Sample records for souffia muticellus bonaparte

  1. [Death of Napoleon Bonaparte]. (United States)

    Camici, M


    The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.

  2. [The fatal disease of Napoleon Bonaparte]. (United States)

    Espinoza, R; González, C


    Napoleon Bonaparte, soldier, general and emperor, desired the European union. He abdicated twice and in 1814 was confined to Santa Helena island. From the biographic description of bis last exile, we have extracted a description of the disease that lead him to die. We postulate that he had a gastric lymphoma.

  3. Bonaparte: Application of new software for missing persons program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, C.J.J.; Slooten, K.; Slagter, M.; Burgers, W.; Wiegerinck, W.


    The Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), together with SNN at Radboud University Nijmegen, have developed new software for pedigree matching which can handle autosomal, Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA profiles. Initially this software, called Bonaparte, has been developed for DNA DVI. Bonaparte

  4. Napoléon Bonaparte, une vie comme un roman...


    Pernot, François


    Napoléon Bonaparte est né le 15 août 1769 à Ajaccio, en Corse. En 1796, l’Angleterre et l’Autriche sont en guerre contre la France et Bonaparte prend la tête de l’armée d’Italie pour aller attaquer les Autrichiens qu’il bat à Lodi, Arcole et Rivoli. Quant à l’Angleterre, il décide de l’attaquer en Égypte pour couper les routes commerciales vers les colonies anglaises des Indes. En 1798, Bonaparte gagne donc l’Égypte avec une armée, mais aussi des savants chargés d’étudier le pays. Cependant, ...

  5. [Egyptian medicine at the time of Bonaparte's expeditionary force]. (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François


    When the civils of the Commission for Sciences and Arts and the doctors from Bonaparte's expeditionary forces under Desgenettes and Larrey's orders arrived in Egypt, they described richly the state of medecine and surgery, the therapeutical knowledges and the medical organisation of the conquered land. They were surprised at first and desappointed to see how poorly Herophile and Ibn-An-Nafis' "Art of Healing" was considered. However they quickly managed to extract its most original qualities - in particular in the pharmacopoeia--all the more because the loss of the hospital-ships and Aboukir's defeat forced them to stay in Egypt and to find there the remedies they were lacking of.

  6. International interest in the BONAPARTE measurement bench. Post-irradiation examination of lower-enriched fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN has developed a measurement bench (BONAPARTE) for the non-destructive analysis on fuel plate and rod type fuel elements. BONAPARTE is a modular device that can be employed for many purposes. The article discusses the employment of the BONAPARTE device for the accurate full post-irradiation mapping of fuel plate swelling with degree of precision of just a few micrometers.


    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro


    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.

  8. Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte: did he have seizures? Psychogenic or epileptic or both? (United States)

    Hughes, John R


    Napoleon Bonaparte was a general in the French army at 24 years of age, later conquering most of Europe. He was one of the greatest military geniuses the world has ever known, but also an extremely intelligent individual. Did he have seizures? The evidence shows that he had both psychogenic and epileptic attacks. The psychogenic attacks were likely related to the tremendous stress in his life, and the epileptic seizures were the result of chronic uremia from a severe urethral stricture caused by gonorrhea that was transmitted from his wife, Empress Josephine.

  9. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  10. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail:; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail:; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  11. Late quaternary stratigraphy and sedimentology of the inner part of southwest Joseph Bonaparte Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.D.A.


    Joseph Bonaparte Gulf is a large embayment on the northwestern continental margin of Australia. It is approximately 300 km east-west and 120 km north-south with a broad continental shelf to seaward. Maximum width from the southernmost shore of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf to the edge of the continental shelf is 560 km. Several large rivers enter the gulf along its shores. The climate is monsoonal. sub-humid, and cyclone-prone during the December-March wet season. A bedrock high (Sahul Rise) rims the shelf margin. The sediments within the gulf are carbonates to seaward, grading into clastics inshore. A seaward-thinning wedge of highstand muds dominates the sediments of the inner shelf of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. Mud banks up to 15m thick have developed inshore. Coarse-grained sand ridges up to 15m high are found off the mouth of the Ord River. These overlie an Upper Pleistocene transgressive lag of mixed carbonate and gravelly siliciclastic sand. Four drowned strandlines are present on the inner shelf at depths of 20, 25, 28 and 30 m below datum. These are interpreted as having formed during stillstands in the Late Pleistocene transgression. Older strandlines at great depths are inferred as having formed during the fall in sea-level following the last highstand. For the most part the Upper Pleistocene-Holocene marine sediments overlie an erosion surface cut into older Pleistocene sediments. Incised valleys cut into this erosion surface are up to 5 km wide and have a relief of at least 20 m. The largest valley is that cut by the Ord River. Upper Pleistocene sediments deposited in the incised valleys include interpreted lowstand fluvial gravels, early transgressive channel sands and floodplain silts, and late transgressive estuarine sands and gravels. Spot samples were collected and subjected to 14 C dating, x-ray diffraction and palynological studies. Older Pleistocene sediments are inferred to have been deposited before and during the 120 ka highstand (isotope stage 5). They

  12. Activation analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte confirm arsenic poisoning. (United States)

    Weider, B; Fournier, J H


    In 1960, activation analyses at the Harwell Nuclear Research Laboratory of the University of Glascow, London of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte taken immediately after his death confirmed Napoleon's chronic arsenic poisoning on the island of St. Helena. Timeline correlation of his clinical symptomatology of the preceding 4 months, as reported in the written diaries of his exiled companions, further supports the effect of fluctuating, elevated toxic levels of arsenic on his health. Independent analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon by the Toxicology Crime Laboratory of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1995 reveals toxic levels of arsenic. The successful assassination of Napoleon included both a cosmetic and lethal phase. The cosmetic phase consisted of arsenic poisoning over time to weaken Napoleon, making the associated debility appear to be a natural illness and thus allay any suspicions prior to instituting the lethal phase. On May 3, 1821, at 5:30 P.M., the lethal phase was carried out. Napoleon was given Calomel (HgCl), a cathartic, and a popular orange-flavored drink called orgeat, which was flavored with the oil of bitter almonds. Together they formed mercury cyanide, which is lethal. Napoleon lost consciousness and died two days later.

  13. Napoleon Bonaparte's gastric cancer: a clinicopathologic approach to staging, pathogenesis, and etiology. (United States)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti; Singer, Gad; Kopp Lugli, Andrea; Terracciano, Luigi M; Genta, Robert M


    Numerous hypotheses on the cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death have been proposed, including hereditary gastric cancer, arsenic poisoning, and inappropriate medical treatment. We aimed to determine the etiology and pathogenesis of Napoleon's illness by a comparison of historical information with current clinicopathologic knowledge. Evaluation of Napoleon's clinical history, original autopsy reports, and of historical documents. The clinicopathologic data from 135 gastric cancer patients were used for comparison with the data available on Napoleon. At least T3N1M0 (stage IIIA) gastric cancer. Napoleon's tumor extended from the cardia to the pylorus (>10 cm) without infiltration of adjacent structures, which provides strong evidence for at least stage T3. The N1 stage was determined by the presence of several enlarged and hardened regional (perigastric) lymph nodes, and the M0 stage by the absence of distant metastasis. Analysis of the available historical documents indicates that Napoleon's main risk factor might have been Helicobacter pylori infection rather than a familial predisposition. Our analysis suggests that Napoleon's illness was a sporadic gastric carcinoma of advanced stage. Patients with such tumors have a notoriously poor prognosis.

  14. The medical mystery of Napoleon Bonaparte: an interdisciplinary exposé. (United States)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Corso, Philip E; di Costanzo, Jacques; Dirnhofer, Richard; Fiorini, Ettore; Herborg, Costanza; Hindmarsh, John Thomas; Orvini, Edoardo; Piazzoli, Adalberto; Previtali, Ezio; Santagostino, Angela; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M


    Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 to 1821) is one of the most studied historical figures in European history. Not surprisingly, amongst the many mysteries still surrounding his person is the cause of his death, and particularly the suspicion that he was poisoned, continue to intrigue medical historians. After the defeat of the Napoleonic Army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to the small island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died 6 years later. Although his personal physician, Dr François Carlo Antommarchi, stated in his autopsy report that stomach cancer was the cause of death, this diagnosis was challenged in 1961 by the finding of an elevated arsenic concentration in one of Napoleon's hair samples. At that time it was suggested that Napoleon had been poisoned by one of his companions in exile who was allegedly supported by the British Government. Since then Napoleon's cause of death continues to be a topic of debate. The aim of this review is to use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a systematic and critical assessment of Napoleon's cause of death.

  15. A diverse assemblage of reef corals thriving in a dynamic intertidal reef setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia.

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    Zoe T Richards

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of reef-building corals to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of coral reefs. Reef corals are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, corals can be seen thriving in unusually harsh reef settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of coral reefs. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard corals occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity with those experienced at four other more typical tropical reef locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs, prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what corals may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, coral predator and disease outbreaks and coral bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for coral survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution.

  16. Computerized content analysis of some adolescent writings of Napoleon Bonaparte: a test of the validity of the method. (United States)

    Gottschalk, Louis A; DeFrancisco, Don; Bechtel, Robert J


    The aim of this study was to test the validity of a computer software program previously demonstrated to be capable of making DSM-IV neuropsychiatric diagnoses from the content analysis of speech or verbal texts. In this report, the computer program was applied to three personal writings of Napoleon Bonaparte when he was 12 to 16 years of age. The accuracy of the neuropsychiatric evaluations derived from the computerized content analysis of these writings of Napoleon was independently corroborated by two biographers who have described pertinent details concerning his life situations, moods, and other emotional reactions during this adolescent period of his life. The relevance of this type of computer technology to psychohistorical research and clinical psychiatry is suggested.

