Sample records for sostoyanij 217at 213po

  1. Studies of α-spectra in 221Fr, 217At, 213Bi and 213Po decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumin, V.G.; Fominykh, V.I.; Furyaev, T.A.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Jabber, J.K.; Kalyapkin, K.V.; Kudrya, S.A.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.V.


    The alpha-recoil phenomenon is used to gain data on the weak components of the α-spectra of the nuclides from the 225 Ac equilibrium chain. It is established that there is no experimental basis for introducing the 450 keV level of 213 Bi in the 217 At decay and the 868 keV level of 209 Tl in the 213 Bi decay. Excitation of the 759 keV level in the 217 At decay is confirmed. The intensities of the 221 Fr, 217 At and 213 Bi β - -decay are measured

  2. Decay analysis of compound nuclei formed in reactions with exotic neutron-rich 9Li projectile and the synthesis of 217At* within the dynamical cluster-decay model (United States)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Kaushal, Pooja; Hemdeep; Gupta, Raj K.


    The decay of various compound nuclei formed via exotic neutron-rich 9Li projectile is studied within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). Following the earlier work of one of us (RKG) and collaborators (M. Kaur et al. (2015) [1]), for an empirically fixed neck-length parameter ΔRemp, the only parameter in the DCM, at a given incident laboratory energy ELab, we are able to fit almost exactly the (total) fusion cross section σfus =∑x=16σxn for 9Li projectile on 208Pb and other targets, with σfus depending strongly on the target mass of the most abundant isotope and its (magic) shell structure. This result shows the predictable nature of the DCM. The neck-length parameter ΔRemp is fixed empirically for the decay of 217At* formed in 9Li + 208Pb reaction at a fixed laboratory energy ELab, and then the total fusion cross section σfus calculated for all other reactions using 9Li as a projectile on different targets. Apparently, this procedure could be used to predict σfus for 9Li-induced reactions where experimental data are not available. Furthermore, optimum choice of "cold" target-projectile combinations, forming "hot" compact configurations, are predicted for the synthesis of compound nucleus 217At* with 8Li + 209Pb as one of the target-projectile combination, or another (t , p) combination 48Ca + 169Tb, with a doubly magic 48Ca, as the best possibility.

  3. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Amato


    Full Text Available We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'generalized radius', calculated as 3V/S, where V is the ellipsoid volume and S its surface. Radiation-specific parametric functions were obtained in order to calculate the absorbed fraction of a given radiation in a generic ellipsoidal volume. The dose from a generic radionuclide can be calculated through a process of summation and integration over the whole radionuclide emission spectrum, profitably implemented in an electronic spreadsheet. We compared the results of our analytical calculation approach with those obtained from the OLINDA/EXM computer software, finding a good agreement in a wide range of sphere radii, for the high-energy pure beta emitter 90Y, the commonly employed beta-gamma emitter 131I, and the pure alpha emitter 213Po. The generality of our approach makes it useful an easy to implement in clinical dosimetry calculations as well as in radiation safety estimations when doses from internal radionuclide uptake are to be taken into account.

  4. The Influence of nonuniform activity distribution on cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naling, Song; Yuan, Tian; Liangan, Zhang; Guangfu, Dai


    S value is an important parameter in determination of absorbed dose in nuclear medicine and radiobiology. The distribution of radioactivity shows significant influence on the S value especially in microdosimetry. In present work, a semi Monte Carlo Model is developed to calculate the microdosimetric cellular S value for different micro-distributions of radioactivity, i.e. uniform, linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase, exponential decrease and centroid distribution. Emission of alpha particles is simulated by Monte Carlo model and the energy imparted to the target volume is calculated by the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model and the spline interpolation of range-energy relationship. We calculate tables of S values for 213 Po and 210 Po with various dimensions and most important with various possible micro-distributions of radioactivity, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Then we compare the S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution with the Hamacher's results to test the feasibility of our model. S values of some nonuniform micro-distributions are compared to the corresponding data of the uniform distribution. The possible sources of these differences are theoretical analyzed. (author)

  5. The influence of nonuniform micro-distribution of alpha emitter on microdosimetry in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Zhang Liang'an; Dai Guangfu


