria included in the frailty definition, only slow gait speed (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.32; p = 0.05) appeared to predict a higher risk of depression. Among older community dwellers, frailty and pre-frailty did not predict the onset of depression during 2 years of follow-up, when accounting for potential confounders, whilst slow gait speed considered alone may predict depression in the older people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Effect of Music Therapy on Depression and Loneliness in Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sheibani Tazraji

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music therapy on depression and loneliness of elderly. Methods & Materials: Research instruments consisted of the Geriatric depression scale, Loneliness scale and music therapy package, all administered on 20 men and 18 women through a pretest-posttest with control group. Results: Results indicated that music therapy decreases depression in old people, ''friendship'' and ''affective loneliness'' in women but did not have meaningful effect on loneliness feeling of men. Conclusion: Results of this research suggested that listening to music can be used as solution for decreasing old people depression. The effect of this intervention was different among men and women. Their feelings of loneliness showed significant decline as well.

  2. Decayed and missing teeth and oral-health-related factors: predicting depression in homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Chan, Karen; Collins, Jennifer; Humphris, Gerry M; Richards, Derek; Williams, Brian; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of dental health status, dental anxiety and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) upon homeless people's experience of depression. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of homeless people in seven National Health Service Boards in Scotland. All participants completed a questionnaire to assess their depression, dental anxiety and OHRQoL using reliable and valid measures. Participants had an oral examination to assess their experience of tooth decay (decayed and missing teeth). Latent variable path analysis was conducted to determine the effects of dental health status on depression via dental anxiety and OHRQoL using intensive resampling methods. A total of 853 homeless people participated, of which 70% yielded complete data sets. Three latent variables, decayed and missing teeth, dental anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: five items) and depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale: two factors), and a single variable for OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile total scale) were used in a hybrid structural equation model. The variable decayed and missing teeth was associated with depression through indirect pathways (total standardised indirect effects=0.44, Pdental anxiety (χ²=75.90, df=40, comparative fit index=0.985, Tucker-Lewis index=0.977, root mean square error of approximation=0.051 [90% confidence interval: 0.037-0.065]). Depression in Scottish homeless people is related to dental health status and oral-health-related factors. Decayed and missing teeth may influence depression primarily through the psychological constructs of OHRQoL and, to a lesser extent, dental anxiety. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  4. Depression and subjective economy among elderly people in Asian communities: Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wen-ling; Fukutomi, Eriko; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Wada, Taizo; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural relationship between depressive state and subjective economic status, as well as subjective quality of life (QOL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly people in communities in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. We studied 595 subjects aged 65 years or older in three Asian communities (261 subjects in T town in Japan, 164 in D town in Taiwan, and 170 in H town in Korea). The Geriatric Depression Scale-15, a self-rating questionnaire assessing ADL, subjective QOL, social situations, and past and current medical status, was used. Depression of the elderly was associated with dependence in basic ADL, subjective QOL, and subjective sense of low economic status. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, and basic ADL, subjective sense of low economic status was closely associated with depression in community-living elderly people in all three communities in Asia. In conclusion, absolute and objective economic status is an important contributing factor to depressive state or psychosocial deterioration, however, we should pay more attention to the roles of perception of low economic status in determining depressive state in community-dwelling elderly people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sadness and ruminative thinking independently depress people's moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanitabesh, Azra; Cardwell, Brittany A; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2017-11-02

    Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall. Afterwards, in both studies, participants either ruminated by thinking about self-relevant statements or, in a control group, thought about self-irrelevant statements. Taken together, our data show that, independent of participants' mood, ruminators reported more negative affect relative to controls. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focus is itself unpleasant, and illustrate that depressive rumination comprises both affective and ruminative components, which could be targeted independently in clinical samples. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Depression and discrimination in the lives of women, transgender and gender liminal people in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charmaine C; Curling, Deone; Steele, Leah S; Gibson, Margaret F; Daley, Andrea; Green, Datejie Cheko; Ross, Lori E

    2017-05-01

    This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to assess group differences in depression and discrimination experiences, and predictors of depression and unmet need for mental healthcare services. Analyses revealed that race, gender, class and sexuality all corresponded to significant differences in exposure to discrimination, experiences of depression and unmet needs for mental healthcare. Use of interaction terms to model intersecting identities and exclusion contributed to explained variance in both outcome variables. Everyday discrimination was the strongest predictor of both depression and unmet need for mental healthcare. The results suggest lower income and intersections of race with other marginalised identities are associated with more depression and unmet need for mental healthcare; however, discrimination is the factor that contributes the most to those vulnerabilities. Future research can build on intersectionality theory by foregrounding the role of structural inequities and discrimination in promoting poor mental health and barriers to healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.

  8. Depression symptoms in people with diabetes attending outpatient podiatry clinics for the treatment of foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sue; Nash, Toni; Ireland, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management, and quality of life in people with diabetes and foot ulcers. Ulcer status, mortality and amputations were also assessed at six months follow-up. This was a cross-sectional survey of people attending outpatient podiatry clinics at a major tertiary referral hospital. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Diabetes self-care was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities (SDSCA) measure. Health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary score (PCS) and the mental component summary score (MCS) of the SF-12. Of the 60 participants in the study 14 (23.3%) reported mild symptoms of depression (PHQ score 5-9) and 17 (28.3%) moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ score > 9). Twenty-one (35%) met the criteria for previously recognized depression (on antidepressants and/or a diagnosis of depression in the last 12 months) and 17 (28.3%) for depression not previously recognized (PHQ > 4). Seventeen (28%) participants had been receiving antidepressant treatment for a median duration of 104 weeks (IQR 20, 494 weeks). Despite antidepressant treatment 12 participants (70.6% of those taking antidepressants) still reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms at the time of the study. Patients with PHQ scores > 4 reported poorer adherence to diabetes self-care activities including general diet, exercise, blood sugar monitoring and foot care when compared to those participants with PHQ scores  4 compared with no deaths and 2 amputations in participants with PHQ scores diabetes and foot ulcers. Depressive symptoms were associated with overall poorer diabetes self-management and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There was no association between depressive symptoms and ulcer outcomes at six-months follow-up.

  9. Depressed mood as a risk factor for unprotected sex in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrienne; Yung, Alison; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eóin; Buckby, Joe; Stanford, Carrie; Godfrey, Katherine; McGorry, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    Young people may place themselves and others at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through engaging in unprotected sex. Mental health problems may play an important role in sex-related risk behaviour. The current research was an investigation of depressed mood and condom use in a help-seeking sample of young people in Melbourne, Australia. The sample comprised 76 sexually active young people aged 15-24 years who were referred to ORYGEN Youth Health, a public mental health service in Melbourne, Australia. Controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use, multivariate logistic regression examined depressed mood as a predictor of condom use at last sexual intercourse. Half of the sample reported condom use the last time they had sexual intercourse. Depressed mood, female gender and unemployment increased the likelihood that participants engaged in unprotected sex. A high proportion of young people, particularly those who are depressed, are failing to protect themselves from STI/HIV. Mental health services working with young people have the opportunity to implement initiatives aimed at reducing risk of STI/HIV infection.

  10. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor J M; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms....... METHOD: A total of 1465 people completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed until death or 31 December 2010. Cox regression analyses compared survival time for people with a low v. high baseline dysphoria/anhedonia/anxiety score and identified mediating mechanisms. RESULTS......: After a mean follow-up of 1878 days (s.d. = 306), 139 participants had died. At all time points, people with anhedonia had an almost twofold increased mortality risk compared with those without anhedonia. Physical activity met criteria for mediation. Symptoms of dysphoria and anxiety were not associated...

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Bó, Márcio José; Manoel, André Luciano; Filho, Arthur Onofre Beltram; Silva, Bibiana Quatrin Tiellet da; Cardoso, Yuri Souza; Cortez, Josué; Tramujas, Lucas; Silva, Rosemeri Maurici da

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean CD4 count between patients with depressive symptoms (484.1  ±  353) and patients without depressive symptoms (528.4  ±  263). Further actions should be taken to improve the care for PLWHA. The interface between psychology, psychiatry, and internal medicine is of utmost importance to provide a more humanized care, in which the psychosocial, psychological, and psychiatric aspects are not neglected. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Increased social anhedonia and reduced helping behaviour in young people with high depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterfield, Megan; Walsh, Mallory; Frey, Anna-Lena; McCabe, Ciara

    2016-11-15

    Social anhedonia, the decreased enjoyment of pleasant social experiences, is associated with depression. However, whether social anhedonia in depression affects prosocial behaviours is unclear. The current study aimed to examine how high levels of depressive symptomatology in young people affect responses to usually rewarding social situations, including helping behaviour. We recruited 46 females, 16 scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scores>20, M age =19; HD) and 30 scoring low (BDIemotion task (SET), participants were presented with social scenarios and asked to rate their expected emotional responses. Subsequently, participants' helping behaviour was measured by dropping a pile of papers near them and recording their responses. Lastly, participants completed the SET again. The SET at time 1 revealed that HD individuals reported significantly stronger negative (pemotional responses to social situations than LD subjects. Additionally, all participants showed a significant increase in positive responses (pbehaviour than LD participants. Limitations of the study are that only females were tested and that no psychiatric screening interview was conducted. Our results indicate that young females with high levels of depression symptoms expect to respond less positively to social situations and engage less in helping behaviour compared to those with low depressive symptomatology. Social anhedonia in depression may thus contribute to decreased engagement in rewarding social situations. This, in turn, may lead to social withdrawal and might maintain depression symptoms though a lack of exposure to positive social feedback. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship between Locomotive Syndrome and Depression in Community-Dwelling Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotive syndrome (LS is a concept that refers to the condition of people requiring healthcare services because of problems associated with locomotion. Depression is a major psychiatric disease among the elderly, in addition to dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between LS and depression. The study participants were 224 healthy elderly volunteers living in a rural area in Japan. LS was defined as scores ≥ 16 on the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25. Depression was defined as scores ≥ 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. Height and body weight were measured. The prevalence of LS and depression was 13.9% and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the non-LS group, the LS group was older, was shorter, had a higher BMI, and had higher GDS-15 scores. Logistic regression analysis showed that participants with GDS-15 scores ≥ 6 had higher odds for LS than those with GDS-15 scores < 6 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.22. Conversely, the depression group had higher GLFS-25 scores than the nondepression group. Participants with GLFS-25 scores ≥ 5 had higher odds for depression than those with GLFS-25 scores < 5 (OR = 4.53. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between LS and depression.

  14. Frequency of leisure activities and depressive symptomatology in elderly people: the moderating role of rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Márquez-González, María; Losada-Baltar, Andrés; Romero-Moreno, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    The positive effects of leisure activities on depressive symptomatology are well known. However, the extent to which emotional regulation variables moderate that relationship has scarcely been studied, especially in older people. The aim of this study is to analyze the moderating role of rumination in the relation between leisure activities and depressive symptoms. Participants in this study were 311 people, aged 60 to 90 years (mean age: 71.27 years; SD: 6.99; 71.7% women). We evaluated depressive symptomatology, frequency of leisure activities, and rumination. We carried out a hierarchical regression analysis to confirm the moderating role of rumination. We obtained a model that explains 39.4% of the variance of depressive symptomatology. Main effects were found for the frequency of leisure activities (β = -0.397; p moderating role in the relation between leisure activities and depressive symptomatology. A risk profile of elderly people may consist of those who engage in low levels of leisure activities but also use more frequently the dysfunctional emotional regulation strategy of rumination.

  15. Self-stigma by people diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety: Cross-sectional survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Al-Hadi; Musleh, Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated self-attitudes towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. A survey was conducted with 564 people with a schizophrenia, depression and anxiety who are currently being treated at a psychiatric clinic in Amman, Jordan. The research found that stigma towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety was based around three factors: preconceived stereotypes, personal responsibility/blame and the perceived inability of a patient to recover. Schizophrenia, in particular, was linked more strongly to negative stereotypes and an inability to recover and less associated to personal responsibility/blame in comparison to depression and anxiety. Three identical stigma factors emerged for each diagnosis which reflected themes identified in previous literature. People with schizophrenia are seen as more dangerous and less likely to recover than those suffering from other mental illness. Anxiety was seen most favourably by the self; it was associated with less negative stereotypes and seen as more likely to cure. Interestingly, anxiety and depression were seen almost identically. The self-perception of mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety, have important implications for the planning of anti-stigma and awareness raising programmes. By gaining a thorough understanding of these perceptions and the rationale behind them, it may be possible to develop effective, tailor-made interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  17. Depression or Grief? The Experience of Caregivers of People with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca J.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.

    1996-01-01

    Study of caregivers of people with dementia suggests that the depression so frequently described in the literature may not be as severe or clinically significant as previously thought and may be described as anticipatory grief. Results may assist practitioners in planning and evaluating the effectiveness of clinical interventions. (RJM)

  18. Chronic diseases, depressive symptoms and functional limitation amongst older people in rural Malaysia, a middle income developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Mudla, Izzuna; Said, Mas Ayu

    2011-10-01

    To determine prevalence and prevalence ratio of functional limitation amongst older people with combined chronic diseases and co-morbid depressive symptoms compared with older people with either chronic disease or depressive symptoms alone. Data were analysed from a cross-sectional study of 765 people aged 60 years and over, conducted from 2007 to 2008 in Malaysia. Chronic diseases were self-reported, depressive symptoms were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale and functional limitation was assessed using the Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment Tool. A higher proportion of older people with combined chronic diseases and depressive symptoms reported having functional limitation (44.7%) compared with older people with chronic diseases alone (12.5%) and depressive symptoms alone (18.1%). Adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive status and living arrangements, chronic diseases were associated with functional limitation (PR 2.21, 95% CI 1.31, 3.72). Depressive symptoms were also associated with functional limitation (PR 2.07, 95% CI 1.56, 2.76). The prevalence ratio for functional limitation was much greater for combined chronic diseases and depressive symptoms (PR 4.09, 95% CI 2.23, 7.51). Older people with combined chronic diseases and depressive symptoms are more likely to have functional limitation than those with chronic disease or depressive symptoms alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-economic cultural transformations and Depression in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo

    2015-09-01

    The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care.

  20. Symptoms of anxiety or depression and risk of fracture in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M; Edwards, Mark; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. Results showed that men, but not women, with probable anxiety at baseline had an increased risk of fracture. The use of psychotropic drugs has been linked with an increased risk of fracture in older people, but there are indications that the conditions for which these drugs were prescribed may themselves influence fracture risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. The study design is a prospective cohort study. One thousand eighty-seven men and 1,050 women aged 59-73 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on incident fracture during an average follow-up period of 5.6 years were collected through interview and a postal questionnaire. Compared to men with no or few symptoms of anxiety (score ≤7 on the HADS anxiety subscale), men with probable anxiety (score ≥11) had an increased risk of fracture: After adjustment for age and potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval) was 4.03 (1.55, 10.5). There were no associations between levels of anxiety and fracture risk in women. Few men or women had probable depression at baseline (score ≥11 on the HADS depression subscale). Amongst men with possible depression (score 8-10), there was an increased risk of fracture that was of borderline significance: multivariate-adjusted OR 3.57 (0.99, 12.9). There was no association between possible depression and fracture risk in women. High levels of anxiety in older men may increase their risk of fracture. Future research needs to replicate this finding in other populations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Retrospective accounts of self-stigma experienced by young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Lynn; Hennessy, Eilis; O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about self-stigma experienced by young people with mental health problems, despite the fact that research has demonstrated its existence. In the present study, we sought to investigate the experiences of self-stigma in childhood and adolescence, and particularly the nature of change in self-stigma across this developmental period. Young adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression before their 18th birthdays were interviewed about their experiences within their peer groups during childhood and adolescence. This qualitative study involved open-ended interviews with 16 young adults aged 18-30 years. Interviews focused on the experience of stigmatization, responses to stigma, and how these changed over time. Three main themes pertaining to self-stigma emerged: (a) being different, (b) peer stigmatization and associated experiences of self-stigma, and (c) selective disclosure and a move toward greater openness. The findings also suggested that the passing of time and changes in young people's social networks and/or degrees of recovery were associated with changes in their experiences of self-stigma. During childhood and adolescence, self-stigma is characterized by a sense of being different from peers and negative self-evaluation as a consequence of that difference. However, our findings also demonstrated that some young people were prepared to challenge the stigma they experienced. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to these differing responses and to develop antistigma interventions that facilitate the inclusion of young people with mental health problems in their peer groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Beliefs of people taking antidepressants about the causes of their own depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Shiels, Christopher; Magliano, Lorenza

    2015-03-15

    The beliefs of people receiving treatment about the causes of their own mental health problems are researched less often than the causal beliefs of the public, but have important implications for relationships with prescribers, treatment choices and recovery. An online survey on a range of beliefs about depression, and experiences with antidepressants, was completed by 1829 New Zealand adults prescribed anti-depressants in the preceding five years, 97.4% of whom proceeded to take antidepressants. Six of 17 beliefs about the causes of their own depression were endorsed by more than half the sample: chemical imbalance, family stress, work stress, heredity, relationship problems and distressing events in childhood. There were some marked differences in content, structure and level of conviction of beliefs about one׳s own depression and the sample׳s previously published beliefs about depression in general. There were also significant differences between the beliefs of demographic groupings. Regression analyses revealed that self-reported effectiveness of the antidepressants was positively associated with bio-genetic causal beliefs. The quality of the relationship with the prescribing doctor was positively related to a belief in chemical imbalance as a cause and negatively related to a belief in unemployment as a cause. The convenience sample may have been biased towards a favourable view of bio-genetic explanations, since 83% reported that the medication reduced their depression. People experiencing depression hold complex, multifactorial and idiosyncratic sets of beliefs about the causes of their own depression, apparently based at least in part on their own life experiences and circumstances. Exploring those beliefs may enhance the doctor-patient relationship and selection of appropriate treatment modality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Internalised HIV-stigma, loneliness, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Erin M; Williams, Stacey L; Skinta, Matthew D

    2018-03-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) commonly report sleep disturbances which are associated with long-term health consequences, including disease progression. PLWH also experience internalised stigma as a result of their HIV status, which can be associated with increased loneliness and depression. Little attention focuses on the impact of these factors on sleep. Therefore, we examined whether internalised HIV-stigma was indirectly related to poorer sleep quality through higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms. 181 PLWH from across the United States completed an online survey. Main Study Measures: Internalised HIV-stigma was assessed using the HIV-Stigma Scale, loneliness was assessed using the UCLA-Loneliness Scale-Short Form, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Index, and Sleep Quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Internalised HIV-stigma was indirectly associated with poorer global sleep quality and daytime sleep dysfunction through both loneliness and depressive symptoms. PLWH who experience HIV-related stigma may experience greater feelings of loneliness, which are related to increased depressive symptoms and poorer sleep quality. Interventions focused on improving sleep in PLWH should focus on multiple factors that influence sleep, including psychosocial factors such as stigma, social isolation and depressive symptoms.

  4. Anxiety and depression in people with epilepsy: The contribution of metacognitive beliefs.

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    Fisher, Peter L; Noble, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders frequently occur in people with epilepsy (PWE). An information processing model of psychopathology, the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes play a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. This study explored whether metacognitive beliefs would explain additional variance in anxiety and depression after accounting for demographics, physical and/or psychiatric illnesses, epilepsy characteristics and medication issues. The mediational relationships between metacognitive beliefs, worry and anxiety and depression, predicted by the metacognitive model were also explored, METHODS: Three hundred and forty-nine PWE participated in an online survey and completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, metacognitive beliefs and worry. Participants also provided information on epilepsy characteristics, demographics, comorbid physical and/or psychiatric illnesses, number of, and perceived side effects of, anti-epileptic medication. Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after accounting for the control variables. Furthermore, the fundamental tenet of the metacognitive model was supported; the relationship between negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of worry and anxious and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by worry. This is the first study to demonstrate that metacognitive beliefs and processes contribute to anxiety and depression beyond variables often associated with emotional distress in PWE. Further research is required to test if modification of metacognitive beliefs and processes using metacognitive therapy would effectively alleviate anxiety and depression in PWE. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Evidence Map of Prevention and Treatment Interventions for Depression in Young People

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    Patrick Callahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Depression in adolescents and young people is associated with reduced social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, increases in suicide and self-harm behaviours, and problematic substance use. Age-appropriate, evidence-based treatments are required to provide optimal care. Methods. “Evidence mapping” methodology was used to quantify the nature and distribution of the extant high-quality research into the prevention and treatment of depression in young people across psychological, medical, and other treatment domains. Results. Prevention research is dominated by cognitive-behavioral- (CBT- based interventions. Treatment studies predominantly consist of CBT and SSRI medication trials, with few trials of other psychological interventions or complementary/alternative treatments. Quality studies on relapse prevention and treatment for persistent depression are distinctly lacking. Conclusions. This map demonstrates opportunities for future research to address the numerous evidence gaps for interventions to prevent or treat depression in young people, which are of interest to clinical researchers, policy makers, and funding bodies.

  6. Treatment effects of massage therapy in depressed people: a meta-analysis.

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    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Chiang, Pai-Tsung; Hsu, Tun-Yen; Chiu, Su-Ying; Yen, Yung-Chieh

    2010-07-01

    To systematically investigate the treatment effects of massage therapy in depressed people by incorporating data from recent studies. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of massage therapy in depressed people was conducted using published studies from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL electronic database from inception until July 2008. The terms used for the search were derived from medical subheading term (MeSH) massage combined with MeSH depression. Hand searching was also checked for bibliographies of relevant articles. Retrieval articles were constrained to RCTs/clinical trials and human subjects. No language restrictions were imposed. We included 17 studies containing 786 persons from 246 retrieved references. Trials with other intervention, combined therapy, and massage on infants or pregnant women were excluded. Two reviewers independently performed initial screen and assessed quality indicators by Jadad scale. Data were extracted on publication year, participant characteristics, and outcomes by another single reviewer. All trials showed positive effect of massage therapy on depressed people. Seventeen RCTs were of moderate quality, with a mean quality score of 6.4 (SD = 0.85). The pooled standardized mean difference in fixed- and random-effects models were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.91) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.52-0.93), respectively. Both indicated significant effectiveness in the treatment group compared with the control group. The variance between these studies revealed possible heterogeneity (tau(2) = 0.06, Cochran chi-squared(16) = 25.77, P = .06). Massage therapy is significantly associated with alleviated depressive symptoms. However, standardized protocols of massage therapy, various depression rating scales, and target populations in further studies are suggested. (c) Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Characteristics of depression in community-dwelling elderly people as indicated by the tree-drawing test.

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    Murayama, Norio; Endo, Tadashi; Inaki, Koichiro; Sasaki, Shinsai; Fukase, Yuko; Ota, Kazumi; Iseki, Eizo; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2016-07-01

    The tree-drawing test (TDT) is a typical projective method, but previous studies have paid little attention to it for elderly people. We investigated the characteristics of depression in community-dwelling elderly people as indicated by the TDT. This study was a complete enumeration survey of elderly people conducted through home visits. The contents of the survey included gender, age, presence or absence of housemates, frequency of going out, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and TDT. The subjects were divided into three groups (normal, depressed tendency, and depressed) according to the total 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score. In TDT, no significant difference was observed in drooping crown, shadow of the whole tree, or shadow near the base, which have been regarded as indices of depression in younger people. However, the values concerning the size of the tree, such as the height and width of the whole tree, height and width of the crown, and number of occupied areas (of the paper), were significantly lower in the depressed group than in the other groups. In addition, the width of the trunk was significantly smaller in the depressed group than in the normal group. Subjects were classified as being in a 'depressed state' if they used 40 or fewer areas for drawing (i.e. occupied areas) and a 'non-depressed state' if they used 41 or more areas. This enabled depression to be detected (sensitivity: 71.4%; specificity: 79.9%). The size of the tree in TDT is suggested to reflect characteristics of depression in elderly people, such as introversion, reserve, antisocial attitude, a feeling of inferiority, weakness of ego, and lack of vigour. Furthermore, the numbers of occupied areas were found to be relatively useful in detecting depression in elderly people. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people.

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    Boström, Gustaf; Conradsson, Mia; Rosendahl, Erik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs. Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately. GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms. Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.

  9. Stigma, disclosure, and depressive symptoms among informal caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS.

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    Mitchell, Mary M; Knowlton, Amy

    2009-08-01

    Informal care receipt is associated with better HIV treatment outcomes among patients vulnerable to treatment failure. Yet, informal caregiving can be highly stressful, leading to distress and cessation of caregiving. Research on factors contributing to informal caregivers' psychological distress may advance our understanding of how to improve caregivers' well-being and sustained HIV caregiving for a vulnerable population. We examined relationships among caregiver stigma, disclosure, and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional sample of 207 informal caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in Baltimore, Maryland. Caregivers were primarily African American, low-income, urban adults participating in the Action, Resources, and Knowledge (ARK) study (2003-2005), which recruited urban PLWHAs and their main supporters. Results indicated that among caregivers, HIV caregiving-related stigma was associated with more depressive symptoms, while disclosure of caregiving status was associated with fewer symptoms. We also explored the buffering effect of disclosure in the relationship between stigma and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that among those who reported greater stigma, there was a significant decrease in depressive symptoms as the number of disclosures increased. In contrast, participants who indicated lower stigma had consistently fewer depressive symptoms regardless of number of disclosures. These results suggest the need for interventions to address high levels of depressive symptoms among informal HIV caregivers, particularly those who report greater caregiving stigma and less disclosure of their caregiver status. In addition, future research should examine these relationships further using longitudinal data from informal caregivers and their care recipients.

  10. Depressive disorder and social stress in Pakistan compared to people of Pakistani origin in the UK.

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    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Tomenson, Barbara; Jackson, Judy; Gater, Richard; Creed, Francis

    2011-11-01

    Depressive disorder is more common in low to middle than high-income countries, but the reasons for this have not been explicitly defined. We compared the results of two population-based studies of people of Pakistani origin: one living in rural Pakistan and one in UK. Both samples were screened with the self-reporting questionnaire followed by research interview to determine depressive disorders and social stress. Logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence of depressive disorder in the two countries after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and social stress. The estimated prevalence of depression for men was 35.8% (95% CI 16.1-55.5) in Pakistan and 9% (5.0-13.0) in Manchester (pstress (both sexes). 35% of women in Pakistan and 71% of those in UK had received 8 years or more of education. Extremely poor housing and marked poverty were experienced by 36.1% of women in Pakistan and 0.6% of those in Manchester. In Pakistan, housing and poverty predominated as correlates of depression, whereas in Manchester it was marked difficulties in physical health and close relationships. The results suggest that the higher rate of depressive disorder amongst women in Pakistan compared to UK can be attributed to less education and frequent severe social difficulties. These differences have implications for treatment.

  11. Self-Management Interventions to Prevent Depression in People with Mobility Limitations

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    Simon J. Driver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This focused review reports on the impact of self-management interventions on depression in people with a mobility disability. Method There were two phases to the search including a comprehensive scoping review of the literature examining multiple secondary conditions impacted by self-management programs (Phase 1 and a focused review of the literature detailing the impact of self-management interventions on depression (Phase 2. CINAHL, PubMed, and PsyclNFO were searched for articles published between January 1988 through August 2014 and studies were screened by the first author based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results Twenty-five studies met criteria with results, demonstrating a mixed effect of self-management programs on depression. Sixteen studies included an intervention and control/comparison group, of which eight (50% had a significant effect on depression. A further nine studies did not include a control/comparison group and five found significant changes in depression and four found no change. Eighteen out of 25 studies (72% were rated as having moderate-to-high bias and nine different outcome measures were used across studies. Discussion Based on the mixed findings and varied approaches adopted for intervention and outcome assessment, future research should adopt a more rigorous methodological approach to examine self-management interventions on depression.

  12. Personal stigma and use of mental health services among people with depression in a general population in Finland

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    Tuulari Jyrki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links to actual use of mental health services among those with depression. Methods We used a large cross-sectional data set from a Finnish population survey (N = 5160. Attitudes were measured by scales which measured the belief that people with depression are responsible for their illness and their recovery and attitudes towards antidepressants. Desire for social distance was measured by a scale and depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF instrument. Use of mental health services was measured by self-report. Results On the social discrimination scale, people with depression showed more social tolerance towards people with mental problems. They also carried more positive views about antidepressants. Among those with depression, users of mental health services, as compared to non-users, carried less desire for social distance to people with mental health problems and more positive views about the effects of antidepressants. More severe depression predicted more active use of services. Conclusions Although stronger discriminative intentions can reduce the use of mental health services, this does not necessarily prevent professional service use if depression is serious and views about antidepressant medication are realistic.

  13. [Socializing groups as protective factor against depression in elderly people. Barranquilla, Colombia].

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    Tuesca-Molina, Rafael; Fierro Herrera, Norma; Molinares Sosa, Alexandra; Oviedo Martínez, Fernando; Polo Arjona, Yesid; Polo Cueto, José; Sierra Manrique, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The depression is a principal problem of public health. The principal aim of this study is to determine the role of the social groups as factor protective in elderly, to evaluate the agreement by American Psychiatric Association Criterions and Hamilton Depression test, and also to determine other socio-cultural risk factors associated with depressive syndrome in elderly. Cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 602 elderly people (eligible subjects) were men (223) and women (379) between 60 and 94 years (males and females), residents in the south-west of Barranquilla, Colombia. A previously tested, self answer questionnaire was used, therefore, we needed a report consent. Risk measures: Odds Ratio (OR-95% Confidence intervalue), Kappa test to agreement by the nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association and Hamilton test so, screening testing. The participation in social groups was a protector factor. (Odds Ratio = 0.5; 95% CI 0.34-0.73, p = 0.001). The rate 29.9% was obtained with prevalence of depression in elderly (21.4%-39.4%) affecting principally males (32.7%). The agreement by Kappa test = 0.63 was very important or good. Sensibility = 56.1% (48.5%-63.4%) Specificity = 0.93% (97.8%-99.8%) and Predictive Positive Value = 97.1% (91.2%-99.3%). This survey was to determine risk factors related to depression in elderly in anyway can be potentially modifiable. The familiar disfunction by moderate and serious, the lack as blindness and deafness, the loneliness, the housingness and low incomes were obtained with risk factors associated to depression. The participation in a social group is a protective factor to depression syndrome in elders. The nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association to allow the depressed patient exactly as sick even though is not necessary to screening because this test is low sensibility for used in a population elderly.

  14. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in People With and Without Plantar Heel Pain.

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    Cotchett, Matthew; Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B

    2016-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are prevalent in patients with musculoskeletal pain, but the impact of these emotional states has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depression, anxiety, and stress with plantar heel pain. Forty-five participants with plantar heel pain were matched by sex and age (±2 years) to 45 participants without plantar heel pain. Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (short version) in participants with and without plantar heel pain. Logistic regression was conducted to determine if levels of depression, anxiety, or stress were associated with having plantar heel pain. Univariate analysis indicated that participants with plantar heel pain had greater levels of depression (mean difference = 4.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 6.5), anxiety (mean difference = 2.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), and stress (mean difference = 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.8). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and education, for every 1 unit increase in depression, anxiety, or stress (in the DASS subscales), the odds ratios for having plantar heel pain were increased by 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), respectively. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were independently associated with plantar heel pain. Larger prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the temporal association between these emotional states and plantar heel pain. Level III, cross sectional, observational. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Shaping mutuality: nurse-family caregiver interactions in caring for older people with depression.

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    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports on the research findings derived from a grounded theory study that examined the processes through which community mental health nurses work with families of older people with depression. Data were collected through semistructured, in-depth interviews with six community mental health nurses and seven family caregivers of older people with depression, and observations of their interactions in natural settings. Data collection and analysis were guided by theoretical sampling and the constant comparative process. The findings indicate that the nurse-family caregiver relationship involves working towards mutuality, which is shaped by both the nurse and family caregiver. It is through the process of "shaping mutuality" that a nurse and family caregiver learn to collaborate, and achieve their individual goals and desired outcomes, both for the patient and for themselves.

  16. Explicit and implicit information needs of people with depression: a qualitative investigation of problems reported on an online depression support forum

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    Banfield Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health management is impeded when consumers do not possess adequate knowledge about their illness. At a public health level, consumer knowledge about depression is particularly important because depression is highly prevalent and causes substantial disability and burden. However, currently little is known about the information needs of people with depression. This study aimed to investigate the explicit and implicit information needs of users of an online depression support forum. Methods A sample of 2680 posts was systematically selected from three discussion forums on an online depression bulletin board (blueboard.anu.edu.au. Data were examined for evidence of requests for information (reflecting explicit needs and reports of past or current problems (implicit needs. Thematic analysis was conducted using a data-driven inductive approach with the assistance of NVivo 7, and instances of questions and people reporting particular types of problems were recorded. Results A total of 134 participants with personal experience of depression contributed to the data analysed. Six broad themes represented participant queries and reported problems: Understanding depression; disclosure and stigma; medication; treatment and services; coping with depression; and comorbid health problems. A variety of specific needs were evident within these broad thematic areas. Some people (n = 46 expressed their information needs by asking direct questions (47 queries but the majority of needs were expressed implicitly (351 problems by the 134 participants. The most evident need for information related to coping with depression and its consequences, followed by topics associated with medication, treatment and services. Conclusions People with depression have substantial unmet information needs and require strategies to deal with the difficulties they face. They require access to high quality and relevant online resources and professionals; thus, there is

  17. Cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in a community group of elderly people: a preliminary study

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    Silberman Claudia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.