  17. Macroscopy predicts tumor progression in gastric cancer: A retrospective patho-historical analysis based on Napoleon Bonaparte's autopsy report. (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Novotny, Alexander; Becker, Karen; Reim, Daniel; Langer, Rupert; Gullo, Irene; Svrcek, Magali; Niess, Jan H; Tutuian, Radu; Truninger, Kaspar; Diamantis, Ioannis; Blank, Annika; Zlobec, Inti; Riddell, Robert H; Carneiro, Fatima; Fléjou, Jean-François; Genta, Robert M; Lugli, Alessandro


    The cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death remains controversial. Originally suggested to be gastric cancer, whether this was truly neoplastic or a benign lesion has been recently debated. To interpret findings of original autopsy reports in light of the current knowledge of gastric cancer and to highlight the significance of accurate macroscopy in modern-day medicine. Using original autopsy documents, endoscopic images and data from current literature, Napoleon's gastric situation was reconstructed. In a multicenter collection of 2071 gastric cancer specimens, the relationship between tumor size and features of tumor progression was assessed. Greater tumor size was associated with advanced pT, nodal metastases and Borrmann types 3-4 (pNapoleon's autopsy with present-day knowledge to support gastric cancer as his terminal illness and emphasizes the role of macroscopy, which may provide valuable information on gastric cancer progression and aid patient management. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Total meltwater volume since the Last Glacial Maximum and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle inferred from relative sea level changes at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf and GIA-induced J˙2 (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke


    Inference of globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) highly depends on the interpretation of relative sea level (RSL) observations at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, which are sensitive to the viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Here we examine the RSL changes at the LGM for Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}), differential RSL for both sites (Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}}) and rate of change of degree-two harmonics of Earth's geopotential due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process (GIA-induced J˙2) to infer the ESL component and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Differential RSL, Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} and GIA-induced J˙2 are dominantly sensitive to the lower-mantle viscosity, and nearly insensitive to the upper-mantle rheological structure and GIA ice models with an ESL component of about (120-130) m. The comparison between the predicted and observationally derived Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} indicates the lower-mantle viscosity higher than ˜2 × 1022 Pa s, and the observationally derived GIA-induced J˙2 of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 indicates two permissible solutions for the lower mantle, ˜1022 and (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. That is, the effective lower-mantle viscosity inferred from these two observational constraints is (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The LGM RSL changes at both sites, {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}, are also sensitive to the ESL component and upper-mantle viscosity as well as the lower-mantle viscosity. The permissible upper-mantle viscosity increases with decreasing ESL component due to the sensitivity of the LGM sea level at Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}) to the upper-mantle viscosity, and inferred upper-mantle viscosity for adopted lithospheric thicknesses of 65 and 100 km is (1-3) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜130 m and (4-10) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜125 m. The former solution of (1-3) × 1020

  19. Napoléon Bonaparte, Correspondance générale, publiée par la Fondation Napoléon, Tome cinquième : Boulogne, Trafalgar, Austerlitz, 1805


    Oliveira, Matthieu de


    La publication, initiée en 2002 par la Fondation Napoléon, d’une nouvelle édition de la correspondance de Napoléon Bonaparte, en intégrant une masse considérable de lettres inédites, se poursuit avec ce cinquième tome. Les tomes II (La campagne d’Égypte et l’avènement, 1798-1799) et III (Pacifications, 1800-1802) ayant déjà fait l’objet de recensions dans les colonnes des AHRF (respectivement aux numéros 346 d’octobre-décembre 2006 et 248 d’avril-juin 2007), on se dispensera de présenter les ...

  20. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

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    Giannetto D.


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  1. Le Dix-huit Brumaire de Napoléon Bonaparte : retour sur un coup d'État [Review of: P. Gueniffey. Le Dix-huit Brumaire : l’épilogue de la Révolution française, 9-10 novembre 1799

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdan, A.


    Patrice Gueniffey propose une nouvelle histoire du Dix-huit Brumaire, coup d’État par lequel Napoléon Bonaparte prit le pouvoir le 9 novembre 1799. Il voit dans cet évènement « une manière un peu tendue de résoudre les crises graves de l’État » et dresse un parallèle avec la journée du 13 mai 1958

  2. Napoleon Bonaparte's exposure to arsenic during 1816. (United States)

    Leslie, A C; Smith, H


    Analysis of hair from Napoleon showed that he was exposed to considerable amounts of arsenic during 1816. The distribution pattern of the arsenic in the hair is similar to that found after the daily ingestion of excessive amounts of arsenic.

  3. Ancient connections among the European rivers and watersheds revealed from the evolutionary history of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii; Cypriniformes.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence

  4. Ancient connections among the European rivers and watersheds revealed from the evolutionary history of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii; Cypriniformes) (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Šanda, Radek; Geiger, Matthias F.; Freyhof, Jörg; Machordom, Annie; Vukić, Jasna


    In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence of their old origin

  5. Aasta parim catering-firma le Bonaparte / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedmosti : Vkus zhizni, 27. okt. 2004, lk. 14-15. Äripäev ja Pernod Ricard Estonia viisid läbi parima catering-firma konkursi. Lisa: 200 krooni eest saab piisavalt süüa. Kommenteerib Imre Kose


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    Viviane Santos Salazar


    more competitive than Brazil. What are the advantages of entering this market? The case is intended for use at the undergraduate level, after or at the same time as basic strategic internationalization in business administration or marketing courses. It is especially recommended for sessions in which international strategies, marketing services, growth strategies, competitive advantage and entrepreneurship are being discussed.


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    Eric ANCEAU


    Full Text Available S’il est donc impossible de nier l’importance de l’occupation française en Égypte, les interprétations divergent. Il importe de faire la part des choses pour en dégagerles tenants et les aboutissants. Pour essayer d’y parvenir, nous présenterons les faits en cinq temps: les origines de l’expédition, l’expédition elle-même et la conquête, l’installation de l’administration française, les rêves et les désillusions des Français et, pour terminer, la fin de l’occupation et sa postérité.

  8. Systematics of the subfamily Poeciliinae Bonaparte (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, with an emphasis on the tribe Cnesterodontini Hubbs

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    Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda

    Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.

  9. The education revolution on horseback I : The relation between Napoleon Bonaparte and education system characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, R.A.


    Much research has been done into the emergence of mass education systems, primarily by studying the social origin of the education system, the introduction of compulsory schooling laws, or the expansion of enrolment rates. However, little is known about the origin of the characteristics of these

  10. The education revolution on horseback I: The relation between Napoleon Bonaparte and education system characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, Roxanne


    Much research has been done into the emergence of mass education systems, primarily by studying the social origin of the education system, the introduction of compulsory schooling laws, or the expansion of enrolment rates. However, little is known about the origin of the characteristics of these

  11. A Breakfast for Bonaparte: U.S. National Security Interests from the Heights of Abraham to the Nuclear Age (United States)


    of them try to outdo the Rockefellers in philanthropy . America has been rich in the passion for social betterment-that is, for grace achieved by be heady work. The tiny intellectual and political elite of the frontier community rose to the occasion brilliantly, goaded on by the confrontation...troopers and their elite com- ponent, the S.S., in black uniforms and caps decorated with the skull and crossbones, became familiar in Germany early in the

  12. Scardinius knezevici Bianco & Kottelat, 2005 and Alburnus scoranza Bonaparte, 1845: New species of ichthyofauna of Serbia and the Danube basin

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    Simić V.


    Full Text Available Research into the ichthyofauna of the Vlasina Lake reservoir in south Serbia, which is part of the Danube basin, was carried out in 1993, 40 years after its formation. The results of the research reveal the presence of several species of fish belonging to the Adriatic and Aegean basin, such as Alburnus albidus, Rutilus basak, Scardinius graecus and Pachychilon macedonicus. These findings are of great importance from the aspect of conservation, because the species Scardinius graecus and Alburnus albidus are on the European list of endangered fish species. In the latest study of the Vlasina Lake reservoir ichthyofauna (70 years after its formation, the above-mentioned species were not found. However, the presence of naturalized populations of two species from the Adriatic basin were confirmed: Scardinius knezevici and Alburnus scoranza. These findings represent the first known areal expansion of these species, which are new to the ichthyofauna of Serbia, from the Adriatic into the Danube (Black Sea basin.[Acknowledgments. The present work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Projects No. 43002 and 173025.

  13. Napoleon Bonaparte and the fate of an Amazonian rat: new data on the taxonomy of Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Cuisin, Jacques; Patton, James L; Hänni, Catherine; Catzeflis, François


    The spiny rat Mesomys hispidus is one of many South American rodents that lack adequate taxonomic definition. The few sampled populations of this broadly distributed trans-Amazonian arboreal rat have come from widely separated regions and are typically highly divergent. The holotype was described in 1817 by A.-G. Desmarest, after Napoleon's army brought it to Paris following the plunder of Lisbon in 1808; however, the locality of origin has remained unknown. Here we examine the taxonomic status of this species by direct comparison of 50 extant individuals with the holotype at the morphometric and genetic levels, the latter based on 331 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene retrieved from a small skin fragment of the holotype with ancient DNA technology. Extensive sequence divergence is present among samples of M. hispidus collected from throughout its range, from French Guiana across Amazonia to Bolivia and Peru, with at least seven mitochondrial clades recognized (average divergence of 7.7% Kimura 2-parameter distance). Sequence from the holotype is, however, only weakly divergent from those of recent samples from French Guiana. Moreover, the holotype clusters with greater that 99% posterior probability with samples from this part of Amazonia in a discriminant analysis based on 22 cranial and dental measurements. Thus, we suggest that the holotype was originally obtained in eastern Amazonia north of the Amazon River, most likely in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Despite the high level of sequence diversity and marked morphological differences in size across the range of M. hispidus, we continue to regard this assemblage as a single species until additional samples and analyses suggest otherwise. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  14. Bone histology sheds light on the nature of the "dermal armor" of the enigmatic sauropod dinosaur Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte, 1999 (United States)

    Bellardini, Flavio; Cerda, Ignacio A.


    Agustinia ligabuei is an Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur from the northwest of Patagonia that is currently the topic of debate with respect to its phylogenetic position and atypical dermal armor. The presence of four morphotypes of laminar and transversely elongated putative osteoderms was used to consider Agustinia as an armored sauropod. Regarding the different hypotheses about the identity of the bony structures of Agustinia (e.g., osteoderms, cervical or dorsal ribs, hypertrophied elements), a comparative histological analysis has been carried out. Histological evidence is presented herein and reveals that none of the morphotypes of Agustinia shows a primary bone tissue formed by structural fiber bundles as in other sauropod dinosaur osteoderms. Furthermore, on the basis of their gross morphology and microstructure, the bony structures originally classified as types 1 + 4 and 3 are more comparable respectively with dorsal and cervical ribs than any other kind of dermal or bony element. Due to poor preservation, the nature of the type 2 cannot be assessed but is here tentatively assigned to a pelvic girdle element. Although a phylogenetic reassessment of Agustinia is not the purpose of this paper, our paleohistological analyses have broader implications: by not supporting the dermal armor hypothesis for Agustinia, its inclusion in Lithostrotia is not justified in the absence of other diagnostic features.

  15. New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications

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    Marina B. Soares


    Full Text Available The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence. The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia.O triteledontídeo Riograndia guiabensis foi o primeiro cinodonte descrito para a fauna da "Formação Caturrita" do Triássico Superior do sul do Brasil (Sequência Santa Maria 2. Os materiais da série-tipo não forneceram informações anatômicas relativas à caixa craniana, ociput, basicrânio, arco zigomático, ossos pós-dentários e articulação crânio-mandibular. Neste artigo são descritos novos materiais que suprem as informações anatômicas não contempladas anteriormente. Riograndia apresenta um conjunto de importantes aspectos anatômicos derivados dentre os eucinodontes não-mammaliaformes, tais como fechamento parcial da parede orbital medial e da caixa craniana, extenso palato ósseo secundário, palato primário alargado, basicrânio com separação do forame jugular e da fenestra rotunda, arco zigomático estreito e ossos pós-dentários extremamente reduzidos. Muitas destas feições constituem sinapomorfias compartilhadas somente com os demais membros do clado Mammaliamorpha. Assim, as praticamente completas informações crânio-mandibulares e dentárias de Riograndia trazem uma significante contribuição ao conhecimento da anatomia dos triteledontídeos e suas relações filogenéticas e auxiliam na elucidação sobre os passos transformacionais envolvidos na transição cinodonte-mamífero. Adicionalmente, Riograndia figura como um táxon-chave no refinamento bioestratigráfico da "Formação Caturrita", através da integração de vários afloramentos fossilíferos os quais apresentam uma rica fauna de tetrápodes que pode ser correlacionada com outras faunas triássicas do Gondwana e da Laurásia.