    Objective: To study the influence of nonuniform micro-distribution of alpha emitter on cellular S values(in the radioimmunotherapy). Methods: Emission of alpha particles is randomly simulated by Monte Carlo method; the incident energy and exit energy are calculated with interpolation technique based on the relationship between range and energy of alpha particle and the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model. So energy deposited in the target area can be obtained. To take 213 Po as an example, cellular S values with various cell dimensions and possible micro-distributions of radioactivity are calculated, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Results: S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution showed no difference with the Hamacher's results. S values of different micro-distributions are distinguishing with each other. It is indicated that different micro-distributions of radioactivity will result in significant change of average chord length of alpha particles traveling in the target area, as well as the change of average stopping power over the chord, which is primary reason for differences of S values. Conclusions: The nonuniform micro-distributions show remarkable influence on cellular S values and hence should be taken consideration in cellular absorbed dose estimation, especially in microdosimetry. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of sample pretreatment methods for analysis of Polonium isotopes in herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.


    Ayurvedic medicines are widely consumed by Indian population both for treatment and good health Ayurvedic medicines are used in various forms like infusions, decoctions, powder, tablets, fermented decoction (Arishta) etc. Arishtas are prepared using plant extracts soaked in sugar or jaggery and are generally consume on regular basis for good health. Hence an effort was made to analyse the natural radioactivity in the Ayurvedic Arishtas. 213 Po is an important naturally occurring radionuclide that volatilizes beyond 150℃. Hence adequate care is needed during sample pretreatment step. Both physical (freeze-drying, open vessel evaporation and microwave digestion) and chemical (digestion using various mineral acids like aqua regia, Con. HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 and oxidizing agents like H 2 O 2 and HClO 4 ) pretreatment procedures were adopted. After the initial sample treatment polonium radionuclide was pre-concentrated using calcium phosphate co-precipitation. Calcium phosphate precipitate was dissolved in 150 ml of 0.5M HCI solution with approximately 1 g of ascorbic acid for auto deposition of Polonium on silver planchette for 3 hours at 90℃ on a rotary hot plate. The sample sources were counted in calibrated alpha spectrometer with 450 mm 2 low-back-ground PIPS detector interfaced with ECIL MCA. The spectrum analysis was done using PHAST Software. 209 Po tracer, at low levels was added to the samples for assessing the radiochemical recovery. The recovery ranged between 18-83 %. The lowest recovery was obtained for the samples that were processed by open vessel digestion with HNO 3 + HCIO 4 + H 2 O 2 . The highest recover was for those samples that were freeze dried and subjected to HNO 3 + HCIO 4 + H 2 O 2 acid digestion at 90℃ for 8 hours. 210 Po concentration in a few samples varied between 0.3-3.5 mBq/L. The paper presents the results of radiochemical recoveries for different pretreatment methods and also the 210 Po content in the ayurvedic arishtas. (author)

  7. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail:, E-mail: [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028 (India); Kuo, Yung-Kang [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Okram, Gunadhor Singh, E-mail:, E-mail: [Electrical Transport Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)


    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6 V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT = 0.77 at 45 K and ZT = 2.17 at 17 K.

  8. Resonance absorption of nuclear gamma radiation; Absorption par resonance des rayons gamma; Rezonansnaya absorbtsiya i rasseyanie yadernogo gamma-izlucheniya; Absorcion por resonancia de las radiaciones gamma en los nucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S S; Perlow, G J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)