  18. Perceived family support and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

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    Shrestha, Sadhana; Poudel, Krishna C; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Kobayashi, Jun; Pandey, Basu Dev; Yasuoka, Junko; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Depression is emerging as a highly prevalent psychiatric condition among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Perceived family support (PFS) buffers depression among chronic disease patients. However, a similar relationship among PLWHA is unexplored. To examine the relationship between PFS and depression among PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. In this cross-sectional study, depression was measured by Beck Depression Inventory Ia. Perceived family support was measured by Nepali Family Support and Difficulties Scale. The status of depression was compared between 208 PLWHA and 208 HIV-negative participants. The relationship between PFS and depression was examined only among PLWHA. Among each of the 208 participants, the number of depressed PLWHA (n = 61,29.3%) was higher than that of HIV-negative participants (n = 13,6.2%; P Perceived family support had a negative association with depression in PLWHA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08-0.53). In Nepal, PLWHA display a higher level of depression than HIV-negative people, and a lower level of PFS is associated with depression among PLWHA. Improved family support might be helpful in reducing depression among Nepalese PLWHA.

  19. Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people.

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    Larun, L; Nordheim, L V; Ekeland, E; Hagen, K B; Heian, F

    2006-07-19

    Depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders for children and adolescents. Psychological (e.g. psychotherapy), psychosocial (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy) and biological (e.g. SSRIs or tricyclic drugs) treatments are the most common treatments being offered. The large variety of therapeutic interventions give rise to questions of clinical effectiveness and side effects. Physical exercise is inexpensive with few, if any, side effects. To assess the effects of exercise interventions in reducing or preventing anxiety or depression in children and young people up to 20 years of age. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (latest issue available), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC and Sportdiscus up to August 2005. Randomised trials of vigorous exercise interventions for children and young people up to the age of 20, with outcome measures for depression and anxiety. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The trials were combined using meta-analysis methods. A narrative synthesis was performed when the reported data did not allow statistical pooling. Sixteen studies with a total of 1191 participants between 11 and 19 years of age were included.Eleven trials compared vigourous exercise versus no intervention in a general population of children. Six studies reporting anxiety scores showed a non-significant trend in favour of the exercise group (standard mean difference (SMD) (random effects model) -0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.97 to 0.01). Five studies reporting depression scores showed a statistically significant difference in favour of the exercise group (SMD (random effects model) -0.66, 95% CI -1.25 to -0.08). However, all trials were generally of low methodological quality and they were highly heterogeneous with regard to the population, intervention and measurement instruments used. One small trial investigated children in treatment showed no

  20. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gustaf Boström,1 Mia Conradsson,1 Erik Rosendahl,1,2 Peter Nordström,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Håkan Littbrand1,21Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenBackground: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs, and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008, but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068. No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007 and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of

  1. Role of Internal and External Religious Beliefs in Mental Health and Rate of Depression in Elderly People

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    Fazel Bahrami

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present research is aimed at surveying the role of (internal and external religious orientation in the mental health and the extent of depression in elderly people residing in welfare centers and the society. Methods: The study has been conducted through post-event and correlation method by using stochastic and cluster sampling in 230 cases of elderly people at senior citizens` homes, affiliated with the Welfare Organization, and public places (mosques and parks which are gathering centers for the elderly people of society, both male and female. The cases were initially screened in terms of recognition complications. Then 28-question tests on general health and depression of Beck and Alport`s test on religious approach were completed and the results were analyzed by using Pierson and Manvitni`s dependent statistical tests. Results: Results showed that there is a significant correlation between the religious orientation and depression of the elderly people. That is, the more the scores of external religious orientation rise, the more the scores of disorder in mental health and depression increase. There is also a meaningful difference between mental health, depression and religious orientation of the elderly people who are residence and non-residence of the society. That is, the elderly people who live in the centers enjoy a more external religious orientation and disorder of mental health and more depression as compared to the group of the elderly people residing in the society. Discussion: The external religious belief has a correlation with disorder in the mental health and depression as well as internal religious belief. Moreover, mental disorders and depression among the resident elderly people are higher than non residents, while resident elderly people have a more external religious approach.

  2. Beliefs of people taking antidepressants about causes of depression and reasons for increased prescribing rates.

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    Read, John; Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Shiels, Christopher; Haslam, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Public beliefs about the causes of mental health problems are related to desire for distance and pessimism about recovery, and are therefore frequently studied. The beliefs of people receiving treatment are researched less often. An online survey on causal beliefs about depression and experiences with antidepressants was completed by 1829 New Zealand adults prescribed anti-depressants in the preceding five years, 97.4% of whom proceeded to take antidepressants. The most frequently endorsed of 17 causal beliefs were family stress, relationship problems, loss of loved one, financial problems, isolation, and abuse or neglect in childhood. Factor analysis produced three factors: 'bio-genetic', 'adulthood stress' and 'childhood adversity'. The most strongly endorsed explanations for increases in antidepressant prescribing invoked improved identification, reduced stigma and drug company marketing. The least strongly endorsed was 'Anti-depressants are the best treatment'. Regression analyses revealed that self-reported efficacy of the antidepressants was positively associated with bio-genetic causal beliefs, negatively associated with childhood adversity beliefs and unrelated to adulthood stress beliefs. The belief that 'People cannot׳ get better by themselves even if they try' was positively associated with bio-genetic beliefs. The convenience sample may have been biased towards a favourable view of bio-genetic explanations, since 83% reported that the medication reduced their depression. Clinicians׳ should consider exploring patients׳ causal beliefs. The public, even when taking antidepressants, continues to hold a multi-factorial causal model of depression with a primary emphasis on psycho-social causes. A three factor model of those beliefs may lead to more sophisticated understandings of relationships with stigma variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of depression in transgender people and its predictors: Results of a large matched control study with transgender people accessing clinical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Claes, Laurence; Brewin, Nicola; Crawford, John R; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-02-17

    Depression is a serious disorder which significantly impacts wellbeing and quality of life. Studies exploring mental wellbeing in the transgender population are mostly limited by small, non-homogenous samples and lack of matched controls. This study aimed to address these limitations and explore depression rates in a large sample of transgender people, compared with matched controls from the general population, as well as factors predicting depression in those taking cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) compared to those not. Transgender individuals (n = 913) completed a measure of depression, measures which predict psychopathology (self-esteem, victimization, social support, interpersonal problems), and information regarding CHT use. Participants were matched by age and experienced gender with adults from the general population who had completed the measure of depression. Individuals were categorized as having no, possible or probable depressive disorder. Transgender individuals not on CHT had a nearly four-fold increased risk of probable depressive disorder, compared to controls. Older age, lower self-esteem, poorer interpersonal function and less social support predicted depressive disorder. Use of CHT was associated with less depression. Participants were attending a national gender identity service and therefore represent only a sub-group of transgender people. Due to the cross-sectional design, longitudinal research is required to fully confirm the finding that CHT use reduces depression. This study confirms that non-treated transgender individuals have an increased risk of a depressive disorder. Interventions offered alongside gender affirming treatment to develop interpersonal skills, increase self-esteem and improve social support may reduce depression and prepare individuals for a more successful transition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Web-Based Study of Dog Ownership and Depression Among People Living With HIV.

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    Muldoon, Abigail L; Kuhns, Lisa M; Supple, Julie; Jacobson, Kristen C; Garofalo, Robert

    2017-11-08

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are approximately twice as likely to be depressed compared with HIV-negative individuals. Depression is consistently associated with low antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, an important step within the HIV care continuum related to HIV disease progression and overall health. One factor that may have positive psychosocial benefits and promote ART adherence is dog ownership. Research indicates that dog ownership is associated with lower depression, and initial evidence suggests its positive impact on psychosocial outcomes for PLHIV. The aim of our study was to expand the existing research by examining the relationship between current dog ownership and depression for a sample of PLHIV while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders. Participants aged 18 years or older and who self-reported an HIV diagnosis were recruited via social media into When Dogs Heal, a cross-sectional Web-based survey to collect data among adult PLHIV. The research visit was conducted via a Web-based survey, and there was no in-person interaction with the participant. Primary outcome measures included demographic questions (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), pet ownership (type of pet owned and current dog ownership), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 10 items), and resilience (Resilience Research Centre Adult Resilience Measure, 28 items). A total of 252 participants were enrolled into the study in January 2016, with a final analytic sample of 199 participants. Mean age was 49 years, 86.4% (172/199) of participants were male, and 80.4% (160/199) were white. Current dog ownership was prevalent among the sample (68.3%, 136/199). Bivariate analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between depression and demographic characteristics (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), with P>.05. The multivariate logistic regression

  5. Duloxetine in the treatment of elderly people with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo; Brugnoli, Roberto; Sani, Gabriele; Di Pietro, Simone; Brugnoli, Chiara; Caccia, Federica; Angeletti, Gloria; Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Tatarelli, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population is more frequently subjected to depressive mood compared to the general population and show peculiarities affecting responsiveness; furthermore, aged people need also special care. Duloxetine is a relatively new antidepressant that proved to be effective in adult depression, but has received little attention in elderly population heretofore. To review the evidence of duloxetine in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). A systematic review of studies focusing on the use of duloxetine in MDD in the elderly has been carried out through the principal specialized databases, including PubMed, PsycLIT, and Embase. Only a handful of papers were specifically dedicated to this issue. Duloxetine was found to be effective and safe in old-age MDD, to be better than placebo on many clinical measures in all studies, and to better differentiate from placebo with respect to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Compared to placebo, its side-effect profile is slightly unfavorable and its drop-out rate is slightly higher. Furthermore, when pain is present in old-age MDD, duloxetine is able to reduce it. The efficacy and safety of duloxetine in old-age depression are similar to those encountered in adult MDD. There is a relative lack of comparative studies other than with placebo. The special needs of elderly patients with MDD must be addressed with close patient contact to avoid the perils of inappropriate dosing.

  6. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-Shiang; Sun, I-Wen; Begum, Aysha; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chiu, Wei-Che; Chen, Chin-Hsin; Tang, Hwang-Shen; Yang, Chia-Li; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%). Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scorememory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  7. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  8. Association between depressive symptoms, CD4 count and HIV viral suppression among HIV-HCV co-infected people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibibula, Wusiman; Cox, Joseph; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Moodie, Erica E M; Anema, Aranka; Klein, Marina B; Brassard, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with poor HIV viral control and immune recovery among people living with HIV. However, no prior studies assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV). While people with HIV only and those with HIV-HCV co-infection share many characteristics, co-infected people may become more susceptible to the effects of depressive symptoms on health outcomes. We assessed this association exclusively among people co-infected with HIV-HCV in Canada using data from the Food Security & HIV-HCV Sub-Study (FS Sub-Study) of the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort (CCC). Stabilized inverse probability weighted marginal structural model was used to account for potential time-varying confounders. A total of 725 participants were enrolled between 2012 and 2015. At baseline, 52% of participants reported depressive symptoms, 75% had undetectable HIV viral load, and median CD4 count was 466 (IQR 300-665). People experiencing depressive symptoms had 1.32 times (95% CI: 1.07, 1.63) the risk of having detectable HIV viral load, but had comparable CD4 count to people who did not experience depressive symptoms (fold change of CD4 = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.03). Presence of depressive symptoms is a risk factor for incomplete short-term HIV viral suppression among people co-infected with HIV-HCV. Therefore, depressive symptoms screening and related counseling may improve HIV related health outcomes and reduce HIV transmission.

  9. The role of empowerment and quality of life in depression severity among unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Suzanne; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2017-09-01

    Sick leave and unemployment are highly prevalent among people with affective disorders. Their depression severity is disabling and inversely related to having employment. No evidence-based vocational rehabilitation exists for this target group. Knowledge is therefore needed to understand the psychosocial factors that affect depression severity in order to develop new rehabilitation interventions. This study examined relationships between depression severity and empowerment, working life aspirations, occupational engagement, and quality of life in unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare. In this cross-sectional study of 61 participants, instruments on psychosocial factors and questions on descriptive sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were administered. Descriptive, correlation, and regression statistics were applied. Correlation and regression analyses showed significant inverse relations between depression severity and empowerment and quality of life. The odds for more severe depression decreased with higher empowerment and quality of life. However, neither extent of engagement in daily life nor working life aspiration was related to depression severity. An empowerment approach and strategies, which support the quality of life, are needed in development of vocational rehabilitation interventions, and bridging of mental healthcare and vocational services. Implications for Rehabilitation Enhancing empowerment and quality life in the return to work process can decrease depression severity in unemployed people with affective disorder. There is a need to address work issues in addition to symptom reduction in primary and mental healthcare. Bridging the service and time gap between vocational rehabilitation and healthcare is recommended for mitigating long-term unemployment for people with affective disorders who want to work.

  10. Cognitive style and depressive symptoms in elderly people - extending the empirical evidence for the cognitive vulnerability-stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas D; Gudgeon, Emma; Thomas, Alan J; Collerton, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Depression is common in older people and its identification and treatment has been highlighted as one of the major challenges in an ageing world. Poor physical and cognitive health, bereavement, and prior depression are important risk factors for depression in elderly people. Attributional or cognitive style has been identified as a risk factor for depression in children, adolescents and younger adults but its relevance for depression and mood in elderly people has not been investigated in the context of other risk factors. Sixty-four older adults from an 'extra care' living scheme (aged 59-97) were recruited for a 6-week prospective study to examine the relationships between cognitive style and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that, when other risk factors were controlled for, cognitive style and its interaction with stress predicted changes in depressive symptoms, therefore partially replicating prior research. Cognitive-stress-vulnerability models also apply to elderly populations, but may be rather predictive of changes in depression when facing lower levels of stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Telephone-based physical activity counseling for major depression in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Gibbons, Laura E; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D; Rosenberg, Dori E; Kraft, George H

    2013-02-01

    Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48). Ninety-two adults with MS and MDD or dysthymia (M(age) = 48 years; 86% female, 92% White) completed an in-person baseline assessment and were randomized to wait-list control or an intervention involving motivational-interviewing-based promotion of physical activity. The treatment group received an initial in-person session; 7 telephone counseling sessions (Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), and an in-person session at Week 12. The primary outcome, treatment response, was defined as those with 50% or greater reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Our primary hypothesis, that the proportion of responders in the treatment group would be significantly greater than in the control group, was not confirmed. However, compared with the control group, those in the treatment group evidenced significantly lower depression severity on the HAM-D, on self-reported depression, and on a measure of potential side effects and at 12 weeks were less likely to meet the criteria for MDD as set forth in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Physical activity increased significantly more in the treatment condition, though it did not mediate improvement in depression severity. Telephone-based physical activity promotion represents a promising approach to treating MDD in MS. Further research is warranted on ways to bolster the impact of the intervention and on mediators of the treatment effect.

  12. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  13. [Mediation role of self-efficacy between social support and depression of only-child-lost people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Anni; Guo, Yufang; Yao, Shuyu; Luo, Yuanhui; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-28

    To investigate the relationship between social support and depression of only-child-lost (OCL) people, and the mediation role of self-efficacy in this relationship. 
 Methods: By stratified cluster sampling, 214 OCL people were enrolled, with 80 males and 134 females, ages from 49 to 83 years old. They were assessed by General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Rating Scale, and Self-rating Depression Scale.
 Results: Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in age groups (t=2.85, Psocial support scores. There was significant difference between the per capita monthly income and self-efficacy scores in QCL people (F=5.46, Psocial support were positively correlated (r=0.26, Psocial support (r=-0.59, Psocial support and depression.
 Conclusion: The person who is social support levels among QCL people. The person who has high per capita monthly income would have high self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is one of the direct prediction for depression, and plays an indirect role between social support and depression. Intervention of depression among OCL people could be applied to change their cognition, and to enhance their self-efficacy.

  14. Apathy and depressive symptoms in older people and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurelings, Lisa Sm; van Dalen, Jan Willem; Ter Riet, Gerben; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Richard, Edo; van Gool, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that apathy symptoms independently of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals. To study whether apathy and depressive symptoms in older people are associated with future CVD, stroke, and mortality using individual patient-data meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases up to September 3, 2013, were systematically searched without language restrictions. We sought prospective studies with older (mean age ≥65 years) community-dwelling populations in which the GDS was employed and subsequent stroke and/or CVD were recorded to provide individual participant data. Apathy symptoms were defined as the three apathy-related subitems of the GDS, with depressive symptoms the remaining items. We used myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality as main outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and MI/stroke history. An adaptation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate bias. Hazard ratios were calculated using one-stage random-effect Cox regression models. Of the 52 eligible studies, 21 (40.4%) were included, comprising 47,625 older people (mean age [standard deviation] 74 [7.4] years), over a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Participants with apathy symptoms had a 21% higher risk of MI (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.36), a 37% higher risk of stroke (95% CI 1.18-1.59), and a 47% higher risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI 1.38-1.56). Participants with depressive symptoms had a comparably higher risk of stroke (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.56) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.53), but not of MI (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.29). Associations for isolated apathy and isolated depressive symptoms were comparable. Sensitivity analyses according to risk of bias yielded similar results. Our findings stress the clinical importance of recognizing apathy independently of depressive symptoms, and could help

  15. Mobile Sensing and Support for People With Depression: A Pilot Trial in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Fabian; Kowatsch, Tobias; Fleisch, Elgar; Rufer, Michael; Weidt, Steffi

    2016-09-21

    Depression is a burdensome, recurring mental health disorder with high prevalence. Even in developed countries, patients have to wait for several months to receive treatment. In many parts of the world there is only one mental health professional for over 200 people. Smartphones are ubiquitous and have a large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms and providing context-sensitive intervention support. The objective of this study is 2-fold, first to explore the detection of daily-life behavior based on sensor information to identify subjects with a clinically meaningful depression level, second to explore the potential of context sensitive intervention delivery to provide in-situ support for people with depressive symptoms. A total of 126 adults (age 20-57) were recruited to use the smartphone app Mobile Sensing and Support (MOSS), collecting context-sensitive sensor information and providing just-in-time interventions derived from cognitive behavior therapy. Real-time learning-systems were deployed to adapt to each subject's preferences to optimize recommendations with respect to time, location, and personal preference. Biweekly, participants were asked to complete a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9) to track symptom progression. Wilcoxon tests were conducted to compare scores before and after intervention. Correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between adherence and change in PHQ-9. One hundred twenty features were constructed based on smartphone usage and sensors including accelerometer, Wifi, and global positioning systems (GPS). Machine-learning models used these features to infer behavior and context for PHQ-9 level prediction and tailored intervention delivery. A total of 36 subjects used MOSS for ≥2 weeks. For subjects with clinical depression (PHQ-9≥11) at baseline and adherence ≥8 weeks (n=12), a significant drop in PHQ-9 was observed

  16. Anxiety, depression, and fall-related psychological concerns in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samantha L; Kneebone, Ian I; Farquharson, Lorna

    2013-12-01

    Establish the association between affect and fall-related psychological concerns (fear of falling, fall-related self-efficacy, balance confidence, and outcome expectancy). A total of 205 community-dwelling older people (mean age 81, SD 7.5 years) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling, Falls-Efficacy Scale- International, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Consequences of Falling Scale. Hierarchical regression models showed that anxiety was independently associated with all fall-related psychological concerns; depression was only associated with falls efficacy. Associations between fall-related psychological concerns and age, gender, accommodation,medications, self-rated physical health, falls history, mobility, and sensory aids are also discussed. This is the first study that investigates the association between affect and the four fall-related psychological concerns. Anxiety was a significant factor associated with all four, whereas depression was only associated with activity avoidance. Implications for healthcare providers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [How educating students in depression among older people can affect their motivation to work with this population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, S; Izaute, M; Teissèdre, F

    2017-04-01

    Negative representations of ageing are conveyed in our society. We see that people frequently avoid working with older people, due to a lack of motivation. Depressive signs in older people are more frequently associated with normal ageing, rather than a pathology, giving health professionals the feeling that therapeutic efforts are likely to be unproductive. Yet, depression is a major public health problem, particularly among older people. It is a real pathology, affecting 20% of people aged 65 and older. In retirement homes the percentage can be as high as 45%. To study and evaluate how theoretical knowledge about older people and depression affects the motivation of 2nd year psychology students to work with this population. The study involves two groups. One of the groups (experimental group) followed an 8hour course on depression in older people, whereas the other (control group) followed an 8hour course on a different topic. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the two groups answered an initial questionnaire which measured how motivated they were to work with older people and what they knew about depression in older people. Then, after the experimental phase, all of the students answered the same questionnaire a second time. The comparison shows a significant decline in knowledge between T1 and T2 for the control group (Pdepression, students are more motivated to work with older people. Moreover, we observe that the more knowledge students have in this field, the more motivated they will be to work with older people. Whereas there were no differences in knowledge before the course, we observed that the knowledge of the group who took part in the course about older people improved. Also, the evaluation showed that students who took the course were significantly more knowledgeable. Regarding motivation, our results vary according to the type of motivation. Overall, as regards intrinsic motivation, we observed an increase in motivation, insofar as the

  18. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  19. Occupational therapy with people with depression: using nominal group technique to collate clinician opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Danielle; Taylor, Michelle; Pepin, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This aim of this study was to obtain a consensus from clinicians regarding occupational therapy for people with depression, for the assessments and practices they use that are not currently supported by research evidence directly related to functional performance. The study also aimed to discover how many of these assessments and practices were currently supported by research evidence. Following a previously reported systematic review of assessments and practices used in occupational therapy for people with depression, a modified nominal group technique was used to discover which assessments and practices occupational therapists currently utilize. Three online surveys gathered initial data on therapeutic options (survey 1), which were then ranked (survey 2) and re-ranked (survey 3) to gain the final consensus. Twelve therapists completed the first survey, whilst 10 clinicians completed both the second and third surveys. Only 30% of the assessments and practices identified by the clinicians were supported by research evidence. A consensus was obtained on a total of 35 other assessments and interventions. These included both occupational-therapy-specific and generic assessments and interventions. Principle conclusion. Very few of the assessments and interventions identified were supported by research evidence directly related to functional performance. While a large number of options were generated, the majority of these were not occupational therapy specific.

  20. Determinants of attitudes towards professional mental health care, informal help and self-reliance in people with subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoonen, Kim; Kleiboer, Annet; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Verhaak, Peter; Beekman, Aartjan

    2016-02-01

    Although little is known about which people with subclinical depression should receive care to prevent the onset of depression, it is clear that remediating symptoms of depression is important. However, depending on the beliefs people hold about help, some people will seek professional help, while others seek informal help or solve problems on their own. This study examined associations between attitudes about help and socio-demographic variables, mastery, severity of depressive symptoms, accessibility to care, and health care utilization at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Data were derived from a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). A total of 235 respondents with subclinical depression completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Attitude was assessed using a short version of the 'Trust in mental health care' questionnaire. Positive attitude towards professional care was associated with being male, younger age, higher mastery and easy accessibility to care. Positive attitude towards informal help was associated with higher mastery and unemployment. Older age, less accessibility to care and lower mastery were associated with positive attitude towards self-reliance. A change in care utilization was associated with positive attitudes towards professional care at follow-up. People differ in the way they cope with symptoms which may influence their preferred care. Higher levels of mastery were positively associated with professional and informal care, but negatively associated with self-reliance. Both age and mastery showed relatively large effect sizes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Treatment of cannabis use among people with psychotic or depressive disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda L; Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I

    2010-03-01

    This article systematically reviews the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacologic and psychological approaches to the treatment of cannabis use among individuals with psychotic or depressive disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and PsychINFO databases from inception to December 2008. Individual searches in cannabis use (search terms: marijuana, cannabis, marijuana abuse, cannabis abuse, marijuana usage, cannabis usage), mental disorders (search terms: mood disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, anxiety, depressive disorder, depression, psychotic disorders, psychosis, mental disorders), and pharmacotherapy (search terms: medication, drug therapy, pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacology, clinical trials, drug trial, treatment trial) were conducted and limited to humans, adolescents and adults. A search combining the individual cannabis use, mental disorder and pharmacotherapy searches produced 1,713 articles (PubMed = 1,398; PsychINFO = 315). Combining the cannabis use and mental disorder searches while limiting them to English articles and RCTs produced a total of 286 articles (PubMed = 228; PsychINFO = 58). From this literature, there were 7 RCTs conducted among mental health clients that reported cannabis use outcomes using pharmacologic or psychological interventions. While few RCTs have been conducted, there is evidence that pharmacologic and psychological interventions are effective for reducing cannabis use in the short-term among people with psychotic disorders or depression. Although it is difficult to make evidence-based treatment recommendations due to the paucity of research in this area, available studies indicate that effectively treating the mental health disorder with standard pharmacotherapy may be associated with a reduction in cannabis use and that longer or more intensive psychological interventions rather than brief interventions may be required, particularly among heavier

  2. Clinical cues for detection of people with undiscovered depression in primary health care: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyckt, Lena; Hassler, Ejda; Lotfi, Louise; Krakau, Ingvar; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2014-07-01

    To identify clinical cues indicative of depression in medical records of cases in primary care with undetected depression. Depressive disorders are common; the lifetime risk for men and women is 27% and 45%, respectively. Despite effective treatment methods such as antidepressants and cognitive behavioural therapy, depression often remains undiscovered in primary care, with great implications both on the individual and societal level. Clinical cues indicating depression were sought in medical records the year before an opportunistic screening for depression in primary care. In a previous study of 221 patients in the waiting room of a primary care centre during 10 randomly selected days, 45 (20%) showed signs of depression (MADRS-S ⩾ 12) and 60% of these were verified as having depressive disorders (Prime-MD). These 45 patients constitute the cases in the present study. Age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those who scored below the chosen cut-off level. Seventeen (38%) of the 45 cases compared with eight (18%) of the 45 controls had one or more cues [odds ratio (OR) 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-7.43]. Sleep disturbance showed the greatest difference between cases and controls (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 1.17-17.55). A significant relationship was found between severity of depression, frequency of cues and lower functional level. Cues were twice as common in patients with undetected depression and their functional level was lower. A two-stage procedure, screening and a structured diagnostic interview, is recommended when sleep disturbances and lowered function are present.

  3. Online and social networking interventions for the treatment of depression in young people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon M; Goodall, Joanne; Hetrick, Sarah E; Parker, Alexandra G; Gilbertson, Tamsyn; Amminger, G Paul; Davey, Christopher G; McGorry, Patrick D; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2014-09-16

    Major depression accounts for the greatest burden of all diseases globally. The peak onset of depression occurs between adolescence and young adulthood, and for many individuals, depression displays a relapse-remitting and increasingly severe course. Given this, the development of cost-effective, acceptable, and population-focused interventions for depression is critical. A number of online interventions (both prevention and acute phase) have been tested in young people with promising results. As these interventions differ in content, clinician input, and modality, it is important to identify key features (or unhelpful functions) associated with treatment outcomes. A systematic review of the research literature was undertaken. The review was designed to focus on two aspects of online intervention: (1) standard approaches evaluating online intervention content in randomized controlled designs (Section 1), and (2) second-generation online interventions and services using social networking (eg, social networking sites and online support groups) in any type of research design (Section 2). Two specific literature searches were undertaken. There was no date range specified. The Section 1 search, which focused on randomized controlled trials, included only young people (12-25 years) and yielded 101 study abstracts, of which 15 met the review inclusion criteria. The Section 2 search, which included all study design types and was not restricted in terms of age, yielded 358 abstracts, of which 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Information about the studies and their findings were extracted and tabulated for review. The 15 studies identified in Section 1 described 10 trials testing eight different online interventions, all of which were based on a cognitive behavioral framework. All but one of the eight identified studies reported positive results; however, only five of the 15 studies used blinded interviewer administered outcomes with most trials using self-report data

  4. Effects of hearing aids on cognitive functions and depressive signs in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Baran; Yurekli, Muge Fethiye; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye; Karasen, Rıza Murat

    2011-01-01

    With the physical, emotional and cognitive effects of senility, elderly people, especially those with impaired hearing, need rehabilitation for improving their life conditions. Hearing aids are frequently used to improve their daily life communications and activities. The aim of this study was to report the cognitive and psychological benefits of using hearing aids by the elderly people, over the age of 65. This was a prospective, single-arm interventional study in 34 elderly subjects with hearing impairment who answered the geriatric depression scale-short form (GDS) questionnaire and the mini mental state examination (MMSE) test, prior to, and 3 months following the use of hearing aid, after obtaining the patients' consent to participate in study. Patients with evidence of focal neurological loss with clinical examination, a confusional state, sudden hear loss and severe tinnitus were not included in the study. Scores of the effects of hearing aids on mood and cognitive functions were compared for each subject, before and after, and between males and females. After 3 months of using a hearing aid, all patients showed a significant improvement of the psychosocial and cognitive conditions, and all of them showed betterment of their problems, i.e., the social communication and exchanging information. In conclusion, for the elderly people with the effects of hearing aids in presbycusis and due to the significant improvement in psychological state and mental functions, using and being adaptable to hearing aids is a good solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression And Loneliness Levels Among the Older People, a Comparison Between Living Alone, Living with Family or Living at Nursing Home

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    Ege Agirman

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In the study, we found out that, rate of depression in older people is higher than the level in entire society, the same is true for the sense of loneliness, loneliness becomes more fierce, as depression becomes stronger, The older people living alone are more exposed to depression compared to the ones living with family or being nursed, and loneliness becomes a more important problem for these people, [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 234-240

  6. Physical activity correlates among 24,230 people with depression across 46 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Firth, Joseph; Hallgren, Mats; Schuch, Felipe; Lahti, Jouni; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Mugisha, James; Carvalho, André F; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-10-15

    There is a paucity of nationally representative data available on the correlates of physical activity (PA) among people with depression, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated PA correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in this setting. World Health Survey data included 24,230 adults (43.1 ± 16.1 years; 36.1% male) with ICD-10 diagnoses of depression including brief depressive episode and subsyndromal depression aged ≥ 18 years from 46 LMICs. PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were dichotomised into low and moderate-to-high physically active groups. Associations between PA and a range of sociodemographic, health behaviour and mental and physical health variables were examined using multivariable logistic regressions. 34.8% of participants with depression were physically inactive. In the multivariate analyses, inactivity was associated with male sex, older age, not being married/cohabiting, high socio-economic status, unemployment, living in an urban setting, less vegetable consumption, and poor sleep/ low energy. In addition, mobility difficulties and some somatic co-morbidity were associated with not complying with the 150min per week moderate-to-vigorous PA recommendations. The current data provide guidance for future population level interventions across LMICs to help people with depression engage in regular PA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. One-year follow up of PTSD and depression in elderly aboriginal people in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chung; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a 1-year follow-up of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and depression in an elderly minority population who experienced Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The PTSD Symptom Scale--Interview and the 10-item short form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were used to examine PTSD symptomatology and depression in 120 victims at 3-6 months and in 88 victims (73.3% reinterview rate) at 11-12 months after the disaster. Further, we looked for associations between stress, prognosis, and development of PTSD symptomatology and depression. The prevalence of PTSD symptomatology decreased from 29.2% (35/120) at 3-6 months to 15.9% (14/88) at 11-12 months. The prevalence of depression, however, increased from 43.3% (52/120) to 46.6% (41/88). No factor was associated with follow-up PTSD symptomatology, and only the level of education was related to follow-up depression. Generally, the risk factors of age, sex, symptomatology of PTSD and depression at baseline, and stressor of unemployment predicted new-onset or chronic PTSD symptomatology and depression. Delayed-onset depression 48.0% (24/50) was more common than delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology 11.3% (7/62). Chronic and delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology were more easily developed with depression. Although PTSD and depression were separate consequences of trauma, they emerged and affected mental health together. We documented the courses of PTSD and depression among elderly aboriginal people, and the possible effects of demographic, symptomatology, and adverse life stressors were discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Attitudes towards people with depression and schizophrenia among social service workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla Bjørkøe; Vendsborg, Per; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-04-01

    Mental health-related stigma is a major public health issue, and is an obstacle to the possibility for successful treatment, recovery, and reintegration. To examine attitudes towards mental illness among employees in the social services. The study design was part of a large randomized trial, and data presented in this study are baseline data from this trial. Respondents completed a baseline questionnaire to assess the respondents' attitudes. A significant difference was found between employees' personal attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia. The same significant difference was found in the employees' perceived attitudes. Furthermore, a significant difference was found between the employees' personal and perceived attitudes. A significant difference was found between the respondents wish for social distance towards depression and schizophrenia in all cases, except regarding the willingness to provide a job at one's own workplace. Employees in the social services are comparable to the general public concerning attitudes towards mental illness. The results indicate that the employees in social services could have great use of gaining more knowledge about mental illness and ways in which to recognize a mental illness, in order to be able to offer the right kind of help and reduce the treatment gap concerning people suffering from mental illness.

  9. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress disorders in elderly people residing in Khoy, Iran (2014-2015

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    Towhid Babazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychiatric disorders such as depression, stress, and anxiety are factors that affect the quality of life, suicide and many physical problems, and socioeconomic in elders. Considering the importance of the issue and increasing the number of elderly people in this County, researchers decided to investigate the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in the elderly health centers of Khoy, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 383 elderly people referred to health centers in Khoy County. A random cluster sampling was used in this study where each health care is considered as a cluster. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21 standard questionnaire was used for data collection. The SPSS software was used for all computations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. P < 0.050 was determined to be significant. Results: The results of this study showed that 1.3% of the elderly people suffer from very severe stress, 1.3% from severe depression, and 3.1% from severe anxiety. Likewise, the comparison between anxiety, stress, and depression disorders with demographic variables showed that there is a significant association between these disorders and sex, education, marital status, medical condition, as well as their housing conditions (P < 0.050. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated anxiety disorders, depression, and stress prevail among the elderly. In addition, some factors such as education, housing, medical condition, and marital status had significant effects on anxiety disorders, depression, and stress. Therefore, more attention is deserved in these aspects. Moreover, appropriate measures need to be taken to improve the mental health of elderly people.