  16. [Turning points in world history: urological comments on pathography of famous people: did Napoleon Bonaparte have a cystitis during the battle of Waterloo and was the battle lost because of that?]. (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Haferkamp, A


    Apparently unimportant diseases of some prominent figures can have a considerable effect on the course of time at turning points in world history. It is quite conceivable that the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 had been lost by France because Napoleon was not in full possession of his powers, because he was suffering from acute cystitis. Adverse weather conditions with continuous rain and coldness in advance of the battle, extremely primitive hygienic conditions and more than simple quarters for the night led to the development of cystitis. Based on the records of his biographers, his personal physician and the letters to his brother, we know that Napoleon was not able to give the command to attack in the early morning as intended, but in the early noon, only because of his bad general condition. This delay of several hours led, as we all know, to the intervention of Prussia and the devastating defeat of France. Thus it appears that a relatively unimportant urological disease influenced the course of world history crucially.

  17. Operational Initiative in Theory and Doctrine (United States)


    in terms of the offense. French General Pierre-Joseph de Bourcet, Napoleon Bonaparte , US Colonel Gustave Fiebeger, and Sun Tzu described initiative...1994), vii. 42 Napoleon Bonaparte , Napoleon’s Maxims of War, trans. George Charles D’Aguilar (Richmond, VA: West & Johnson, 1862), 10. 43...Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine: 1860- 1941. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1998. Bonaparte , Napoleon . Napoleon’s

  18. French Counterinsurgency (COIN) Efforts in Spain During the Napoleonic Era - A Modern Analysis Through the Lens of the Principles of COIN In US Joint Doctrine (United States)


    the time of Napoleon ???s actions in Spain. At the conclusion of the research, the key findings were of no surprise. Napoleon , King Joseph Bonaparte ...were of no surprise. Napoleon , King Joseph Bonaparte , and his commanders in the field failed to grasp the sociocultural issues motivating the...exile on St. Helena, Napoleon Bonaparte contemplated on how he came to be on this remote island in the Atlantic Ocean after dominating all of Europe

  19. The Trial of Napoleon: A Case Study for Using Mock Trials. (United States)

    MacKay, Charles


    Describes a course entitled "The Trial of Napoleon Bonaparte" that focuses on a fictitious mock trial of Napoleon Bonaparte to answer the question: did Napoleon pervert or preserve the gain of the French Revolution? Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the course. (CMK)

  20. The Engine of Change: The Evolution of Culture into the Army Planning Process (United States)


    identify and then account for culture in its planning process.12 In essence, Napoleon Bonaparte , the Commander of the French Army, misunderstood the...Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon , 602. 17 Ibid. 8 Joseph Bonaparte , and prosecute...6 Vignette: Napoleon Bonaparte’s Lack of Cultural Consideration during the Peninsular Campaign, 1806–1814

  1. Monitoring of fish species in the Lamone river: distribution and morphometric measures of the populations

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    Riccardo Bozzi


    Full Text Available Fish samplings were carried out monthly from spring to autumn during 2008, on the Lamone river and the Campigno stream by an electrofishing, in order to verify the presence of fish populations and the most common species represented. Barb, Barbus plebejus, Blageon, Leuciscus muticellus, Chub, Leuciscus cephalus, South European Nase, Chondrostoma genei were identified. A small population of Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario was also recognized. Barb is the most represented species in all the sites. The samplings highlight that Lamone river presented conditions suitable to fully guarantee the life of the fish populations.

  2. Alessandro Volta and the politics of pictures. (United States)

    Fara, Patricia


    An astute diplomat, Alessandro Volta secured the patronage of Napoleon Bonaparte to promote his rise to fame as an electrical expert. Reciprocally, politicians helped their own causes by presenting him as a national as well as a scientific figurehead.

  3. The Mosquito and the Colossus: Operation Just Cause through the Eyes of General Manuel Antonio Noriega

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guadalupe Jr, Fernando


    .... This consideration results in a multi-dimensional view that allows one to understand the cultural leadership traits, such as Bonapartism, present in Panama and the challenges semi-authoritarian regimes pose to the US...

  4. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood (United States)


    manner that gave him the time to pursue and destroy the retreating army. Centuries later, another great captain – Napoléon Bonaparte – employed...Jena-Auerstadt 1806 In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte became the first operational artist in the history of modern war when he defeated the Prussian... Napoleon , Operational Art, and the Jena Campaign,” in Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art, ed. Michael D. Krause and R. Cody Phillips

  5. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust (United States)


    supporting. Today, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega intends to finish what Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte ( Napoleon III) started in 1846 and build a canal...sought a maritime route across Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, for trade purposes. Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte and his...French government (along with the British government before Napoleon became President, then Emperor of France) tried three separate times in the early

  6. Trotsky y América Latina: una aproximación al concepto de Bonapartismo

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    Camila Tagle


    Full Text Available In the following paper, through reading the writings in the Mexican exile addressing Latin America's problems, we analyze the elaborated category of Bonapartism proposed by Trotsky. At first, we explore some elements of the reference text from where the concept of –The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte by Marx– and then focus on Trotsky´s given use to analyze the reality of Latin America in the early and mid XX century. Some of the postures that can be seen as a change of Marx´s perspective when analyzing non-Western realities reappear around the idea of Bonapartism, in relation to a Latin American case that should stop thinking about the European model. This approach allows us to deepen the problem of translatability of specific historical junctures, which are central to unravelling the history of “mismatch” between the left and the Latin American populism.

  7. Conserving and restoring habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse and other sagebrush-obligate wildlife: The crucial link of forbs and sagebrush diversity (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna; Bryce A. Richardson; Francis F. Kilkenny; Justin B. Runyon


    In the western US, Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus Bonaparte [Phasianidae]) have become an indicator species of the overall health of the sagebrush (Artemisia L. [Asteraceae]) dominated communities that support a rich diversity of flora and fauna. This species has an integral association with sagebrush, its understory forbs and grasses, and the...

  8. Two new Bird-records from Surinam (Dutch Guyana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous Jr., K.H.


    Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte Adult (evidently ♀), Surinam. Wing 363, tail 170, tarsus 53, culmen from cere 24 mm. Together with other Surinam bird-skins, the specimen was sent to Harlem (Holland) in 1899 for exhibition at the "Koloniale Westindische Tentoonstelling". It is now in the collection

  9. Musée ideale : unistused täiuslikust muuseumist / Mariann Raisma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raisma, Mariann, 1974-


    18.-19. sajandi unistusi täiuslikust muuseumist kolmel tasandil: vormi ehk arhitektuuri, muuseumikogu terviklikkuse ning pärandi kättesaadavuse kaudu. Pikemalt Napoleon Bonaparte'ile pühendatud Musée Napoleoni kogudest, kontseptsioonist ja koopiamuuseumidest Lääne-Euroopas ning Tartus

  10. O ninho da águia: Napoleão e sua política de lugares: Paris como centro do mundo

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    Raquel Stoiani


    Full Text Available In this article we analyze how Napoleon Bonaparte signed symbolically the public and the private spaces, with the purpose of politic legitimation, interfering in the arrangement of cities, Paris especially, constituting a scenery to his power. In such a way, we distinguish some monuments, from that we designate as symbolical topography.

  11. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (United States)

    Sterken, C.


    This paper gives a short account of some key elements in the life of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), specifically his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. The mathematical approach to Fourier series and the original scepticism by French mathematicians are briefly illustrated.

  12. Napoleon in Egypt. (United States)

    Fagan, Brian


    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  13. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France. (United States)

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  14. Laplace, Pierre-Simon (1749-1827) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Celestial mechanician, born in Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy, France, became professor of mathematics at the Ecole Militaire in Paris, examining the cadet Napoleon Bonaparte. This position made Laplace well known to people in positions of power, which he opportunistically exploited, becoming, under Napoleon, Minister of the Interior (Napoleon soon removed him from office `because he brought the spir...

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 70, Number 3, March 1929 (United States)


    Presidency receive but thirty-two pages. Surely Mr. Lincoln’s years in the White House were worth more than that. The typography is excellent, with an...Beuve; Frederick the Great, by T. B. Macaulay; Napoleon_’Bonaparte, by George Brandes ; and Otto von Bismarck, by Emil Ludwig. The book contains more

  16. When and Why Java was Deliberated from the Slavery?

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    Djoko Marihandono


    From the French point of view, Java would be set as centre of the French strategy in the effort to reoccupy India as before. According to Napoleon Bonaparte, India had natural resources more than the riches of all European kingdoms. So, the position of Java island geographically was very important because of his location was directly in front of India Ocean, and the military troupes could directly attack India.  Java which was very rich of the natural resources as wood as the basic materials of ship industry, potassium nitrate, as the materials of ammunition and the Javanese who had the very special endurance were considered by the Emperor as a very ideal island. The Javanese could compete the Sepoy soldiers, the Indian indigenous soldiers formed by the British. So, Napoleon Bonaparte considered that the Javanese would be prepared to realize the Napoleonic strategy. Java had to be saved from the British attack.

  17. From Revolution to Empire: conflicting images of Napoleon in Britain, 1795-1804 | De la Revolución al Imperio: imágenes discordantes de Napoleón en Gran Bretaña, 1795-1804

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    Alicia Laspra Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The emergence of Napoleon Bonaparte in the British political theatre from 1795 onwards inspired a wealth of changing representations of his image, which responded to the prevailing ideological lines shaping the country. Such representations evolved in parallel with Bonaparte’s own career. The ways in which the French Revolution had been interpreted in Britain set a precedent for that dynamic process. This paper examines both processes in the light of their successive representations in the minds of contemporary politicians and intellectuals. The influence of said processes on the Romantic poets, as mediators of the events to the British public, together with Napoleon’s iconic representations, are likewise revisited. | La irrupción de Napoleón Bonaparte en el escenario político británico a partir de 1795 suscitó diversas representaciones de su imagen que responden a la configuración ideológica del país en el momento. Tales representaciones sufrieron una evolución condicionada por la propia carrera de Bonaparte. Este dinámico proceso tuvo un precedente importante en la forma en que se había interpretado la Revolución Francesa en Gran Bretaña. El presente trabajo analiza ambos procesos a la luz de las representaciones sucesivas de que fueron objeto por parte de la clase política y de los intelectuales de la época. La influencia que todo ello tuvo en los poetas románticos, como mediadores de los acontecimientos ante la ciudadanía británica, junto con la proyección icónica de Bonaparte, son también objeto de revisión.