    radiacion do resonancia con y sin polarizacion. Estos estudios les han conducido a una interpretacion de la estructura hiperfina en funcion de las propiedades de los estados nucleares y de la interaccion hiperfina en el hierro. Tambien han investigado los efectos de un campo magnetico externo sobre la estructura hiperfina. Por otra parte, la absorcion por resonancia en el {sup 57}Fe permitio estudiar la relacion entre la cronologia de la desintegracion de im estado nuclear y el espectro de la radiacion observada. Se realizaron observaciones detalladas sobre el espectro de las radiaciones de resonancia filtradas, en funcion del tiempo, en condiciones muy diversas. (author) [Russian] Kak pokazal Messbauehr, ispuskanie i pogloshchenie yadernogo izlucheniya bez otdachi yadra obespechivaet prostoj metod izucheniya vzaimodejstviya yader s ehlektromagnitnym izlucheniem i, chto ochen' vazhno, yavlyaetsya chrezvychajno chuvstvitel'nym sredstvom issledovaniya bol'shogo kolichestva fizicheskikh zadach. V sluchae yader zheleza-57 sozdaetsya ves'ma blagopriyatnoe polozhenie, tak kak v ehtom sluchae rezonansnoe pogloshchenie mozhet ispol'zovat'sya v kachestve ochen' chuvstvitel'nogo detektora izmeneniya chastoty ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya. Detal'no izuchalos' rezonansnoe pogloshchenie v zheleze-57. Intensivnost' pogloshcheniya, forma i liniya sdviga nablyudalis' v zavisimosti ot temperatury. Polyarizatsiya radioaktivnogo izlucheniya nablyudalas' posredstvom ehksperimentov s namagnichennymi istochnikami i poglotitelyami. Sverkhtonkij spektr rezonansnoj radiatsii analizirovalsya s polyarizatsiej i bez nee. EHti issledovaniya priveli k tolkovaniyu sverkhtonkoj struktury v otnoshenii svojstv yadernykh sostoyanij i sverkhtonkogo vzaimodejstviya v zheleze. Bylo rassmotreno takzhe vliyanie vneshnego magnitnogo polya na sverkhtonkuyu strukturu. Rezonansnoe pogloshchenie v zheleze-57 bylo ispol'zovano dlya izucheniya svyazi mezhdu razvitiem raspada yadernogo sostoyaniya vo vremeni i spektrom

  9. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel


    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  10. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis versus Supplemental Diagnostic Mammographic Views for Evaluation of Noncalcified Breast Lesions (United States)

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Catullo, Victor J.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Lu, Amy H.; Gur, David


    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Materials and Methods: Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31–60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS–based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy–based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Average probability-of-malignancy–based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P tomosynthesis, more cancers were classified as BI-RADS category 5 (39% [226 of 576] vs 33% [188

  11. Radiation Polymerization in the Solid Phase; Polymerisation radiochimique en phase solide; Radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya v tverdoj faze; Radiopolimerizacion en fase solida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, I. M.; Gol' danskij, V. I.; Enikolopov, N. S.; Terekhova, S. F.; Trofimova, G. M.


    EHPR pokazalo, chto spetsificheskaya radiatsionnaya reaktsiya v khode oblucheniya igraet sushchestvennuyu rol'. Posle okonchaniya oblucheniya protsessa polimerizatsii akrilonitrila (ot -196{sup o} do -140{sup o}C) i vinilatsetata (ot -196{sup o} do -100{sup o}C) prekrashchaetsya nesmotrya kak na sokhranenie formy i intensivnosti signala EHPR, tak i na bol'shoe vremya zhizni sozdavaemykh oblucheniem ionov. Rezul'taty ehtikh opytov svidetel'stvuyut o vozmozhnoj bol'shoj roli korotkozhivushchikh vozbuzhdennykh sostoyanij v radiatsionnoj tverdofaznoj polimerizatsii ryada monomerov. Takaya polimerizatsiya ''pod puchkom'' proiskhodit prakticheski bez ehnergii aktivatsii - v otlichie ot medlennoj postpolimerizatsii, idushchej s toj zhe ehnergiej aktivatsii, chto i zhidkofaznyj protsess. (author)

  12. Analyses of antibacterial activity and cell compatibility of titanium coated with a Zr-C-N film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the antibacterial performance and cell proliferation activity of zirconium (Zr-carbon (C-nitride (N coatings on commercially pure titanium (Ti with different C contents.Reactive nitrogen gas (N(2 with and without acetylene (C(2H(2 was activated by Zr plasma in a cathodic-arc evaporation system to deposit either a zirconium nitride (ZrN or a Zr-C-N coating onto Ti plates. The bacterial activity of the coatings was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus with the aid of SYTO9 nucleic acid staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cell compatibility, mRNA expression, and morphology related to human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs on the coated samples were also determined by using the MTT assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and SEM.The Zr-C-N coating with the highest C content (21.7 at% exhibited the lowest bacterial preservation (P<0.001. Biological responses including proliferation, gene expression, and attachment of HGF cells to ZrN and Zr-C-N coatings were comparable to those of the uncoated Ti plate.High-C-content Zr-C-N coatings not only provide short-term antibacterial activity against S. aureus but are also biocompatible with HGF cells.