  10. Clinical and non-clinical depression and anxiety in young people: A scoping review on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniccia, Melissa; Paniccia, David; Thomas, Scott; Taha, Tim; Reed, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, has emerged as a physiological indicator for emotional regulation and psychological well-being. HRV is understudied in the context of depression and anxiety in young people (10-24years old). Main objectives: (1) describe the nature and breadth of reviewed studies; and (2) synthesize main findings in the context of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression and/or anxiety. The Arksey and O'Malley methodology was utilized for this scoping review. CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, as well as grey literature, were searched. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full papers for inclusion. A total of 20 citations were included in the final review (19 citations peer-reviewed journal articles, 1 journal abstract). Numerical and thematic analysis was used to summarize study findings. In clinical populations of either depression or anxiety, HRV was lower compared to controls. In non-clinical populations of either depression or anxiety, HRV was found to be lower in those who reported more depression or anxiety symptoms. The quality of the reviewed articles was not assessed which limits the ability to generate conclusions regarding study findings. Changes in HRV were found across the spectrum of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression or anxiety. Neurophysiological research on depression and anxiety in young people can act as a first step to understanding how physiological flexibility (i.e. HRV) is related to psychological flexibility (i.e. adaptive or maladaptive responses to life events). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in depressive symptoms and correlates in HIV+ people at An Hoa Clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Van-Anh N; To, Kien G; Do, Dung Van; To, Quyen G; Nguyen, Mai T H

    2017-01-21

    Understanding of depression among Vietnamese people living with HIV (PLWH) is limited. This longitudinal study examines changes in depressive symptoms and identifies its correlates among people living with HIV under antiretroviral therapy at An Hoa Clinic. People living with HIV ≥18 years and undergoing antiretroviral therapy for ≥3 months were eligible. Those at final AIDS stage, too ill, or illiterate were excluded due to their inability to complete the self-administered questionnaire. One researcher was present in the clinic for a month inviting PLWH to participate. Data were collected from 242 PLWH at baseline (T1) and 234 after three months (T2). Depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). Social relationship was measured using questions created by World Health Organization. Generalized Estimating Equations were used examining changes in depressive symptoms with CESD cut-off symptoms at T2 compared to T1 (OR = 1.15, p > 0.05). Those with a co-morbidity were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without a co-morbidity (OR = 1.76, p symptoms than those with lower scores (OR = 0.76, p symptoms at T2 compared to T1 (OR = 1.6, p symptoms than those with lower scores (OR = 0.73, p HIV were not more likely to have depressive symptoms (symptoms (symptoms. Associations between age, individual income status, and co-morbidity with depressive symptoms were not decisive. Gender, ethnicity, education, religion, marriage, household economy, and adherence were not correlates.

  12. Dropout from exercise randomized controlled trials among people with depression: A meta-analysis and meta regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Richards, Justin; Soundy, Andrew; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Schuch, Felipe B

    2016-01-15

    Exercise has established efficacy in improving depressive symptoms. Dropouts from randomized controlled trials (RCT's) pose a threat to the validity of this evidence base, with dropout rates varying across studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and predictors of dropout rates among adults with depression participating in exercise RCT's. Three authors identified RCT's from a recent Cochrane review and conducted updated searches of major electronic databases from 01/2013 to 08/2015. We included RCT's of exercise interventions in people with depression (including major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms) that reported dropout rates. A random effects meta-analysis and meta regression were conducted. Overall, 40 RCT's were included reporting dropout rates across 52 exercise interventions including 1720 people with depression (49.1 years (range=19-76 years), 72% female (range=0-100)). The trim and fill adjusted prevalence of dropout across all studies was 18.1% (95%CI=15.0-21.8%) and 17.2% (95%CI=13.5-21.7, N=31) in MDD only. In MDD participants, higher baseline depressive symptoms (β=0.0409, 95%CI=0.0809-0.0009, P=0.04) predicted greater dropout, whilst supervised interventions delivered by physiotherapists (β=-1.2029, 95%CI=-2.0967 to -0.3091, p=0.008) and exercise physiologists (β=-1.3396, 95%CI=-2.4478 to -0.2313, p=0.01) predicted lower dropout. A comparative meta-analysis (N=29) established dropout was lower in exercise than control conditions (OR=0.642, 95%CI=0.43-0.95, p=0.02). Exercise is well tolerated by people with depression and drop out in RCT's is lower than control conditions. Thus, exercise is a feasible treatment, in particular when delivered by healthcare professionals with specific training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  14. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  15. Apathy and depressive symptoms in older people and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

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    Eurelings LSM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lisa SM Eurelings,1,* Jan Willem van Dalen,1,* Gerben ter Riet,2 Eric P Moll van Charante,2 Edo Richard,1,3 Willem A van Gool1 On behalf of the ICARA Study Group 1Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous findings suggest that apathy symptoms independently of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in older individuals.Aims: To study whether apathy and depressive symptoms in older people are associated with future CVD, stroke, and mortality using individual patient-data meta-analysis.Methods: Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases up to September 3, 2013, were systematically searched without language restrictions. We sought prospective studies with older (mean age ≥65 years community-dwelling populations in which the GDS was employed and subsequent stroke and/or CVD were recorded to provide individual participant data. Apathy symptoms were defined as the three apathy-related subitems of the GDS, with depressive symptoms the remaining items. We used myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality as main outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and MI/stroke history. An adaptation of the Newcastle–Ottawa scale was used to evaluate bias. Hazard ratios were calculated using one-stage random-effect Cox regression models.Results: Of the 52 eligible studies, 21 (40.4% were included, comprising 47,625 older people (mean age [standard deviation] 74 [7.4] years, over a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Participants with apathy symptoms had a 21% higher risk of MI (95% confidence

  16. Being part of an enacted togetherness: narratives of elderly people with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Anneli; Josephsson, Staffan; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we explored how five elderly persons with depression engaged in everyday activities with others, over time, and how this was related to their experience of meaning. Repeated interviews and participant observations generated data that was analysed using a narrative approach. Analysis identified togetherness as an acted relation, "enacted togetherness", emphasising how the act of doing everyday activities with someone created togetherness and belonging, and being part of an enacted togetherness seemed to be a way for the participants to negotiate and construct meaning. Opportunities for doing things together with someone were closely associated to the place where the participants lived. Furthermore, engagement in activities together with others created hope and expectations of future acting. Findings from this research can extend our understanding of how participating in everyday activities is experienced as a social process including change over time, presenting the perspective of elderly people themselves. In light of these findings, we highlight the need to consider how opportunities to become part of an enacted togetherness can be created. Also, we aspire to contribute to the debate on how to understand the complexity related to social aspects of ageing and add to the emerging understanding of everyday activities as transactional, incorporating people and the environment in a dynamic process that goes beyond the individual. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Eating Out Make Elderly People Depressed? Empirical Evidence from National Health and Nutrition Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Hao; Saeliw, Kannika

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed. METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. An additional analysis is conducted to check whether the nutrient intakes and body weights can be seen as mediators that link the association between eating out and depressive symptoms of the elderly. RESULTS: Elderly people who eat out are 38 percent points more likely to have depressive symptoms than their counterparts who do not eat out, after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other factors. A positive association between the frequency of eating out and the likelihood of having depressive symptoms of the elderly is also found. It is evident that one additional meal away from home is associated with an increase of the likelihood of being depressed by 3.8 percentage points. With respect to the mediations, we find that nutrient intakes and body weight are likely to serve as mediators for the positive relationship between eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. CONCLUSION: Our results show that elderly who eat out have a higher chance of having depressive symptoms. To prevent depressive symptoms in the elderly, policy makers should be aware of the relationship among psychological status, physical health and nutritional health when assisting the elderly to better manage their food consumption away from home. LIMITATONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Our study have some caveats. First, the interpretation of our results on the causality issue

  18. The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, R.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Francke, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a

  19. The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, R.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Francke, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a

  20. Developing an integrated, Internet-based self-help programme for young people with depression and alcohol use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Deady

    2014-07-01

    Overall, the DEAL Project programme was well-received and provides an innovative new platform for the treatment of co-occurring depression and alcohol use problems in young people. The next phase will include an evaluation of programme efficacy. If found to be efficacious, the programme has the potential to improve outcomes, reduce disease burden, and increase treatment uptake in this vulnerable group.

  1. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  2. Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder : A cross-sectional study in 35 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Boxtel, T.; Knifton, L.; Wahlbeck, K.; Van Audenhove, C.; Kadri, N.; Chang, Ch.; Goud, B.R.; Ballester, D.; Tófoli, L.F.; Bello, R.; Jorge-Monteiro, M.F.; Zäske, H.; Milacic, I.; Uçok, A.; Lasalvia, A.; Thornicroft, G.; van Weeghel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known

  3. Cognitive Coping, Goal Adjustment, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in People Undergoing Infertility Treatment A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Weijmer, Janneke; Helmerhorst, Frans

    The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal adjustment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were studied in people with fertility problems. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 313 patients attending an infertility clinic. Self-report

  4. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -affected older people in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M; Chatterji, S; Rochat, T; Mutevedzi, P; Newell, M-L

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about depression in older people in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated impact of HIV, and the influence on health perceptions. Examine the prevalence and correlates of depression; explore the relationship between depression and health perceptions in HIV-infected and -affected older people. In 2010, 422 HIV-infected and -affected participants aged 50+ were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Nurse professionals interviewed participants and a diagnosis of depressive episode was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Depression module) using the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria and categorised as major (MDE) or brief (BDE). Overall, 42.4% (n=179) had a depressive episode (MDE: 22.7%, n=96; BDE: 19.7%, n=83). Prevalence of MDE was significantly higher in HIV-affected (30.1%, 95% CI 24.0-36.2%) than HIV-infected (14.8%, 95% CI 9.9-19.7%) participants; BDE was higher in HIV-infected (24.6%, 95% CI 18.7-30.6%) than in HIV-affected (15.1%, 95% CI 10.3-19.8%) participants. Being female (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.73-5.36), receiving a government grant (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.75), urban residency (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and adult care-giving (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37-4.12) were significantly associated with any depressive episode. Participants with a depressive episode were 2-3 times more likely to report poor health perceptions. Study limitations include the cross-sectional design, limited sample size and possible selection biases. Prevalence of depressive episodes was high. Major depressive episodes were higher in HIV-affected than HIV-infected participants. Psycho-social support similar to that of HIV treatment programmes around HIV-affected older people may be useful in reducing their vulnerability to depression. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -affected older people in rural South Africa☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M.; Chatterji, S.; Rochat, T.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about depression in older people in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated impact of HIV, and the influence on health perceptions. Objectives Examine the prevalence and correlates of depression; explore the relationship between depression and health perceptions in HIV-infected and -affected older people. Methods In 2010, 422 HIV-infected and -affected participants aged 50+ were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Nurse professionals interviewed participants and a diagnosis of depressive episode was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Depression module) using the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria and categorised as major (MDE) or brief (BDE). Results Overall, 42.4% (n=179) had a depressive episode (MDE: 22.7%, n=96; BDE: 19.7%, n=83). Prevalence of MDE was significantly higher in HIV-affected (30.1%, 95% CI 24.0–36.2%) than HIV-infected (14.8%, 95% CI 9.9–19.7%) participants; BDE was higher in HIV-infected (24.6%, 95% CI 18.7–30.6%) than in HIV-affected (15.1%, 95% CI 10.3–19.8%) participants. Being female (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.73–5.36), receiving a government grant (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.75), urban residency (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16–2.96) and adult care-giving (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37–4.12) were significantly associated with any depressive episode. Participants with a depressive episode were 2–3 times more likely to report poor health perceptions. Limitations Study limitations include the cross-sectional design, limited sample size and possible selection biases. Conclusions Prevalence of depressive episodes was high. Major depressive episodes were higher in HIV-affected than HIV-infected participants. Psycho-social support similar to that of HIV treatment programmes around HIV-affected older people may be useful in reducing their vulnerability to depression. PMID:23726780

  6. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Helgadóttir

    Full Text Available Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9. Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  7. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Björg; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity. The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9). Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns. No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts. The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  8. Computerised therapies for anxiety and depression in children and young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennant, Mary E; Loucas, Christina E; Whittington, Craig; Creswell, Cathy; Fonagy, Peter; Fuggle, Peter; Kelvin, Raphael; Naqvi, Sabrina; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2015-04-01

    One quarter of children and young people (CYP) experience anxiety and/or depression before adulthood, but treatment is sometimes unavailable or inadequate. Self-help interventions may have a role in augmenting treatment and this work aimed to systematically review the evidence for computerised anxiety and depression interventions in CYP aged 5-25 years old. Databases were searched for randomised controlled trials and 27 studies were identified. For young people (12-25 years) with risk of diagnosed anxiety disorders or depression, computerised CBT (cCBT) had positive effects for symptoms of anxiety (SMD -0.77, 95% CI -1.45 to -0.09, k = 6, N = 220) and depression (SMD -0.62, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.11, k = 7, N = 279). In a general population study of young people, there were small positive effects for anxiety (SMD -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.03; N = 1273) and depression (SMD -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.03; N = 1280). There was uncertainty around the effectiveness of cCBT in children (5-11 years). Evidence for other computerised interventions was sparse and inconclusive. Computerised CBT has potential for treating and preventing anxiety and depression in clinical and general populations of young people. Further program development and research is required to extend its use and establish its benefit in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  10. Screening for and subsequent participation in a trial for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care: Who do we reach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigated (factors related to) (a) the response to a screening procedure for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes in primary care, and (b) participation in a subsequent randomised controlled trial targeting depressive or anxiety symptoms. METHODS: People with

  11. Screening for and subsequent participation in a trial for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care : Who do we reach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, François

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated (factors related to) (a) the response to a screening procedure for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes in primary care, and (b) participation in a subsequent randomised controlled trial targeting depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods: People with

  12. Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Johan; Näsman, Marina; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Conradsson, Mia; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, pfive years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LGBT Identity, Untreated Depression, and Unmet Need for Mental Health Services by Sexual Minority Women and Trans-Identified People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Leah S; Daley, Andrea; Curling, Deone; Gibson, Margaret F; Green, Datejie C; Williams, Charmaine C; Ross, Lori E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people. This was a cross-sectional Internet survey. We used targeted sampling to recruit 704 sexual and gender minority people and heterosexual cisgendered adult women across Ontario, Canada. To ensure adequate representation of vulnerable groups, we oversampled racialized and low socioeconomic status (SES) women. Trans participants were 2.4 times (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6-3.8, p mental healthcare as cisgender heterosexual women. Trans participants were also 1.6 times (95% CI = 1.0-27, p = 0.04) more likely to report untreated depression. These differences were not seen after adjustment for social context factors such as discrimination and social support. We conclude that there are higher rates of unmet need and untreated depression in trans and bisexual participants that are partly explained by differences in social factors, including experiences of discrimination, lower levels of social support, and systemic exclusion from healthcare. Our findings suggest that the mental health system in Ontario is not currently meeting the needs of many sexual and gender minority people.

  14. Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Pilkington, Pamela Doreen; Ryan, Siobhan Mary; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2014-03-01

    There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in young people. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 12-18 years age range, when the first onset for these disorders peaks. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required. Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in young people which parents can potentially modify. We identified 181 articles altogether, with 140 examining depression, 17 examining anxiety problems, and 24 examining both outcomes. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome. Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalizability across cultures and to younger or adult children, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies. Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and anxiety include less warmth, more inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, and aversiveness; and for depression additionally, they include less autonomy granting and monitoring. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Depression in Older People Living in 3 Districts of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BehPajooh

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: There is a causal and mutual relationship between sleep disturbances and depression, in such a way that sleeplessness could end in depression, and if the depression signs are ignored, it will gradually affect sleep quality. Generally, sleep disturbances are mutually associated with depressive mood and low quality of life. Therefore, to enhance sleep quality and decrease the level of depression in people residing in nursing homes, the necessity of special care programs in the old age should be emphasized. With regard to limitations of this study, we cannot generalize our results to all old population as our study was confined to only 3 districts of Tehran. In addition, since some variables like education and economic status of old age people were not considered in this study, there is a need to generalize the findings. Finally, it is recommended that future studies should investigate the relationship between sleep quality, lifestyle, and daily activities in the nursing homes.

  16. The Impact of an Early Eclectic Rehabilitative Intervention on Symptoms in First Episode Depression among Employed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Raiskila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of an early vocational-orientated eclectic intervention on beck depression inventory (BDI scores compared to treatment as usual in first ever depressive episode among employed people. Design. A randomized controlled trial comparing the rehabilitative intervention and the conventional treatment. Subjects. The subjects came from occupational health care units. Methods. Employees were sent to a rehabilitation center after being screened for depression using the BDI. They were diagnosed using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV. The participating subjects (N=283 were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received eclectic early depression intervention treatment (N=134 and the control group was treated in the conventional way (N=100. They were followed for one year. Results. The mean decrease in BDI scores within the intervention group was from 20.8 to 11.6 and within the control group from 19.3 to 10.8. BDI score decreased by 10 or more points in 64% of the participants in the intervention group and in 53% of the control group (P=0.013. Conclusions. There was some evidence that early eclectic intervention in first ever episode depression may be more effective than conventional treatments among working age people in employment.

  17. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  18. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. A direct comparison of the defense mechanisms of nondepressed people and depressed psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, G M; Greenberg, R P; Fisher, S; Dewan, M

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a direct comparison of defensive styles (as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory [DMI]) in a sample of depressed psychiatric inpatients and samples of nondepressed male and female normative groups. Consistent with the "depressive realism" literature, nondepressed men and women were more likely than their depressed counterparts to bias their perceptions in an overly cheerful, optimistic direction. Counternormative sex differences were also found. Depressed men were more likely to use internalizing defenses and depressed women were more likely to use externalizing defenses than their respective nondepressed comparison groups. Overall, as has been speculated, there was a relationship within depressed subjects between depression severity and the amount of negatively biased self-perception.

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  1. Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of depression in people with multiple sclerosis: external pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cindy L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with multiple sclerosis (MS are at high risk of depression. We undertook a pilot trial of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT for the treatment of depression in people with MS to test the feasibility of undertaking a full trial. Methods Participants with a diagnosis of MS and clinical levels of depression were recruited through out-patient clinics and postal screening questionnaires at two UK centres and randomised to CCBT or usual care. Clinical outcomes included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 at baseline, 8 and 21 weeks. Feasibility outcomes included: recruitment rate; reasons for refusal, withdrawal and dropout; feasibility and acceptability of the proposed outcome measures; sample size estimation and variation in and preferences for service delivery. Results Twenty-four participants were recruited. The recruitment rate, calculated as the proportion of those invited to fill in a screening questionnaire who were consented into the trial, was 4.1%. Recruitment through out-patient clinics was somewhat slower than through screening questionnaire mail-out but the overall recruitment yield was similar. Of the 12 patients in the CCBT arm, 9 (75% completed at least four, and 6 completed all 8 CCBT sessions. For completers, the median time (IQR to complete all eight CCBT sessions was 15 (13 to 20 weeks. Participants expressed concern about the face validity of the Beck Depression Inventory II for the measurement of self-reported depression in people with MS. The MSIS-29 was the patient-reported outcome measure which participants felt best reflected their concerns. The estimated sample size for a full trial is between 180 and 390 participants. NHS partners were not delivering CCBT in community facilities and participants preferred to access CCBT at home, with no one expressing a preference for use of CCBT in an alternative location. Conclusions A definitive

  2. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy versus talking and usual care for depressed older people in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leurent Baptiste E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence suggests cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT may be effective for depressed older people in a primary care setting, few studies have examined its cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, a talking control (TC and treatment as usual (TAU, delivered in a primary care setting, for older people with depression. Methods Cost data generated from a single blind randomised controlled trial of 204 people aged 65 years or more were offered only Treatment as Usual, or TAU plus up to twelve sessions of CBT or a talking control is presented. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II was the main outcome measure for depression. Direct treatment costs were compared with reductions in depression scores. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using non-parametric bootstrapping. The primary analysis focussed on the cost-effectiveness of CBT compared with TAU at 10 months follow up. Results Complete cost data were available for 198 patients at 4 and 10 month follow up. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline costs. The majority of health service contacts at follow up were made with general practitioners. Fewer contacts with mental health services were recorded in patients allocated to CBT, though these differences were not significant. Overall total per patient costs (including intervention costs were significantly higher in the CBT group compared with the TAU group at 10 month follow up (difference £427, 95% CI: £56 - £787, p Conclusions CBT is significantly more costly than TAU alone or TAU plus TC, but more clinically effective. Based on current estimates, CBT is likely to be recommended as a cost-effective treatment option for this patient group if the value placed on a unit reduction in BDI-II is greater than £115. Trial Registration isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN18271323

  3. Depression and risk of mortality in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur E P van Dooren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes by systematically reviewing the literature and carrying out a meta-analysis of relevant longitudinal studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PUBMED and PSYCINFO were searched for articles assessing mortality risk associated with depression in diabetes up until August 16, 2012. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which were pooled in an overall all-cause mortality estimate, and five in a cardiovascular mortality estimate. After adjustment for demographic variables and micro- and macrovascular complications, depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.29-1.66, and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.73. Heterogeneity across studies was high for all-cause mortality and relatively low for cardiovascular mortality, with an I-squared of respectively 78.6% and 39.6%. Subgroup analyses showed that the association between depression and mortality not significantly change when excluding three articles presenting odds ratios, yet this decreased heterogeneity substantially (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.39-1.61, I-squared = 15.1%. A comparison between type 1 and type 2 diabetes could not be undertaken, as only one study reported on type 1 diabetes specifically. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with an almost 1.5-fold increased risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Research should focus on both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death associated with depression, and determine the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may explain this association.

  4. Internet-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of depression in people living in developing countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pablo; Rojas, Graciela; Martínez, Vania; Lara, María Asunción; Pérez, J Carola

    2018-07-01

    Internet-based interventions for depression may be a valuable resource to reduce the treatment gap for those living in developing countries. However, evidence comes mainly from developed countries. This systematic review summarized the evidence on preventive or therapeutic Internet-based interventions for depression for people who reside in developing countries. CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, SciELO Citation Indexes, the Journal of Medical Internet Research, and the Telemedicine and e-Health journal, were searched up to June 2017, to identify feasibility or effectiveness studies of preventive or therapeutic Internet-based interventions for depression, with or without human support. Studies included subjects residing in developing countries, and were published in English or Spanish. Study protocols were included. Risk of bias and/or quality of the reporting of the studies included was assessed. Five feasibility studies, aimed at the prevention of depression, and a study protocol were included in this systematic review. Reports came mostly from the Americas (n = 4). Internet-based interventions aimed at the prevention of depression presented low levels of human support, were useful and acceptable to their users, and require further design refinements to improve their use and retention. No gray literature was searched or included in this systematic review. Searches were limited to English and Spanish languages. Internet-based interventions aimed at the prevention of depression in people who reside in developing countries are in an early phase of development, limiting the generalizability of the results. Future studies must employ persuasive designs to improve user retention, incorporating larger samples and a control group to conclusively determine feasibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of mobbing (workplace bullying) on depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study among employees working with people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, H; Gil-Monte, P R; Olivares-Faúndez, V E

    2015-01-01

    The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterised as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse the influence of mobbing on depressive symptoms in a sample of employees working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sample consisted of 372 Spanish employees working with people with ID at 61 job centres in the Valencian Community (Spain). Seventy-nine (21.2%) participants were men, and 293 were (78.8%) women. Mobbing was evaluated by the Mobbing-UNIPSICO scale, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. Using analyses of variance (anova), we tested the differences in depressive symptoms according to the mobbing criteria indicated by Leymann, that is, frequency and duration at Time 1 and Time 2. Employees who met the mobbing criteria: frequency (at least once a week) and duration (at least 6 months) at the two study times presented significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than employees who met mobbing criteria at Time 1, but did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 2, and employees who did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 1 or Time 2. We conclude that permanence of mobbing from Time 1 to Time 2 increases depressive symptoms. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Park, Jeung Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above. [Subjects] Twenty frail elderly individuals ≥70 years old were assigned to either a Nordic walking group (n=8) or general exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The duration of intervention was equal in both groups (3 sessions/week for 12 weeks, 60 min/session). Physical function (balance, upper extremity strength, lower extremity strength, weakness) and depression were examined before and after the interventions. [Results] With the exception of upper extremity muscle strength, lower extremity strength, weakness, balance, and depression after Nordic walking demonstrated statistically significant improvement. However, in the general exercise group, only balance demonstrated a statistically significant improvement after the intervention. There were significant differences in the changes in lower extremity muscle strength, weakness and depression between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, Nordic walking was more effective than general exercise. Therefore, we suggest that Nordic walking may be an attractive option for significant functional improvement in frail people over 70 years old.

  7. Technology for Early Detection of Depression and Anxiety in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jacob A; Astell, Arlene J; Brown, Laura J E; Harrison, Robert F; Hawley, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Under-diagnosis of depression and anxiety is common in older adults. This project took a mixed methods approach to explore the application of machine learning and technology for early detection of these conditions. Mood measures collected with digital technologies were used to predict depression and anxiety status according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Interactive group activities and interviews were used to explore views of older adults and healthcare professionals on this approach respectively. The results show good potential for using a machine learning approach with mood data to predict later depression, though prospective results are preliminary. Qualitative findings highlight motivators and barriers to use of mental health technologies, as well as usability issues. If consideration is given to these issues, this approach could allow alerts to be provided to healthcare staff to draw attention to service users who may go on to experience depression.

  8. A structural equation model of perceived and internalized stigma, depression, and suicidal status among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chengbo; Li, Linghua; Hong, Yan Alicia; Zhang, Hanxi; Babbitt, Andrew Walker; Liu, Cong; Li, Lixia; Qiao, Jiaying; Guo, Yan; Cai, Weiping

    2018-01-15

    Previous studies have shown positive association between HIV-related stigma and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempt among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). But few studies have examined the mechanisms among HIV-related stigma, depression, and suicidal status (suicidal ideation and/or suicidal attempt) in PLWH. The current study examined the relationships among perceived and internalized stigma (PIS), depression, and suicidal status among PLWH in Guangzhou, China using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectional study by convenience sampling was conducted and 411 PLWH were recruited from the Number Eight People's Hospital from March to June, 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Participants were interviewed on their PIS, depressive symptoms, suicidal status, and socio-demographic characteristics. PLWH who had had suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts since HIV diagnosis were considered to be suicidal. Structural equation model was performed to examine the direct and indirect associations of PIS and suicidal status. Indicators to evaluate goodness of fit of the structural equation model included Chi-square Statistic, Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), and Weighted Root Mean Square Residual (WRMR). More than one-third (38.4%) of the PLWH had depressive symptoms and 32.4% reported suicidal ideation and/or attempt since HIV diagnosis. The global model showed good model fit (Chi-square value = 34.42, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, WRMR = 0.73). Structural equation model revealed that direct pathway of PIS on suicidal status was significant (standardized pathway coefficient = 0.21), and indirect pathway of PIS on suicidal status via depression was also significant (standardized pathway coefficient = 0.24). There was a partial mediating effect of depression in the association between PIS and suicidal status. Our findings suggest that PIS is associated

  9. Effectiveness of a stepped care intervention for anxiety and depression in people with diabetes, asthma or COPD in primary care : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pommer, A.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common in people with a chronic somatic disease. Although guidelines recommend stepped care, the effectiveness of this approach has not been evaluated in people with diabetes, asthma, or COPD in primary care. Methods 3559 People were sent screening

  10. The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Verkaik, R.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Francke, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a predefined protocol, ten electronic databases were searched, studies selected, relevant data extracted and the methodological quality of the studies assessed. With a Best Evidence Synthesis the result...

  11. Review of a nursing research report. Young people with depression: review of a nursing research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Janay

    2013-01-01

    McCann's et al. (2012) research study revealed several adverse effects that depression can have on young adults. The findings showed that depression in young adults can be life-threatening if not treated (McCann et al., 2012). One implication for evidenced-based nursing practice would be to educate family and friends on the signs of depression and how to respond to them. A suggestion for future research would be to conduct a study showing the effectiveness of different treatment methods (e.g., therapy, medications) on adolescent depression.

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of quality of life and depression of older people in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the process of aging and old age is an important question in social sciences. The quality of life at this age, among other things, is being enriched with new life opportunities and challenges, as well as developmental tasks every single individual has to face with. Therefore the focus of this research is the correlation of the quality of life and depressiveness with different demographic characteristics of older people in Serbia. The demographic variables included: gender, age, education, marital status and monthly income of the respondents. The quality of life is measured using the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire - OPQOL (Bowling, 2009, as well as several questions on life domain satisfaction and chronical disease, while depressiveness was measured using Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS (Greenberg, 2007. The sample was a convenience one, consisted of 497 respondents, 50,35% of men and 49,7% of women, 65-92 years old. The final results show that the quality of life of older people in Serbia is within the average range, and depressiveness belongs to the -category with the level of mild occurence. Men are more satisfied with a job they have or used to have, while women better estimate their independence and control over their life. The age of respondents positively correlates with marital satisfaction, satisfaction with job, with parental role, health, social relations, independence and monthly incomes. The amount of monthly income positively correlates with job satisfaction and well-being, while it is negatively correlated with health, social relations, independence, home and neighbourhood, financial status and the depressiveness of the respondents. The level of education is significantly correlated with marital satisfaction, job, whole life, health, social relations and activities, satisfaction with home and neighbourhood, emotional and psychic well-being, financial status and the level of depressiveness of the respondents

  13. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  14. Caring for people with depression or with schizophrenia: Are the consequences different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, Bob; Koeter, Maarten; Knapp, Martin; Tansella, Michele; Thornicroft, Graham; Vázquez-Barquero, José-Luis; Schene, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Attention to caregiver consequences has been mainly restricted to caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. The few studies done in depression were conducted on small samples and/or with non-validated instruments. Caregiver consequences in depression and schizophrenia were measured with the

  15. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in people with diabetes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lisa; Newby, Jill; Wilhelm, Kay; Smith, Jessica; Fletcher, Therese; Ma, Trevor; Finch, Adam; Campbell, Lesley; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Depression substantially contributes to the personal burden and healthcare costs of living with diabetes mellitus (DM). Comorbid depression and DM are associated with poorer quality of life, poorer self-management and glycemic control, increased risk for DM complications and higher mortality rates, and higher health service utilization. Depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in people with DM, which may, in part, result from barriers associated with accessing face-to-face treatment. This study will examine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy programme for major depressive disorder (iCBT-MDD) in people with DM. A CONSORT 2010 compliant, registered randomised controlled trial of the intervention (iCBT-MDD) versus a treatment as usual control group will be conducted. The study will include 100 adults aged 18 years and over with a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 DM and self-reported symptoms that satisfy MDD which will enable us to detect a statistically significant difference with a group effect size of 0.6 at a power of 80% and significance level of p=0.05. Participants will be randomised to receive the iCBT-MDD programme immediately, or to wait 10 weeks before accessing the programme. Primary outcomes will be self-reported depression severity, DM-related distress, and glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin). Secondary outcomes will be general distress and disability, generalized anxiety, lifestyle behaviours, somatization, eating habits, alcohol use, and acceptability of the iCBT programme to participants, and practicality for clinicians. Data will be analyzed with linear mixed models for each outcome measure. The Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital Australia have given ethics approval (HREC/13/SVH/291). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and social media channels of Australian Diabetes Consumer Representative Bodies. The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand

  16. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  17. Associations between loneliness, depressive symptoms and perceived togetherness in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkainen, P; Heikkinen, R-L

    2005-11-01

    This study explores the associations of loneliness with depressive symptoms in a five-year follow-up and describes how the six dimensions of perceived togetherness explain loneliness and depressive symptoms at baseline. The data were collected on 207 residents of Jyväskylä, central Finland, who at baseline in 1990 were aged 80; and 133 residents who at follow-up in 1995 were aged 85. Loneliness was assessed using a questionnaire item with four preset response options, perceived togetherness using the Social Provisions Scale, and depressive symptoms using the CES-D scale. A recursive structural equation model showed that in women but not in men, depressive symptoms predicted more experiences of loneliness. Those who were lonely were more depressed (CES-D score 16 or over) and experienced less togetherness than those who were not. Loneliness was explained by reliable alliance, social integration and attachment; and depressive symptoms were explained by guidance, reassurance of worth, reliable alliance and attachment. A common feature in both loneliness and depressive symptoms was a lower level of perceived emotional togetherness in social interaction.

  18. A study of depression, perceived loneliness, cognitive function and independence in daily activities in home and institution based older people: A cross sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Old age homes are on the rise in India. Older people staying in such institutions have specific psychosocial issues that may affect their cognitive performance and daily living. Materials and Methods: 71 older people, 39 institution based and 32 community-based were recruited with serial sampling after screening on mini-mental state examination and were evaluated with geriatric depression scale, University of California, Los Angeles scale, Lawton′s instrumental activities of daily living scale and montreal cognitive assessment scale. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in older people who were institution based, widowers and females. The severity of perceived loneliness was higher in females, institution based and depressed older people. The severity of depression correlated with independence in daily activities, cognition, and perceived loneliness only in institution based older people. Discussion: Older people in institutions have a higher psychosocial burden than the community-based older people. Family support prevents the attrition effect of depression on cognition and independence in daily activities in the community-based older people.