  18. Sub state Unconventional Warfare: Expanding United States Military Political Options (United States)


    land available to the French for foraging, increasing strains on French food supplies.11 Napoleon Bonaparte described the Peninsular War after his...Iraq, Syria, and Libya by harnessing disenfranchised populations. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Vietnam War, Bay of Pigs, French Indochina War, Cuban Revolution...between the Spanish and French in rural areas by controlling, coercing, or manipulating the native population. French inability to obtain Spanish

  19. Is NATO Ready for a Cyberwar (United States)


    INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND Information supremacy has been one of the most significant advantages on the battlefield. As Sun Tzu stated in his book...enemy forces and their composition, disposition, strength, centers of gravity, and terrain…. [T]his was true under Sun Tzu , Napoleon annotated bibliography . Singer and Friedman (2014) define cyberspace as “the realm of computer networks (and the users behind them) in which

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior


    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole


    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  1. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume I. Biological, (United States)


    maculosa Le Sueur; calico bass, or Lake Erie bass, Pomoxis sparoides Lacepede. (SM) 52. Reardslee, Clark S. 1944. Bonapart’s gull on the Niagara...of the burbot, Lota lota maculosa (LeSueur), in Lake Erie. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 80:163-173. Growth studies were made on 2,329 Lake Erie burbot...almo -- hystus; whitefish, oe onus albus; common shad salmon, Coregonus a upelformis; aobony pike, Lepisosteus bison; spotted burbot, Lota maculosa ; and

  2. Improving Relative Combat Power Estimation: The Road to Victory (United States)


    was unthinkable before. Napoleon Bonaparte achieved a superior warfighting system compared to his opponents, which resulted in SOF. Napoleon’s...observations about combat power estimation and force empoloyment, remain valid. Napoleon also offered thoughts about combat power and superiority whe he...force. However, Napoleon did not think one- sidedly about the problem. He also said: “The moral is to the physical as three to one.”11 This dual

  3. The Hybrid Mindset and Operationalizing Innovation: Toward a Theory of Hybrid (United States)


    Spanish, and Portuguese regular forces, along with Spanish and Portuguese guerillas, had a devastating effect on Napoleon Bonaparte and his...74François Jullien, The Propensity of Things (New York: Zone Books, 1995), 27. 28 mindset contributed to the Spanish Ulcer that Napoleon and his...struggle that perplexed and beguiled Napoleon and his proud legions in ways that he had never previously experienced. The cumulative efforts of British

  4. Las cortes de Cádiz

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    Abelardo Forero Benavides


    Full Text Available Esta es una página gloriosa e infecunda de la historia de España. La mayor parte de su territorio está ocupado por las tropas francesas. Se adelanta una guerrilla cruel en contra del usurpador. El rey Fernando continúa cautivo en Valancay. La resistencia tenaz y formidable ha roto todos los cálculos de Bonaparte.

  5. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

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    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  6. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

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    Gilles André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  7. Blind ambition: Geoffroy St-Hilaire's theory of everything. (United States)

    Humphries, Paul


    When Napoléon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he took with him a group of savants to study the natural history, architecture, ancient history and society of Egypt. One young naturalist, Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, went along and made his mark in the study of living and mummified animals, setting the course for his future successes and fame when he returned to Paris in 1801. But during his time in Egypt, when he was free to roam physically and intellectually, he formulated a radical, all-encompassing theory, which he claimed could explain all natural forces and processes in the world.

  8. The Requirement for U.S. Army Special Forces to Conduct Interrogation (United States)


    contrary to reason and humanity. — Napoleon Bonaparte, during the French military campaign in Egypt, 1798.62 59 DoD Detention...prostitutes, we took t hem to such cinema sh ows as we could manag e to put on, and invited them to sh are our tea and coffee when we could get it. Suppose...every European carried in his pocket as a matter of course, and that every petty official demands to see. Any of the French underground organizations

  9. Between history, art and medicine: the Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital, its Neptune fountain and connections to Vienna. (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Hunger, Sabine; Koch, André; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo; Roccia, Maria Grazia


    The Dresden-Friedrichstadt hospital originated from Marcolini's summer palace. It was founded in 1845 and opened in 1849. It is a place where history and art of European importance mixes with technical and medical innovations. We reflect on the meetings of Napoleon Bonaparte and Metternich in 1812, the creation of the famous Neptune fountain by Longuelune and Matielli and two outstanding physicians of the 19 th  century, the surgeon Eduard Zeis, who coined the medical term "plastic surgery", and Maximilian Nitze, inventor of the first "modern" cystoscope and the father of urology.

  10. Piles of defeat. Napoleon at Waterloo. (United States)

    Welling, D R; Wolff, B G; Dozois, R R


    Major events of history have frequently turned on seemingly trivial matters. One such situation involves Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo. Napoleon was not feeling well on the day of the battle of Waterloo, despite fighting well at Ligny, a few days before the last, dramatic June 18 battle. There is considerable indication that Napoleon was bothered by very painful thrombosed hemorrhoids. Did this affect his generalship that day? What is the evidence that Napoleon was afflicted with thrombosed hemorrhoids? What contribution could this factor have made to the French defeat at Waterloo?

  11. Napoleon 'was not murdered' (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin


    The idea that Napoleon Bonaparte was murdered by arsenic poisoning appears to have been ruled out by new research by nuclear physicists in Italy. The official cause of Napoleon's death in 1821 is stomach cancer, but in the 1950s some historians suggested that he was killed - possibly to prevent him from regaining control of France. That theory gained scientific credibility in 2001 when forensic experts in France found levels of arsenic in samples of the emperor's hair about 40 times higher than normal.

  12. A Greek physician's portrait in Windsor Castle. (United States)

    Bartsocas, Christos S


    To the visitor to Windsor Castle, the Thomas Lawrence portraits in the Waterloo Chamber represent the most important contributors to the military defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, by British, Prussian, Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Waterloo. Nevertheless, only few individuals realise that a Greek physician, Count Ioannis Capodistrias, a native of the island of Corfu, stands among these leading personalities as a diplomat, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who contributed remarkably to European unity in the early nineteenth century and as a statesman ('Governor' of Greece) with a tragic end to his life, after establishing a Greek State practically from ruins.

  13. O Dezoito: Um golpe e sua decifração (para uma crítica da política

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    Edmundo Fernandes Dias


    Full Text Available This article analyses Louis Bonaparte coup d’état. We will threat here the relation between economy, politics, institutions and ideologies. Marx works in this concrete analysis of a concrete situation: the bourgeoisie institutionality development in France and how the class struggle development compose (constitute the political formes. This is an analysis that refuses the determinism and escapes of a vision of History as a set of events. Against all analysis that declares the coup as a product of a ray falling under a blue sky, as a pure irrationality, Marx declares the principle of totality.

  14. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan. (United States)

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen


    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  15. Validation of DNA-based identification software by computation of pedigree likelihood ratios. (United States)

    Slooten, K


    Disaster victim identification (DVI) can be aided by DNA-evidence, by comparing the DNA-profiles of unidentified individuals with those of surviving relatives. The DNA-evidence is used optimally when such a comparison is done by calculating the appropriate likelihood ratios. Though conceptually simple, the calculations can be quite involved, especially with large pedigrees, precise mutation models etc. In this article we describe a series of test cases designed to check if software designed to calculate such likelihood ratios computes them correctly. The cases include both simple and more complicated pedigrees, among which inbred ones. We show how to calculate the likelihood ratio numerically and algebraically, including a general mutation model and possibility of allelic dropout. In Appendix A we show how to derive such algebraic expressions mathematically. We have set up these cases to validate new software, called Bonaparte, which performs pedigree likelihood ratio calculations in a DVI context. Bonaparte has been developed by SNN Nijmegen (The Netherlands) for the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). It is available free of charge for non-commercial purposes (see for details). Commercial licenses can also be obtained. The software uses Bayesian networks and the junction tree algorithm to perform its calculations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Role of the ordinary surgeon Yvan beside Napoleon I on the night of April 12 to 13, 1814]. (United States)

    Goldcher, Alain


    Alexandre-Urbain Yvan was born on April 28th, 1765 in Toulon, where he entered the military hospital as a student at 14. He got acquainted with Napoleon Bonaparte during the campaigns of Italy. On May 6th, 1800 the Secretary of the war appointed him to the care of the First Consul. He became a close friend of the Bonaparte family and obtained the post of ordinary surgeon of the Emperor. He was going to follow his illustrious patient as his shadow until April 1814. Several arguments evoke Napoleon Ist's suicide attempt, during the night from 12 to 13 April, in Fontainebleau, after the abdication. He absorbed a poison with opium but his menservants thwarted his plan, especially Caulaincourt. Baron Yvan was called at the bedside of the dying sovereign and managed to save him by making him vomit. For fear of being accused of murder, or for some other reason, the surgeon ran away without telling the Emperor. This episode ended definitively the relation between Napoleon and Yvan.

  17. [Through entomology to psychoanalysis]. (United States)

    Amouroux, Rémy


    Vues analytiques sur la vie des abeilles et des termites (Analytical perspectives on the life of bees and termites) is a letter from L. R. Delves Broughton to Freud dated the 7th of August, 1927. The letter was translated into French by Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962) for the Revue Française de Psychanalyse (French Review of Psychoanalysis) in 1927. A German translation of the letter was done for the review Imago in 1928. In his letter Delves Broughton develops a captivating connection between Man's libidinal economy and that of certain social insects. His main argument is based on the readings of several works by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949). He proposes, as in the bioanalysis project of Sándor Ferenczi (1873-1933), the application of psychoanalytic knowledge on a specific area of the natural sciences: entomology.

  18. Human geography in the French Institute: new discipline or missed opportunity? (United States)

    Staum, M S


    The geography section of the Class of Moral and Political Sciences of the French National Institute, which was in existence from December 1795 to January 1803, responded inadequately to the theoretical challenges of Montesquieu, the hygienists, Volney, and Degérando to study thoroughly native peoples to determine the effects of physical geographic conditions on the body and mind. Most geographers had no interest in human geography, and even statistical geography received only superficial discussion. Despite the emergence of the scientific journal, only a few authors partly transcended the stereotypes of the noble-ignoble savage. The only expedition partly planned by the Institute in this period had an ambitious exploration program that precluded a linguistically sophisticated study of native peoples. Bonaparte's dissolution of the Class hindered further opportunities for studying human geography during the Empire.

  19. Los tiempos del populismo. Devenir de una categoría polisémica

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    Julián Melo


    Full Text Available The objective in this paper is, firstly, to examine the elements which have contributed to the image of populism as a polysemic category. One of the bases for this reconstruction is understanding the ways in which the word ‘populism’ itself has functioned as a synonym for other conceptualizations, such as cesarism or bonapartism, for example. At the same time, there are examples where populism has been looked at from a less pejorative perspective, above all in the writing of Ernesto Laclau, who uses less derogatory synonyms such as ‘emancipation’ or ‘the expansion of citizenship.’ Secondly, and without entering into a discussion about the validity of the condemnation or vindication of populism, we will try to establish exactly what this polysemy is, and the respective value implications which have led to the survival of populism as a theoretical and descriptive category of political realities in Latin America since the mid-20th century.

  20. Political Issues. The Debates around the Govern- ment of New Spain during the Process of Independence

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    Alfredo Ávila


    Full Text Available When Charles IV relinquished his dominions in favor of Bonaparte, the inhabitants of New Spain and other Hispanic territories faced a major problem: who would be in charge of government? Or, in Servando Teresa de Mier's words: what had to be done so that a group of individuals could be recognized by the heads of the military and obeyed by the people? The main political actors soon realized that any option would be disputable.  Our paper examines this phenomenon during the process of Independence. Juntas, congresses and governments would always be liable to questioning. The return of Ferdinand VII to the throne and his incapacity to restore the pre-1808 order proved that there was no turning back the process of debating the political order.