  13. Simultaneous determination of radionuclides separable into natural decay series by use of time-interval analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Uezu, Yasuhiro


    A delayed coincidence method, time-interval analysis (TIA), has been applied to successive α-α decay events on the millisecond time-scale. Such decay events are part of the 220 Rn→ 216 Po (T 1/2 145 ms) (Th-series) and 219 Rn→ 215 Po (T 1/2 1.78 ms) (Ac-series). By using TIA in addition to measurement of 226 Ra (U-series) from α-spectrometry by liquid scintillation counting (LSC), two natural decay series could be identified and separated. The TIA detection efficiency was improved by using the pulse-shape discrimination technique (PSD) to reject β-pulses, by solvent extraction of Ra combined with simple chemical separation, and by purging the scintillation solution with dry N 2 gas. The U- and Th-series together with the Ac-series were determined, respectively, from alpha spectra and TIA carried out immediately after Ra-extraction. Using the 221 Fr→ 217 At (T 1/2 32.3 ms) decay process as a tracer, overall yields were estimated from application of TIA to the 225 Ra (Np-decay series) at the time of maximum growth. The present method has proven useful for simultaneous determination of three radioactive decay series in environmental samples. (orig.)

  14. Radioisotope space power generator annual report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, N.B.; Chin, J.; Staley, H.G.


    The Isotec Technology Program for FY-75 concentrated on materials development efforts in two areas: TPM-217 P-type material and SiGe technology. TPM-217 P-type material is a 3M proprietary thermoelectric material whose principal components are Cu, Ag, and Se. The usefulness of TPM-217 P-type selenide in thermoelectric converters depends on its dimensional, electrical, and thermal stability at high temperature and its compatibility with other converter component materials in a low-pressure environment. Experimental efforts were directed toward determining (1) the vapor species above TPM-217 from 700 0 to 1100 0 C, (2) the weight loss rate for TPM-217 at 900 0 C in vacuo, and (3) the stability of TPM-217 material in contact with Mo, Fe, 316 stainless steel, and pyrocarbon. The Si-Ge program is a continuation of the experimental work performed during FY-74. The development of coatings to suppress the vaporization of SiMo and SiGe continued. Techniques for applying ion-plated and chemical-vapor-deposited coatings of Si 3 N 4 and (Si,Al)N alloys on SiMo were examined. Methods of controlling morphology and the chemical composition of these coatings were developed. Rates of vaporization for coated samples at 1100 0 C were measured

  15. Some properties of low-vapor-pressure braze alloys for thermionic converters (United States)

    Bair, V. L.


    Density, dc electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and linear thermal expansion are measured for arc-melted rod-shaped samples of binary eutectics of Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, and W selected as very-low-pressure braze fillers for thermionic converters. The first two properties are measured at 296 K for Zr-21.7 at% Ru, Zr-13 wt% W, Zr-19 wt% W, Zr-22.3 at% Nb, Nb-66.9 at% Ru, Hf-25.3 wt% Re, Zr-25.7 at% Ta, Hf-22.5 at% W, and Nb-35 wt% Mo. The last property is measured from 293 K to 2/3 melting point for specified alloys of different compositions. Resistivities of 0.000055 to 0.000181 ohm-cm are observed with the alloys having resistivities about ten times that of the less resistive constituent metal and about three times that of the more resistive constituent metal, except for Zr-19 wt% W and Nb-35 wt% Mo (greater resistivities). Thermal expansion coefficients vary from 0.000006 to 0.0000105/K. All brazes exhibit linear thermal expansion near that of their constituent metals.

  16. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating. [coal combustion product environments (United States)

    Morris, J. F.


    Applied research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal thermionic energy conversion (TEC) with approximately 1000 K to approximately 1100 K collectors is possible using well established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/sq cm with approximately 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/sq cm with approximately 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5 and 1.7 eV collector work functions (not the 1 eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approximately 0.9 to approximately 6 torr cesium pressures with 1600 K to 1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal and to use it well.