  19. RAndomised controlled trial to imProve depressIon and the quality of life of people with Dementia using cognitive bias modification: RAPID study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; MacLeod, Colin; Flicker, Leon; Ford, Andrew; Grafton, Ben; Etherton-Beer, Christopher

    2014-07-23

    Depressive symptoms are common and undermine the quality of life of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholinesterase inhibitors and antidepressants have all but no effect on the mood of patients, and their use increases adverse events. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) targets attentional and interpretative biases associated with anxiety, dysphoria and depression and may be useful to treat depression in AD (DAD). This trial aims to determine the effect of CBM on depression scores and the quality of life of people with DAD. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled trial of CBM (1:1 allocation ratio). Participants will be 80 adults with probable AD living in the Western Australian community who score 8 or more on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). They will have mild to moderate dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination-MMSE score ≥15) and will be free of severe sensory impairment or suicidal intent. The intervention will consist of 10 40 min sessions of CBM delivered over 2 weeks using a high-resolution monitor using a local computer station at the Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing. The primary outcomes of interest are the 2-week change, from baseline, in the severity of CSDD scores and the Quality of Life AD (QoL-AD) scores. Secondary outcomes include changes in the CSDD, QoL-AD after 12 weeks, and changes in MMSE scores, negative attentional and interpretative bias and the proportion of participants with CSDD principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and participants will provide written informed consent. The Ethics Committee of the Royal Perth Hospital will approve and oversee the study (REG14-036). The results of this trial will provide level 2 evidence of efficacy for CBM as a treatment of DAD. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN12614000420640, date registered 06/04/2014. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  20. Association between muscle function, cognitive state, depression symptoms and quality of life of older people: evidence from clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariballa, Salah; Alessa, Awad

    2018-04-01

    Although low muscle function/strength is an important predictor of poor clinical outcome in older patients, information on its impact on mental health in clinical practice is still lacking. The aim of this report is to measure the impact of low muscle function measured by handgrip strength on mental health of older people during both acute illness and recovery. Four hundred and thirty-two randomly selected hospitalized older patients had their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics assessed within 72 h of admission, at 6 weeks and at 6 months. Low muscle strength-handgrip was defined using the European Working Group criteria. Mental health outcome measures including cognitive state, depression symptoms and quality of life were also measured. Among the 432 patients recruited, 308 (79%) had low muscle strength at baseline. Corresponding figures at 6 weeks and at 6 months were 140 (73%) and 158 (75%). Patients with poor muscle strength were significantly older with increased disability and poor nutritional status compared with those with normal muscle strength. After adjustment for age, gender, disability, comorbidity including severity of acute illness and body mass index patients with low muscle strength had worse cognitive function, quality of life and higher depression symptoms compared with those with normal muscle strength over a 6-month period (p older people is associated with poor cognitive state and quality of life and increased depression symptoms during both acute illness and recovery.

  1. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-08-30

    Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. CRD42015026120. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Study of inter-relationship of depression, seizure frequency and quality of life of people with epilepsy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can have profound physical, social and psychological consequences. We aimed to assess the clinical predictors of quality of life of people with epilepsy. We recruited 31 patients suffering from epilepsy in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical profile was recorded. Quality Of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31 was used to assess quality of life of our patients. Depression was screened by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E. Among all the clinical variables, only seizure frequency significantly correlated with seizure worry (P=0.002, emotional well-being (P=0.026 and social functions (P=0.013 subscales of QOLIE-31. NDDI-E score showed a significant negative correlation with all the subscales of QOLIE-31 except medication effects (P=0.993. A significant positive correlation was also noted between seizure frequency and NDDI-E score (r=0.417, P=0.020. Seizure frequency and depression are the most important predictors of quality of life in epilepsy patients. The management of patients with epilepsy should not only be aimed at just preventing seizures but the treating clinicians should also be cognizant about depression which itself can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.

  3. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms

  5. Association between the prevalence of depression and age in a large representative German sample of people aged 53 to 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Lechner, Sabine; Niehoff, Doro; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Stegmaier, Christa; Raum, Elke

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between the prevalence of clinically significant depression and age in a large representative sample of elderly German people. In the second follow-up (2005-2007) of the ESTHER cohort study, the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) as well as a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were administered to a representative sample of 8270 people of ages 53 to 80 years. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was estimated using a GDS cut-off score of 5/6. Prevalence rates were estimated for the different age categories. Association between depression and age was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, co-morbid medical disorders, education, marital status, physical activity, smoking, self-perceived cognitive impairment, and anti-depressive medication. Of the participants, 7878 (95.3%) completed more than twelve GDS items and were included in the study. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was 16.0% (95%CI = [15.2; 16.6]). The function of depression prevalence dependent on age group showed a U-shaped pattern (53-59: 21.0%, CI = [18.9; 23.3]; 60-64: 17.7%, CI = [15.7; 19.7]; 65-69: 12.6%, CI = [11.2; 14.0]; 70-74: 14.4%, CI = [12.6; 16.0]; 75-80: 17.1%, CI = [14.9; 19.4]). Adjusted odds ratios showed that the chances of being depressive decrease with the age category but remain relatively stable for people aged 65 and over. The prevalence of depression in the elderly seems to be associated with the age category. Adjusted odds ratios showed that people aged 60 and older had lower chances of being depressive than people aged 53 to 59 years. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Using intervention mapping to deconstruct cognitive work hardening: a return-to-work intervention for people with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisenthal, Adeena; Krupa, Terry

    2014-12-12

    Mental health related work disability leaves are increasing at alarming rates with depression emerging as the most common mental disorder in the workforce. Treatments are available to alleviate depressive symptoms and associated functional impacts; however, they are not specifically aimed at preparing people to return to work. Cognitive work hardening (CWH) is a novel intervention that addresses this gap in the health care system. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the components and underlying mechanisms of CWH using Intervention Mapping (IM) as a tool to deconstruct its elements. The cognitive sequelae of depression and their relevance to return-to-work (RTW) are examined together with interpersonal skills and other work-related competencies that affect work ability. IM, a tool typically used to create programs, is used to deconstruct an existing program, namely CWH, into its component parts and link them to theories and models in the literature. CWH has been deconstructed into intervention elements which are linked to program performance objectives through underlying theoretical models. In this way, linkages are made between tools and materials of the intervention and the overall program objective of 'successful RTW for people with depression'. An empirical study of the efficacy of CWH is currently underway which should provide added insight and understanding into this intervention. The application of IM to CWH illustrates the theoretical underpinnings of the treatment intervention and assists with better understanding the linkage between intervention elements and intervention objective. Applying IM to deconstruct an existing program (rather than create a program) presents an alternate application of the IM tool which can have implications for other programs in terms of enhancing understanding, grounding in theoretical foundations, communicating program design, and establishing a basis for program evaluation and improvement.

  7. How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that mental health literacy among the public is low, and stigmatizing attitudes are widespread. So far the effects of anti-stigma campaigns are small, and studies demonstrate that negative attitudes have been quite stable through recent decades. Aims To investigate the relationships between mental health literacy, experience of mental illness and stigmatizing attitudes/social distance towards people with depression or psychosis. Methods A cross-sectional study in which staff members from public services in Sweden (n = 1027) completed questionnaires covering demographic data, self-reported experience of mental illness, identification of a vignette for depression or psychosis, beliefs about helpful interventions for the illness presented in the vignette, and attitudes and social distance towards people with the illness. Results About 50% of participants could identify depression and less than 40% psychosis. A higher degree of mental health literacy was related to less stigma and social distance but mainly towards people with depression. A similar relationship was shown for having personal or family experience of mental illness and attitudes/social distance. Negative attitudes and social distance were significantly higher in all aspects measured towards a person with psychosis than a person with depression. Conclusions A higher degree of mental health literacy relates to more positive attitudes and less desire for social distance towards people with depression. The differences between depression and psychosis should be taken into account in anti-stigma interventions.

  8. Effectiveness of a Guided Self-help Manual in Strengthening Resilience in People Diagnosed with Moderate Depression and Their Family Caregivers in Thailand: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2017-08-01

    The growing incidence of depression in developing countries, such as Thailand, is placing increasing pressure on public mental health services, and those living in rural areas have limited access to these services. Resilience is integral to the recovery of people with depression and to caregivers. This parallel-group randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in improving resilience in adults diagnosed with moderate depression and their primary caregivers in Thailand. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the approach is an effective way of increasing resilience in adults with depression and their caregivers.

  9. Physical frailty predicts incident depressive symptoms in elderly people: prospective findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Park, Hyuntae; Lee, Sanyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether frailty is an important and independent predictor of incident depressive symptoms in elderly people without depressive symptoms at baseline. Fifteen-month prospective study. General community in Japan. A total of 3025 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 years or over without depressive symptoms at baseline. The self-rated 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depression with a score of 6 or more at baseline and 15-month follow-up. Participants underwent a structural interview designed to obtain demographic factors and frailty status, and completed cognitive testing with the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical performance testing with the Short Physical Performance Battery as potential predictors. At a 15-month follow-up survey, 226 participants (7.5%) reported the development of depressive symptoms. We found that frailty and poor self-rated general health (adjusted odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.66, P Examination, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores at baseline. Our findings suggested that frailty and poor self-rated general health were independent predictors of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly people. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression (INTERPRET-DD) study, a collaborative study carried out in 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C E; Nouwen, A; Sartorius, N; Ahmed, H U; Alvarez, A; Bahendeka, S; Basangwa, D; Bobrov, A E; Boden, S; Bulgari, V; Burti, L; Chaturvedi, S K; Cimino, L C; Gaebel, W; de Girolamo, G; Gondek, T M; de Braude, M Guinzbourg; Guntupalli, A; Heinze, M G; Ji, L; Hong, X; Khan, A; Kiejna, A; Kokoszka, A; Kamala, T; Lalic, N M; Lecic Tosevski, D; Mankovsky, B; Li, M; Musau, A; Müssig, K; Ndetei, D; Rabbani, G; Srikanta, S S; Starostina, E G; Shevchuk, M; Taj, R; Vukovic, O; Wölwer, W; Xin, Y

    2018-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and management of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes in different countries. People with diabetes aged 18-65 years and treated in outpatient settings were recruited in 14 countries and underwent a psychiatric interview. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale. Demographic and medical record data were collected. A total of 2783 people with Type 2 diabetes (45.3% men, mean duration of diabetes 8.8 years) participated. Overall, 10.6% were diagnosed with current major depressive disorder and 17.0% reported moderate to severe levels of depressive symptomatology (Patient Health Questionnaire scores >9). Multivariable analyses showed that, after controlling for country, current major depressive disorder was significantly associated with gender (women) (P<0.0001), a lower level of education (P<0.05), doing less exercise (P<0.01), higher levels of diabetes distress (P<0.0001) and a previous diagnosis of major depressive disorder (P<0.0001). The proportion of those with either current major depressive disorder or moderate to severe levels of depressive symptomatology who had a diagnosis or any treatment for their depression recorded in their medical records was extremely low and non-existent in many countries (0-29.6%). Our international study, the largest of this type ever undertaken, shows that people with diabetes frequently have depressive disorders and also significant levels of depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that the identification and appropriate care for psychological and psychiatric problems is not the norm and suggest a lack of the comprehensive approach to diabetes management that is needed to improve clinical outcomes. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  11. The prevalence of depression in White-European and South-Asian people with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, Navneet; Abrams, Keith R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    ) and South-Asian (SA) population attending a community diabetes screening programme, and to explore the association of depression with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Methodology/Principal Findings: Participants were recruited from general practices.......9% in WE, 26.4% in SA, p = 0.86). Age-adjusted prevalences were higher for females than males. Odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity, showed no significant increase in prevalent depression for people with T2DM (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.62 to 1.45) or IGR (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 0.96 to1.42). Conclusions......: Prior to the knowledge of diagnosis, depression was not significantly more prevalent in people with screen detected T2DM or IGR. Differences in prevalent depression between WE and SA people were also not identified. In this multi-ethnic population, female gender was significantly associated...

  12. How People with Depression Receive and Perceive Mental Illness Information: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Annette L; Hasking, Penelope; Clarke, David; Meadows, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Despite the recognised importance of accurate mental illness information in help-seeking and improving recovery, little is known about the dissemination of such information to people with depression. With a view to informing effective communication to those most in need, we explored the extent to which mental illness information is received by people with depression, its perceived helpfulness and we characterise those who do not receive such information. Using data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing we observed that mental illness information was received by 54.7 % of those with depression. Most (76.7 %) found it helpful. Pamphlets were the most frequently cited source of information. People who did not receive information were less educated, unlikely to have accessed mental health services and unlikely to believe they had mental health needs. Targeted information campaigns which shape perceptions of need in relation to depression have the potential to reduce the resultant disease burden.

  13. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    .28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms...... reduced the strength of these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms partially attenuated these associations, suggesting that these variables could......OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted...

  14. The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: a longitudinal study in the community.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theo van Tilburg; Peter van de Ven; Aartjan Beekman; Wim Houtjes; Dorly Deeg; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aims to gain insight into the long-term impact of depression course on social network size and perceived loneliness in older people living in the community. METHODS: Within a large representative sample of older people in the community (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  15. Health, Social, and Economic Variables Associated with Depression Among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries: World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, Ethel M; Rajkumar, Anto P; Attermann, Jǿrn; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Enemark, Ulrika; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S

    2016-12-01

    Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs. The authors accessed the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health Wave 1 data that studied nationally representative samples from six large LMICs (N = 14,877). A computerized algorithm derived depression diagnoses. The authors assessed hypothesized associations using survey multivariate logistic regression models for each LMIC and pooled their risk estimates by meta-analyses and investigated related socioeconomic inequalities using concentration indices. Cross-national prevalence of geriatric depression was 4.7% (95% CI: 1.9%-11.9%). Female gender, illiteracy, poverty, indebtedness, past informal-sector occupation, bereavement, angina, and stroke had significant positive associations, whereas pension support and health insurance showed significant negative associations with geriatric depression. Pro-poor inequality of geriatric depression were documented in five LMICs. Socioeconomic factors and related inequalities may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate depression amongolder people in LMICs. Relative absence of health safety net places socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in LMICs at risk. The need for population-based public health interventions and policies to prevent and to manage geriatric depression effectively in LMICs cannot be overemphasized. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  17. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  18. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  19. Development and pilot testing of an online monitoring tool of depression symptoms and side effects for young people being treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Dellosa, Maria Kristina; Simmons, Magenta B; Phillips, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    To develop and examine the feasibility of an online monitoring tool of depressive symptoms, suicidality and side effects. The online tool was developed based on guideline recommendations, and employed already validated and widely used measures. Quantitative data about its use, and qualitative information on its functionality and usefulness were collected from surveys, a focus group and individual interviews. Fifteen young people completed the tool between 1 and 12 times, and reported it was easy to use. Clinicians suggested it was too long and could be completed in the waiting room to lessen impact on session time. Overall, clients and clinicians who used the tool found it useful. Results show that an online monitoring tool is potentially useful as a systematic means for monitoring symptoms, but further research is needed including how to embed the tool within clinical practice. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  1. Integrating family work into the treatment of young people with severe and complex depression: a developmentally focused model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Halperin, Stephen; Blaikie, Simon; Monson, Katherine; Stefaniak, Rachel; Phelan, Mark; Davey, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Although models of family intervention are clearly articulated in the child and early adolescent literature, there is less clarity regarding family intervention approaches in later adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study provides the rationale and intervention framework for a developmentally sensitive model of time-limited family work in the outpatient treatment of complex youth depression (15-25 years). Derived from current practice in the Youth Mood Clinic (YMC) at Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, a stepped model of family intervention is discussed. YMC aims to provide comprehensive orientation, assessment and education to all families. For some, a family-based intervention, delivered either by the treating team or through the integration of a specialist family worker, offers an important adjunct in supporting the recovery of the young person. Developmental phases and challenges experienced by the young person with respect to family/caregiver involvement are discussed in the context of two case studies. A developmentally sensitive model is presented with particular attention to the developmental needs and preferences of young people. Formal evaluation of this model is required. Evaluation perspectives should include young people, caregivers, the broader family system (i.e. siblings) and the treating team (i.e. case manager, doctor and family worker) incorporating outcome measurement. Such work determines how best to apply a time-limited family-based intervention approach in strengthening family/caregiver relationships as part of the young person's recovery from severe and complex depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Reminiscence Therapy Improves Cognitive Functions and Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Elderly People With Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huey-Lan Hu, Sophia; Liu, Fang; Kuo, Ying-Ling; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive function impairments and depressive symptoms are common in elderly people with dementia. Previous meta-analyses of outdated and small-scale studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by including more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large sample sizes to investigate the immediate and long-term (6-10 months) effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Chinese databases were searched to select eligible articles. Primary outcome measures included the scores of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. In total, 12 RCT studies investigating the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data. All analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Reminiscence therapy had a small-size effect on cognitive functions (g = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.30) and a moderate-size effect on depressive symptoms (g = -0.49, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.28) in elderly people with dementia. Long-term effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were not confirmed. Moderator analysis revealed that institutionalized elderly people with dementia exhibited greater improvement in depressive symptoms than community-dwelling people with dementia did (g = -0.59 vs. -0.16, P = .003). This meta-analysis confirms that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Our findings suggest that regular reminiscence therapy should be considered for inclusion as routine care for the improvement

  3. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work

  4. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  5. Impact of depression on quality of life in people living with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão-Castro, Ana Verena; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Kruschewsky, Ramon Almeida; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2012-11-01

    A previous study found the prevalence of depression in HTLV-1-infected patients to be approximately 30%, but few studies have attempted to correlate depression with quality of life (QOL) in these patients. The present study investigates the association between depression and QOL in people living with HTLV-1. A clinical-epidemiological questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the WHOQOL-Bref were applied to 88 HTLV-1-infected patients (32 with TSP/HAM) at the HTLV Center of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Brazil. The prevalence of depression among people living with HTLV-1 was 34.1%. Depression was significantly associated with a poor QOL in the physical, psychological, social relationship and environment domains, when controlling for other variables, such as gender, age, time of knowledge of serological diagnosis and presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Moreover, patients with TSP/HAM experienced a reduction in their QOL in the physical, psychological and environment domains. Our results showed that depression negatively affects the quality of life of people living with HTLV-1, regardless of the presence of TSP/HAM. Since it is possible to improve a patient's QOL by treating depression, psychological evaluations are strongly recommended as a measure to integrate the treatment protocols of HTLV-1 intervention programs.

  6. The effect of music therapy on depression and physiological parameters in elderly people living in a Turkish nursing home: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök Ugur, Hacer; Yaman Aktaş, Yeşim; Orak, Oya Sevcan; Saglambilen, Okan; Aydin Avci, İlknur

    2017-12-01

    This study was carried out in an effort to determine the effect of music therapy on depression and physiological parameters in elderly people who were living in a nursing home. The study was a randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 64 elderly people who complied with the criteria of inclusion for the study. The data were collected using the 'Elderly Information Form' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. The music group listened to music three days in a week during 8 weeks. The depression levels were assessed at baseline (week 0) and follow-up in the eight week. It was found that the difference between post-test depression scores of the two groups was found to be statistically significant (t = -2.86, p depression level and systolic blood pressure in elderly people. The study results implies that music therapy can be an effective practice for public health and home care nurses attempting to reduce depression and control physiological parameters of elderly people.

  7. A large-scale study of anxiety and depression in people with Multiple Sclerosis: a survey via the web portal of the UK MS Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerina H Jones

    Full Text Available Studies have found that people with Multiple Sclerosis experience relatively high rates of anxiety and depression. Although methodologically robust, many of these studies had access to only modest sample sizes (N4000 to: describe the depression and anxiety profiles of people with MS; to determine if anxiety and depression are related to age or disease duration; and to assess whether the levels of anxiety and depression differ between genders and types of MS.From its launch in May 2011 to the end of December 2011, 7786 adults with MS enrolled to take part in the UK MS Register via the web portal. The responses to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were collated with basic demographic and descriptive MS data provided at registration and the resulting dataset was analysed in SPSS (v.16.The mean HADS score among the 4178 respondents was 15.7 (SE 0.117, SD 7.55 with a median of 15.0 (IQR 11. Anxiety and depression rates were notably high, with over half (54.1% scoring ≥ 8 for anxiety and 46.9% scoring ≥ 8 for depression. Women with relapsing-remitting MS were more anxious than men with this type (p<0.001, and than women with other types of MS (p = 0.017. Within each gender, men and women with secondary progressive MS were more depressed than men or women with other types of MS (p<0.001, p<0.001.This largest known study of its kind has shown that anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in people with MS, indicating that their mental health needs could be better addressed. These findings support service planning and further research to provide the best care for people with MS to help alleviate these debilitating conditions.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Orthostatic Hypotension Are Risk Factors for Unexplained Falls in Community-Living Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Jasmine C; Wong, Alfred K W; Trollor, Julian N; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    To investigate risk factors for unexplained falls in older community-dwelling individuals. Prospective cohort study. Community population, Sydney, Australia. Older adults (N = 529; mean age 79.8 ± 4.4, 52.2% female). Participants provided information demographic, medical, and medication characteristics and completed cardiovascular (tilt table test, pulse wave velocity), cognitive, and sensorimotor assessments at baseline. Falls were then recorded in monthly fall diaries for 12 months. Unexplained fallers (UFs) were those who reported falls due to a blackout, dizziness, feeling faint, or "found themselves suddenly on the ground." Of the 523 participants available at follow-up, 238 (45.5%) reported one or more falls; 35 participants fulfilled the definition of UFs. UFs were more likely than balance-related fallers (BFs) (n = 203) and nonfallers (n = 291) to have orthostatic hypotension (39.4%, 20.5% and 22.4%, respectively) and depressive symptoms (24.2%, 10.1%, and 7.9% respectively). More UFs (88.6%) than BFs (70.9%) had injurious falls. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that depressive symptoms and orthostatic hypotension were significant and independent determinants of UF status. Approximately 15% of fallers had unexplained falls, which were more likely to result in injuries. Depressive symptoms and orthostatic hypotension increased the risk of unexplained falls, whereas cognitive deficits and sensorimotor and balance impairments did not. Future research should investigate whether psychotherapy and physical exercise to improve mood and medication reviews and nonpharmacological therapies for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension and depression are effective at reducing the risk of unexplained falls in older people. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Web-Based Interventions Supporting Adolescents and Young People With Depressive Symptoms: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, Maritta; Anttila, Katriina; Anttila, Minna; Lahti, Mari

    2017-12-08

    Although previous studies on information and communication technology (ICT)-based intervention on mental health among adolescents with depressive symptoms have already been combined in a number of systematic reviews, coherent information is still missing about interventions used, participants' engagement of these interventions, and how these interventions work. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials to describe the effectiveness of Web-based interventions to support adolescents with depression or depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. We also explored the content of the interventions, as there has previously been a lack of coherent understanding of the detailed content of the Web-based interventions for these purposes. We included parallel randomized controlled trials targeted at adolescents, or young people in the age range of 10 and 24 years, with symptoms or diagnoses of depression and anxiety. The interventions were from original studies aimed to support mental health among adolescents, and they were delivered via Web-based information and communication technology. Out of 2087 records identified, 27 papers (22 studies) met the inclusion criteria. On the basis of a narrative analysis of 22 studies, a variety of Web-based interventions were found; the most commonly used intervention was based on cognitive behavioral therapy. Meta-analysis was further conducted with 15 studies (4979 participants). At the end of the intervention, a statistically significant improvement was found in the intervention group (10 studies) regarding depressive symptoms (P=.02, median 1.68, 95% CI 3.11-0.25) and after 6 months (3 studies; P=.01, median 1.78, 95% CI 3.20-0.37). Anxiety symptoms (8 studies; Pstress scores. However, adolescents in the intervention group left the study early more often, both in short-term studies (11 studies; P=.007, median 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) and mid-term studies (3 studies; P=.02, median 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.49). We did not find

  10. Attitudes towards people with depression and schizophrenia among social service workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla Bjørkøe; Vendsborg, Per; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health-related stigma is a major public health issue, and is an obstacle to the possibility for successful treatment, recovery, and reintegration. AIM: To examine attitudes towards mental illness among employees in the social services. METHODS: The study design was part...... of a large randomized trial, and data presented in this study are baseline data from this trial. Respondents completed a baseline questionnaire to assess the respondents' attitudes. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between employees' personal attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia....... The same significant difference was found in the employees' perceived attitudes. Furthermore, a significant difference was found between the employees' personal and perceived attitudes. A significant difference was found between the respondents wish for social distance towards depression and schizophrenia...

  11. Web-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression in People With Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill; Robins, Lisa; Wilhelm, Kay; Smith, Jessica; Fletcher, Therese; Gillis, Inika; Ma, Trevor; Finch, Adam; Campbell, Lesley; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-05-15

    Depression is twice as common in diabetes mellitus (DM) as the general population and is associated with adverse health outcomes, but access to evidence-based therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is limited in routine diabetes care. Past research has shown that generic Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is an effective treatment for depression in the general population, but it has never been evaluated in people with comorbid depression and DM. The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of a generic 6-lesson iCBT delivered over 10 weeks in people with major depressive disorder (MDD) and DM. Participants with comorbid MDD and DM (type 1 or 2) were recruited online and randomized to an iCBT program with therapist support provided by phone and email (n=42) or a treatment as usual (TAU, n=49) control group. Outcomes were assessed through Web-based self-report questionnaires and the trial was Web-based with no face-to-face components. Primary outcomes were self-reported depression (patient health questionnaire-9, PHQ-9), diabetes-related distress (problem areas in diabetes, PAID), and self-reported glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c). Secondary outcomes were general distress (Kessler 10-item psychological distress scale, K-10) and disability (short form 12-item, SF-12), generalized anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder 7-item, GAD-7), and somatization (PHQ-15). The iCBT group was assessed at 3 months. A total of 27 participants (66%; 27/41) completed the iCBT program. Analyses indicated between-group superiority of iCBT over TAU at posttreatment on PHQ-9 (g=0.78), PAID (g=0.80), K-10 (g=1.06), GAD-7 (g=0.72), and SF-12 mental well-being scores (g=0.66), but no significant differences in self-reported HbA1c levels (g=0.14), SF-12 physical well-being, or PHQ-15 scores (g=0.03-0.21). Gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up in the iCBT group, and the 87% (27/31) of iCBT participants who were interviewed no longer met criteria for

  12. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  13. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of depression and anxiety (the Danish IBBIS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rie; Hoff, Andreas; Fisker, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the IBBIS...... (Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Anxiety and Depression) interventions is to improve and hasten the process of return to employment for people in Denmark on sick leave because of depression and anxiety. METHODS/DESIGN: This three-arm, parallel......-group, randomized superiority trial has been set up to investigate the effectiveness of the IBBIS mental health care intervention and the integrated IBBIS mental health care and IBBIS vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of depression and/or anxiety in Denmark. The trial has...

  14. Developing a community-based psycho-social intervention with older people and third sector workers for anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingstone, Tom; Burroughs, Heather; Bartlam, Bernadette; Ray, Mo; Proctor, Janine; Shepherd, Thomas; Bullock, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn Anne

    2017-07-12

    One-in-five people in the UK experience anxiety and/or depression in later life. However, anxiety and depression remain poorly detected in older people, particularly in those with chronic physical ill health. In the UK, a stepped care approach, to manage common mental health problems, is advocated which includes service provision from non-statutory organisations (including third/voluntary sector). However, evidence to support such provision, including the most effective interventions, is limited. The qualitative study reported here constitutes the first phase of a feasibility study which aims to assess whether third sector workers can deliver a psychosocial intervention to older people with anxiety and/or depression. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of older people and third sector workers about anxiety and depression among older people in order to refine an intervention to be delivered by third sector workers. Semi-structured interviews with participants recruited through purposive sampling from third sector groups in North Staffordshire. Interviews were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using principles of constant comparison. Nineteen older people and 9 third sector workers were interviewed. Key themes included: multiple forms of loss, mental health as a personal burden to bear, having courage and providing/receiving encouragement, self-worth and the value of group activities, and tensions in existing service provision, including barriers and gaps. The experience of loss was seen as central to feelings of anxiety and depression among community-dwelling older people. This study contributes to the evidence pointing to the scale and severity of mental health needs for some older people which can arise from multiple forms of loss, and which present a significant challenge to health, social care and third sector services. The findings informed development of a psychosocial intervention and training for third sector

  15. Effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in strengthening resilience in people diagnosed with moderate depression and their family caregivers in Thailand: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Terence; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2017-01-01

    The growing incidence of depression in developing countries, such as Thailand, is placing increasing pressure on public mental health services, and those living in rural areas have limited access to mental health services and specialised support. Resilience is integral to the recovery of people with depression and to caregivers. This parallel group randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in improving resilience in adults diagnosed with moderate dep...

  16. The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: a longitudinal study in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtjes, Wim; van Meijel, Berno; van de Ven, Peter M; Deeg, Dorly; van Tilburg, Theo; Beekman, Aartjan

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to gain insight into the long-term impact of depression course on social network size and perceived loneliness in older people living in the community. Within a large representative sample of older people in the community (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)), participants with clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms (scores >16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were followed up over a period of 13 years of the LASA study (five waves). General estimating equations were used to estimate the impact of depression course on network size and loneliness and the interaction with gender and age. An unfavorable course of depression was found to be associated with smaller network sizes and higher levels of loneliness over time, especially in men and older participants. The findings of this study stress the importance of clinical attention to the negative consequences of chronicity in depressed older people. Clinicians should assess possible erosion of the social network over time and be aware of increased feelings of loneliness in this patient group. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S

    2016-01-01

    elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. RESULTS: At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n......AIM: To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. METHODS: 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline...

  18. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Ravid, Ariel; Gibb, Brandon; George-Denn, Daniel; Bronstein, Laura R; McLeod, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why nearly 80% of youth ages 6-18 years with a mental disorder fail to receive treatment represents an important public health priority. International data suggest that underrecognition of mental illness and the need for treatment are barriers to service utilization. This study extends work to a U.S. sample of 1,104 adolescents. High School students were invited to participate in a self-report study assessing knowledge and beliefs regarding mental illness. Participants completed the survey in groups at school and read vignettes portraying peers experiencing major depression, social anxiety disorder, and a situation where the individual has to cope with a common life stressor followed by a series of questions in reference to each vignette. Adolescents had better recognition of depression than social anxiety disorder and were more likely to recommend seeking help for it. However, mental health literacy of American adolescents and suggest potential points for intervention. Pending replication of the findings herein, efforts to help adolescents recognize mental health problems and to increase the likelihood of recommending professional help will be important. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of major depressive disorder among hemodialysis patients compared with healthy people in Japan using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Ogasawara, Kohei; Katagai, Koki; Saito, Hisao; Sawada, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition (SCID) and compared the rates with those of community dwelling people in Japan. A total of 99 patients undergoing HD were recruited. Blood sampling was performed no later than 2 weeks prior to assessment. As a reference group for SCID and CES-D evaluation, 404 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included in this study. The SCID and the CES-D scale were administered to all participants to diagnose their depression. Participants who met the criteria of a major depressive episode according to the SCID were classified as SCID depression and the participants whose CES-D score was 16 or higher were classified as CES-D depression. Ninety-nine HD patients completed the evaluation and data collection. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or CES-D scores between HD patients and controls. There were 12 cases of SCID depression in HD patients and four cases in controls. There was a significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of SCID depression. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. There were 19 HD patients and 24 controls who showed CES-D depression. There was no significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of CES-D depression. There was a significant difference in potassium level between the two groups, but there were no significant differences in any of the other items. There were significantly more HD patients showing SCID depression than controls in the present study. In clinical settings, the SCID might be useful in surveying cases of depression detected by screening tools among HD patients.

  20. A graduated food addiction classifications approach significantly differentiates depression, anxiety and stress among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Karren-Lee; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Lovell, Geoff P

    2017-10-01

    To examine differences in depression, anxiety, and stress across people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2d) classified according to a four level processed food addiction (PFA) severity indicator dichotomy. Four hundred and eight participants with a t2d diagnoses completed an online survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and the DASS-21. Based on YFAS symptom counts participants were classified as either: non-PFA; mild-PFA; moderate-PFA; or severe-PFA. Multivariate, λ=0.422, F(9,978.51)=46.286, pstress scores F(3,408)=129.714, pstress χ 2 (12)=240.875, pstress, and that the adopted four level PFA severity indicator dichotomy is valid and useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The oral health of people with anxiety and depressive disorders - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Sawyer, Emily; Siskind, Dan; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2016-08-01

    Many psychological disorders are associated with comorbid physical illness. There are less data on dental disease in common psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety in spite of risk factors in this population of diet, lifestyle or antidepressant-induced dry mouth. We undertook a systematic search for studies of the oral health of people with common psychological disorders including depression, anxiety and dental phobia. We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE and article bibliographies. Results were compared with the general population. Outcomes included partial or total tooth-loss, periodontal disease, and dental decay measured through standardized measures such as the mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) or surfaces (DMFS). There were 19 papers on depression and/or anxiety, and seven on dental phobia/anxiety (total n=26). These covered 334,503 subjects. All the psychiatric diagnoses were associated with increased dental decay on both DMFT and DMFS scores, as well as greater tooth loss (OR=1.22; 95%CI=1.14-1.30). There was no association with periodontal disease, except for panic disorder. Cross-sectional design of included studies, heterogeneity in some results, insufficient studies to test for publication bias. The increased focus on the physical health of psychiatric patients should encompass oral health including closer collaboration between dental and medical practitioners. Possible interventions include oral health assessment using standard checklists that can be completed by non-dental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. Mental health clinicians should also be aware of the oral consequences of inappropriate diet and psychotropic medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study in 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, E P M; Mathijssen, J; Van Bortel, T; Knifton, L; Wahlbeck, K; Van Audenhove, C; Kadri, N; Chang, Ch; Goud, B R; Ballester, D; Tófoli, L F; Bello, R; Jorge-Monteiro, M F; Zäske, H; Milaćić, I; Uçok, A; Bonetto, C; Lasalvia, A; Thornicroft, G; Van Weeghel, J

    2016-02-23

    Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers' attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study in 35 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, E P M; Mathijssen, J; Van Bortel, T; Knifton, L; Wahlbeck, K; Van Audenhove, C; Kadri, N; Chang, Ch; Goud, B R; Ballester, D; Tófoli, LF; Bello, R; Jorge-Monteiro, M F; Zäske, H; Milaćić, I; Uçok, A; Bonetto, C; Lasalvia, A; Thornicroft, G; Van Weeghel, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers’ attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD. PMID:26908523

  4. Napping in older people 'at risk' of dementia: relationships with depression, cognition, medical burden and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nathan; Terpening, Zoe; Rogers, Naomi L; Duffy, Shantel L; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-10-01

    Sleep disturbance is prevalent in older adults, particularly so in those at a greater risk of dementia. However, so far the clinical, medical and neuropsychological correlates of daytime sleep have not been examined. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics and effects of napping using actigraphy in older people, particularly in those 'at risk' of dementia. The study used actigraphy and sleep diaries to measure napping habits in 133 older adults 'at risk' of dementia (mean age = 65.5 years, SD = 8.4 years), who also underwent comprehensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment. When defined by actigraphy, napping was present in 83.5% (111/133) of participants; however, duration and timing varied significantly among subjects. Nappers had significantly greater medical burden and body mass index, and higher rates of mild cognitive impairment. Longer and more frequent naps were associated with poorer cognitive functioning, as well as higher levels of depressive symptoms, while the timing of naps was associated with poorer nocturnal sleep quality (i.e. sleep latency and wake after sleep onset). This study highlights that in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, napping is associated with underlying neurobiological changes such as depression and cognition. Napping characteristics should be more routinely monitored in older individuals to elucidate their relationship with psychological and cognitive outcomes. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Associations with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors, Fatigue, Depression, Anxiety, and Mental Health Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia H. Marck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeople with multiple sclerosis (MS often experience pain, which can interfere with mobility, employment, and quality of life (QOL.MethodsThis cross-sectional study explored associations between pain, demographic, disease, and modifiable lifestyle factors in an international sample of people with MS recruited online.ResultsSubstantial pain, of moderate/severe intensity and interfering at least moderately with work/household or enjoyment of life in the past 4 weeks, was reported by 682/2,362 (28.9%. Substantial pain was associated with fatigue (odds ratio (OR: 6.7, 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.9,9.3, depression (OR:4.0, 95% CI:3.2,5.1, anxiety (OR:2.4, 95% CI:1.9,2.9, and lower mental health QOL (Mean Difference: −14.7, 95% CI:−16.6,−12.8. Regression analyses showed that smoking (OR: 2.0, 95% CI:1.35,2.87 and obesity (OR:2.1, 95% CI: 1.5,2.8, moderate alcohol use (OR: 0.7, 95% CI:0.5,0.9, moderate (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.55,0.98 or high (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4,0.8 physical activity level, and healthy diet (OR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.75,0.95, per 10 points were associated with substantial pain.ConclusionOur results show clear associations with modifiable lifestyle factors and substantial pain in MS. These factors are already considered in the prevention and management of pain in other populations but have not previously been considered in MS. Conversely, pain and associated common MS comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety, and fatigue, may hamper efforts to start or maintain healthy behaviors. Strategies to overcome these barriers need to be considered. Further research should clarify the direction of these associations.