  1. André Raymond, Égyptiens et Français au Caire, 1798-1801, Le Caire, IFAO, 1998, 391 p.

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    Jean-Charles Depaule


    Full Text Available La Description établie par les savants que Bonaparte avait emmenés en Égypte offre, on le sait, un riche tableau, d'autant plus précieux qu'il fixe un moment charnière : dans les décennies qui suivront le pays entrera dans une ère nouvelle, celle de sa "modernisation" et de la construction d'un État progressivement indépendant. Procédant par coupes, la vision de la Description était statique. André Raymond, dès le premier chapitre de son livre, anime en quelque sorte le monde enregistré par l...

  2. Giovanni Degli Alessandri: i primi anni del direttorato agli Uffizi fra nuovi e vecchi ruoli

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    Chiara Pasquinelli


    Full Text Available La figura di Giovanni Degli Alessandri (1765-1830, presidente dell’Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze e direttore degli Uffizi tra gli anni napoleonici e la Restaurazione di Ferdinando III d’Asburgo-Lorena, è quella di un personaggio chiave nella politica artistica fiorentina, e toscana più in generale. Nel saggio si esaminano i primi anni del suo direttorato alla Galleria, i rapporti con Antonio Canova, il suo ruolo all’interno dell’entourage di Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte, oltre a considerare alcuni spunti legati al rinnovamento degli Uffizi, nonché la delicata vicenda del passaggio in città di Dominique-Vivant Denon, direttore del Louvre. L’obbiettivo è quello di introdurre elementi di approfondimento relativamente a una figura molto nota ma poco studiata.


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    Sangidu Sangidu


    Full Text Available Ad-Dûdah wats-Tsu‘bân ‘worm and snake’ is an arabic play which represents the condition of Egypt society in conquering French imperialism. So the ideas of arrousing this play is due to the confusion, disruption, and internal and vertical conflicts within Egyptians. They made such a reaction because they couldn’t find a leader who could help and protect them. Therefore, the appearance of Sulaiman Al-Jausaqi was thought as a figure who can calm them down. He was a religious man who concerned much on the problems of the society. This kind of hero was the one who successively made a strategy to fight against the French imperialism to the end of his dead as Syahid. Besides, a more alive scene and coherence of this play can be seen as in another heroic character from France, Napoleon Bonaparte.   Key words: konflik internal dan vertikal, imperialisme, syahid, dan koherenitas.

  4. ¡Viva nuestro Rey Fernando! Teatro, poder y fiesta en la ciudad colonial de Cartago, Provincia de Costa Rica (1809. Un Aporte Documental

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    Guillermo Brenes Tencio


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se transcribe el texto de la obra de teatro escrita para ser representada en la Plaza Mayor de la ciudad colonial de Cartago, con motivo de la jura y proclamación de Fernando VII como rey de España y de las Indias, en la noche del lunes 23 de enero de 1809. Esta actividad respondía a las festividades en honor del monarca y fueron registradas en el libro de actas del ayuntamiento. A pesar de que allí no apareció por ningún lugar la figura o efigie del rey cautivo en Francia, el objeto central de la puesta en escena era memorar su nombre en detrimento del de Napoleón Bonaparte.

  5. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey


    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  6. Physics of rare events: insights on Napoleon death (United States)

    Fiorini, Ettore


    This unusual report tries to show that the high level of sophistication reached in the instrumentation in experiments on rare events can allow to investigate with unprecedented accuracy problems far from those of fundamental physics, but quite important in other fields of physics. The technique and the know-how on neutron activation developed to reduce the background due to spurious events in the CUORE detector to search for neutrinoless double beta decay has been applied to determine the arsenic contents in the hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte and of historical subjects of his time and to compare it with those of subjects living presently. This contents has been found to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the present ones. The As concentration in the hairs of the Emperor is large, but similar to those of the his contemporaries. In additions a comparison among fraction of one of his hairs allows to exclude a criminal act.

  7. Physics of rare events: insights on Napoleon death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore


    This unusual report tries to show that the high level of sophistication reached in the instrumentation in experiments on rare events can allow to investigate with unprecedented accuracy problems far from those of fundamental physics, but quite important in other fields of physics. The technique and the know-how on neutron activation developed to reduce the background due to spurious events in the CUORE detector to search for neutrinoless double beta decay has been applied to determine the arsenic contents in the hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte and of historical subjects of his time and to compare it with those of subjects living presently. This contents has been found to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the present ones. The As concentration in the hairs of the Emperor is large, but similar to those of the his contemporaries. In additions a comparison among fraction of one of his hairs allows to exclude a criminal act.

  8. Confirmation of the identity of the type host of the louse Halipeurus fallacis (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae). (United States)

    Palma, Ricardo L


    Alexander (1954: 489) recorded a petrel (Aves: Procellariiformes) captured alive on board a ship in the Indian Ocean by Mr W.W.A. Phillips who, after removing some lice, liberated it the following morning. Alexander (1954) identified that petrel as the species "Pterodroma aterrima Bonaparte", now placed in the genus Pseudobulweria. The lice were kept in the collection of the then British Museum (Natural History), now the Natural History Museum, London, England. Jouanin (1955) published a new species of petrel from the Indian Ocean as Bulweria fallax. Jouanin (1957: 19) discussed the identity of the petrel identified by Alexander (1954) as Pterodroma aterrima, stating that the descriptive data given by Alexander (1954) did not clearly fit either P. aterrima or B. fallax. However, considering the geographical coordinates where the bird was captured, Jouanin (1957) believed it was more likely Bulweria fallax.

  9. Barbel species arrangement in a regional Natura 2000 network (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy: An altitudinal perspective

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    Federica Piccoli


    Full Text Available Southern Europe hosts a large number of critical catchments for freshwater biodiversity, including endemic fish species. Unfortunately, these areas are severely threatened due to direct and indirect anthropogenic effects. In this context, with the aim to improve the effectiveness of threatened fish protection, the Life project BARBIE (LIFE13 NAT/IT/001129 started in 2014 and focused on three congeneric species of the genus Barbus: two of “priority interest” sensu Habitats Directive [Barbus caninus (Bonaparte, 1839, and B. plebejus (Bonaparte, 1839], and one alien [Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758]. Our main objective was to assess the contribution of a complex of protected areas included in the Natura 2000 network – located in the provinces of Parma, Piacenza and Reggio Emilia (Norther Italy – to support the presence of the three barbel species in analysis. Additionally, we explored the role of a set of environmental variables (i.e., physical, chemical, biological, and land-use descriptors to drive the current conditions of the study sites and the responses of Barbus species. As a general rule, the present study confirmed a clear decline of the local native barbel populations, and confirmed the existence of a zonation pattern of the barbel taxa. Hence, we observed a strong altitude segregation between native vs. alien species, with the exotic B. barbus currently limited to plain and only sporadically present in the Apennine areas as genetic introgression. These evidences mirrored the altitudinal gradients of anthropogenic disturbance. The main causes were the progressive disappearance of well-structured riparian stripes, and the intense land use change, ranging from semi-natural patches (mountain and hill sectors to land clearing for intensive agriculture (lowland sectors. This highlights the need to take into account the spatial dynamics of alien invasive species in programming recovery actions that could have unexpected impacts to the

  10. Palaeozoic synorogenic sedimentation in central and northern Australia: a review of distribution and timing with implications for the evolution of intracontinental orogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, P.W.; Hand, M.; Sandiford, M.


    The Palaeozoic Alice Springs Orogeny was a major intraplate tectonic event in central and northern Australia. The sedimentological, structural and isotopic effects of the Alice Springs Orogeny have been well documented in the northern Amadeus Basin and adjacent exhumed Arunta lnlier, although the full regional extent of the event, as well as lateral variations in timing and intensity are less well known. Because of the lack of regional isotopic data, we take a sedimentological approach towards constraining these parameters, compiling the location and age constraints of inferred synorogenic sedimentation across a number of central and northern Australian basins. Such deposits are recorded from the Amadeus, Ngalia, Georgina, Wiso, Eastern Officer and, possibly, Warburton Basins. Deposits are commonly located adjacent to areas of significant basement uplift related to north-south shortening. In addition, similar aged orogenic deposits occur in association with strike-slip tectonism in the Ord and southern Bonaparte Basins of northwest Australia. From a combination of sedimentological and isotopic evidence it appears that localised convergent deformation started in the Late Ordovician in the eastern Arunta lnlier and adjacent Amadeus Basin. Synorogenic style sedimentation becomes synchronously widespread in the late Early Devonian and in most areas the record terminates abruptly close to the end of the Devonian. A notable exception is the Ngalia Basin in which such sedimentation continued until the mid-Carboniferous. In the Ord and Bonaparte Basins there is evidence of two discrete pulses of transcurrent activity in the Late Devonian and Carboniferous. The sedimentological story contrasts with the isotopic record from the southern Arunta lnlier, which has generally been interpreted in terms of continuous convergent orogenic activity spanning most of the Devonian and Carboniferous, with a suggestion that rates of deformation increased in the mid-Carboniferous. Either

  11. O 18 Brumário, política e pós-modernismo The Eighteenth Brumaire, politics and postmodernism

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    Adriano Nervo Codato


    Full Text Available A maioria das interpretações contemporâneas das análises de Karl Marx sobre a política européia da segunda metade do século XIX têm, em comum, a supressão de toda menção à "economia" e sua substituição, ou pela autonomia da política, nas versões heterodoxas, ou pelo caráter performativo da linguagem, nas versões pós-modernas. Neste artigo, sustenta-se que há n'O 18 Brumário de Luís Bonaparte uma interpretação da política que pode ser reduzida, do ponto de vista teórico, a dois princípios explicativos da concepção materialista da história: a primazia do econômico e a oposição entre essência e aparência. O artigo se propõe a verificar a incidência desses postulados naquele texto.Most contemporary interpretations of Karl Marx's analyses of European politics of the second half of the nineteenth century share both the suppression of all references to the "economy" and its substitution either for the idea of the autonomy of the political (in heterodox views, or for the idea of the performative aspect of language (in post-modern views. This article argues that Marx's Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonapart contains an interpretation of politics that can be reduced, from the theoretical point of view, to two explanatory principles of the materialist conception of history: the primacy of economics, and the opposition between essence and appearance. The article seeks to verify the incidence of these two fundamental propositions within that text.