  17. Clinical and structural remission rates increased annually and radiographic progression was continuously inhibited during a 3-year administration of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A multi-center, prospective cohort study by the Michinoku Tocilizumab Study Group. (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yasuhiko; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Miyata, Masayuki; Urata, Yukitomo; Saito, Koichi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaaki; Kodera, Takao; Watanabe, Ryu; Miyamoto, Seiya; Ishii, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Shigeshi; Takemori, Hiromitsu; Ando, Takanobu; Kanno, Takashi; Komagamine, Masataka; Kato, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichi; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Endo, Kojiro; Murai, Chihiro; Takakubo, Yuya; Miura, Takao; Sato, Yukio; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Konta, Tsuneo; Chiba, Noriyuki; Muryoi, Tai; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Hatakeyama, Akira; Ogura, Ken; Sakuraba, Hirotake; Asano, Tomoyuki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiji; Takasaki, Satoshi; Asakura, Kenichi; Sugisaki, Kota; Suzuki, Yoko; Takagi, Michiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miura, Keiki; Mori, Yu


    To evaluate the clinical and structural efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) during its long-term administration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 693 patients with RA who started TCZ therapy were followed for 3 years. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by DAS28-ESR and Boolean remission rates in 544 patients. Joint damage was assessed by calculating the modified total Sharp score (mTSS) in 50 patients. When the reason for discontinuation was limited to inadequate response or adverse events, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year continuation rates were 84.0%, 76.8%, and 72.2%, respectively. The mean DAS28-ESR was initially 5.1 and decreased to 2.5 at 6 months and to 2.2 at 36 months. The Boolean remission rate was initially 0.9% and increased to 21.7% at 6 months and to 32.2% at 36 months. The structural remission rates (ΔmTSS/year ≤ 0.5) were 68.8%, 78.6%, and 88.9% within the first, second, and third years, respectively. The structural remission rate at 3 years (ΔmTSS ≤ 1.5) was 66.0%, and earlier achievement of swollen joint count (SJC) of 1 or less resulted in better outcomes. TCZ was highly efficacious, and bone destruction was strongly prevented. SJC was an easy-to-use indicator of joint destruction.

  18. Orthodontic treatment need of 9, 12 and 15 year-old children according to the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and the Dental Aesthetic Index. (United States)

    Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José María; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel


    To assess the differences in occlusal features in three cohorts at 9, 12 and 15 years of age, and compare orthodontic treatment need measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. School of Dentistry, University of Valencia. A total of 1086 children: 321 aged 9, 397 aged 12 and 368 aged 15. Children were examined to measure their orthodontic treatment need according to IOTN and DAI. The main outcome measure was orthodontic treatment need according to the DAI and IOTN indices. Overbite and inter-incisal diastema were the occlusal features that presented significant differences between the three groups, diminishing with age. Treatment need according to the IOTN was 15.4% at 9 years, 20.9% at 12 years and 12.8% at 15 years. Treatment need according to DAI was 44.8% at 9 years, 21.7% at 12 years and 14.1% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the two indices on the treatment need by age group was very low at 9 years (Kappa 0.18) and moderate at 12 and 15 years (Kappa 0.451 and 0.405, respectively). Orthodontic treatment need is greater in the mixed dentition and falls slightly as the child grows. The greatest variation in results between 9 and 15 years were found in relation to the DAI, which is consequently not recommended for use in the mixed dentition.

  19. The stability of DOTA-chelated radiopharmaceuticals within 225Ac decay pathway studied with density functional theory. (United States)

    Karolak, Aleksandra; Khabibullin, Artem; Budzevich, Mikalai; Martinez, M.; Doliganski, Michael; McLaughlin, Mark; Woods, Lilia; Morse, David

    Ligand structures encapsulating metal ions play a central role as contrast agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or as agents delivering toxic cargo directly to tumor cells in targeted cancer therapy. The structural stability and interaction with solutions of such complexes are the key elements in understanding the foundation of delivery process. We present a comparative study for the 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelated to radioactive isotopes of 225Ac, 221Fr, 217At, 213Bi and a control 68Gd. Using density functional theory methods we investigate the structural stability of complexes for cancer therapy including binding energies, charge transfer, electron densities. The van der Waals interactions are included in the simulations to take into account weak dispersion forces present in such structures. Our results reveal that Ac-DOTA, Bi-DOTA and Gd-DOTA are the most stable complexes in the group. We also show that the water environment is a key ingredient for the structural coordination of the DOTA structures. Support from the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  20. Edge effects enhance selfing and seed harvesting efforts in the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae). (United States)