  6. An Internet-based self-help intervention for people with HIV and depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luenen, Sanne; Kraaij, Vivian; Spinhoven, Philip; Garnefski, Nadia

    2016-03-31

    Many people living with HIV suffer from depressive symptoms. In a previous pilot study, self-help cognitive behavioral therapy (in booklet format) was found to be effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with HIV. We developed an online self-help program in Dutch and English (based on the booklet) for people with HIV and depressive symptoms. Besides the main question regarding the effectiveness of the program aimed at lowering depressive symptoms, sub-questions will focus on the moderators of treatment success (for which patients is the program especially beneficial?) and the mechanisms of change underlying the treatment outcome (which mediators affect the outcome of treatment?). In this paper, the protocol of the study will be described. The effectiveness of the program will be investigated by comparing the intervention group with a waiting list-control group in a randomized controlled design, by including a pretest and three post-tests. The self-help program contains four main components: activation, relaxation, changing maladaptive cognitions, and goal attainment. Participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms will work on the program for 6 to 10 weeks, during which a coach will provide motivational support by telephone once a week. Participants in the control condition will receive weekly minimal support from a coach for 8 weeks, and after the second post-test, they can gain access to the self-help program. Depressive symptoms and possible mediators (e.g., activation, cognitive coping, self-efficacy, and goal adjustment) will be assessed by self-report three times during the intervention/waiting period and at the pretest and first post-test. The proposed study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention for people with HIV and depressive symptoms. If the intervention is shown to be effective, the program will be implemented. Consequently, many patients with HIV could be reached, and their psychological care may be

  7. Potential benefits and harms of a peer support social network service on the internet for people with depressive tendencies: qualitative content analysis and social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-07-23

    Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of "friends," were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was performed by determining the access

  8. Serotonin transporter polymorphism modifies the association between depressive symptoms and sleep onset latency complaint in elderly people: results from the 'InveCe.Ab' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Letizia; Davin, Annalisa; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have documented the involvement of the central nervous system serotonin in promoting wakefulness. There are few and conflicting results over whether there is an actual association between bearing the short allele of serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and worse sleep quality. This study examined whether sleep onset latency complaint is associated with the 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene promoter and whether this polymorphism influences the relationship between sleep onset latency complaint and depressive symptoms in elderly people. A total of 1321 community-dwelling individuals aged 70-74 years were interviewed for sleep onset latency complaint and for sleep medication consumption. Participants' genomic DNA was typed for 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale Short form and general medical comorbidity was assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The presence of a past history of depression was recorded. The S' allele of the 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was associated with sleep onset latency complaint. This association was maintained after adjusting for depressive symptoms, sex, age, history of depression and medical comorbidity. After stratification for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531, only in S'S' individuals high depressive symptoms were actually associated with sleep onset latency complaint. These data indicate that the low-expressing 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism is an independent risk factor for sleep onset latency disturbance. Furthermore, the 5-HTTLPR genotype influences the association between depressive symptoms and sleep onset latency complaint. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Comparison of General Health and Depression in the People Covered With the Community-Based Rehabilitation Program (CBR With the Non-Covered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ayoubi Avaz

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion  Implementing the CBR programs in rural and remote areas can be effective in reducing the depression of people with physical disabilities. These programs can create meaningful change and a more comprehensive framework for people with physical disabilities and can have positive effects on the general health. Further studies are required to collect more data about the general health and the quality of life of these groups of patients. 

  10. [Epidemiology and associated factors with depression among people suffering from epilepsy: A transversal French study in a tertiary center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, C; Biraben, A; Nica, A; Loiseau, M

    2018-03-07

    The occurrence of depression in people with epilepsy is almost twice as common as in the general population. Furthermore, depression is the first cause of lower quality of life among those patients. Which is why the main goal of this study was to assess the epidemiology of depression and its associated factors among the patients from the tertiary department of epileptology in Rennes. The subjects were included prospectively and consecutively at the moment of their consultation or hospitalisation in the department. Personal data about the socio-economic status and the type of epilepsy was collected. The subjects filled validated self-assessment of depression (NDDIE), anxiety (GAD-7) and quality of life (QOLIE-10). Thanks to the NDDIE, the patients were divided into: "depressed" and "not depressed"; and the two groups were compared with univariate and multivariate models. Of the 322 patients followed-up in the department between the 17th of June and the 9th of September 2016 223 of them were included in the study. According to the NDDIE, 22.6% suffered from depression; according to the GAD-7, 46.4% suffered from anxiety. In the "depressed" group, 82% were not under anti-depressant medication. In the univariate model, depression was associated with: anxiety, suicidal ideations, lower quality of life, vague nervus stimulation treatment, anticonvulsant benzodiazepine medication or psychiatric medication, and last of all bitherapy or polytherapy antiepileptic medication compared to monotherapy. In the multivariate model, depression was significantly related to anxiety (OR: 8.86 [3.00; 26.19] p=0.0001), suicidal ideas (OR: 7.43 [2.93; 18.81] pstudy highlights the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation between neurologists and psychiatrists in order to aim at better management of epileptic patients as a whole. Copyright © 2018 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  12. A randomized trial of the effects of an aquatic exercise program on depression, anxiety levels, and functional capacity in of people who suffered an ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidar, Felipe J; Jacó de Oliveira, Ricardo; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Chilibeck, Philip D; de Souza, Raphael F; Carneiro, André L; Machado Reis, Victor

    2017-05-09

    Aquatic exercise programs are used in rehabilitation and might help to reduce disability after stroke. This was a randomized intervention trial to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on people suffering from depression and anxiety after ischemic stroke. Participants were randomized to an experimental group (EG) composed of 19 individuals (51.8 ± 8.5 years; ten males and nine females), and a control group (CG) composed of 17 people (52.7 ± 6.7 years; nine males and eight females). The aquatic exercise program consisted of two sessions per week, each lasting between 45 and 60 minutes and divided into 5 to 10 minutes exercise sections during 12 weeks. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to determine anxiety levels while the Beck Depression Inventory was used as a self-assessment of depression. EG improved measures of depression, anxiety trait and anxiety state between pre- and post-treatment, with no changes in CG. EG improved in all tests related to functional capacity compared to CG. The practice of aquatic exercises promotes improvements in the levels of depression and anxiety in people who suffered an ischemic stroke.

  13. Reconciling work and family caregiving among adult-child family caregivers of older people with dementia: effects on role strain and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Nu; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Chen, Min-Chi; Yang, Pei-Shan

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examined the effects of work demands, including employment status, work inflexibility and difficulty reconciling work and family caregiving, on role strain and depressive symptoms of adult-child family caregivers of older people with dementia. Family caregivers also employed for pay are known to be affected by work demands, i.e. excessive workload and time pressures. However, few studies have shown how these work demands and reconciliation between work and family caregiving influence caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms. For this cross-sectional study, secondary data were analysed for 119 adult-child family caregivers of older people with dementia in Taiwan using hierarchical multiple regression. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, resources and role demands overload, family caregivers with full-time jobs (β=0.25, Pwork and caregiving roles (β=0.36, Pworking part-time or unemployed. Family caregivers with more work inflexibility reported more depressive symptoms (β=0.29, PWork demands affected family caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms. Working full-time and having more difficulty reconciling work and caregiving roles predicted role strain; work inflexibility predicted depressive symptoms. These results can help clinicians identify high-risk groups for role strain and depression. Nurses need to assess family caregivers for work flexibility when screening for high-risk groups and encourage them to reconcile working with family-care responsibilities to reduce role strain. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The effects of lifestyle interventions on (long-term) weight management, cardiometabolic risk and depressive symptoms in people with psychotic disorders : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Jörg, Frederike; Bruggeman, Richard; Slooff, C. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Pijnenborg, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of lifestyle interventions on bodyweight and other cardiometabolic risk factors in people with psychotic disorders. Additionally, the long-term effects on body weight and the effects on depressive symptoms were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  15. Is the naturalistic course of depression in older people related to received support over time? Results from a longitudinal population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtjes, W.; Deeg, D.J.H.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Meijel, B.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    Objectives: To test the interrelation of the naturalistic course of depression in older people with long-term support received. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Methods: A sample of 277 adults age 55-85years participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, with clinically relevant

  16. The UPBEAT Nurse-Delivered Personalized Care Intervention for People with Coronary Heart Disease Who Report Current Chest Pain and Depression: A Randomised Controlled Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barley, E.A.; Walters, P.; Haddad, M.; Phillips, R.; Achilla, E.; McCrone, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Mann, A.; Tylee, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial

  17. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Bereaved People with Loss-Related Distress: a Controlled Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on symptom severity of depression, complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and working memory in elderly bereaved people with long-term bereavement-related distress. A non-randomized, controlled pilot design was used in a sample...

  18. Global patterns of workplace productivity for people with depression: absenteeism and presenteeism costs across eight diverse countries

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Knapp, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Research suggests that by far, the greatest contributor to the overall economic impact of depression is loss in productivity; however, there is very little research on the costs of depression outside of Western high-income countries. Thus, this study examines the impact of depression on workplace productivity across eight diverse countries. Methods We estimated the extent and costs of depression-related absenteeism and presenteeis...

  19. Experiential Avoidance, Mindfulness and Depression in Spinal Cord Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Roberton, Terri; Allison, Garry T.

    2010-01-01

    ) completed a questionnaire including the depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-2; Bond et al., 2007) and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003). Thirty per cent of participants scored above the cut-off for possible...... depression, with equal numbers experiencing mild, moderate or severe depression. Mindfulness and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with depression, and were intercorrelated. Further, regression analysis indicated that experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between depression......This preliminary study sought to explore the link between depression, experiential avoidance and mindfulness in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). We surveyed patients listed on the SCI database at Royal Perth Hospital who had experienced an injury over the last 10 years. Respondents (62...

  20. People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze a part of the findings of documentation survey and field work carried out for five years in two cities and 67villages in Komeijan region of Markazi province, Iran, from some new perspectives such as ritual morphography, dramatic origin studies, eastern Scapegoat’s and anthropology of rituals. Using methods of current, and interviewing with 119 of the eldest native settlers ,as informants, and regarding the biochronology of man’s life in this region from the primitive form to civility which have been assigned to go back from the third millennium B.C.up to the present time, the morphography of 48 popular Dramatic Rituals has been determined. Among the findings of the study, one of the Archetypal Dramatic rituals, called Qaraiskurmah in the field of Anthropology of rituals, is Scapegoat’s. All these show the high IQ, innovative mind, and creative artistic tastes of the people in this region of Iran, whether they are Turkish, Persia, or Tats speakers.

  1. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Among People With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection and a History of Injecting Drug Use in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Emmanuel; Alavi, Maryam; Bruneau, Julie; Micallef, Michelle; Perram, Jacinta; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Dunlop, Adrian J; Balcomb, Annie C; Day, Carolyn A; Treloar, Carla; Bath, Nicky; Haber, Paul S; Dore, Gregory J; Grebely, Jason

    The aims of this study were to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and associated sociodemographic factors among people living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with a history of injecting drug use and to assess the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress and HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. The Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings was an observational cohort study evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from 9 community health centers and opioid substitution therapy (OST) clinics (New South Wales, Australia). Symptoms were assessed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Analyses were performed using logistic regression. Among 415 participants (mean age 41 years, 71% male), 47%, 52%, and 36% demonstrated moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. In adjusted analyses, depression symptoms were associated with recent injecting drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.49), whereas stress symptoms were associated with unemployment (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.09-8.15) and not living with a spouse or other relatives/friends (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.39). Symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress or having a history of treated mental illness were not independently associated with HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. Findings suggest a need for improved interventions and care regarding mental health among people living with chronic HCV with a history of injecting drug use, but suggest that symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress should not be immediate contraindications to HCV assessment and treatment.

  2. Concepts and causation of depression:a cross-cultural study of the beliefs of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhugra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature and causes of depression, and to suggest ways in which these beliefs act to facilitate or deter older people from accessing treatment.DESIGN AND MET...

  3. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  4. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  5. Experience of stigma and discrimination reported by people experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of depression: The FEDORA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Elizabeth A; Beldie, Alina; Brain, Cecilia; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Marksteiner, Josef; Mohr, Pavel; Prelipceanu, Dan; Vasilache, Anamaria; Waern, Margda; Sartorius, Norman; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-08-01

    To record and measure the nature and severity of stigma and discrimination experienced by people during a first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of major depressive disorder. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used in a cross-sectional survey to elicit service user reports of anticipated and experienced discrimination by 150 people with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia and 176 with a diagnosis of first-episode major depressive disorder in seven countries (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Sweden and Turkey). Participants with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder reported discrimination in a greater number of life areas than those with schizophrenia, as rated by the total DISC-12 score (p = .03). With regard to specific life areas, participants with depression reported more discrimination in regard to neighbours, dating, education, marriage, religious activities, physical health and acting as a parent than participants with schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia reported more discrimination with regard to the police compared to participants with depression. Stigma and discrimination because of mental illness change in the course of the mental diseases. Future research may take a longitudinal perspective to better understand the beginnings of stigmatisation and its trajectory through the life course and to identify critical periods at which anti-stigma interventions can most effectively be applied. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A prospective cohort study to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are culturally specific and there is limited data on the association of dietary patterns with late-life depression in Chinese. This study examined the associations between dietary patterns and baseline and subsequent depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Chinese older people in Hong Kong.Participants aged ≥65 year participating in a cohort study examining the risk factors for osteoporosis completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline between 2001 and 2003. Factor analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns: "vegetables-fruits" pattern, "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern, and "meat-fish" pattern. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and 4-year using the validated Geriatric Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression was used for cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,902 to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the presence of depressive symptoms, and for longitudinal analysis (n = 2,211 on their associations with 4-year depressive symptoms, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.The highest quartile of "vegetables-fruits" pattern score was associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms [Adjusted OR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36-0.83, ptrend = 0.017] compared to the lowest quartile at baseline. Similar inverse trend was observed for the highest quartile of "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern score [Adjusted OR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.26-0.65, ptrend<0.001] compared to the lowest quartile. There was no association of "meat-fish" pattern with the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline. None of the dietary patterns were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms at 4-year.Higher "vegetables-fruits" and "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern scores were associated with reduced likelihood of baseline depressive symptoms in Chinese older people in Hong Kong. The longitudinal analyses failed to show any causal relationship between

  7. The relationship between excessive Internet use and depression: a questionnaire-based study of 1,319 young people and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catriona M; Gore, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of a psychiatric construct that needs to be better defined and understood: Internet addiction (IA). Recently there has been much public concern over the relationship between Internet use and negative affect. This study explored the concept of IA and examined the relationship between addictive symptoms and depression. An online questionnaire was used to measure participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used the Internet, and their depressive tendencies. Three scales were included: the IA Test, the Internet Function Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). 1,319 respondents completed the questionnaires, with 18 (1.2%) identified as falling in the IA category. Correlational analyses were conducted across the whole data sample. In factorial analyses, the 18 IA respondents were compared to a matched group of non-addicted (NA) respondents in terms of their scores on the Function Test and the BDI. Across the whole data sample, there was a close relationship between IA tendencies and depression, such that IA respondents were more depressed; there were also significant differences between the sexes, with men showing more addictive tendencies than women. In addition, young people were significantly more likely to show addictive symptoms than were older people. There was a significant difference between the IA and the NA group in their levels of depressive symptoms, with the NA group firmly in the non-depressed range, and the IA group in the moderately-to-severely depressed range (F(1, 34) = 22.35; p gaming websites and online community/chat websites. The concept of IA is emerging as a construct that must be taken seriously. Moreover, it is linked to depression, such that those who regard themselves as dependent on the Internet report high levels of depressive symptoms. Those who show symptoms of IA are likely to engage proportionately more than the normal population in sites that serve as a replacement for real

  8. Education and the public's desire for social distance from people with depression and schizophrenia: the contribution of emotional reactions and causal attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna Christin; Mnich, Eva

    2014-08-01

    Association between education and desire for social distance from people with mental illness is unclear. (1) Is there an association between education and social distance from people with a depression or schizophrenia? (2) Can this association be explained by beliefs about causes of and emotional reactions to the mental disorders? (3) Are there differences between the two mental disorders? Analyses are based on a telephone survey in two large German cities (Hamburg and Munich, N = 2,014, response rate 51%). Vignettes with typical signs and symptoms suggestive of depression and schizophrenia were presented. Respondents were asked about beliefs about causes of the mental disorders, their emotional reactions and their desire for social distance. Lower education is significantly associated with a stronger tendency for social distance in the case of depression but not in case of schizophrenia, when age and gender are controlled. In case of depression, the association decreases when beliefs about possible causes are additionally controlled. In terms of schizophrenia, associations between education and social distance become stronger when emotional reactions are introduced. Our results underline that campaigns aimed at reducing stigma and social distance should consider specific emotional reactions and information needs of people with low education regarding different mental disorders. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. The Role of Insight in Moderating the Association Between Depressive Symptoms in People With Schizophrenia and Stigma Among Their Nearest Relatives: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Katliar, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of a positive association between insight and depression among patients with schizophrenia. Self-stigma was shown to play a mediating role in this association. We attempted to broaden this concept by investigating insight as a potential moderator of the association between depressive symptoms amongst people with schizophrenia and stigmatizing views towards people with mental disorders in their close social environment. Method: In the initial sample of 120 pairs, data were gathered from 96 patients with a diagnosis of “paranoid schizophrenia” and 96 of their nearest relatives (80% response rate). In this cross-sectional study data were collected by clinical interview using the following questionnaires: “The Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder,” “Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia,” and “Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.” The stigmatizing views of patients’ nearest relatives towards people with mental disorders were assessed with the “Mental Health in Public Conscience” scale. Results: Among patients with schizophrenia depressive symptom severity was positively associated with the intensity of nearest relatives’ stigmatizing beliefs (“Nonbiological vision of mental illness,” τ = 0.24; P insight. Directions for further research and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26970100

  10. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  11. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Psychological Treatment of Depression in People Aged 65 Years and Over: A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jonsson

    Full Text Available Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence.The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST, five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual.Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions

  13. Effects of exercise programs on depressive symptoms, quality of life, and self-esteem in older people: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hi; Han, Kuem Sun; Kang, Chang-Bum

    2014-11-01

    This study attempted to show evidence of exercise programs as intervention to decrease depressive symptoms and to improve quality of life and self-esteem in older people. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases of KoreaMed, Korea Scientific and Technological Intelligence Center, Korean Society of Nursing Science, Korean Academy of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Ovid-Medline and Embase were searched up to May 25th, 2012 for relevant articles. We searched studies of randomized controlled trials involving exercise programs administered to participants aged 65 years or over. Of 461 publications identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Quality assessment of the studies utilized Cochrane's Risk of Bias. Exercise therapy in older people was effective, as evidenced by a decrease in depressive symptoms [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64, -0.08], and improvements in quality of life (SMD 0.86; 95% CI 0.11, 1.62) and self-esteem (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.09, 0.88). The changes were significant statistically, with no heterogeneity. Exercise programs in older people are effective in improving depressive symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem. Development and efficient use of tailored exercise programs for elderly people is a prudent strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How to help depressed older people living in residential care: a multifaceted shared-care intervention for late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, R H; Baikie, K A; Castell, S; Andrews, C L; Baikie, A; Pond, C D; Willcock, S M; Snowdon, J; Tennant, C C

    2001-12-01

    To describe a population-based, multifaceted shared-care intervention for late-life depression in residential care as a new model of geriatric practice, to outline its development and implementation, and to describe the lessons learned during the implementation process. A large continuing-care retirement community in Sydney, Australia, providing three levels of care (independent living units, assisted-living complexes, and nursing homes). The intervention was implemented for the entire non-nursing home population (residents in independent and assisted living: N = 1,466) of the facility and their health care providers. Of the 1,036 residents whowere eligible and agreed to be interviewed, 281 (27.1%) were classified as depressed according to the Geriatric Depression Scale. INTERVENTION DESCRIPTION: The intervention included: (a) multidisciplinary collaboration between primary care physicians, facility health care providers, and the local psychogeriatric service; (b) training for primary care physicians and other facility health care providers about detecting and managing depression; and (c) depression-related health education/promotion programs for residents. The intervention was widely accepted by residents and their health care providers, and was sustained and enhanced by the facility after the completion of the study. It is possible to implement and sustain a multifaceted shared-care intervention for late-life depression in a residential care facility where local psychogeriatric services are scarce, staff-to-resident ratios are low, and the needs of depressed residents are substantial.

  15. Depression and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS: Can it affect their quality of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Navanit Deshmukh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression, being the most common neuropsychiatric complication of HIV, is also associated with increased health-care utilization, decreased quality of life (QOL, and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Depression is a multidimensional disorder affected by a variety of biological, psychological, and social determinants and this relation becomes more complicated in HIV patients. The current study therefore aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of depression and assess difference in the QOL of HIV patients not having depression and those suffering from depression. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an ART center in a tertiary care hospital in HIV/AIDS patients of 18 years of age. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were studied, depression anxiety and stress scale-21 was used to assess depression, and QOL assessment was done using WHOQOL-HIV BREF questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Out of 754 study subjects, 377, i.e., 50% suffered from depression and nearly 75.9% of them were in the age group of 25–44 years. The prevalence of depression was higher in females, illiterates, and unemployed HIV patients as compared to males, literates, and employed subjects, respectively. HIV patients who were depressed had significantly lower QOL than the subjects not suffering from depression, more so in the environment and social relationships domains.

  16. CERN Press Release: CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Geneva, 4 July 2012. At a seminar held at CERN today as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented their latest preliminary results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV.   CERN physicists await the start of the Higgs seminar. “We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV. The outstanding performance of the LHC and ATLAS and the huge efforts of many people have brought us to this exciting stage,” said ATLAS experiment spokesperson Fabiola Gianotti, “but a little more time is needed to prepare these results for publication.” "The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it&...

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Analgesic Treatment for Depression in People with Advanced Dementia: Randomised, Multicentre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (DEP.PAIN.DEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Ane; Flo, Elisabeth; Aarsland, Dag; Ballard, Clive; Slettebo, Dagrun D; Husebo, Bettina S

    2018-05-03

    Chronic pain and depression often co-occur, and pain may exacerbate depression in people with dementia. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of analgesic treatment for depression in nursing home patients with advanced dementia and clinically significant depressive symptoms. We conducted a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 47 nursing homes, including 162 nursing home patients aged ≥ 60 years with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 20) and depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia ≥ 8). Patients were randomised to receive active analgesic treatment (paracetamol or buprenorphine transdermal system) or identical placebo for 13 weeks. The main outcome measure was the change in depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) from baseline to 13 weeks, assessed using linear mixed models with fixed effects for time, intervention and their interaction in the models. Secondary outcomes were to assess whether any change in depression was secondary to change in pain (Mobilisation-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia-2 Pain Scale) and adverse events. The mean depression change was - 0.66 (95% confidence interval - 2.27 to 0.94) in the active group (n = 80) and - 3.30 (- 4.68 to -1.92) in the placebo group (n = 82). The estimated treatment effect was 2.64 (0.55-4.72, p = 0.013), indicating that analgesic treatment had no effect on depressive symptoms from baseline to 13 weeks while placebo appeared to ameliorate depressive symptoms. There was no significant reduction in pain in the active treatment group (paracetamol and buprenorphine combined) vs. placebo; however, a subgroup analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in pain for paracetamol vs. placebo [by - 1.11 (- 2.16 to - 0.06, p = 0.037)] from week 6 to 13 without a change in depression. Buprenorphine did not have significant effects on depression [3.04 (- 0.11 to 6.19), p = 0

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  20. Depression among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, U E; Otakpor, A N; Kuteyi, O B; James, B O

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbidity among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHAs). It is associated with poor treatment adherence and higher mortality rates. Few reports have, however, emanated from developing countries where socioeconomic factors may confound this association. We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study of PLWHAs and apparently healthy staff of three LGA's. The depression module of the Schedule for the Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to diagnose depression and depression symptom severity, respectively. Depression was commonly co-morbid among individuals with HIV/AIDS. It was five times more common in PLWHAs than in apparently healthy populations (29.3% vs. 7.3%, OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.50-11.76). A similar trend was observed for depression symptom severity. Among PLWHAs, depression was significantly more likely among females (OR: 7.91, 95% CI: 1.83-71.00, P 3 years (OR: 7.90, P risk. Depression was commonly co-morbid among PLWHAs studied. Clinicians should be aware of risk factors for depression among PLWHAs in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  1. Do social support, stigma, and social problem-solving skills predict depressive symptoms in people living with HIV? A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Worawan; Grant, Joan S; Pryor, Erica R; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E; Raper, James L

    2012-01-01

    Social support, stigma, and social problem solving may be mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, no published studies have examined these individual variables as mediators in PLWH. This cross-sectional, correlational study of 150 PLWH examined whether social support, stigma, and social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between HIV-related sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms. Participants completed self-report questionnaires during their visits at two HIV outpatient clinics in the Southeastern United States. Using multiple regression analyses as a part of mediation testing, social support, stigma, and social problem solving were found to be partial mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms, considered individually and as a set.

  2. Emotion regulation, depression and self-harming behaviours in people with borderline personality disorder: the moderating role of action vs. state orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybilla Blasczyk-Schiep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this research is to determine the level of emotion regulation, studied through the method of variable action orientation vs. state and its relationship with depressiveness and dimension of the reasons for living and self-harming behaviour of patients with borderline personality disorder. Participants and procedure The research studied 61 patients diagnosed with an emotionally unstable personality of borderline type. The research used the Polish adaptation of tests to measure the action vs. state orientation (SSI-K, the self-harming behaviour (SHI, depression (BDI and the reasons for living vs. suicidal tendency (RFL-I. Results In people with borderline personality disorder, the level of emotion regulation (action vs. state orientation, reasons for living and depression are predictors of self-harming behaviour. The experience of a depressive episode or lack thereof does not have a relationship with the increase of self-harming. Analysis of the interaction between variables showed that the reasons for living and the action orientation after failure are related to the reduction of self-harming behaviour in all subjects. In depressed people, state orientation is associated with an increase in the action orientation with decreased self-destructive behaviours. Conclusions High levels of reasons for living in interaction with the action orientation have a negative relationship with the self-harming behaviour of patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Among those subjects, depressive patients, a statistically lower level of self-harm is related to the action orientation. These results suggest that therapeutic treatment is important to activate both reasons for living as well as action orientation as effective dimensions in preventing self-harming.

  3. Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Obindo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%, Moderate (31.6% and Severe (26.3%. History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008; Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003 were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, p<0.004.Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low

  4. Association of depression with body mass index classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle: A web-based survey involving 11,876 Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Asano, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Sasayama, Daimei; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-10

    Body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle-related physical illnesses have been implicated in the pathology of depression. We aimed to investigate the association of depression wih BMI classification (i.e., underweight, normal, overweight, and obese), metabolic disease, and lifestyle using a web-based survey in a large cohort. Participants were 1000 individuals who have had depression (mean age: 41.4 ± 12.3 years, 501 men) and 10,876 population-based controls (45.1 ± 13.6 years, 5691 men). The six-item Kessler scale (K6) test was used as a psychological distress scale. Compared to in the controls, obesity and hyperlipidemia were more common and frequency of a snack or night meal consumption was higher, whereas frequencies of breakfast consumption and vigorous and moderate physical activities were lower in the patients. K6 test scores were higher for underweight or obese people compared to normal or overweight people. A logistic regression analysis showed that the K6 test cut-off score was positively associated with being underweight, hyperlipidemia, and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption in the patients. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-reported depression was positively associated with metabolic diseases and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption. The observed associations of depression with BMI classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle suggest that lifestyle and related physical conditions are involved in at least a portion of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a social intervention of choice vs. control on depressive symptoms, melancholy, feeling of loneliness, and perceived togetherness in older Finnish people: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynnönen, Katja; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantanen, Taina; Tiikkainen, Pirjo; Kallinen, Mauri

    2018-01-01

    This study examined effects of a social intervention on depressive symptoms, melancholy, loneliness, and perceived togetherness in community-dwelling Finnish older people. Promotion of mental well-being in older people (GoodMood; ISRCTN78426775) was a single-blinded randomized control trial lasting 1.5 years. Two hundred and twenty-three persons aged 75-79 years reporting symptoms of loneliness or melancholy were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was allowed to choose among supervised exercise, social activity, or personal counseling. Follow-up measurements were conducted at the end of 6-month intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Number of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, while loneliness and melancholy decreased in both the intervention and control groups during the study (p Social integration increased in the intervention group but not in controls (p = 0.041). Attachment and guidance increased in both groups (p intervention did not alleviate depressed mood. Positive changes over time were observed in loneliness, feelings of melancholy, attachment, and guidance but these occurred independently of the intervention. Our secondary analysis suggests that the intervention increased perceived social integration. In sum, the effects of the intervention were moderate only and did not expedite further overcoming depressive mood or loneliness.

  6. Is there a gap between recommended and ‘real world’ practice in the management of depression in young people? A medical file audit of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetrick Sarah E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature has shown that dissemination of guidelines alone is insufficient to ensure that guideline recommendations are incorporated into every day clinical practice. Methods We aimed to investigate the gaps between guideline recommendations and clinical practice in the management of young people with depression by undertaking an audit of medical files in a catchment area public mental health service for 15 to 25 year olds in Melbourne, Australia. Results The results showed that the assessment and recording of depression severity to ensure appropriate treatment planning was not systematic nor consistent; that the majority of young people (74.5% were prescribed an antidepressant before an adequate trial of psychotherapy was undertaken and that less than 50% were monitored for depression symptom improvement and antidepressant treatment emergent suicide related behaviours (35% and 30% respectively. Encouragingly 92% of first line prescriptions for those aged 18 years or under who were previously antidepressant-naïve was for fluoxetine as recommended. Conclusions This research has highlighted the need for targeted strategies to ensure effective implementation. These strategies might include practice system tools that allow for systematic monitoring of depression symptoms and adverse side effects, particularly suicide related behaviours. Additionally, youth specific psychotherapy that incorporates the most effective components for this age group, delivered in a youth friendly way would likely aid effective implementation of guideline recommendations for engagement in an adequate trial of psychotherapy before medication is initiated.

  7. Depression and physical health multimorbidity: primary data and country-wide meta-analysis of population data from 190 593 people across 43 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, B; Vancampfort, D; Veronese, N; Kahl, K G; Mitchell, A J; Lin, P-Y; Tseng, P-T; Mugisha, J; Solmi, M; Carvalho, A F; Koyanagi, A

    2017-09-01

    Despite the known heightened risk and burden of various somatic diseases in people with depression, very little is known about physical health multimorbidity (i.e. two or more physical health co-morbidities) in individuals with depression. This study explored physical health multimorbidity in people with clinical depression, subsyndromal depression and brief depressive episode across 43 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Cross-sectional, community-based data on 190 593 individuals from 43 LMICs recruited via the World Health Survey were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between depression and physical multimorbidity. Overall, two, three and four or more physical health conditions were present in 7.4, 2.4 and 0.9% of non-depressive individuals compared with 17.7, 9.1 and 4.9% among people with any depressive episode, respectively. Compared with those with no depression, subsyndromal depression, brief depressive episode and depressive episode were significantly associated with 2.62, 2.14 and 3.44 times higher odds for multimorbidity, respectively. A significant positive association between multimorbidity and any depression was observed across 42 of the 43 countries, with particularly high odds ratios (ORs) in China (OR 8.84), Laos (OR 5.08), Ethiopia (OR 4.99), the Philippines (OR 4.81) and Malaysia (OR 4.58). The pooled OR for multimorbidity and depression estimated by meta-analysis across 43 countries was 3.26 (95% confident interval 2.98-3.57). Our large multinational study demonstrates that physical health multimorbidity is increased across the depression spectrum. Public health interventions are required to address this global health problem.