  12. LJUBLJANICA CONNECTS - Restoration of the Ljubljanica River corridor and improvement of the river's flow regime (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Sapač, Klaudija; Šraj, Mojca; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej; Vidmar, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja


    The project Ljubljanica connects is focused on improving connectivity and living conditions in Ljubljanica River which flows through capital city of Slovenia, Ljubljana. It represents living environment for endangered and Natura 2000 targeted fish species Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), Danube Roach (Rutilus pigus) and Striped Chub (Leuciscus souffia). The project consists of four sets of activities: concrete restoration actions including improvement of two fish passes, monitoring of fish migration, monitoring of eco-hydrological parameters, and raising of public awareness. To improve living conditions the concrete restoration measures were performed. The reconstructions of sill and two fish passes on the Ljubljanica River have been implemented and barrier's lifting system on the weir was modernized. Above the sill in Zalog there is an oxbow which was disconnected with main river channel during the low flows. Interrupted inflow of fresh water caused very poor living conditions for animals in the oxbow. The raise of the sill helped to improve this situation. One of the fish passes included in the project is more than 100 years old whereas both are protected as cultural and technical heritage. None was working properly and due to the protection no visible nor drastic measures were allowed. With smaller improvements we managed to re-establish their operation. A lifting system of the barrier at the Ambrožev trg gate was outdated and did not allow precise regulation of the water level. Too fast raising of the barrier instantly caused deterioration of eco-hydrological conditions downstream. With modernization of the electromechanical equipment the situation is improved. The fish monitoring helps us to evaluate success of concrete restoration actions. The fish population status is monitored with marking the fish with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags. Regarding the location of catch we implant tags beneath transparent or translucent tissue combining different tag

  13. Okanogan Subbasin Water Quality and Quantity Report for Anadromous Fish in 2006.

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    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife


    Fish need water of sufficient quality and quantity in order to survive and reproduce. The list of primary water quality indicators appropriate for monitoring of anadromous fish, as identified by the Upper Columbia Monitoring Strategy, includes: discharge, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and ammonia. The Colville Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department began evaluating these water quality indicators in 2005 and this report represents data collected from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006. We collected empirical status and trend data from various sources to evaluate each water quality indicator along the main stem Okanogan and Similkameen Rivers along with several tributary streams. Each water quality indicator was evaluated based upon potential impacts to salmonid survival or productivity. Specific conductance levels and all nutrient indicators remained at levels acceptable for growth, survival, and reproduction of salmon and steelhead. These indicators were also considered of marginal value for monitoring environmental conditions related to salmonids within the Okanogan subbasin. However, discharge, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH in that order represent the water quality indicators that are most useful for monitoring watershed health and habitat changes and will help to evaluate threats or changes related to salmon and steelhead restoration and recovery. On the Okanogan River minimum flows have decreased over the last 12 years at a rate of -28.3CFS/year as measured near the town of Malott, WA. This trend is not beneficial for salmonid production and efforts to reverse this trend should be strongly encouraged. Turbidity levels in Bonaparte and Omak Creek were a concern because they had the highest monthly average readings. Major upland disturbance in the Bonaparte Creek watershed has occurred for decades and agricultural practices within the riparian areas along this creek have lead to major

  14. Criação e reinvenção dos liceus: 1802-1902 - Lycée(s creation and recreation: 1802-1902

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    Philippe Savoie


    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a trajetória percorrida desde o liceu criado por Bonaparte em 1802 até o liceu moderno, que resulta da grande reforma de 1902. A questão fundamenta-se, primeiramente, no que aconteceu ao papel atribuído aos liceus na construção de uma instrução pública dominada pelo Estado, e de um ensino secundário em que eles devem coexistir com estabelecimentos municipais e particulares. A segunda parte da análise fundamenta-se na tensão entre uma lógica do estabelecimento, arraigada na tradição humanista, e uma lógica da cátedra professoral, perceptível na mobilidade dos professores e na especialização dos ensinos. O decréscimo do número de alunos internos dos liceus precipita a crise do ensino secundário e conduz à reforma de 1902, que cria o liceu moderno e marca o fim do modelo humanista. Palavras-chave: França, século XIX, liceus, ensino secundário.   LYCÉE(S CREATION AND RECREATION: 1802-1902 Abstract This article analyzes the lycée trajectory since the one created by Bonaparte in 1802 to the modern lycée resulted from the 1902 big Reform. Firstly, the question is about what occurred to the lycée ascribed role, concerning to the construction of a public instruction dominated by the state. Also, the text mentions secondary instruction and its coexistence with private and municipal institutions; secondly, the analysis is based on the tension between a logic deep-rooted institution based on a humanist tradition, and a logic of the professoral cathedra, perceptible in teachers’ mobility and in teaching specialization. The internal lycée students decreased in number. This fact caused to happen the secondary teaching crisis and leaded to the 1902 Reform that created the modern lycée and marked the humanist model end. Keywords: France; XIX century; lyceum; secondary school.   CREACIÓN Y REINVENCIÓN DE LOS LICEOS: 1802-1902 Resumen Este artículo analiza el camino recorrido desde el liceo creado

  15. Muhammad Abduh Dan Ijtihadnya Dalam Bidang Pendidikan

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    Suhaimi Suhaimi


    Full Text Available Since the arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt in the late 19th century AD, the Islamic world can be said to have been aware of the lag in many areas including in the field of education. Therefore, among the scholars at the same time Muslim intellectuals in the Islamic world when it started thinking to bounce back and catch up with the Islamic world experienced such a variety of ways that may be carried out according to the conditions at that time. Among them was Sheikh Muhammad Abduh. In the course of his life, Abduh has done ijtihad and renewal through the various ideas put forward ideas or even gets serious challenges from various parties, including the scholars of al-Azhar itself. But all of that does not make him despair and retreat, so that his ideas had a great influence for the next generation. Abduh brilliant ideas include the fields of education, legal, social, administrative, political and others. This article only focuses his discussion on his thoughts about education which would still be relevant to observe in order to be an afterthought for students of education in this country. Abduh's ideas include the following educational objectives, curriculum, methods and the importance of education for women. ABSTRAK Sejak kedatangan Napoleon Bonaparte ke Mesir pada akhir abad ke 19 Masehi, dunia Islam dapat dikatakan telah menyadari akan ketertinggalan di berbagai bidang termasuk di bidang pendidikan. Karena itu, di antara ulama sekaligus intelektual muslim di dunia Islam saat itu mulai berfikir untuk bangkit kembali serta mengejar ketertinggalan yang dialami dunia Islam tersebut dengan berbagai cara yang mungkin dilakukan sesuai kondisi saat itu. Di antara mereka adalah Syeikh Muhammad Abduh. Dalam perjalanan hidupnya, Abduh telah melakukan ijtihad dan pem-baharuannya melalui berbagai ide atau gagasan yang dikemukakannya sekalipun mendapat tantangan yang berat dari berbagai pihak termasuk pihak ulama al-Azhar sendiri. Akan tetapi semua

  16. Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae from Brazil, with the re-establishment of the genus Avellaria Freitas & Lent and the description of two new species Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea co-parasitos em Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae do Brasil, com o restabelecimento do gênero Avellaria Freitas & Lent e a descrição de duas novas espécies

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    Marie C. Durette-Desset


    Full Text Available Two new tichostrongylid nematodes of the family Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 from the State of Amazonas, Brazil, are described: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. is differentiated from the other species of the genus by the extreme slenderness of its spicules. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. is distinguished from the single type species Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, by a smaller number of cuticular ridges (17 versus 27, a higher ratio of spicule length/ body length (8% versus 5.6% and spicules with a single tip. This genus, synonymized with the genus Viannella Travassos, 1918, by Durette-Desset (1968 is re-established, the female being didelphic. It is the first record of a nematode of the family Viannaiidae in a host of the family Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.Dois novos nematóides tricostrongilídeos da família Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 co-parasitos em um espécime de Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, são descritos: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. distingue-se das espécies do gênero, pelos espículos extremamente delgados. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. diferencia-se da espécie tipo e única do gênero Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, pelo menor número de arestas cuticulares (17 comparado a 27, pela maior relação entre o tamanho do espículo e o comprimento do corpo (8% comparado a 5,6% e espículos com extremidade única. Este gênero, que havia sido considerado sinônimo de Viannella Travassos, 1918, por Durette-Desset (1968, é restabelecido; as fêmeas são didelfas. Este é o primeiro registro de um nematóide da família Viannaiidae em um hospedeiro da família Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.

  17. El Generalife y las ruinas árabes de sus contornos. Un capítulo inédito de los Nuevos Paseos de Simón de Argote

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    Barrios Rozúa, Juan Manuel


    Full Text Available Simón de Argote’s Nuevos paseos (1806-1807 is one of the most remarkable works written on the Alhambra. It offers an Enlightenment response to the distortions of the Roman past of Granada of the cleric and Arabist Velázquez de Echeverría. Unfortunately, the work was unfinished because it did not cover all the “Arabian antiques” located outside the Nasrid city. In this article, an unknown chapter about the Generalife and the ruins around is presented, accompanied with critical notes. It was given by the author to King Joseph Bonaparte during his stay in Granada and it was kept among the papers the king had lost at the Battle of Vitoria. The study of the documents found in different archives and publications of that time sheds some light on the mysterious personality of Simón de Argote and deepens in the knowledge of his relationship with General Horace Sebastiani, a military who was embassador in Istanbul and other cities of the Middle East under Napoleon’s order, before he ruled the Kingdom of Granada.Los Nuevos paseos (1806-1807 de Simón de Argote constituyen una de las obras más notables escritas sobre la Alhambra y suponen una respuesta ilustrada a las tergiversaciones sobre el pasado romano de Granada del clérigo y arabista Velázquez de Echeverría. Desgraciadamente la obra quedó incompleta porque no llegó a cumplir su objetivo de abarcar las “antigüedades árabes” ubicadas fuera de la ciudadela nazarí. En este artículo se presenta, con anotaciones críticas, un capítulo inédito dedicado al Generalife y a las ruinas de su entorno, el cual fue entregado por su autor al rey José Bonaparte durante su estancia en Granada y se conservó entre los papeles perdidos por el monarca en la batalla de Vitoria. A partir de documentación hallada en muy diversos archivos y publicaciones de la época se arroja luz sobre la mal conocida trayectoria de Simón de Argote y se profundiza en su relación con el general Horace

  18. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations. (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W


    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  19. [Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey: the founder of urological traumatology]. (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Ameijenda, C; Lent, V; Sohn, M


    Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) was Surgeon-in-Chief of the Grande Army under Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) and personal physician of the Emperor. Against the opposition of the traditionalists he introduced the "ambulances volantes", the so-called flying ambulances. The aim was the medical treatment of the injured soldiers immediately on the battlefield. This revolutionary treatment led to a benefit not only for the own soldiers, but also for the wounded enemies. His innovation in the field of immediate assistance of wounded persons, together with Larreys' outstanding medical competence, saved thousands of soldiers lives on the battlefield of the Napoleonic wars. His memories concerning the military campaigns, have been even up to the 20th century one of the standard works of modern military surgery. He had as well great interest in urolological injuries of the urinary system and their conservative and operative care. Up to these days, his work shows a surprising actuality and perfect anatomic understanding. In a time without anaesthetics, antibiotics and under primitive circumstances, Larrey and his collegues accomplished surgical feats. Larreys flying ambulances were copied by many different countries. The American Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M.A.S.H) is clearly based on his thoughts and ideals. In our opinion he is the father of the modern war surgery as well the urological traumatology. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

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    César Cestari


    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  1. DNA analysis in the case of Kaspar Hauser. (United States)

    Weichhold, G M; Bark, J E; Korte, W; Eisenmenger, W; Sullivan, K M


    In 1828 a mysterious young man appeared in Nürnberg, Germany, who was barely able to speak or walk but could write down his name, Kaspar Hauser. He quickly became the centre of social interest but also the victim of intrigue. His appearance, his origin and assassination in 1833 were, and still are, the source of much debate. The most widely accepted theory postulates that Kaspar Hauser was the son of Grand Duke Carl von Baden and his wife Stephanie de Beauharnais, an adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte. To check this theory, DNA analysis was performed on the clothes most likely worn by Kaspar Hauser when he was stabbed on December 14th, 1833. A suitable bloodstain from the underpants was divided and analysed independently by the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Munich (ILM) and the Forensic Science Service Laboratory, Birmingham (FSS). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced from the bloodstain and from blood samples obtained from two living maternal relatives of Stephanie de Beauharnais. The sequence from the bloodstained clothing differed from the sequence found in both reference blood samples at seven confirmed positions. This proves that the bloodstain does not originate from a son of Stephanie de Beauharnais. Thus, it is becoming clear that Kaspar Hauser was not the Prince of Baden.

  2. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age]. (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio


    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  3. INAA determination of As in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes: Chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, Jan; Kofronova, Katerina


    Autopsy of a 29-year old woman suspect of having committed suicide by ingestion of As 2 O 3 yielded contradictory findings. ICP-MS revealed a highly elevated As level in hair collected during the autopsy , viz. 26.4 μg.g -1 , indicating chronic arsenic poisoning, whereas all clinical symptoms and pathological findings suggested acute poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush of the deceased woman was performed. The As levels found, viz. 0.06 to 0.26 μg.g -1 , ruled out chronic poisoning because the woman died approximately 14 hours after ingestion of As 2 O 3 . Two reasons for the discordant results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair during As 2 O 3 ingestion; (2) wrong ICP-MS procedure. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including the issue of the supposed and still frequently discussed poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte

  4. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign]. (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François


    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Nabais


    Full Text Available In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA probe protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species.

  6. Ecological traits of Squalius lucumonis (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae and main differences with those of Squalius squalus in the Tiber River Basin (Italy

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    Giannetto D.


    Full Text Available Squalius lucumonis (Bianco, 1983 is an endemic species restricted to three river basins in central Italy and listed as endangered according to IUCN Red List. The aim of this research was to increase the information on ecological preferences of this species and to focus on its differences with S. squalus (Bonaparte, 1837. Data collected in 86 different watercourses throughout Tiber River basin were analysed in the research. For each of the 368 river sectors examined, the main environmental parameters and the fish community were considered. The information were analysed by means of the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA while the differences in ecological traits between S. lucumonis and S. squalus were compared by ANOVA. The results of the study showed significant differences in the ecological preferences of the two species: the S. lucumonis showed predilection for smaller watercourses characterised by a lower number of species and a higher degree of integrity of fish community than S. squalus This information allowed to increase the basic knowledge on population biology and ecology of S. lucumonis that could be very useful for the management and conservation of this Italian endemic species.

  7. A broadband multimedia collaborative system for advanced teleradiology and medical imaging diagnosis. (United States)

    Gómez, E J; del Pozo, F; Ortiz, E J; Malpica, N; Rahms, H


    This paper presents a new telemedicine system currently in routine clinical usage, developed within the European Union (EU) ACTS BONAPARTE project (1). The telemedicine system is developed on an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) multimedia hardware/software platform comprising the following set of telemedicine services: synchronous cooperative work, high-quality video conference, multimedia mail, medical image digitizing, processing, storing and printing, and local and remote transparent database access. The medical information handled by the platform conforms to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) 3.0 medical imaging standard. The telemedicine system has been installed for clinical routines in three Spanish hospitals since November 1997 and has been used in an average of one/two clinical sessions per week. At each clinical session, a usability and clinical evaluation of the system was carried out. Evaluation is carried out through direct observation of interactions and questionnaire-based subjective data. The usability evaluation methodology and the results of the system usability study are also presented in this article. The experience gained from the design, development, and evaluation of the telemedicine system is providing an indepth knowledge of the benefits and difficulties involved in the installation and clinical usage of this type of high-usability and advanced multimedia telemedicine system in the field of teleradiology and collaborative medical imaging diagnosis.

  8. Preface (United States)

    Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj


    Arsenic is perhaps history’s favorite poison, often termed the “King of Poisons” and the “Poison of Kings” and thought to be the demise of fiction’s most famous ill-fated lovers. The toxic nature of arsenic has been known for millennia with the mineral realgar (AsS), originally named “arsenikon” by Theophrastus in 300 B.C.E. meaning literally “potent.” For centuries it has been used as rat poison and as an important component of bactericides and wood preservatives. Arsenic is believed to be the cause of death to Napoleon Bonaparte who was exposed to wallpaper colored green from aceto-arsenite of copper (Aldersey-Williams 2011). The use of arsenic as a poison has been featured widely in literature, film, theatre, and television. Its use as a pesticide made it well known in the nineteenth century and it was exploited by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in the Sherlock Holmes novel The Golden Pince-Nez (Conan-Doyle 1903). The dark comedy Arsenic and Old Lace is a prime example of arsenic in popular culture, being first a play but becoming famous as a movie.

  9. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G


    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  10. The delusion of the Master: the last days of Henry James. (United States)

    Bartolomeo, Paolo


    The novelist Henry James shared with his brother William, the author of the Principles of Psychology, a deep interest in the ways in which personal identity is built through one's history and experiences. At the end of his life, Henry James suffered a vascular stroke in the right hemisphere and developed a striking identity delusion. He dictated in a perfectly clear and coherent manner two letters as if they were written by Napoleon Bonaparte. He also showed signs of reduplicative paramnesia. Negative symptoms resulting from right hemisphere damage may disrupt the feelings of "warmth and intimacy and immediacy" and the "resemblance among the parts of a continuum of feelings (especially bodily feelings)", which are the foundation of personal identity according to William James. On the other hand, a left hemisphere receiving inadequate input from the damaged right hemisphere may produce positive symptoms such as delusional, confabulatory narratives. Other fragments dictated during Henry James's final disease reveal some form of insight, if partial and disintegrated, into his condition. Thus, even when consciousness is impaired by brain damage, something of its deep nature may persist, as attested by the literary characteristics of the last fragments of the Master.

  11. "To afford the wounded speedy assistance": Dominique Jean Larrey and Napoleon. (United States)

    Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Lainas, Panagiotis; Zoras, Odyseas; Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros


    Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842) has been described as the father of modern military surgery and is considered even today as the model military surgeon. He developed a plan of rapid evacuation of wounded soldiers from the battlefield during combat, using flexible medical units which he named ambulances volantes ("flying ambulances"). He won the admiration of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was amazed by the results of Larrey's sanitary system. Larrey spent almost 18 years with Napoleon, accompanying him in 25 campaigns, 60 battles, and more than 400 engagements. Napoleon's enormous military success was due not only to his strategy and skill but also to the medical services provided by Larrey. The surgeon became a master of wound management and limb amputation. In his vivid battlefield journals, Larrey documented the course of tetanus, the pathophysiology of cold injury, the effective control of hemorrhage, the drainage of empyema and hemothorax, the aspiration of pericardial effusion or hemopericardium, and the packing of sucking chest wounds. Larrey established a categorical rule for the triage of war casualties, treating the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality.

  12. Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities. (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Fong, Alison; Chu, Vivian; Holden, Arthur; Linthicum, Janet; Hooper, Kim


    Our earlier findings indicate that (1) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte) nesting in major California cities have among the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in the world (max ∑PBDEs=100 ppm), and (2) Big City peregrines have higher levels and proportions of the higher-brominated congeners (hepta- to deca-BDEs) than do their Coastal counterparts. In this study we classified the prey species (n =185) from the remains of prey (feathers) at 38 peregrine nest sites over 25 years (1974-1998). We grouped the prey species into 15 categories based on diet and found distinctly different prey patterns for Big City vs. Coastal peregrines. Big City peregrines had a higher (almost three times) weight percentage intake of food waste-eating birds (e.g., rock pigeons, Columba livia) than Coastal peregrines. These differing prey patterns suggest diet as a potential source of the unusually high levels and proportions of higher-brominated PBDEs in Big City peregrines. The relative contributions of diet and dust (e.g., preening) exposure to PBDE patterns in Big City peregrines will be explored in future investigations. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  13. Cranial Anatomy and Palaeoneurology of the Archosaur Riojasuchus tenuisceps from the Los Colorados Formation, La Rioja, Argentina.

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    Maria Belen von Baczko

    Full Text Available Riojasuchus tenuisceps Bonaparte 1967 is currently known from four specimens, including two complete skulls, collected in the late 1960s from the upper levels of the Los Colorados Formation (Late Triassic, La Rioja, Argentina. Computed tomography (CT scans of the skulls of the holotype and a referred specimen of Riojasuchus tenuisceps and the repreparation of the latter allows recognition of new features for a detailed analysis of its cranial anatomy and its comparison with a wide variety of other archosauriform taxa. The diagnosis of Riojasuchus tenuisceps is emended and two autapomorphies are identified on the skull: (1 a deep antorbital fossa with its anterior and ventral edges almost coinciding with the same edges of the maxilla itself and (2 a suborbital fenestra equal in size to the palatine-pterygoid fenestra. Also, the first digital 3D reconstruction of the encephalon of Riojasuchus tenuisceps was carried out to study its neuroanatomy, showing a shape and cranial nerve disposition consistent to that of other pseudosuchians.

  14. Notas rocambolescas: histórias de escusos heróis

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    Marlyse Meyer


    Full Text Available O artigo parte da aproximação, aparentemente insólita, de dois textos: 1 Proezas de Rocambole (1857-1870, folhetim de Ponson du Terrail, cujo núcleo inicial trata de uma sociedade secreta, o Clube dos Valetes de Copas, chefiada pelo "vil" conde Andrea, e depois por seu sobrinho, Rocambole; 2 O 18º Brumário de Luís Bonaparte (1852, de Karl Marx, que narra, como um romance policial, a ascensão do sobrinho de Napoleão a partir da sociedade secreta 10 de Dezembro, e as aventuras reais e farsescas de um "canalha medíocre". Faz-se notar que a própria imprensa francesa da época assimilou a figura de Rocambole com a do Imperador. Comenta-se a atualidade de Rocambole e tenta-se uma definição do rocambolesco, nesta época de corrupção e violência. Ressalta-se a ambígua atração que aventuras de escusos heróis, tratadas com delírio imaginativo e ritmo desenfreado, exercem sobre os leitores, tomando como exemplos Machado de Assis e Graciliano Ramos.