  8. A systematic review of the effectiveness of self-management interventions in people with multiple sclerosis at improving depression, anxiety and quality of life.

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    Tara Kidd

    Full Text Available Self-management interventions have become increasingly popular in the management of long-term health conditions; however, little is known about their impact on psychological well-being in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS.To examine the effectiveness of self-management interventions on improving depression, anxiety and health related quality of life in people with MS.A structured literature search was conducted for the years 2000 to 2016. The review process followed the PRISMA guidelines, and is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42016033925.The review identified 10 RCT trials that fulfilled selection criteria and quality appraisal. Self-management interventions improved health-related quality of life in 6 out of 7 studies, with some evidence of improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms.Although the results are promising more robust evaluation is required in order to determine the effectiveness of self-management interventions on depression, anxiety and quality of life in people with MS. Evaluation of the data was impeded by a number of methodological issues including incomplete content and delivery information for the intervention and the exclusion of participants representing the disease spectrum. Recommendations are made for service development and research quality improvement.

  9. Potential Benefits and Harms of a Peer Support Social Network Service on the Internet for People With Depressive Tendencies: Qualitative Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. Objective The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of “friends,” were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. Results There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was

  10. Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss : Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; J Djelantik, A A A Manik; Smid, Geert E

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify (a) subgroups among people confronted with unnatural/violent loss characterized by different symptoms profiles of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression, and (b) socio-demographic, loss-related, and cognitive variables associated with subgroup membership. We used

  11. Mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

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    Clara Strauss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder. METHOD: Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed. RESULTS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n = 578. There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.59, 95% CI = -0.12 to -1.06. Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.73, 95% CI = -0.09 to -1.36, but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g = -0.55, 95% CI = 0.09 to -1.18, for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g = -1.03, 95% CI = -0.40 to -1.66, but not where there was an active control (Hedges g = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.54 to -0.48 and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.15 to -0.63 but not for MBSR (Hedges g = -0.75, 95% CI = 0.31 to -1.81. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.

  12. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Oliver, Annie; Pettman, Danelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Method Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed. Results Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n = 578). There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.59, 95% CI = −0.12 to −1.06). Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.73, 95% CI = −0.09 to −1.36), but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g = −0.55, 95% CI = 0.09 to −1.18), for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g = −1.03, 95% CI = −0.40 to −1.66), but not where there was an active control (Hedges g = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.54 to −0.48) and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g = −0.39, 95% CI = −0.15 to −0.63) but not for MBSR (Hedges g = −0.75, 95% CI = 0.31 to −1.81). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population. PMID:24763812

  13. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Mark; Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-03-23

    Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=-0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both depression symptoms and alcohol use outcomes in young

  14. Young people with depression and their experience accessing an enhanced primary care service for youth with emerging mental health problems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-08-01

    Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace) that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service's funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people's consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from providing more timely appointments with therapists. The service's funding

  15. Global patterns of workplace productivity for people with depression: absenteeism and presenteeism costs across eight diverse countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Knapp, M

    2016-11-01

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Research suggests that by far, the greatest contributor to the overall economic impact of depression is loss in productivity; however, there is very little research on the costs of depression outside of Western high-income countries. Thus, this study examines the impact of depression on workplace productivity across eight diverse countries. We estimated the extent and costs of depression-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the workplace across eight countries: Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, South Africa, and the USA. We also examined the individual, workplace, and societal factors associated with lower productivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of depression on workplace productivity across a diverse set of countries, in terms of both culture and GDP. Mean annual per person costs for absenteeism were lowest in South Korea at $181 and highest in Japan ($2674). Mean presenteeism costs per person were highest in the USA ($5524) and Brazil ($5788). Costs associated with presenteeism tended to be 5-10 times higher than those associated with absenteeism. These findings suggest that the impact of depression in the workplace is considerable across all countries, both in absolute monetary terms and in relation to proportion of country GDP. Overall, depression is an issue deserving much greater attention, regardless of a country's economic development, national income or culture.

  16. Social relationships and depression among people 65 years and over living in rural and urban areas of Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Dubé, Micheline

    2009-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of depression within the elderly Quebec population residing in rural areas, urban areas and metropolitan Montreal, and to assess differences in the associations between social relationships and depression across these urban and rural settings. Data originate from the first wave of the ESA (Etude de Santé des Ainés) longitudinal study on mental health of community dwelling older persons aged over 65 (n = 2670). Depression, including major and minor depression, measured using a computer questionnaire; the ESA-Q developed by the research team and based on the DSM-IV criteria. Assessments of associations between depression and geographic area, informal social networks and community participation were estimated adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The prevalence of depression was higher in rural (17%) and urban areas (15.1%) than in metropolitan Montreal (10.3%). The odds ratio of rural (OR = 2.01 95% CI 1.59-2.68) and urban (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.25-2.45) areas compared to the metropolitan area increased slightly after adjustment by all social and health covariates. Our study indicated that social support and the lack of conflict in intimate relationships were associated with lower prevalence of depression in all areas. Geographic differences in depression exist within the elderly population in Quebec that may generate significant impact on their health and functional abilities. Further research should be conducted to explain these differences. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Depression and Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 2003 to 2013: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

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    Jong-Hyun Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus (DM, accentuating a need for more intensive depression screening in DM patients. There is a relative paucity of data on the mortality of depressed DM patients in Korea.MethodsRetrospective data from January 2003 to December 2013 were collected for adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients older than 30 years using the National Health Information database maintained by the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS. Demographic characteristics were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the annual prevalence of depression was estimated. Mortality rates and hazard ratios for each age group (stratified into six age groups of patients diagnosed with T2DM in 2003 were estimated using a Cox proportional hazard method, with the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curve showing the overall survival rates according to the T2DM status until the given year of 2013.ResultsThe annual prevalence of depression was consistently higher in T2DM group from 2003 to 2013. The mortality hazard ratio was higher in the depressed in all age groups, and the risk was higher in male groups and in younger-aged groups.ConclusionDepression was significantly associated with a high mortality risk in T2DM patients; hence, a more systematic surveillance of T2DM patients to identify risk factors for depression might contribute significantly to reducing mortality risk in this group of patients.

  18. The Community Navigator Study: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase community connections and reduce loneliness for people with complex anxiety or depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Bone, Jessica K; Pinfold, Vanessa; Lewis, Glyn; Billings, Jo; Frerichs, Johanna; Fullarton, Kate; Jones, Rebecca; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-10-23

    Loneliness is associated with poor health outcomes at all ages, including shorter life expectancy and greater risk of developing depression. People with mental health problems are particularly vulnerable to loneliness and, for those with anxiety or depression, loneliness is associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions which support people to utilise existing networks and access new social contact are advocated in policy but there is little evidence regarding their effectiveness. People with mental health problems have potential to benefit from interventions to reduce loneliness, but evidence is needed regarding their feasibility, acceptability and outcomes. An intervention to reduce loneliness for people with anxiety or depression treated in secondary mental health services was developed for this study, which will test the feasibility and acceptability of delivering and evaluating it through a randomised controlled trial. In this feasibility trial, 40 participants with anxiety or depression will be recruited through two secondary mental health services in London and randomised to an intervention (n = 30) or control group (n = 10). The control group will receive standard care and written information about local community resources. The coproduced intervention, developed in this study, includes up to ten sessions with a 'Community Navigator' over a 6-month period. Community Navigators will work with people individually to increase involvement in social activities, with the aim of reducing feelings of loneliness. Data will be collected at baseline and at 6-month follow-up - the end of the intervention period. The acceptability of the intervention and feasibility of participant recruitment and retention will be assessed. Potential primary and secondary outcomes for a future definitive trial will be completed to assess response and completeness, including measures of loneliness, depression and anxiety. Qualitative interviews with participants, staff and other

  19. Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obindo, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Nwefoh, Emeka; Agbir, Michael; Nwoga, Charles; Armiya'u, Aishatu; Davou, Francis; Maigida, Kurkat; Otache, Emmanuel; Ebiloma, Ajuma; Dakwak, Samuel; Umaru, John; Samuel, Elisha; Ogoshi, Christopher; Eaton, Julian

    2017-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above) were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%), Moderate (31.6%) and Severe (26.3%). History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008); Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years) and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003) were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, pdepression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low levels of life satisfaction.

  20. Mindfulness-Based Baduanjin Exercise for Depression and Anxiety in People with Physical or Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: we used a quantitative method to systematically synthesize the emerging literature and critically evaluate the effects of Baduanjin on depression and anxiety in people with physical or mental illnesses. Additionally, we determined if the number of total Baduanjin training sessions is associated with decreased anxiety and depression levels. Methods: both English and Chinese databases were searched for potential studies published between January 1982 and October 2017. The eligible randomized controlled trials were considered for meta-analysis. Effect size (Hedge’s g was computed for the pooled effects while the random-effect model was set. For moderator analysis; Subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables were performed. Results: the aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin on anxiety (Hedge’s g = −0.99; CI −1.63 to −0.74 and depression (Hedge’s g = −1.07; CI −1.3 to −0.83. For continuous potential moderators; meta-regression indicated a significant effect for total hours in Baduanjin practice (β = −0.0053; 95% CI −0.009 to −0.0014; p = 0.008. With regard to depression; meta-regression indicated a significant effect for total sessions of Baduanjin practice (β = −0.0023; 95% CI −0.006 to −0.0004; p = 0.028. Conclusions: the encouraging findings indicate the efficacy of Baduanjin exercise in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in people with physical or mental illnesses. However; the results should be interpreted with caution because of existing methodological limitations (e.g., high risk of bias; Baduanjin combined with other behavioral interventions; and heterogeneity of control groups.

  1. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pang, Ran; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2013-12-01

    Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010-April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = -0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = -0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = -0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = -0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed full-time.

  2. Young people with depression and their experience accessing an enhanced primary care service for youth with emerging mental health problems: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Terence V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from

  3. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  4. Effect of music care on depression and behavioral problems in elderly people with dementia in Taiwan: a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chin; Yu, Ching-Len; Chang, Su-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of music care on cognitive function, depression, and behavioral problems among elderly people with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The study had a quasi-experimental, longitudinal research design and used two groups of subjects. Subjects were not randomly assigned to experimental group (n = 90) or comparison group (n = 56). Based on Bandura's social cognition theory, subjects in the experimental group received Kagayashiki music care (KMC) twice per week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the comparison group were provided with activities as usual. Results found, using the control score of the Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly Behavior Rating Scale (baseline) and time of attending KMC activities as a covariate, the two groups of subjects had statistically significant differences in the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Results also showed that, using the control score of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (baseline) and MMSE (baseline) as a covariate, the two groups of subjects had statistically significant differences in the Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly Behavior Rating Scale. These findings provide information for staff caregivers in long-term care facilities to develop a non-invasive care model for elderly people with dementia to deal with depression, anxiety, and behavioral problems.

  5. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50-79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., early memories). A total of 163 females aged 50-79 tried the assigned interventions or the placebo control exercise for one week and completed measures on happiness and depressive symptoms at five times (pre- and post-test, 1, 3, and 6 months). Three out of the four interventions (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, and using signature strengths in a new way) increased happiness, whereas two interventions (three funny things and using signature strengths in a new way) led to a reduction of depressive symptoms on at one post-measure. Positive psychology interventions yield similar results for people aged 50 and above as for younger people. The dissemination of such interventions via the Internet offers a valuable opportunity for older age groups as well.

  6. Social Media Use and Well-Being in People with Physical Disabilities: Influence of SNS and Online Community Uses on Social Support, Depression, and Psychological Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee

    2018-04-13

    This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.

  7. Effects of social support and self-esteem on depressive symptoms in Japanese middle-aged and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukawa, Y; Tsuboi, S; Niino, N; Ando, F; Kosugi, S; Shimokata, H

    2000-04-01

    We examined the relationship among social support, self-esteem, and depression. The subjects were 1,116 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged between 40-79, who were the first wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences--Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale that supported the superiority of the bi-dimensional structure of the scale marked by self-confidence and self-deprecation subscales. The subsequent causal analyses, using structural equation modeling, demonstrated that social support reduced depressed affect through an increase in self-confidence and a decrease in self-deprecation. By contrast, social support did not show a direct effect on depressed affect. The findings suggest the importance of esteem-improving elements of social support in reducing depressive symptoms.

  8. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.

  9. The predicting roles of reasons for living and social support on depression, anxiety and stress among young people in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, N; Ibrahim, N; Aga Mohd Jaladin, R; Che Din, N

    2017-10-01

    This research examined the predicting roles of reasons for living and social support on depression, anxiety and stress in Malaysia. This research was carried out on a sample of 263 participants (age range 12-24 years old), from Klang Valley, Selangor. The survey package comprises demographic information, a measure of reasons for living, social support, depression, anxiety and stress. To analyse the data, correlation analysis and a series of linear multiple regression analysis were carried out. Findings showed that there were low negative relationships between all subdomains and the total score of reasons for living and depression. There were also low negative relationships between domain-specific of social support (family and friends) and total social support and depression. In terms of the family alliance, self-acceptance and total score of reasons for living, they were negatively associated with anxiety, whereas family social support was negatively associated with stress. The linear regression analysis showed that only future optimism and family social support found to be the significant predictors for depression. Family alliance and total reasons for living were significant in predicting anxiety, whereas family social support was significant in predicting stress. These findings have the potential to promote awareness related to depression, anxiety, and stress among youth in Malaysia.

  10. Problematic use of social network sites: the interactive relationship between gratifications sought and privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Kim, Yonghwan

    2013-11-01

    Problematic Internet use has long been a matter of concern; however, few studies extend this line of research from general Internet use to the use of social network sites (SNSs), or explicate the problematic use of SNSs by understanding what factors may enhance or reduce users' compulsive behaviors and excessive form of use on SNSs. Building on literature that found a positive relationship between gratifications sought from the Internet and problematic Internet use, this study first explores the types of gratifications sought from SNSs and examines their relationship with problematic SNS use. It found that three types of gratifications-diversion, self-presentation, and relationship building-were positively related to problematic SNS use. In addition, with a growing body of research on SNS privacy, a moderating role of privacy concerns on SNSs has been proposed to understand how it can influence the relationship between gratifications sought from SNSs and problematic SNS use. The findings suggest that different subdimensions of privacy concerns interact with gratifications sought in different manners. In other words, privacy concerns, including unauthorized secondary use and improper access, play a more influential role in constraining the positive relationship between gratifications sought and problematic SNS use when individuals seek to build relationships on SNSs. However, if individuals seek to have diversion on SNSs, their privacy concerns will be overridden by their gratifications sought, which in turn leads to problematic SNS use. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  11. Correlation between depression and burden observed in informal caregivers of people suffering from dementia with time spent on caregiving and dementia severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of thestudy is to compare data on the examined populationof informal caregivers of people sufferingfrom dementia with previous studies, aswell as to assess the correlation between (i) depressiondetermined on the basis of the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scaleand (ii) caregiver...... dementia fromdifferent backgrounds were evaluated usingthe Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies DepressionScale. Demographic data about the time devotedto caregiving and the number of hoursspend on caregiving weekly were gathered. Thetype of dementia and its stage were...... registeredusing the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS).With the aid of the Statistica StatSoft program,mutual correlations between the parameterswere measured. The study was conducted withinthe framework of AAL UnderstAID – a platformthat supports and helps to understandand assist caregivers in the care...

  12. School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Perry, Yael; Calear, Alison L; Newby, Jill M; Christensen, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g=0.23) and anxiety (g=0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g=0.11) and anxiety (g=0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis of depressed young people-criterion validity of WHO-5 and HSCL-6 in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Haugen, Wenche; Sirpal, Manjit K

    2015-01-01

    Ifølge WHO bidrager depression væsentligt til den globale sygdomsbyrde. Depressioner hos voksne har ofte deres debut i ungdomsårene. Korte, pålidelige depressionsskalaer er fremmende for tidlig identifikation af depressioner. Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at validere WHO-5 og HSCL-6...... spørgeskemaer til opsporing af depression blandt unge. Projektet blev gennemført som et multicenter-studie i almen praksis i Danmark og Norge. I alt 294 unge i alderen 14-16 år deltog ved at besvare et papir- eller webbaseret spørgeskema og gennemførte efterfølgende et Composite International Diagnostic...... Interview (CIDI), som blev brugt som diagnostisk standard. Depression blev i undersøgelsen defineret ud fra ICD-10 kriterier. Kriterievaliditeten blev undersøgt i form af Receiver Operating Curve analyser og cut-offs for depression blev beregnet ved anvendelse af Youden-indekset. Forekomsten af depression...

  14. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R J; Snoek, F J; Beekman, A J; Stehouwer, C D; Bouter, L M; Nijpels, G; Pouwer, F

    2008-07-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted among 550 residents (276 men and 274 women) of the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Levels of depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score > or = 16). Glucose metabolism status was determined by means of fasting and post-load glucose levels. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in men with NGM, IGM and DM2 was 7.7, 7.0 and 15.0% (P = 0.19) and for women 7.7, 23.1 and 19.7% (P women with IGM [odds ratio (OR) = 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57 to 8.28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms reduced the strength of these associations. Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms partially attenuated these associations, suggesting that these variables could be intermediate factors.

  15. Depression in elderly people living in rural Nigeria and its association with perceived health, poverty, and social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Yusuf, Abdulkareem Jika; Ogundele, Adefolakemi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between late-life depression, poverty, social network, and perceived health is little studied in Africa; the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown and there is an urgent need to research into this area. We interviewed community dwelling elderly persons of two rural areas in Nigeria using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30). Those who scored 11 and above on the GDS-30 were further interviewed using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMSS). Diagnosis of depression was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10) and GMSS-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMMS-AGECAT). A total of 458 community dwelling elderly persons participated in the study of which 57% were females. Mean age of the participants was 73.65(±7.8) years (95% CI 72.93-74.37). The mean GDS-30 and MMSE scores were 4.15(±4.80) and 21.73(±4.67), respectively. A total of 59 and 58 participants had depression based on ICD-10 criteria and GMSS-AGECAT, respectively. Agreement between ICD-10 and AGECAT diagnoses was κ = 0.931. By multiple logistic regression analysis, late-life depression was significantly associated with financial difficulties (Odds ratio 4.52 and bereavement Odds ratio 2.70). Late-life depression in this cohort is associated with health and socio-economic factors that are worth paying attention to, in a region of economic deprivation and inadequate healthcare.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory among young people living in Coastal Kenya [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Otiende

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of reliable, valid and adequately standardized measures of mental illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa is a key challenge for epidemiological studies on mental health.  We evaluated the psychometric properties and feasibility of using a computerized version of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI in an epidemiological study in rural Kenya. Methods: We surveyed 1496 participants aged 13-24 years in Kilifi County, on the Kenyan coast. The MDI was administered using a computer-assisted system, available in three languages. Internal consistency was evaluated using both Cronbach’s alpha and the Omega Coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the factorial structure of the MDI. Results:  Internal consistency using both Cronbach’s Alpha (α= 0.83 and the Omega Coefficient (0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.81- 0.83 was above acceptable thresholds. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the data to a unidimensional model of MDI (χ2 (33, N = 1409 = 178.52 p < 0.001, TLI = 0.947, CFI = 0.961, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA = .056, and this was confirmed using Item Response Models (Loevinger’s H coefficient 0.38 that proved the MDI was a unidimensional scale. Equivalence evaluation indicated invariance across sex and age groups. In our population, 3.6% of the youth presented with scores suggesting major depression using the ICD-10 scoring algorithm, and 8.7% presented with total scores indicating presence of depression (mild, moderate or severe.  Females and older youth were at the highest risk of depression. Conclusions: The MDI has good psychometric properties.  Given its brevity, relative ease of usage and ability to identify at-risk youth, it may be useful for epidemiological studies of depression in Africa.  Studies to establish clinical thresholds for depression are recommended. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms suggests that depression may be an important

  17. 'I am not a depressed person': how identity conflict affects help-seeking rates for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Caroline; Farrand, Paul; O'Mahen, Heather

    2012-10-02

    There is a significant treatment gap for patients with depression. A third of sufferers never seek help, and the vast majority of those who do only do so after considerable delay. Little is understood regarding poor help-seeking rates amongst people with depression, with existing research mainly focussed on the impact of barriers to treatment. The current study explored psychological factors affecting help-seeking behaviour in clinically depressed individuals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current or previously clinically depressed participants who either had or had not sought professional help. Thematic analysis was used to analyse results. The onset of depressive symptoms created conflict with participants' identity and personal goals. Delays in seeking help were primarily attributed to the desire to protect identity and goals from the threat of depressive symptoms. Participants used avoidance strategies to reduce the perceived threat of depressive symptoms on identity. These strategies interfered with help-seeking. Help-seeking was only undertaken once participants reached a point of acceptance and began to make concessions in their identity and goals, at which time they reduced their use of avoidance. Difficulties resolving conflict between identity and depressive symptoms may account for significant delays in seeking help for depression. The results have implications for predicting health behaviour and improving treatment uptake for depression, and may inform existing help-seeking models.

  18. Dificultades de integración social en personas depresivas con pensamientos de suicidio Social integration difficulties in depressive people with suicidal thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Montesó-Curtó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: el suicidio es un tema de reflexión para las ciencias médicas pero también para las ciencias sociales. Durkheim analiza el suicidio y describe el estado de anomia -sin normas-, en el cual la ciudadanía, como resultado de un cambio rápido, pierde su conexión con la sociedad y su fe en las reglas sociales y en las instituciones, llevando al individuo a la desesperación y al suicidio. Objetivo: identificar las dificultades de integración social en personas depresivas con pensamientos de suicidio. Metodología: se realiza un estudio cualitativo que forma parte de una investigación más amplia sobre depresión. Antes de realizar la entrevista administramos un cuestionario con datos sociodemográficos, datos sobre depresión y causas identificadas, así como también el test de ansiedad-depresión de Goldberg. Posteriormente se realiza una entrevista en profundidad que la hemos denominado historia de vida. Se realizan entrevistas a 66 personas diagnosticadas de depresión, 52 mujeres y 14 hombres previo consentimiento. De éstas se analizan las que han tenido ideas o intentos de suicidio. Resultados: en muchos de los entrevistados que han pensado o han intentado el suicidio lo que les ha impedido hacerlo es la familia y los hijos. Conclusión: el apoyo social es identificado como el principal factor que ha impedido el suicidio.Rationale: suicide is a subject of investigation for the medical sciences but also social sciences. Durkheim examines suicide and describes the state of anomie, without rules, in which citizenship as a result of rapid change, loses its connection with society and his belief in social rules and institutions, leading to individual despair and suicide. Objective: identify the social integration difficulties in depressive people with suicidal thoughts. Methodology: we performed a qualitative study is part of a broader research on depression. Before the interview administered a questionnaire with demographic

  19. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS

    2013-01-01

    Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including

  20. 6 CFR 5.45 - Procedure when testimony or production of documents is sought; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure when testimony or production of... Procedure when testimony or production of documents is sought; general. (a) If official information is... requiring oral testimony, and identification of potentially relevant documents. (c) The appropriate...

  1. The pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners from a medical consultant in clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, D

    1997-01-01

    Clinical biochemistry departments can be a valuable source of clinical advice for further investigations and the need for referral to specialist clinics. This paper outlines the pattern of clinical advice sought by general practitioners in a district hospital setting, and addresses some of the issues regarding seeking such advice and the implications for continuing medical education and training. PMID:9196966

  2. The Characteristics Sought by Public School Leaders of Applicants for Teaching Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of teacher applicants that are sought by public school systems in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The Superintendents of each of the public school districts in the Commonwealth were surveyed. A total of 99 respondents completed the survey (n = 99). This response rate of 57.2% was well-above the average for…

  3. Perceived Family Support, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Rachel M.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Pandey, Basu D.; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and suicidal thinking occur frequently alongside HIV/AIDS, triggering profound detrimental impacts on quality of life, treatment adherence, disease progression, and mortality. Yet the psychosocial factors contributing to these psychiatric comorbidities remain underexplored, particularly in the developing country context. This study thus examined different dimensions of perceived family support in relation to depression and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 322 adult PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal was conducted. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions for correlates of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-Ia-defined depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks. Perceived family support, measured using the 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale, was entered into separate models, in turn, as a composite score, for each sub-scale (emotional, instrumental, and negative support), and for each individual item. Results Overall, 25.5% of participants registered BDI-Ia-defined depression, with significantly lower rates among those with perceived family support scores in the highest (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.55) and middle (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.86) tertiles relative to those with lowest-tertile scores. Meanwhile, 14.0% reported suicidal thinking, with significantly lower rates among those in the highest perceived family support tertile relative to the lowest (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.91). Broken down by support sub-scale, only negative support (i.e. family difficulty) was significant in its correlations with both outcomes – a trend similarly reflected in the item-wise analyses. Conclusions Our findings highlight an important role for family support in determining experiences of depression and suicidality among PLWHA. Incorporating family counseling and support services – with special

  4. Examination of disparity in access to mental health services among people living with HIV and comorbid depression in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John

    2014-01-01

    respectively during a year followed by the baseline. For those who were depressed, we found that non-English speakers were two times less likely (OR:0.48;95%CI:0.31-0.77) to use of primary mental health services and were having 37%(IRR:0.63;95%CI:0.42-0.98) fewer encounters when compared to their English...... on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(Scores> ) or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale(Scores>=23). The use of primary and specialty mental health services was measured during the 12 months followed by the assessment at the baseline. Logistic and Negative binominal regression models were...... speaking counterparts. For accessing specialist care, we found that those who were identified as homosexual/gay, non-English speakers, immigrants, having low income and residing in rural area were two times less likely to use these services. However, being a homosexual/gay, being an immigrant, and having...

  5. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  7. Predicting help-seeking behavior: The impact of knowing someone close who has sought help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disabato, David J; Short, Jerome L; Lameira, Diane M; Bagley, Karen D; Wong, Stephanie J

    2018-02-15

    This study sought to replicate and extend research on social facilitators of college student's help seeking for psychological problems. We collected data on 420 ethnically diverse college students at a large public university (September 2008-May 2010). Students completed a cross-sectional online survey. We found that students who were aware of close others' (eg, family, friends) help seeking were two times more likely to have sought formal (eg, psychologist) and informal (eg, clergy) help themselves. Tests of moderation revealed the incremental effect (ie, controlling for help-seeking attitudes, internalizing symptoms, cultural demographics) of close others' formal help seeking was strong and significant for men (R 2 = 0.112), while it was negligible and nonsignificant for women (R 2 = .002). We discuss the importance for students-particularly men-to learn about close others' help seeking for facilitating their own help seeking during times of distress.

  8. Youth Codesign of a Mobile Phone App to Facilitate Self-Monitoring and Management of Mood Symptoms in Young People With Major Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Self-Harm

    OpenAIRE

    Hetrick, Sarah Elisabeth; Robinson, Jo; Burge, Eloise; Blandon, Ryan; Mobilio, Bianca; Rice, Simon M; Simmons, Magenta B; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Goodrich, Simon; Davey, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    Background Effective treatment of depression in young people is critical, given its prevalence, impacts, and link to suicide. Clinical practice guidelines point to the need for regular monitoring of depression symptom severity and the emergence of suicidal ideation to track treatment progress and guide intervention delivery. Yet, this is seldom integrated in clinical practice. Objective The objective of this study was to address the gap between guidelines about monitoring and real-world pract...

  9. Self-stigma as a mediator between social capital and empowerment among people with major depressive disorder in Europe: the ASPEN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfredi, M; Zoppei, S; Ferrari, C; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T; Thornicroft, G; Knifton, L; Quinn, N; Rossi, G; Lasalvia, A

    2015-01-01

    Individual social capital has been recognized as having an important role for health and well-being. We tested the hypothesis that poor social capital increases internalized stigma and, in turn, can reduce empowerment among people with major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a cross-sectional multisite study conducted on a sample of 516 people with MDD in 19 European countries. Structural Equation Models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of self-stigma and social capital on empowerment. Social capital and self-stigma accounted for 56% of the variability in empowerment. Higher social capital was related to lower self-stigma (r=-0.72, Psocial capital and empowerment (r=0.38, PSocial capital plays a key role in the appraisal of empowerment, both directly and through the indirect effect mediated by self-stigma. In order to improve empowerment of people with MDD, we identify strategies to foster individual social capital, and to overcome the negative consequences related to self-stigma for attainment of life goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. “I don’t have the heart”: a qualitative study of barriers to and facilitators of physical activity for people with coronary heart disease and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Michelle C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been shown to reduce depression in people with coronary heart disease (CHD, however many people with CHD do not engage in sufficient levels of physical activity to reap its positive effects. People with depression and CHD are at particular risk of non-adherence to physical activity. Little is known about the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity for people with CHD and depressive symptoms. Using qualitative interviews, the aim of this study was to explore the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity for cardiac patients with depressive symptoms. Methods Fifteen participants with CHD and depressive symptoms (assessed using the Cardiac Depression Scale participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviews were focussed on investigating participants’ experiences of physical activity since their cardiac event. Interviews were content analysed to determine major themes. Results Participants identified a number of barriers to and facilitators of physical activity. Barriers included having negative perceptions towards health and life changes as a result of the cardiac event, having low mood and low motivation to exercise, feeling physically restricted towards or fearful of exercise, lacking knowledge regarding exercise and perceiving external barriers. Facilitators included having a reason for exercising, being able to identify the psychological benefits of exercise, having positive social support and using psychological strategies. ‘Inactive’ participants reported more barriers and fewer facilitators than did ‘active’ participants. Conclusions The barriers reported in this study were highly salient for a number of participants. Health professionals and researchers can use this information to assist people with CHD and depressive symptoms to identify and possibly overcome barriers to physical activity. Relevant barriers and facilitators could be taken into account to

  11. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II and anxiety (BAI. Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  12. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Danny J; O'Sullivan, Maura E; O'Connell, Brendan D; O'Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.

  13. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  14. Does stigma predict a belief in dealing with depression alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Community surveys indicate that many people with depressive disorders do not obtain professional help and that a preference for self-reliance is an important factor in this treatment gap. The current study sought to investigate whether stigmatising attitudes predict a belief in the helpfulness of dealing with depression without external assistance. Data were collected as part of a national household survey of 2000 Australian adults aged 18 years and above. Participants were presented with either a vignette depicting depression (n=1001) or a vignette depicting depression with suicidal ideation (n=999) and asked if it would be helpful or harmful to deal alone with the problem. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if belief in dealing with depression alone was predicted by personal stigma, perceived stigma or sociodemographic characteristics. Higher levels of personal stigma independently predicted a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with both depression and depression with suicidal ideation. By contrast, lower levels of perceived stigma were associated with a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with depression without suicidal ideation. Personal stigma is associated with a belief in the helpfulness of self-reliance in coping with depression. Public health programs should consider the possibility that a belief in self-reliance is partly attributable to stigma. The findings also point to the potential importance of providing evidence-based self-help programs for those who believe in self-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Views of young people in rural Australia on SPARX, a fantasy world developed for New Zealand youth with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheek, Colleen; Bridgman, Heather; Fleming, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Background: A randomized control trial demonstrated that a computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) program (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts [SPARX]) was an appealing and efficacious treatment for depression for adolescents in New Zealand. Little is known about...... the acceptability of computerized therapy programs for rural Australians and the suitability of computerized programs developed in one cultural context when used in another country. Issues such as accents and local differences in health care access might mean adjustments to programs are required. Objective...

  16. All-cause mortality among people with serious mental illness (SMI, substance use disorders, and depressive disorders in southeast London: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mortality has been found for people with serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorder at all age groups. Our aim was to characterize vulnerable groups for excess mortality among people with SMI, substance use disorders, depressive episode, and recurrent depressive disorder. Methods A case register was developed at the South London and Maudsley National Health Services Foundation Trust (NHS SLAM, accessing full electronic clinical records on over 150,000 mental health service users as a well-defined cohort since 2006. The Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS system enabled searching and retrieval of anonymised information since 2008. Deaths were identified by regular national tracing returns after 2006. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were calculated for the period 2007 to 2009 using SLAM records for this period and the expected number of deaths from age-specific mortality statistics for the England and Wales population in 2008. Data were stratified by gender, ethnicity, and specific mental disorders. Results A total of 31,719 cases, aged 15 years old or more, active between 2007-2009 and with mental disorders of interest prior to 2009 were detected in the SLAM case register. SMRs were 2.15 (95% CI: 1.95-2.36 for all SMI with genders combined, 1.89 (1.64-2.17 for women and 2.47 (2.17-2.80 for men. In addition, highest mortality risk was found for substance use disorders (SMR = 4.17; 95% CI: 3.75-4.64. Age- and gender-standardised mortality ratios by ethnic group revealed huge fluctuations, and SMRs for all disorders diminished in strength with age. The main limitation was the setting of secondary mental health care provider in SLAM. Conclusions Substantially higher mortality persists in people with serious mental illness, substance use disorders and depressive disorders. Furthermore, mortality risk differs substantially with age, diagnosis, gender

  17. The iTreAD project: a study protocol for a randomised controlled clinical trial of online treatment and social networking for binge drinking and depression in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Lambkin, F J; Baker, A L; Geddes, J; Hunt, S A; Woodcock, K L; Teesson, M; Oldmeadow, C; Lewin, T J; Bewick, B M; Brady, K; Spring, B; Deady, M; Barrett, E; Thornton, L

    2015-10-06

    Depression and binge drinking behaviours are common clinical problems, which cause substantial functional, economic and health impacts. These conditions peak in young adulthood, and commonly co-occur. Comorbid depression and binge drinking are undertreated in young people, who are reluctant to seek help via traditional pathways to care. The iTreAD project (internet Treatment for Alcohol and Depression) aims to provide and evaluate internet-delivered monitoring and treatment programs for young people with depression and binge drinking concerns. Three hundred sixty nine participants will be recruited to the trial, and will be aged 18-30 years will be eligible for the study if they report current symptoms of depression (score 5 or more on the depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and concurrent binge drinking practices (5 or more standard drinks at least twice in the prior month). Following screening and online baseline assessment, participants are randomised to: (a) online monthly self-assessments, (b) online monthly self-assessments + 12-months of access to a 4 week online automated cognitive behaviour therapy program for binge drinking and depression (DEAL); or (c) online monthly assessment + DEAL + 12-months of access to a social networking site (Breathing Space). Independent, blind follow-up assessments occur at 26, 39, 52 and 64-weeks post-baseline. The iTreAD project is the first randomised controlled trial combining online cognitive behaviour therapy, social networking and online monitoring for young people reporting concerns with depression and binge drinking. These treatments represent low-cost, wide-reach youth-appropriate treatment, which will have significantly public health implications for service design, delivery and health policy for this important age group. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000310662. Date registered 24 March 2014.

  18. Effects of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, Mia; Hörnsten, Carl; Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia. Methods Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini‐Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high‐intensity functional exercise program or a non‐exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15‐item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months. Results No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (–1.58, P = 0.001 and –1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (–1.25, P = 0.01 and –1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (–2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (–3.17, P = 0.003 and –3.34, P = 0.002). Conclusions A 4‐month high‐intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non‐exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26644304

  19. Testing positive for a genetic predisposition to depression magnifies retrospective memory for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2017-11-01

    Depression, like other mental disorders and health conditions generally, is increasingly construed as genetically based. This research sought to determine whether merely telling people that they have a genetic predisposition to depression can cause them to retroactively remember having experienced it. U.S. adults (men and women) were recruited online to participate (Experiment 1: N = 288; Experiment 2: N = 599). After conducting a test disguised as genetic screening, we randomly assigned some participants to be told that they carried elevated genetic susceptibility to depression, whereas others were told that they did not carry this genetic liability or were told that they carried elevated susceptibility to a different disorder. Participants then rated their experience of depressive symptoms over the prior 2 weeks on a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Participants who were told that their genes predisposed them to depression generally reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology over the previous 2 weeks, compared to those who did not receive this feedback. Given the central role of self-report in psychiatric diagnosis, these findings highlight potentially harmful consequences of personalized genetic testing in mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The importance of resilience and stress to maintaining smoking abstinence and cessation: a qualitative study in Australia with people diagnosed with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Muller, Robert; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2011-05-01

    This study explored stress in relation to smoking and how non-smokers (never-smoked and ex-smokers) are 'resilient' to smoking in a population where there is a high prevalence of smoking (people diagnosed with depression). In-depth oral history interviews were conducted with 34 adult participants from metropolitan Adelaide, and who were medically diagnosed with depression. Participants were recruited according to their smoking status (currently smoking, ex-smoker, and never-smoked). Smoking was taken-up and maintained for a number of reasons that included perceived high levels of stress. Resilience to stress in relation to smoking was also a major theme. Non-smoking participants tended to be more resilient to stress. Ex-smokers were able to quit for a number of varied reasons during critical transition points in their lives. The never-smoked participants reported successful strategies to cope with stress but not all of them were necessarily healthy. There was often interplay between external factors and the individual's internal properties that led to a building or an erosion of resilience. Smokers and ex-smokers have indicated a strong relationship between stress and tobacco use. Ex-smokers and the never-smoked participants have demonstrated how being 'resilient' to stress can be important to smoking abstinence. The finding that external factors can interact with internal properties to build resilience in relation to stress and smoking is important for policy and practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral treatment in Wuhan, China: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hu; Nianhua, Xie; Jun, Xu; Lianguo, Ruan; Si, Wu; Sheng, Wei; Heng, Guo; Xia, Wang

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms (DS) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Wuhan, Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study evaluating adult PLWHA receiving ART in nine designated clinical hospitals was conducted from October to December 2015. The validated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess DS in eligible participants. Socio-demographical, epidemiological and clinical data were directly extracted from the case reporting database of the China HIV/AIDS Information Network. Multinomial regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors for DS. 394 participants were finally included in all analyses. 40.3% were found to have DS with 13.7% having mild DS and 26.6% having moderate to severe DS. The results of multinomial regression analysis suggested that being married or living with a partner, recent experience of ART-related side effects, and/or history of HCV infection were positively associated with mild DS, while increasing age was positively associated with moderate to severe DS.

  2. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964

  4. [Glucocorticoid therapy: what is the information sought by patients? Traffic analysis of the website cortisone-info.fr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, J; Six, M; Morin, C; Fardet, L

    2013-05-01

    About 1% of the general population are receiving systemic glucocorticoids. The information about this treatment sought by patients is unknown. The website www.cortisone-info.fr aims to provide therapeutic information about glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid therapy. It was posted on January 16, 2012. The information available on the website is documented and based on the recent medical literature. The website is made of 43 pages divided into five main sections (generalities about glucocorticoids, adverse events, measures associated with glucocorticoid therapy, discontinuation of glucocorticoids and, situations requiring attention). The website traffic between February 1st, 2012 and January 4, 2013 was analyzed using Google Analytics. During the study period, the website was visited by 67,496 people (average number of visitors per day: 33 in February 2012, 326 in December 2012). The number of page views was 230,496 or an average of 3.5 pages per visitor. Of these 230,496 page views, 145,431 (63.1%) were related to adverse events and 37,722 (16.4%) were related to generalities about glucocorticoids (e.g., what is cortisone? For which disease? How does it work?). Information particularly sought by visitors was related to the diet to follow during glucocorticoid therapy (page accessed 11,946 times), data about what cortisone is (page accessed 11,829 times) and the effects of glucocorticoids on weight (page accessed 10,442 times). Knowledge of glucocorticoid-treated patients' expectations may help physicians to optimize information they give, thereby helping to reduce patients' concerns about glucocorticoids and to improve adherence to the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Hallgren, Mats; Probst, Michel; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; De Hert, Marc; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) die up to 15 years prematurely due to chronic somatic comorbidities. Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are independent yet modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in these people. A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring these risk factors is lacking in this vulnerable population. We conducted a meta-analysis investigating sedentary behavior and physical activity levels and their correlates in people with severe mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to April 2017 for articles measuring sedentary behavior and/or physical activity with a self-report questionnaire or an objective measure (e.g., accelerometer). Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-nine studies were included (N=35,682; 39.5% male; mean age 43.0 years). People with severe mental illness spent on average 476.0 min per day (95% CI: 407.3-545.4) being sedentary during waking hours, and were significantly more sedentary than age- and gender-matched healthy controls (p=0.003). Their mean amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity was 38.4 min per day (95% CI: 32.0-44.8), being significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p=0.002 for moderate activity, pphysical activity guidelines (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, pphysical activity levels and non-compliance with physical activity guidelines were associated with male gender, being single, unemployment, fewer years of education, higher body mass index, longer illness duration, antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use, lower cardiorespiratory fitness and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. People with bipolar disorder were the most physically active, yet spent most time being sedentary. Geographical differences were detected, and inpatients were more active than outpatients and those living in the community. Given the

  6. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female, length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more, and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication. Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9

  7. 76 FR 2625 - Comment Sought on 2010 Review of Hearing Aid Compatibility Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... process; Accounting for technological feasibility and marketability in the Commission's rules pertaining... in existence or on the horizon, that may assist people with hearing loss in using wireless technology...

  8. Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra E H; Esteves, Francisco; Carvalho, Helena

    2015-09-30

    Some mental illnesses and certain mental health care environments can be severely stigmatizing, which seems to be related to decreased self-esteem and a deterioration of the quality of social relationships for people with mental illness. This study aims to identify clinical profiles characterized by clinical diagnoses more strongly associated with the treatment settings and related to internalized stigma, self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships. It also aimed to analyze associations between clinical profiles and socio-demographic indicators. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on a sample of 261 individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, from hospital-based and community-based facilities. MCA showed four distinct clinical profiles allowing a differentiation among levels of: internalized stigma, social relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. Overall, results revealed that internalized stigma remains a pervasive problem for some people with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Particularly, internalized stigma and social relationships dissatisfaction and associated socio-demographic indicators appear to be a risk factor for social isolation for individuals with schizophrenia, which may worsen the course of the disorder. Our findings highlight the importance to develop structured interventions aimed to reduce internalized stigma, and exclusion of those who suffer the loss of their social roles and networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Facebook for Supporting a Lifestyle Intervention for People with Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Marsch, Lisa A; McHugo, Gregory J; Bartels, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether Facebook could support a community-based group lifestyle intervention for adults with serious mental illness. Participants with serious mental illness and obesity enrolled in a 6-month group lifestyle program were invited to join a secret Facebook group to support their weight loss and physical activity goals. Two peer co-facilitators moderated the Facebook group. The proportion of participants who achieved ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness was measured at follow-up. The relationship between this outcome and participants' interactions in the Facebook group was examined. Interactions were defined as active contributions including posts, comments, or likes. Content of participants' Facebook posts was also explored. Participants (n = 25) had major depression (44%), bipolar disorder (36%), and schizophrenia (20%). Nineteen (76%) participants joined the Facebook group, and contributed 208 interactions (70 posts; 81 comments; 57 likes). Participants who achieved ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness contributed more interactions in the Facebook group (mean = 19.1; SD = 20.5) compared to participants who did not (mean = 3.9; SD = 6.7), though this relationship approached statistical significance (t = -2.1; Welch's df = 13.1; p = 0.06). Participants' posts containing personal sharing of successes or challenges to adopting healthy behaviors generated more interaction compared to posts containing program reminders (p social media initiatives to scale up health promotion efforts targeting this at-risk group.

  10. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, K.; White, C.; Thompson, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence.\\ud \\ud Design A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media.\\ud \\ud Participants Inclusion criteria were a...

  11. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of depression and anxiety (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Rie; Hoff, Andreas; Fisker, Jonas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Depression and anxiety are among the largest contributors to the global burden of disease and have negative effects on both the individual and society. Depression and anxiety are very likely to influence the individual's work ability, and up to 40% of the people on sick leave in Denmark have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the IBBIS (Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Anxiety and Depression) interventions is to improve and hasten the process of return to employment for people in Denmark on sick leave because of depression and anxiety. This three-arm, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial has been set up to investigate the effectiveness of the IBBIS mental health care intervention and the integrated IBBIS mental health care and IBBIS vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of depression and/or anxiety in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. A total of 603 patients will be recruited from Danish job centers in 4 municipalities and randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), stress symptoms (Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire), work and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), and register-based recurrent sickness absence. This study will provide new knowledge

  12. Depression associated with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered.

  13. The UPBEAT nurse-delivered personalized care intervention for people with coronary heart disease who report current chest pain and depression: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Barley

    Full Text Available Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT of a nurse-led personalised care intervention for primary care CHD patients with current chest pain and probable depression.Multi-centre, outcome assessor-blinded, randomized parallel group study. CHD patients reporting chest pain and scoring 8 or more on the HADS were randomized to personalized care (PC or treatment as usual (TAU for 6 months and followed for 1 year. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of procedures; secondary outcomes included mood, chest pain, functional status, well being and psychological process variables.1001 people from 17 General Practice CHD registers in South London consented to be contacted; out of 126 who were potentially eligible, 81 (35% female, mean age = 65 SD11 years were randomized. PC participants (n = 41 identified wide ranging problems to work on with nurse-case managers. Good acceptability and feasibility was indicated by low attrition (9%, high engagement and minimal nurse time used (mean/SD = 78/19 mins assessment, 125/91 mins telephone follow up. Both groups improved on all outcomes. The largest between group difference was in the proportion no longer reporting chest pain (PC 37% vs TAU 18%; mixed effects model OR 2.21 95% CI 0.69, 7.03. Some evidence was seen that self efficacy (mean scale increase of 2.5 vs 0.9 and illness perceptions (mean scale increase of 7.8 vs 2.5 had improved in PC vs TAU participants at 1 year. PC appeared to be more cost effective up to a QALY threshold of approximately £3,000.Trial and intervention procedures appeared to be feasible and acceptable. PC allowed patients to work on unaddressed problems and appears cheaper than TAU.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN21615909.

  14. Effectiveness of Pranayama on Depression in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of Pranayama in elderly is very important in day to day life. In case of mental health problem like depression, the availability of the source of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM like Pranayama helps to decrease depression. The aim of the review is to discuss the articles pertaining to pranayama on depression in elderly including both quantitative and qualitative studies published and unpublished and to review the related studies and other articles regarding effectiveness of pranayama on depression in elderly. The review was based on the studies conducted globally. Systematic searches were conducted on a range of databases, citations were sought from relevant reviews and several websites were also included in the search, including those of MIND and the Mental Health Foundation. MEDline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published from 2000 January to December 2013. Five independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report based on predefined inclusion criteria (study design and measure of depression. Individual effect sizes were standardized. Results of 87 abstracts reviewed, 7 results were not Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT, 36 Studies were excluded due to their intervention and other problems, 25 Studies were excluded due to their outcomes, 2 dissertations was excluded, 17 Full Text articles were assessed for eligibility, Exclusion of study reports through full text screening n=8 duplicated: editorial review article: 3 Did not meet inclusion criteria: 4 Incomplete information: 9 studies met inclusion criteria and were included for final review. Heterogeneity between studies was not explained by age or sex, but could be partly explained by the types of depression and assessments. Collaborative care interventions are more effective for depression in older people than usual care and are also of high value. Pranayama are effective component with depression.

  15. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pself-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  16. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L; Baldwin, Austin S; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Rethorst, Chad D

    2015-05-01

    People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms moderate the relations between exercise and same-day self-efficacy, and between self-efficacy and next-day exercise. Participants (n = 116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments for 4 weeks. Mixed linear models were used to test whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, (b) self-efficacy predicted next-day exercise, and (c) these relations were moderated by depressive symptoms. First, self-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was larger for people with high depressive symptoms (p self-efficacy than people with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p = .03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p = .34). Second, self-efficacy predicted greater odds of next-day exercise, OR = 1.12, 95% [1.04, 1.21], but depressive symptoms did not moderate this relation, OR = 1.00, 95% CI [.99, 1.01]. During exercise initiation, daily self-efficacy is more strongly related to exercise occurrence for people with high depressive symptoms than those with low depressive symptoms, but self-efficacy predicts next-day exercise regardless of depressive symptoms. The findings specify how depressive symptoms affect the relations between exercise and self-efficacy and underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in exercise interventions, particularly among people with depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Predictors of quality of life and depression in older people living in temporary houses 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xia; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Hong; Au, Alma; Guo, Hongxia

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we explored the predictors of quality of life and depressive features in older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China. Anonymous data were collected via questionnaires in a cross-sectional survey of 189 older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the earthquake. To explore the predictors of the outcomes of interest, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used. The results indicated that interests/hobbies, subjective support, and family function were positive predictors of quality of life, whereas instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms were its negative predictors. In addition, we found that a higher level of instrumental activities of daily living predicted a greater likelihood of depression. These results suggested that developing strategies to decrease the instrumental activities of daily living score of these people helps improve their quality of life and depression. To enhance the quality of life of these individuals, healthcare providers should also focus on developing their interests/hobbies and provide them with adequate social support, especially subjective support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Depression among family caregivers of community-dwelling older people who used services under the Long Term Care Insurance program: a large-scale population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yumiko; Kumamoto, Keigo; Mizuno, Yoko; Washio, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    To identify predictors for depression among family caregivers of community-dwelling older people under the Long Term Care Insurance (LTCI) program in Japan through a large-scale population-based survey. All 5938 older people with disabilities, using domiciliary services under the LTCI in the city of Toyama, and their family caregivers participated in this study. Caregiver depression was defined as scores of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Other caregiver measures included age, sex, hours spent caregiving, relationship to the care recipient, income adequacy, living arrangement, self-rated health, and work status. Care recipient measures included age, sex, level of functional disability, and severity of dementia. The data from 4128 pairs of the care recipients and their family caregivers were eligible for further analyses. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the predictors associated with being at risk of clinical depression (CES-D of ≥16). Overall, 34.2% of caregivers scored ≥16 on the CES-D. The independent predictors for depression by logistic regression analysis were six caregiver characteristics (female, income inadequacy, longer hours spent caregiving, worse subjective health, and co-residence with the care recipient) and one care-recipient characteristic (moderate dementia). This is one of the first population-based examinations of caregivers of older people who are enrolled in a national service system that provides affordable access to services. The results highlighted the importance of monitoring caregivers who manifest the identified predictors to attenuate caregiver depression at the population level under the LTCI.

  19. Vivencia de los cuidadores familiares de adultos mayores que sufren depresión Vivência dos cuidadores familiares de idosos que sofrem depressão The experience of family caregivers of older people with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angélica Muñoz González

    2010-03-01

    cuidado no processo de recuperação.The objective of the study was to understand how family caregivers experience the depression of older people in their care, within their cultural context. This is a qualitative study of ethnographic trajectory, performed using Spradley as the framework. The cultural universe consisted of relatives who performed the role of caregivers, who provided informed consent. Caregivers perceived the disease as a deep limitation on their way of living, involving loneliness, sadness and pity. The feelings of the depressed patients extend to the caregiver, who also faces the risk of suffering from depression. The responsibilities of caring also generate feelings of guilt that produce more suffering. Relatives recognize the onset of the disease, their attributes, the forms of treatment, and the social stigma associated with this mental disease and that they have a fundamental role in providing support and care in the recovery process.

  20. Getting it Right: Study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Maree L.; Hackett, Maree L.; Farnbach, Sara

    2016-01-01

    for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 €...years of age......© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol...

  1. Destroyed documents: uncovering the science that Imperial Tobacco Canada sought to conceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Chaiton, Michael; Lee, Alex; Collishaw, Neil

    2009-11-10

    In 1992, British American Tobacco had its Canadian affiliate, Imperial Tobacco Canada, destroy internal research documents that could expose the company to liability or embarrassment. Sixty of these destroyed documents were subsequently uncovered in British American Tobacco's files. Legal counsel for Imperial Tobacco Canada provided a list of 60 destroyed documents to British American Tobacco. Information in this list was used to search for copies of the documents in British American Tobacco files released through court disclosure. We reviewed and summarized this information. Imperial Tobacco destroyed documents that included evidence from scientific reviews prepared by British American Tobacco's researchers, as well as 47 original research studies, 35 of which examined the biological activity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. The documents also describe British American Tobacco research on cigarette modifications and toxic emissions, including the ways in which consumers adapted their smoking behaviour in response to these modifications. The documents also depict a comprehensive research program on the pharmacology of nicotine and the central role of nicotine in smoking behaviour. British American Tobacco scientists noted that ".. the present scale of the tobacco industry is largely dependent on the intensity and nature of the pharmacological action of nicotine," and that "... should nicotine become less attractive to smokers, the future of the tobacco industry would become less secure." The scientific evidence contained in the documents destroyed by Imperial Tobacco demonstrates that British American Tobacco had collected evidence that cigarette smoke was carcinogenic and addictive. The evidence that Imperial Tobacco sought to destroy had important implications for government regulation of tobacco.

  2. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein M Iversen

    Full Text Available To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin.948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A and depression (HADS-D. Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications.At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948 reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948 elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948 reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0-17, 541 participants (57% had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.96. Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.07. Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74.Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation.

  3. People and oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2015-01-01

    While technical knowledge of oaks, acorns, habitat, wildlife, and woodland environments is evolving and a sought-after field of study, there are profound linkages, at once humanistic and artistic, where it comes to people and oaks. Looking at six distinct facets of humans and oak woodlands, this essay suggests that the bonds of people to place can be mediated by the...

  4. A longitudinal population-based study exploring treatment utilization and suicidal ideation and behavior in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Hayley; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

    2012-12-10

    This study aimed to longitudinally examine the relationship between treatment utilization and suicidal behavior among people with major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (Wave 1: N=43,093; Wave 2: N=34,653). Suicidal and non-suicidal individuals at Wave 1 were compared based on subsequent treatment utilization. Suicidal behavior at Wave 2 was compared between people with major depressive disorder who had sought treatment at Wave 1 versus those that had not. Individuals with past year major depressive disorder at Wave 1 who attempted suicide were more likely to be hospitalized at follow up compared to non-suicidal people with major depressive disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=4.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.54-7.85]; however, they were not more likely to seek other forms of treatment. Among those with past year major depressive disorder who sought treatment at baseline, visiting an emergency room (AOR=3.08; 95% CI: 1.61-5.89) and being hospitalized (AOR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.13-5.14), was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting suicide within 3 years even after adjusting for mental disorder comorbidity, depression severity, and previous suicidal behavior. Unable to draw conclusions about completed suicide or adequacy of treatment. Suicidal behavior does not lead individuals with major depressive disorder to seek treatment with professionals or use antidepressant medications; instead, they are more likely to use emergency services. These findings suggest that treatment efforts for people with major depressive disorder who are suicidal need improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  11. Perspectives on depressive realism: implications for cognitive theory of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, D A; Beck, A T

    1995-01-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has provided a successful description of depressive thinking, with one major exception. The hypothesis that depressed people show biased negative thinking seems contradicted by research indicating that Ss scoring 9 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory were more accurate than their nondepressed counterparts in judging contingencies between their responses and outcomes, seemingly showing "depressive realism". Depressive realism research has attracted attention in numerous areas of psychology, along with critical commentary focused on such issues as whether realism is limited to mild depressive states, whether laboratory tasks are sufficient to document realism, and whether realism is a general characteristic of either depressed or nondepressed people. We analyze the main critiques and show how debates about depressive realism can be heuristic for refinement of cognitive theory of depression.

  12. Chronic Illnesses and Depressive Symptoms Among Older People: Functional Limitations as a Mediator and Self-Perceptions of Aging as a Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jina

    2017-05-01

    This research examined the mediation of functional limitations in the relationship between chronic illnesses and depressive symptoms among older Americans along with tests for the moderation of self-perceptions of aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (2008, 2010, and 2012) were used. Longitudinal mediation models were tested using a sample of 3,382 Americans who responded to psychosocial questions and were over 65 years old in 2008. Functional limitations mediated the linkage between chronic illnesses and depressive symptoms. Negative self-perceptions of aging exacerbated the effects of chronic illnesses on depressive symptoms. Health care professionals should be aware of depressive symptoms in older adults reporting chronic illnesses and particularly in those reporting functional limitations. To decrease the risk of depressive symptoms caused by chronic illnesses, negative self-perceptions of aging may need to be challenged.

  13. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  14. Screening and Treatment for Depression, Dementia, and Psychosis with Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION, DEMENTIA, AND PSYCHOSIS WITH PARKINSON DISEASE Depression, dementia, and psychosis are common in people with Parkinson disease. These conditions can affect how people with ...

  15. Can a brief biologically-based psychoeducational intervention reduce stigma and increase help-seeking intentions for depression in young people? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kerry A; Griffiths, Kathleen M; McKetin, Rebecca; Ma, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    There is disagreement in the literature as to whether biological attribution increases or decreases stigma. This study investigated the effect of an online biological intervention on stigma and help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. A three-arm, pre-post test, double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) was used to compare the effects of a biological and a psychosocial intervention delivered online. Participants comprised secondary school students (N = 327) aged 16-19 years. Outcome measures included anticipated self-stigma for depression (primary), personal stigma, help-seeking intention for depression, and biological and psychosocial attribution. Neither the biological nor the psychosocial educational intervention significantly reduced anticipated self-stigma or personal stigma for depression relative to the control. However, a small increase in help-seeking intention for depression relative to the control was found for the biological educational condition. The study was undertaken over a single session and it is unknown whether the intervention effect on help-seeking intentions was sustained or would translate into help-seeking behaviour. A brief online biological education intervention did not alter stigma, but did promote a small increase in help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. This type of intervention may be a practical means for facilitating help-seeking among adolescents with current or future depression treatment needs.

  16. Association of Depressive Symptoms with Lapses in Antiretroviral Medication Adherence Among People Living with HIV: A Test of an Indirect Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babowitch, Jacklyn D; Sheinfil, Alan Z; Woolf-King, Sarah E; Vanable, Peter A; Sweeney, Shannon M

    2018-03-23

    Viral suppression, a critical component of HIV care, is more likely when individuals initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in disease progression and maintain optimal levels of adherence to ART regimens. Although several studies have documented the negative association of depressive symptoms with ART adherence, less is known about how depressed mood relates to intentional versus unintentional lapses in adherence as well as the mechanisms underlying this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with ART adherence, assessed as a multidimensional construct. Secondarily, this study conducted preliminary indirect path models to determine if medication self-efficacy could explain the depressed mood-adherence relationship. Depressive symptoms were not associated with 95% ART taken, self-reported viral load, deliberate adjustments to ART regimens or skipped ART doses. However, the indirect association of depressive symptoms via decrements in medication self-efficacy was significant for 95% ART taken, self-reported viral load and skipped ART doses, but not deliberate changes to ART regimens. In this sample of HIV-positive outpatients, there is evidence to support medication self-efficacy as a potential mechanism underlying the association between depressive symptoms and ART adherence. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to formally examine medication taking self-efficacy as a mediator.

  17. Telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy targeting major depression among urban dwelling, low income people living with HIV/AIDS: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah; Maxfield, Jennifer; Dihmes, Sarah; Dixon, Lisa; Robinson, Charles; Potts, Wendy; Mohr, David C

    2013-10-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a previously developed manualized telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) intervention compared to face-to-face (f2f) therapy among low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamliton rating scale for depression scale. The secondary outcome was adherence to HAART as measured by random telephone based pill counts. Outcome measures were collected by trained research assistants masked to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Thirty-four participants met eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to receive T-CBT (n = 16) or f2f (n = 18). There was no statistically significant difference in depression treatment outcomes comparing f2f to T-CBT. Within group evaluation demonstrated that both the T-CBT and the f2f psychotherapy groups resulted in significant reductions in depressive symptoms. Those who received the T-CBT were significantly more likely to maintain their adherence to antiretroviral medication compared to the f2f treatment. None of the participants discontinued treatment due to adverse events. T-CBT can be delivered to low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals resulting in significant reductions in depression symptoms and improved adherence to antiretroviral medication. Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01055158.

  18. Association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide with cognitive function and depression in elderly people with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Feinkohl

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with risk of congestive heart failure (CHF, cognitive dysfunction and depression. CHF itself is linked both to poor cognition and depression. The ventricular N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is a marker of CHF, suggesting potential as a marker for cognitive impairment and/or depression. This was tested in the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS.Cross-sectional analysis of 1066 men and women aged 60-75 with type 2 diabetes. Results from seven neuropsychological tests were combined in a standardised general cognitive ability factor, 'g'. A vocabulary-based test estimated pre-morbid cognitive ability. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS assessed possible depression. After adjustment for age and sex, raised plasma NT-proBNP was weakly associated with lower 'g' and higher depression scores (ß -0.09, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.03, p = 0.004 and ß 0.08, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12, p0.05 for 'g'; β 0.03, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, p>0.05 for depression scores.Raised plasma NT-proBNP was weakly but statistically significantly associated with poorer cognitive function and depression. The prospective phases of the ET2DS will help determine whether or not NT-proBNP can be considered a risk marker for subsequent cognitive impairment and incident depression and whether it provides additional information over and above traditional risk factors for these conditions.

  19. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  20. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  1. The Concurrent Validity of Brief Screening Questions for Anxiety, Depression, Social Isolation, Catastrophization and Fear of Movement in People with Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Mirkhil, Saeida; Keating, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    (i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions.......(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions....

  2. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  3. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...

  4. Community Social Capital, Built Environment, and Income-Based Inequality in Depressive Symptoms Among Older People in Japan: An Ecological Study From the JAGES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Haseda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although reducing socioeconomic inequalities in depression is necessary, their associated factors have rarely been studied. This study aimed to screen the potential contextual factors associated with income-based inequality in older adults’ depression. Methods: Using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES of 2013, we conducted an ecological study covering 77 communities in Japan. Our measures of socioeconomic inequalities in depression were the slope index of inequalities (SII and the relative index of inequalities (RII of the prevalence of depressive symptoms across three income levels. We categorized available community-level factors, including socio-demographic factors, social participation, social relationships, subjective changes in the residential area, and the built environment. These indicators were aggregated from individual responses of 51,962 and 52,958 physically independent men and women, respectively, aged 65 years or more. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to explore factors with statistical significance of a two-tailed P-value less than 0.05. Results: Factors associated with shallower gradients in depression for men included higher participation in local activities and reception or provision of social support, which did not show significant association among women. Perceived increases in unemployment and economic inequalities were positively associated with larger inequalities in both genders (P < 0.05. The built environment did not indicate any significant association. Conclusions: A community environment fostering social activities and relationships might be associated with smaller income-based inequalities in depression. There is a need for more deterministic studies for planning of effective community interventions to address socioeconomic inequalities in depression.

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can ... to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  7. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobain, Bev

    This guide provides adolescents with information on depression. An introduction discusses symptoms of depression and lists famous people who were known to be depressed. Part 1, "What's Wrong," explores how it feels to be depressed, the causes and types of depression, and the connections between depression, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. A…

  8. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Treatment by Gender and Race/Ethnicity among People Living with HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Angela M; Pence, Brian W; Crane, Heidi M; Christopoulos, Katerina; Fredericksen, Rob J; Gaynes, Bradley N; Heine, Amy; Mathews, W Christopher; Moore, Richard; Napravnik, Sonia; Safren, Steven; Mugavero, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To describe disparities along the depression treatment cascade, from indication for antidepressant treatment to effective treatment, in HIV-infected individuals by gender and race/ethnicity. The Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes 31,000 HIV-infected adults in routine clinical care at 8 sites. Individuals were included in the analysis if they had a depressive symptoms measure within one month of establishing HIV care at a CNICS site. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Indication for antidepressant treatment was defined as PHQ-9 ≥ 10 or a current antidepressant prescription. Antidepressant treatment was defined as a current antidepressant prescription. Evidence-based antidepressant treatment was considered treatment changes based on a person's most recent PHQ-9, in accordance with clinical guidelines. We calculated the cumulative probability of moving through the depression treatment cascade within 24 months of entering CNICS HIV care. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between gender, race/ethnicity, and a range of depression outcomes. In our cohort of HIV-infected adults in routine care, 47% had an indication for antidepressant treatment. Significant drop-offs along the depression treatment cascade were seen for the entire study sample. However, important disparities existed. Women were more likely to have an indication for antidepressant treatment (HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.34, 1.78), receive antidepressant treatment (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.53, 2.69) and receive evidence-based antidepressant treatment (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.03, 2.74), even after accounting for race/ethnicity. Black non-Hispanics (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35, 0.65), Hispanics (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44, 0.89) and other race/ethnicities (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17, 0.73) were less likely to initiate antidepressant treatment, compared to white non-Hispanics. In our cohort

  9. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip

    2017-01-01

    -based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs......BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD......) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web...

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the detection of anxiety disorders in older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary; Patrick, Colin; Sullivan, Glenda; Cooray, Manisha; Chang, Catherina L

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of two self-administered anxiety rating scales in older people with COPD. The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are established useful screening tools but they have not been previously validated in this population. Older people with COPD completed the GAI and the HADS along with a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The outcomes of both rating scales were compared against the diagnosis of anxiety disorders based on the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the optimal diagnostic cut points for each scale. Fourteen (25.5%) of the 55 participants, were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Mean GAI and HADS-anxiety subscale scores were significantly higher in subjects with an anxiety disorder than those without the diagnosis (p = 0.002 and 0.005 respectively). Both scales demonstrated moderate diagnostic value (area under the ROC curve was 0.83 for GAI and 0.79 for HADS). Optimal cut points were ≥3 (GAI) and ≥4 (HADS-anxiety subscale). At these cut-points, the GAI had a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 78.0% and the HADS had a sensitivity of 78.6%, specificity 70.7%. Our results support the use of the GAI and HADS as screening instruments for anxiety disorders in older people with COPD. The optimal cut points in this population were lower than previously recommended for both rating scales. The results of this study should be replicated before these cut points can be recommended for general use in older people with COPD.

  11. One-year follow-up results of a randomized controlled clinical trial on internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression in people over 50 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Cuijpers, P.; Nyklicek, I.; Smits, N; Riper, H.; Keyzer, J.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new approach for the treatment of depressive symptoms. The current study had two aims: (1) to determine whether, after 1 year, an internet-based CBT intervention was more effective than a waiting-list control group; and (2)

  12. Physiological and cognitive mediators for the association between self-reported depressed mood and impaired choice stepping reaction time in older people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvelde, T.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Delbaere, K.; Close, J.C.; Lord, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to use path analysis to test a theoretical model proposing that the relationship between self-reported depressed mood and choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is mediated by psychoactive medication use, physiological performance, and cognitive ability.A total of

  13. Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ávila-Funes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880, were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003. Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional

  14. Conversion from depression to bipolar disorder in a cohort of young people in England, 1999-2011: A national record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony; Wotton, Clare J; Duffy, Anne; Hoang, Uy; Goldacre, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the conversion rate from unipolar depression (ICD10 codes F32-F33) to bipolar disorder (BP) (ICD10 codes F31) in an English national cohort. It was hypothesised that early-onset BP (age disorder, with a more rapid, and higher rate of conversion from depression to BP. This record linkage study used English national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) covering all NHS inpatient and day case admissions between 1999 and 2011. The overall rate of conversion from depression to BP for all ages was 5.65% (95% CI: 5.48-5.83) over a minimum 4-year follow-up period. The conversion rate from depression to BP increased in a linear manner with age from 10-14 years - 2.21% (95% C: 1.16-4.22) to 30-34 years - 7.06% (95% CI: 6.44-7.55) (F1,23=77.6, p=0.001, R(2)=0.77). The time to conversion was constant across the age range. The rate of conversion was higher in females (6.77%; 95% CI: 6.53-7.02) compared to males, (4.17%; 95% CI: 3.95-4.40) (χ(2)=194, pconversion rate from depression to bipolar disorder with age, and constant time for conversion across the age range does not support the notion that early-onset BP is a more severe form of the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient specific modelling in diagnosing depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a very common disease. Approximately 10% of people in the Western world experience severe depression during their lifetime and many more experience a mild form of depression. It is commonly believed that depression is caused by malfunctions in the biological system constituted...... by statistical hypothesis testing....