  15. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade. (United States)

    Watts, Iain P


    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  16. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse. (United States)

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A


    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Paris, privileged destination of the Spanish exile (1813-1851: regarding recent historiographical contributions | París, destino privilegiado del exilio español (1813-1851: a propósito de varias aportaciones historiográficas recientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fernández Sirvent


    Full Text Available Paris is a mythical city that has always evoked a special attraction between political and cultural elite. Only a reduced number of Spanish afrancesados (followers of the King Joseph Bonaparte and liberal-minded people that in the XIX century were forced to exile, had the legal possibility of looking for a political refuge –a new homeland in determined cases– in the French capital. The publication of several monographs, articles and biographies regarding this issue during the last decade, has made possible an extraordinary historiographical progress in the knowledge of the characteristics and particularities of the Spanish exile in Paris. The main objective of the present article is to raise awareness of a selection of these works and to connect some of their more relevant contributions to the field. | París es una ciudad mítica que siempre ha despertado un especial poder de atracción entre las élites políticas y culturales. Solo un reducido número de afrancesados y liberales españoles que en el siglo XIX se vieron forzados al exilio, tuvieron la posibilidad legal de buscar refugio político –en ocasiones una nueva patria– en la capital francesa. En la última década, se ha producido un extraordinario avance historiográfico en el conocimiento de las características y particularidades del exilio español en París, gracias a la publicación de varias monografías, artículos y biografías sobre el tema. Este artículo pretende dar a conocer una selección de estos trabajos y conectar algunas de sus principales aportaciones.

  18. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A. (United States)

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L


    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  19. On the Lumpen-Precariat-To-Come

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    Joff P.N. Bradley


    Full Text Available As a prolegomena to writing a critique of contemporary capitalism which takes into account its semiotic, affective dimensions and which emphasises the notion of hyper-capitalism with Asian characteristics, and in considering the nature of the floating, heterogeneous population of the lumpenproletariat in the Asia-Pacific region in the 21st century, the authors believe they remain faithful to Marx and the 11th thesis on Feuerbach. Bringing a unique perspective to the debate and raising pressing issues regarding the exploitation of the lumpenproletariat, we are not content to merely revisit the concept of the lumpenproletariat in Marx’s writings such as The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852 but to apply this concept to the contemporary conditions of capitalism and especially to the loci of the precariat in Asia. Our goal is to begin to account for the changing demographic of labour flows, the precarity of life, the modern day slavery which takes place in our time. In examining the passage from the lumpenproletariat, hitherto defined as “non-class” or “people without a definite trace”, to lumpen-precariat, defined as people not seen in Asian economies (refugees, the illegally employed, illegal migrants, nationless foreign labour, the withdrawn clan, sex industry workers, night workers; those behind walls, gated communities, and other entrance-exit barriers, this paper discloses not only the subsistence of those in the non-places of the world – in the technocratic-commercial archipelago of urban technopoles – but also and, arguably more importantly, on the Outside, namely the rest of the planet, the other six-sevenths of humanity. This paper looks for “a” missing people, “a” singular, people yet to come, those exiled, excluded and unseen – sited on the edges of respectable society.

  20. [Sertürner and morphine--a historical vignette]. (United States)

    Jurna, I


    Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner was born near Paderborn in 1783. At the age of twenty he passed examinations as a pharmacist's assistant in Paderborn. In a letter to the editor of Trommsdorffs Journal der Pharmacie Vol 13 (1805) he reported on the isolation of a substance from opium which showed alkaline character and was later called by him "morphine". In 1806, Sertürner moved to Einbeck where he first worked as assistant to the tenant of the magistrate's pharmacy. In 1809, he became pharmacist and, since the tenant was already 75 years old, he intended to take charge of the pharmacy. However,he was not successful. During the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte's troops into Europe, French legislation became valid in those parts which fell under French government. According to French law, Sertürner was allowed to open a second pharmacy. In Einbeck, Sertürner continued research work on morphine and published the results in two papers. In one of these (1817), he introduced observations made with the drug in humans and for the first time called it "morphine". The French chemist Gay-Lussac showed interest in that publication and ordered a translation into French which earned Sertürner the scientific break-through. His was the first achievement in alkaloid research, and for that he received a doctor degree from the university of Jena in 1817.When Napoleon was finally defeated, Sertürner had to close his pharmacy in Einbeck and found another one in Hameln. When asiatic cholera spread in Germany in 1831, he postulated that cholera is caused by a poisonous,animated reproducing organism and made suggestions to avoid infection which are still valid today.Sertürner was honoured by many institutions but still felt not properly esteemed. His behavior become odd and he debilitated. He died in 1841 and was buried in Einbeck.

  1. Minding the Gap: Marxian Reflections on the Transition from Capitalism to Postcapitalism

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    Bryant William Sculos


    Full Text Available Building on contemporary debates over the past several decades in Marxist and post-Marxist theory regarding the relationship between capitalism and postcapitalism, this essay will explore the enduring relevance of Marx’s treatment of this issue in some of his most significant, though increasingly less contemporarily engaged with texts (as Capital [Vols. 1-3] and the Grundrisse take pride of place. Here, I look toward the middle and early period of Marx’s oeuvre to pull out the most important statements and insights regarding the relationship between capitalism and postcapitalism, focusing on The German Ideology, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, and The Communist Manifesto in order to offer reflections on how Marx’s work, 200 years since his birth, offer the contemporary and future left guidance on “minding the gap” between capitalism and postcapitalism as we live, work, and struggle still deeply ensconced within the confines of the decadent capitalist mode of production. Combing close-reading of key relevant texts in Marx’s oeuvre with reflective commentary on how Marx’s work can speak to the contemporary conjuncture, this paper offers a synthetic commentary on how leftists, both scholars and activists, should approach the question of the relationship between radical praxis within capitalism and the character of potential postcapitalisms that may emerge. This essay is loosely organised around three crucial questions: (1 What can we learn from Marx’s discussions on the historical transition and the overall radical intellectual project of dialectical materialism that can assist us in understanding the transition from capitalism to a democratic, egalitarian postcapitalism (i.e., socialism/communism, specifically concerning complexity and time? (2 How does contemporary capitalism reproduce itself social-psychologically (i.e., ideologically and what are the implications of that for a

  2. Dzhuchi Mikhaylovich Tugan-Baranovsky: Way of a Scientist

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    Piskunova Elena Pavlovna


    Full Text Available The author studies the academic activity of Dzhuchi M. Tugan-Baranovsky, defines the sphere of his academic interests, gives the characteristic of his major works. The special attention is paid to the analysis of the works devoted to the formation of the political regime of Napoleon Bonaparte and identifying the endowment made by the historian in studying the history of French studies in Russia. D. M. Tugan-Baranovsky attached great importance to the period of the Consulate, stressing the prevalence of the Napoleon’s regime at that time. In this period the real opposition, both from the side of the royalists and Republicans was eliminated. Based on an extensive range of sources the historian analyzed various attempts of drafting a Republican conspiracy against Napoleon. The historian explored major transformations of the period of the Consulate: the reorganization of the financial system, judicial reform, establishment of the new administrative system and its subsequent evolution. He noted that the complex reforms of Napoleon were not only the political but also of great social importance. D.M. Tugan-Baranovsky claimed that Napoleon’s regime had much more connection with the inner end of the bourgeois revolution than it appeared in the Soviet literature. In recent years D.M. Tugan-Baranovsky has addressed issues of social and economic history of Russia in the late 19th - early 20th centuries and the study of political and scientific activities of his grandfather M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky. The author of the article shows what aspects of the work of the scientist-economist have attracted the attention of D.M. Tugan-Baranovsky.

  3. The History of Maltose-active Disaccharidases. (United States)

    Lentze, Michael J


    The history of maltose-active disaccharidases is closely related to the history of the sugar and starch industry. It began in the 19th century, when a shortage of cane sugar occurred in continental Europe, because Napoleon Bonaparte decreed that no goods could be imported from England to the countries he occupied. Other sugar sources had to be found, and it led to the identification of sugar beets as alternative source of sugar by Marggraf in 1774, to the detection of starch hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid by Kirchhoff in 1812, and to the starch digestion enzyme, α-amylase, by Payen in 1833. In the 20th century, Borkström's group in Sweden investigated the absorption of nutrients in human adults by transintubation techniques and found that the luminal concentration of invertase was small compared to that of α-amylase. They speculated that the major locus of this enzyme activity must be in the intestinal cells. Borkström's coworker, Dahlqvist, investigated the maltose-active enzymes in pig intestine, and a second group around Semenza studied the maltase-active enzymes in rabbit intestine. After the first descriptions of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in 1960 and 1961, the research on disaccharidases increased. Dahlqvist published the first quantitative method to measure these enzymes. Consecutive research led to the discovery of 4 maltases, which were later identified as 2 complex enzymes: the sucrase-isomaltase complex and the maltase-glucoamylase complex. The homology of the 2 enzyme complexes was later determined when the cDNA sequences of the 2 complexes in human intestine were identified.

  4. Paris (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A. (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Preston, Kristine L.


    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km2 region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D2 model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species–habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D2 (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  6. Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC) (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    Scheer AG, AENEIS by ATOSS Software AG, ADONIS by BOC GmbH, Visio by Microsoft Corp., Nautilus by Gedilan Consulting GmbH, and Bonapart by Pikos GmbH. In order to facilitate the interchange of EPC business process models between these tools, there is a tool neutral interchange format called EPC Markup Language (EPML) [283, 285, 286, 287, 289, 290, 291].

  7. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

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    Cornelis Martin Renes


    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  8. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep. (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A


    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  9. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Cintia M. Togura


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  10. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya


    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  11. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

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    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.


    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run

  12. Jean-Philippe Luis, L’ivresse de la fortune. A.M. Aguado, un génie des affaires

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    Claude Morange


    Full Text Available Desde la vieja biografía de Cortines y Murube (Un Sevillano en París, 1918, y con la excepción del reciente libro de Armando Rubén Puente (Alejandro Aguado, militar, banquero, mecenas, Madrid, 2007, que todavía no he podido ver, nadie se había interesado por Alejandro María Aguado, personaje ilustre y desconocido a la vez, a pesar de la importancia que tuvo, durante cerca de tres decenios, en la historia de las relaciones entre España y Francia. Con este libro, viene a subsanar esta laguna J. P. Luis, buen conocedor de la «ominosa década», como demostró ya en su tesis doctoral, L’Utopie réactionnaire.  Aguado nació en el seno de una familia navarra, algunos de cuyos miembros se trasladaron a Andalucía para dedicarse al comercio, gracias al cual consiguieron enriquecerse, fundar un mayorazgo y «comprar» un título de nobleza, pasando luego a integrarse en la oligarquía sevillana. Como solía pasar con los segundones, se le destinó al Ejército. En 1800, entró de cadete en un regimiento, con el cual pasó varios años en Ceuta. Al producirse la invasión napoleónica, sirvió en el campo patriótico, hasta que, ocupada Sevilla, no vio más salida que aceptar la colaboración con el ocupante. Se pasó a las filas del ejército de José Bonaparte, llegando a coronel y, sobre todo, edecán del mariscal Soult, al que acompañó en sus campañas.En 1813, no tuvo más remedio que huir a Francia, donde al poco tiempo abandonó la carrera militar. La fractura que significó la Guerra de la Independencia fue para él definitiva. En 1815 ya, solicitó la nacionalidad francesa, señal de una voluntad de cortar definitivamente los lazos con su patria. Creó en París un comercio de importación de vinos y frutos andaluces, y empezó a especular. Lo decisivo fue la rapidez con que supo aprovechar la coyuntura financiera dificilísima por la que estaba pasando la monarquía española. De 1824 a 1832, su nombre se encuentra vinculado a la