  16. Interpersonal mechanisms in recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth Henriëtte

    2005-01-01

    Depression is serious disease, also because of its recurrent nature. Many people who have become depressed once, will become depressed more often. Moreover, the risk of depression seems to increase with every further episode. These observations underline the importance of gaining a better

  17. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  18. Factors relating to depressive symptoms among elderly people with chronic vestibular dysfunction Fatores relacionados aos sintomas depressivos de idosos com disfunção vestibular crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Gazzola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors relating to depressive symptoms among elderly people with chronic vestibular dysfunction. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 120 elderly people with chronic vestibular dysfunction answered the Geriatric Depression Scale questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed (pOBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados aos sintomas depressivos de idosos com disfunção vestibular crônica. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, em que 120 idosos com disfunção vestibular crônica submeteram-se ao questionário Geriatric Depression Scale. Realizou-se análise de regressão linear multivariada (p<0,05 e IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram média de 12,86 ± 6,39 pontos no GDS, sendo que 67 idosos (55,8% pontuaram acima da nota de corte 11. O modelo preditivo para piora dos sintomas depressivos foi composto por gênero feminino, distúrbios de memória e da concentração, insônia, hipoacusia, visão péssima, não utilização de dispositivo de auxílio à marcha e maior impacto da tontura no aspecto emocional. CONCLUSÃO: O maior número de sintomas depressivos de idosos vestibulopatas crônicos está relacionado à presença de distúrbios de memória e da concentração, insônia, hipoacusia, visão péssima, maior impacto da tontura no aspecto emocional, gênero feminino e não utilização de dispositivo de auxílio à marcha.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of a senior centre group programme for increasing social support and preventing depression in elderly people living at home in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøen Hege

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In

  20. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yudai; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one's behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1) and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2). Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  1. Stuttering Thoughts: Negative Self-Referent Thinking Is Less Sensitive to Aversive Outcomes in People with Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudai Iijima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning theories of depression have proposed that depressive cognitions, such as negative thoughts with reference to oneself, can develop through a reinforcement learning mechanism. This negative self-reference is considered to be positively reinforced by rewarding experiences such as genuine support from others after negative self-disclosure, and negatively reinforced by avoidance of potential aversive situations. The learning account additionally predicts that negative self-reference would be maintained by an inability to adjust one’s behavior when negative self-reference no longer leads to such reward. To test this prediction, we designed an adapted version of the reversal-learning task. In this task, participants were reinforced to choose and engage in either negative or positive self-reference by probabilistic economic reward and punishment. Although participants were initially trained to choose negative self-reference, the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed to prompt a shift toward positive self-reference (Study 1 and a further shift toward negative self-reference (Study 2. Model-based computational analyses showed that depressive symptoms were associated with a low learning rate of negative self-reference, indicating a high level of reward expectancy for negative self-reference even after the contingency reversal. Furthermore, the difficulty in updating outcome predictions of negative self-reference was significantly associated with the extent to which one possesses negative self-images. These results suggest that difficulty in adjusting action-outcome estimates for negative self-reference increases the chance to be faced with negative aspects of self, which may result in depressive symptoms.

  2. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deady, Mark; Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat th...

  3. Do antidepressants increase the risk of mania and bipolar disorder in people with depression? A retrospective electronic case register cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rashmi; Reiss, Peter; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between antidepressant therapy and the later onset of mania/bipolar disorder.Design Retrospective cohort study using an anonymised electronic health record case register.Setting South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK.Participants 21 012 adults presenting to SLaM between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2013 with unipolar depression.Exposure Prior antidepres...

  4. Do other people's plights matter? A genetically informed twin study of the role of social context in the link between peer victimization and children's aggression and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2013-02-01

    Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others were children's close friends. The sample comprised 197 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reared together (95 female pairs) assessed in Grade 4. Each twin's victimization experiences and victimization experienced by his or her friends and other classmates were measured using individuals' reports about their own levels of peer victimization. Aggression was assessed using peer nominations, and depression was measured using self-reports. Indicative of a possible social-learning mechanism or the emotional contagion of anger, multilevel regressions showed that personal victimization experiences were related to especially high levels of aggression when close friends where also highly victimized, albeit only in boys. Moreover, in line with social comparison theory, the effect of frequent personal victimization experiences on depressive feelings was much weaker when close friends were also highly victimized than when close friends were not or were only rarely victimized. Finally, a high level of peer victimization experienced by other classmates was related to a lower level of aggression in girls and boys, possibly because of a heightened sense of threat in classrooms where many suffer attacks from bullies. All of these results were independent of children's genetic risk for aggression or depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  6. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., ear...

  7. When Reminiscence is Harmful: The Relationship Between Self-Negative Reminiscence Functions, Need Satisfaction, and Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly People from Cameroon, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-407 ISSN 1389-4978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P; GA ČR GA17-02634S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Reminiscence * Self-negative functions * Depression * Need satisfaction * Old age * Culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Cognitive sciences Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  8. Self-Predictions and Depressive Realism in Future Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Todd J.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that depressed people lack the optimistic bias evidenced by nondepressed persons and that the former may be more realistic in predicting the outcome of future events (depressive realism hypothesis). This study assesses the depressive realism hypothesis by comparing the accuracy of depressed and nondepressed people's…

  9. Mind the gap: Exploring information gaps for the development of an online resource hub for epilepsy and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Rachel E; Bell, Meaghan; Patten, Scott B; Wiebe, Samuel; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Bulloch, Andrew G; Macrodimitris, Sophia; Mackie, Aaron; Sauro, Khara M; Federico, Paolo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Depression is common in epilepsy, and is often under-detected and under-treated. The motivation to create a depression eHub for persons with epilepsy is to connect them to the best available online resources to effectively manage their depression. The study sought to: 1) identify facilitators and barriers to accessing resources related to management of epilepsy and/or depression and 2) discuss gaps in available resources (free and in the public domain) and 3) identify suggestions for future content. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten patients with epilepsy and a history of depression. Using inductive analysis, two team members engaged in a process of textual open-coding utilizing a conventional content analysis approach whereby content was conceptually clustered based on the research questions. A phenomenological framework was applied to describe the phenomenon of online health resource access and utilization from the perspective of people with epilepsy. Facilitators to the use of online resources included information credibility, thoughtful organization, and accessibility of resources. Barriers included difficulties finding and piecing together information from many different sites. Patients reported difficulty having the motivation to seek out resources while depressed, which was compounded by feelings of stigma, social isolation, and lack of control. Gaps in resources included a lack of information about living with epilepsy day-to-day and resources for family and friends. Suggested content included information to raise awareness about epilepsy and depression; questionnaires to screen for symptoms of depression; stories of other patients with epilepsy and depression via video or moderated forums; current research and news; local community resources; and tools and strategies to manage depression in epilepsy. There is a gap in accessible resources for patients with epilepsy and depression as well as barriers that include epilepsy

  10. Demographics and complaints of university students who sought help at a campus mental health service between 1987 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Lilian Coelho de; Dantas, Clarissa de Rosalmeida; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de; Banzato, Cláudio Eduardo Muller

    2008-01-02

    Client characterization is an important step in evaluating the services offered by campus counseling and mental health centers and in their further planning and development. The objectives here were to describe reported complaints and demographics among students who sought counseling/mental healthcare at a Brazilian campus mental health service over a 17-year period and to compare these characteristics with those of the general university student body. Retrospective study at the Psychological and Psychiatric Service for Students (SAPPE), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). The participants were all of the 2,194 students who sought counseling/mental health care at SAPPE from 1987 to 2004. Information was obtained from clients clinical charts. Unicamps database was consulted for general information on its students. The findings indicated overrepresentation, among the clients, of undergraduates, female students, students from Brazilian states other than São Paulo, students living in the campus residence hall and those whose main source of income was a scholarship grant. We also found overrepresentation of Humanities and Arts students among the clients. The most frequently reported complaints were difficulties in interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and poor academic performance. Course level (undergraduate or postgraduate), study field, living in a university residential facility and reliance on a scholarship grant were found to influence the behavior of seeking mental health counseling among Brazilian university students in this study. Course level was found to influence the pattern of complaints reported at first contact with the mental health service.

  11. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  12. Longitudinal relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  13. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... between post-MI depression and new cardiovascular events or death, taking potential mediators into account (Paper III); 4. To examine the association between MI and suicide (Paper IV). Two different study designs were employed: a population-based cohort study using data obtained from registers......Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...

  14. Demographics and complaints of university students who sought help at a campus mental health service between 1987 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lilian Coelho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Client characterization is an important step in evaluating the services offered by campus counseling and mental health centers and in their further planning and development. The objectives here were to describe reported complaints and demographics among students who sought counseling/mental healthcare at a Brazilian campus mental health service over a 17-year period and to compare these characteristics with those of the general university student body. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at the Psychological and Psychiatric Service for Students (SAPPE, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: The participants were all of the 2,194 students who sought counseling/mental health care at SAPPE from 1987 to 2004. Information was obtained from clients’ clinical charts. Unicamp’s database was consulted for general information on its students. RESULTS: The findings indicated overrepresentation, among the clients, of undergraduates, female students, students from Brazilian states other than São Paulo, students living in the campus residence hall and those whose main source of income was a scholarship grant. We also found overrepresentation of Humanities and Arts students among the clients. The most frequently reported complaints were difficulties in interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and poor academic performance. CONCLUSION: Course level (undergraduate or postgraduate, study field, living in a university residential facility and reliance on a scholarship grant were found to influence the behavior of seeking mental health counseling among Brazilian university students in this study. Course level was found to influence the pattern of complaints reported at first contact with the mental health service.

  15. A systematic review of evidence for fitness-to-drive among people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne M; So, Man H; Harries, Priscilla; O'Neill, Desmond

    2017-08-31

    Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as 'mental health conditions'). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving. A systematic search of three databases (CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE) was completed from inception to May 2016 to identify all articles on driving and mental health conditions. Papers meeting the eligibility criteria of including data relating to assessment of fitness-to-drive were critically appraised using the American Academy of Neurology and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine protocols. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria of driving among people with mental health conditions studied, and of these, 16 contained data and an explicit focus on assessment of fitness-to-drive. Assessment of fitness-to-drive was reported in three ways: 1) factors impacting on the ability to drive safely among people with mental health conditions, 2) capability and perception of health professionals assessing fitness-to-drive of people with mental health conditions, and 3) crash rates. The level of evidence of the published studies was low due to the absence of controls, and the inability to pool data from different diagnostic groups. Evidence supporting fitness-to-drive is conflicting. There is a relatively small literature in the area of driving with mental health conditions, and the overall quality of studies examining fitness-to-drive is low. Large-scale longitudinal studies with age-matched controls are urgently needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions on fitness-to-drive.

  16. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  17. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  18. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  19. Depressive Realism and Attributional Style: Implications for Individuals at Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael T.; Fresco, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research has found that depressed individuals are more realistic in their interpretations of certain events than nondepressed individuals. However, the implications of this finding for the etiology of depressive disorders have never been clarified. The current investigation sought to remedy this situation by exploring realism in the context…

  20. Knowledge of and attitudes toward clinical depression among health providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health

  1. Depressed gut? The microbiota-diet-inflammation trialogue in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Margreet; El Aidy, Sahar; Daniels, Judith

    Purpose of reviewAccording to the WHO reports, around 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Despite its high prevalence, the complex interaction of multiple mechanisms underlying depression still needs to be elucidated.Recent findingsOver the course of the last few years, several

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home ... 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. &#160; Watch on YouTube. Transcript RODOLFO : ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most, and how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep ... happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...

  10. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  11. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  12. The company you keep: Is socialising with higher-status people bad for mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample. We show that socialising with higher-status people is positively associated with depressive symptoms. There is no significant difference between those socialising with equivalent-status or with lower-status alters. Perceived unfairness also increase depressive symptoms. Respondents socialising with higher-status alters tend to report greater depressive symptoms as their perceived unfairness increases. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that the detrimental impact of status-discrepant relationships are observed for men only, not for women. These findings suggest that socialising with higher-status people can be a net detriment for mental wellbeing by increasing stress/frustration or decreasing psychological resources such as self-esteem, and that these effects are more pronounced for individuals who perceive that society is unfair. This pattern appears stronger for men, which might be associated with gender roles internalised through gender socialisation processes. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. Symptoms of depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS Síntomas de depresión y calidad de vida de personas viviendo con HIV/Sida Sintomas de depressão e qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karina Reis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 228 people living with HIV/AIDS in a municipality in the State of São Paulo during 2007 and 2008. The aims of this study were to investigate the intensity of the depressive symptoms in individuals with HIV/AIDS treated at two referral units in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, and to compare the quality of life with the different degrees of intensity of the depressive symptoms in these individuals, according to gender. Data were collected through individual interviews, using the Beck Depression Inventory and HIV/AIDS Targeted Quality of Life (HATQoL. A total of 63 (27.6% patients with symptoms of depression (mild, moderate and severe were detected. The women presented more severe symptoms of intensity of depression than men. Individuals with depressive symptoms presented lower scores of quality of life than individuals without these symptoms, with statistically significant differences between the means/medians in most domains of the HATQoL. Healthcare professionals should offer integral care for people with HIV/AIDS, emphasizing the depressive symptoms.Se trata de un estudio de corte transversal realizado en 228 personas viviendo con HIV/Sida en un municipio del estado de Sao Paulo, durante 2007 y 2008. Los objetivos fueron investigar la intensidad de los síntomas de depresión en individuos con HIV/Sida atendidos en dos unidades de referencia en Ribeirao Preto, SP, y comparar la calidad de vida con los diferentes grados de intensidad de los síntomas de depresión en esos individuos, según el género. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas individuales, utilizando el Inventario de Depresión de Beck y HIV/AIDS Targeted Quality of Life (HATQoL. Se detectaron 63 (27,6% individuos con síntomas de depresión (leve, moderado y grave. Las mujeres presentaron síntomas de intensidad más grave de depresión que los hombres. Individuos con síntomas depresivos presentaron menores puntajes de

  14. Metacognition and depressive realism: evidence for the level-of-depression account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Davalos, Deana B; Vázquez, Susana M

    2011-09-01

    Introduction. The present study examined the relationship between metacognition (i.e., "thinking about thinking") and depression. More specifically, the depressive realism hypothesis (Alloy & Abramson, 1979), which posits that depressed people have a more accurate view of reality than nondepressed people, was tested. Methods. Nondepressed, mildly depressed, and moderately depressed individuals predicted their memory performance by making judgements of learning after each studied item. These predictions were then compared with actual performance on a free recall task to assess calibration, an index of metacognitive accuracy. Results and conclusions. Consistent with the depressive realism hypothesis, mild depression was associated with better calibration than nondepression. However, this "sadder but wiser" phenomenon appears to only exist to point, as moderate depression and nondepression showed no calibration differences. Thus, the level-of-depression account of depressive realism is supported.

  15. Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Stigma Scale: examining the complex experience of stigma and its relationship with self-esteem and depression among people living with mental illness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andy H Y; Potash, Jordan S; Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Vania F L; Chen, Eric Y H; Lau, Robert H W; Au Yeung, Friendly S W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2015-01-01

    Stigma of mental illness is a global public health concern, but there lacks a standardized and cross-culturally validated instrument for assessing the complex experience of stigma among people living with mental illness (PLMI) in the Chinese context. This study examines the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Stigma Scale (CSS), and explores the relationships between stigma, self-esteem and depression. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a community sample of 114 Chinese PLMI in Hong Kong. Participants completed the CSS, the Chinese Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, the Chinese Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Chinese Patient Health Questionnaire-9. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the underlying factors of the CSS; concurrent validity assessment was performed via correlation analysis. The original 28-item three-factor structure of the Stigma Scale was found to be a poor fit to the data, whereas a revised 14-item three-factor model provided a good fit with all 14 items loaded significantly onto the original factors: discrimination, disclosure and positive aspects of mental illness. The revised model also displayed moderate to good internal consistency and good construct validity. Further findings revealed that the total stigma scale score and all three of its subscale scores correlated negatively with self-esteem; but only total stigma, discrimination and disclosure correlated positively with depression. The CSS is a short and user-friendly self-administrated questionnaire that proves valuable for understanding the multifaceted stigma experiences among PLMI as well as their impact on psychiatric recovery and community integration in Chinese communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulations Concerning the ‘Temporary Period’ in The New System Sought to be Established in Cyprus and Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp Tamçelik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, regulations concerning the ‘temporary period’ in the new system sought to be established in Cyprus and its properties have been addressed. From this point of view, as the main purpose of this research, the regulations required during the talks taking place between the parties in Cyprus before a federal state is established and how the institutions expected to fulfill these will be structured have been observed. As could be understood from its name, temporary period reflects a certain period and is the period assumed to continue in Cyprus until the formation envisioned to be established there is achieved. Therefore, it is also possible to call this period a ‘transition period’. Actually, the most consistent for-mula that could be brought forward towards this period seems to be the formula of ‘temporary joint administration based on the principle of equality’. This formula, which is important for providing the necessary element of trust for negotiation particularly on issues of territory and constitution and also for displaying whether or not the functional properties of the federal state to be established is based upon a true foundation, appears for now as the most realistic method. On the other hand, the regulations to be made during the temporary period will come into effect with the preparation of the Federal Constitution and the Electoral Law, installing federal bureaucracy, analyzing property claims, determining economic development and protective provisions, regulations regarding territorial adjustments and through Committees, formed by the two communities, in charge of preparing the activity programme. Before a Federal Republic is established, a new state of partnership will emerge after the ‘Temporary Regulations’ enter into force. This partnership will reveal itself as a new state system organized within a framework of a federation that consists of two communities from a constitutional aspect and of two

  17. Cognitive assessment of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Young, John; Meagher, David; MacLullich, Alasdair J

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Cognitive assessment involves examination of higher cortical functions, particularly memory, attention, orientation, language, executive function (planning activities), and praxis (sequencing of activities). This article will focus on cognitive assessment of older people (those aged over about 65 years) in the context of possible dementia, delirium, and depression. These are common and serious clinical syndromes affecting older people, and accurate cognit...

  18. Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Marie L D; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. Denmark. People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35 625), bipolar disorder (n = 9279), depression (n = 72 530) or personality disorder (n = 63 958). Treated SUDs of alcohol and illicit substances identified in treatment registers; suicide attempt identified in treatment registers; and completed suicides identified in the Cause of Death register. Covariates were sex and age at diagnosis. Having any SUD was associated with at least a threefold increased risk of completed suicide when compared with those having no SUD. Alcohol misuse was associated with an increased risk of completed suicide in all populations with hazard ratios (HR) between 1.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44-2.74] and 2.70 (95% CI = 2.40-3.04). Other illicit substances were associated with a two- to threefold risk increase of completed suicide in all populations except bipolar disorder, and cannabis was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide only in people with bipolar disorder (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-2.99). Alcohol and other illicit substances each displayed strong associations with attempted suicide, HR ranging from 3.11 (95% CI = 2.95-3.27) to 3.38 (95% CI = 3.24-3.53) and 2.13 (95% CI = 2.03-2.24) to 2.27 (95% CI = 2.12-2.43), respectively. Cannabis was associated with suicide attempts only in people with schizophrenia (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19). Substance use disorders are associated strongly with risk of completed suicides and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are associated with functional impairment in patients with bipolar disorder : Results of a large, multisite study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Post, Robert M.; Black, David O.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Kupka, Ralph W.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; McElroy, Susan L.; Walden, Joerg; Mintz, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of patients with unipolar depression have demonstrated a relationship between subthreshold depressive symptoms and impairment in role functioning. Research examining this relationship in persons with bipolar disorder is rare. This study sought to evaluate the association between

  20. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  1. Disseminating START: training clinical psychologists and admiral nurses as trainers in a psychosocial intervention for carers of people with dementia's depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathryn; Rapaport, Penny; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2017-08-21

    To put into practice and to evaluate an initial dissemination programme for the Strategies for Relatives (START), a clinically and cost-effective manualised intervention for family carers of people with dementia. We offered 3-hour 'train-the-trainer' sessions through the British Psychological Society and Dementia UK. Clinical psychologists and admiral nurses across the UK. After the training session, attendees completed an evaluation. Attendees were asked how they had implemented START 6 and 12 months later, and to participate in telephone interviews about their experiences of what helps or hinders implementation 1 year after training. We trained 134 clinical psychologists and 39 admiral nurses through 14 training sessions between October 2014 and September 2015 in nine UK locations and made materials available online. The 40 survey respondents had trained 75 other staff. By this time, 136 carers had received START across 11 service areas. Findings from 13 qualitative interviews indicated that some clinical psychologists had begun to implement START, facilitated by buy-in from colleagues, existing skills in delivering this type of intervention, availability of other staff to deliver the intervention and support from the research team. Admiral nurses did not supervise other staff and were unable to cascade the intervention. Where START has not been used, common barriers included lack of staff to deliver the intervention and family carer support not being a service priority. Participants wanted the training to be longer. We trained clinical psychologists and admiral nurses to deliver and implement START locally. Results from survey respondents show that it was cascaded further and used in practice in some areas, but we do not know whether START was implemented by non-respondents. Future dissemination requires management buy-in, availability of practitioners and supervisors and consideration of other ways of delivery. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  2. Stigma towards depression in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkevičius, Kasparas; Jaraitė, Goda

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. Depression is a common mental disorder, more than 300,000,000 people affected by this disease, which is either the leading cause of disability worldwide. Depression can be treated effectively, however, there are a lot of obstacles that can interfere with it. Stigma towards depression is one of causes leading to under-diagnosis and under-treatment. Aim. This study aims to describe the attitudes of general practitioners towards misleading statements about depression in Lithuania. ...

  3. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo

    OpenAIRE

    Xianyun Tian; Philip Batterham; Shuang Song; Xiaoxu Yao; Guang Yu

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China’s most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings wa...

  4. Depression (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... that may also cause depression. There are many medical conditions that can cause depression. Medical conditions that ...

  5. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  6. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  7. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...

  8. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  9. Collaborative care for depression in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Curth, Nadja Kehler; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common illness with great human costs and a significant burden on the public economy. Previous studies have indicated that collaborative care (CC) has a positive effect on symptoms when provided to people with depression, but CC has not yet been applied in a Danish...... context. We therefore developed a model for CC (the Collabri model) to treat people with depression in general practice in Denmark. Since systematic identification of patients is an “active ingredient” in CC and some literature suggests case finding as the best alternative to standard detection, the two...... detection methods are examined as part of the study. The aim is to investigate if treatment according to the Collabri model has an effect on depression symptoms when provided to people with depression in general practice in Denmark, and to examine if case finding is a better method to detect depression...

  10. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: Prospective changes following first depression onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081

  11. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  12. Maternal depression and anxiety among children with mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The investigation sought to examine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with mental health problems. Method: A case control design was employed and self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured in a group of women whose children were receiving mental health care, ...

  13. Network support, technology use, depression, and ART adherence among HIV-positive MSM of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, I W; Tan, D; Dunlap, S L; Palmer, L; Beougher, S; Cederbaum, J A

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. This relationship may be moderated by an individual's social network characteristics. Our study sought to examine social network correlates of treatment adherence among HIV-positive men recruited from social service agencies throughout Los Angeles County (N = 150) to inform technology-driven social support interventions for this population. We administered egocentric social network and computer-assisted survey interviews focused on demographic characteristics, health history, depressive symptoms, and ART adherence, where adherence was assessed by the number of reasons participants missed taking their medication, if ever. Significant univariate correlates of adherence were included in a multivariable regression analysis, where the moderating effect of having a network member who reminds participants to take their HIV medication on the relationship between depression and adherence was tested. Over 60% of participants reported clinically significant depressive symptoms; this was significantly associated with lower adherence among those without someone in their social network to remind them about taking their HIV medication, even after adjusting for covariates in an ordinary least squares regression (adjusted mean difference b = -1.61, SE = 0.42, p = 0.0003). Having a network member who reminds participants to take their ART medication significantly ameliorated the negative association between depression and treatment adherence, especially for those reporting greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.0394). Additionally, participants demonstrated high rates of technology use to communicate with social network members. In order to achieve the aims of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, innovative interventions addressing mental health to improve ART adherence are needed. Network strategies that leverage technology may be helpful for improving ART

  14. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xianyun; Batterham, Philip; Song, Shuang; Yao, Xiaoxu; Yu, Guang

    2018-04-16

    The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China's most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings was coded and analyzed to learn the themes of these postings, and a text classifier was built to identify the postings indicating depression. The identified depressed users were compared with the general population on demographic characteristics, diurnal patterns, and patterns of emoticon usage. We found that disclosure of depression was the most popular theme; depression displayers were more engaged with social media compared to non-depression displayers, the depression postings showed geographical variations, depression displayers tended to be active during periods of leisure and sleep, and depression displayers used negative emoticons more frequently than non-depression displayers. This study offers a broad picture of depression references on China's social media, which may be cost effectively developed to detect and help individuals who may suffer from depression disorders.

  15. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyun Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China’s most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings was coded and analyzed to learn the themes of these postings, and a text classifier was built to identify the postings indicating depression. The identified depressed users were compared with the general population on demographic characteristics, diurnal patterns, and patterns of emoticon usage. We found that disclosure of depression was the most popular theme; depression displayers were more engaged with social media compared to non-depression displayers, the depression postings showed geographical variations, depression displayers tended to be active during periods of leisure and sleep, and depression displayers used negative emoticons more frequently than non-depression displayers. This study offers a broad picture of depression references on China’s social media, which may be cost effectively developed to detect and help individuals who may suffer from depression disorders.

  16. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  17. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  18. Depressive realism: evidence from false interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the depressive realism hypothesis, which posits that depressed people are often more accurate in their perceptions and judgments than non-depressed people are. Each subject initially generated descriptions of others important to them, both positive and negative important others, in the pretest section, and 3 or 4 weeks later, some subjects were invited into the formal experiment to measure the accuracy of their perceptions in a pseudo-social interaction situation. A total of 52 patients diagnosed with clinical depression and 62 normal matched subjects participated in the experimental procedure. The results indicate that clinically depressed patients provided more accurate, less distorted descriptions of their positive important others than did those in the normal group. However, when information involved the negative important others, the results exhibited a trend, but these results did not provide significant support for the depressive realism hypothesis. The results support the depressive realism hypothesis when tasks involve subjects' own positive important others.

  19. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...

  20. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  1. Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Joanne D; McIntyre, Jason C; Bentall, Richard P; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2018-05-25

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with many maladaptive outcomes. This study sought to examine the association between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use using a cross-sectional sample of young adults aged 17-25 years (n = 1029). Specifically, we studied whether the relationship is mediated through (i) attachment anxiety, (ii) attachment avoidance, or (iii) both attachment dimensions operating in series with depressive symptoms. Results revealed that a history of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with more problematic social media use. Both anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions independently mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic use of social media, but in opposing directions. Avoidant attachment was associated with less problematic social media use, whilst anxious attachment was associated with more problematic social media use. Avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms in series accounted for part of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. Anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in series fully mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment may influence social media use directly, but also indirectly. People experiencing depressive symptoms may overuse social media in an attempt to alleviate their distress. However, causality cannot be established with the current design. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Costs of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the societal costs of major depressive disorder (MDD). Early-onset MDD is found to predict difficulties in subsequent role transitions, including low educational attainment, high risk of teen child-bearing, marital disruption, and unstable employment. Among people with specific social and productive roles, MDD is found to predict significant decrements in role functioning (e.g., low marital quality, low work performance, low earnings). MDD is also associated with elevated...

  3. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  4. Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-04-01

    It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Online Support Groups for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Breuer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the initial process of engagement with an online support group (OSG for depression. Fifteen British National Health Service patients experiencing depression who had not previously used an OSG for depression were offered facilitated access to an existing peer-to-peer OSG for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measures of depression, social support, and self-stigma were taken in addition to a weekly measure of OSG usage. A follow-up qualitative interview was conducted with a subsample of nine participants. Depression and self-stigma reduced over the 10-week period, but perceived social support did not change. There was no evidence of adverse outcomes. Perceived benefits of OSG participation included connection to others, normalization of depression, and stigma reduction. However, engagement with the OSG was generally low. Barriers included concerns over causing harm to others or being harmed oneself, feeling different from others in the group, and fears of being judged by others. OSGs may potentially reduce depressive symptoms and perceived self-stigma. However, considerable barriers may hinder people with depression from engaging with OSGs. Further work is needed to determine who will benefit most from participating in OSGs for depression and how best to facilitate engagement.

  6. 'First we go to the small doctor': First contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gautham (Meenakshi); E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground & objectives: Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1 st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India -

  7. 75 FR 28249 - Comment Sought on Measures Designed To Assist U.S. Wireless Consumers To Avoid “Bill Shock”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [CG Docket No. 09-158; DA 10-803] Comment Sought on Measures... Filing System (ECFS), through the Commission's Web site: http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ , or the Federal e...-mail. To get filing instructions, filers should send an e-mail to [email protected]fcc.gov , and include the...

  8. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  9. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals for help. With support and treatment, new mothers with depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. ... or two, talk to your doctor. A new mother who feels like giving up, who feels that life is not ... depression can last for several months or even longer ...

  10. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  11. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  12. Reiki for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Janine; Herbison, G Peter

    2015-04-03

    Anxiety and depression affect many people. Treatments do not have complete success and often require people to take drugs for long periods of time. Many people look for other treatments that may help. One of those is Reiki, a 2500 year old treatment described as a vibrational or subtle energy therapy, and is most commonly facilitated by light touch on or above the body. There have been reports of Reiki alleviating anxiety and depression, but no specific systematic review. To assess the effectiveness of Reiki for treating anxiety and depression in people aged 16 and over. Search of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL - all years), the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR - all years), EMBASE, (1974 to November 2014), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2014), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2014) and AMED (1985 to November 2014). Additional searches were carried out on the World Health Organization Trials Portal (ICTRP) together with ClinicalTrials.gov to identify any ongoing or unpublished studies. All searches were up to date as of 4 November 2014. Randomised trials in adults with anxiety or depression or both, with at least one arm treated with Reiki delivered by a trained Reiki practitioner. The two authors independently decided on inclusion/exclusion of studies and extracted data. A prior analysis plan had been specified but was not needed as the data were too sparse. We found three studies for inclusion in the review. One recruited males with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of non-metastatic prostate cancer who were not receiving chemotherapy and had elected to receive external-beam radiation therapy; the second study recruited community-living participants who were aged 55 years and older; the third study recruited university students.These studies included subgroups with anxiety and depression as defined by symptom scores and provided data separately for those subgroups. As this included only 25 people with

  13. Depressive realism and clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard C; Hollon, Steven D; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Depressive realism suggests that depressed individuals make more accurate judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts. However, most studies demonstrating this phenomenon were conducted in nonclinical samples. In this study, psychiatric patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder underestimated control in a contingent situation and were consistently more negative in their judgments than were nondepressed controls. Depressed patients were less likely than their nondepressed counterparts to overestimate control in a noncontingent situation, but largely because they perceived receiving less reinforcement. Depressed patients were no more likely to use the appropriate logical heuristic to generate their judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts and each appeared to rely on different primitive heuristics. Depressed patients were consistently more negative than their nondepressed counterparts and when they did appear to be more "accurate" in their judgments of control (as in the noncontingent situation) it was largely because they applied the wrong heuristic to less accurate information. These findings do not support the notion of depressive realism and suggest that depressed patients distort their judgments in a characteristically negative fashion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Depression Depression Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive ...

  16. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  17. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addic...

  18. What is sought from graphic designers? A first thematic analysis of job offers for graphic design positions in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti Dziobczenski, Paulo; Person, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    An empirically grounded understanding about which knowledge and skills that are sought from designers is missing for a number of professional subfields of design. This gap in research challenges i) design educators in planning their educational offerings and ii) design practitioners and students in articulating their contribution to clients and future employers. In this paper, we study the references that are made to knowledge and skills in job offers for graphic designers in UK. Based on a f...

  19. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792

  20. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1.

  1. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...

  4. Fixable or Fate? Perceptions of the Biology of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S.; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that biological (e.g., genetic, biochemical) accounts of depression--currently in ascendancy--are linked to the general public's pessimism about the syndrome's prognosis. This research examined for the first time whether people with depressive symptoms would associate biological accounts of depression with…

  5. Depressed gut? The microbiota-diet-inflammation trialogue in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Margreet; El Aidy, Sahar

    2017-09-01

    According to the WHO reports, around 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Despite its high prevalence, the complex interaction of multiple mechanisms underlying depression still needs to be elucidated. Over the course of the last few years, several neurobiological alterations have been linked to the development and maintenance of depression. One basic process that seems to link many of these findings is inflammation. Chronic inflammation has been associated with both biological factors such as excessive neurotransmitter concentrations as well as psychological processes such as adult stress reactivity and a history of childhood trauma. As a balanced microbial community, modulated by diet, is a key regulator of the host physiology, it seems likely that gut microbiota plays a role in depression. The review summarizes the existent literature on this emerging research field and provides a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted links between the microbiota, diet, and depression. Several pathways linking early life trauma, pharmacological treatment effects, and nutrition to the microbiome in depression are described aiming to foster the psychotherapeutic treatment of depressed patients by interventions targeting the microbiota.

  6. Prevalence of depression and socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: Various studies across the world have shown that depression is of high prevalence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and that it has lots of adverse effects on them. Diagnosis of depression among this group of people is however still very low in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly at primary ...

  7. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood gr