    Tarazi, R; Sebbenn, A M; Kageyama, P Y; Vencovsky, R


    Edge effects may affect the mating system of tropical tree species and reduce the genetic diversity and variance effective size of collected seeds at the boundaries of forest fragments because of a reduction in the density of reproductive trees, neighbour size and changes in the behaviour of pollinators. Here, edge effects on the genetic diversity, mating system and pollen pool of the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii were investigated using eight microsatellite loci. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 17 seed trees within continuous savannah woodland (SW) and were compared with seeds from 11 seed trees at the edge of the savannah remnant. Seeds collected from the SW had significantly higher heterozygosity levels (Ho=0.780; He=0.831) than seeds from the edge (Ho=0.702; He=0.800). The multilocus outcrossing rate was significantly higher in the SW (tm=0.859) than in the edge (tm=0.759). Pollen pool differentiation was significant, however, it did not differ between the SW (=0.105) and the edge (=0.135). The variance effective size within the progenies was significantly higher in the SW (Ne=2.65) than at the edge (Ne=2.30). The number of seed trees to retain the reference variance effective size of 500 was 189 at the SW and 217 at the edge. Therefore, it is preferable that seed harvesting for conservation and environmental restoration strategies be conducted in the SW, where genetic diversity and variance effective size within progenies are higher.

  1. Cross-sectional survey of treatment practices for urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya: many missed opportunities for HIV prevention. (United States)

    Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J


    While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2-10) at pharmacies, 3 (1-3) at private clinics and 5 (2-17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes.

  2. [Spectral analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) treated by pulsed electric field]. (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Ruo-Bing; Chen, Jie; Wang, Li-Ming; Guan, Zhi-Cheng; Jia, Zhi-Dong


    Inactivation effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a laboratory PEF system with a coaxial treatment chamber. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence analysis were used to study the conformation change of the protein. The experimental results show that PPO and LOX can be effectively inactivated by the PEF treatment. Inactivation effect of PPO and LOX increases with the increase in the applied electric strength and the treatment time. Activity of PPO and LOX can be reduced by 60.3% and 21.7% at 20 kV x cm(-1) after being treated for 320 micros respectively. The decrease of the negative peaks (208 and 215 nm in PPO spectra, 208 nm and 218 nm in LOX spectra) in CD spectra of PPO and LOX shows that PEF treatment caused a loss of alpha-helix and increase in beta-sheet content, indicating that conformation changes occur in the secondary structure of PPO and LOX enzyme. This effect was strengthened as the applied electric field increased: alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX was 56% and 29% after being treated at 8 kV x cm(-1), however, when the electric field was increased up to 20 kV x cm(-1), alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX decreased to 21% and 16% respectively. The decrease rate of alpha-helix and increase rate of beta-sheet in PPO are higher than LOX, indicating that the second conformation of PPO is less resistant to PEF treatment than LOX. The fluorescence intensity of LOX increases after PEF treatment. At the same time, increasing the applied pulsed electric field increases the fluorescence intensity emitted. Fluorescence measurements confirm that tertiary conformation changes occur in the local structure of LOX. However the possible mechanism of the conformation change induced by the PEF treatment is beyond the scope of the present investigation.

  3. Enzyme architecture: deconstruction of the enzyme-activating phosphodianion interactions of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. (United States)

    Goldman, Lawrence M; Amyes, Tina L; Goryanova, Bogdana; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P


    The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (k(cat))(obs) for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (K(m))(obs).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Kriek, M.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.


    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the ∼1600 arcmin 2 area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8.0 μm, respectively (5σ total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 μm], [4.5 μm], [5.8 μm], and [8.0 μm]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 μm, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 * >10 11 M sun ) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  5. Effect of postprocedural full-dose infusion of bivalirudin on acute stent thrombosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Outcomes in a large real-world population. (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Liang, Zhenyang; Li, Yi; Li, Bin; Liu, Junming; Hong, Xueyi; Lu, Xin; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Qiang; An, Jian; Li, Linfeng; Pu, Fanli; Ming, Qiang; Han, Yaling


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of prolonged full-dose bivalirudin infusion in real-world population with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Subgroup data as well as meta-analysis from randomized clinical trials have shown the potency of postprocedural full-dose infusion (1.75 mg/kg/h) of bivalirudin on attenuating acute stent thrombosis (ST) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this multicenter retrospective observational study, 2047 consecutive STEMI patients treated with bivalirudin during primary PCI were enrolled in 65 Chinese centers between July 2013 and May 2016. The primary outcome was acute ST defined as ARC definite/probable within 24 hours after the index procedure, and the secondary endpoints included total ST, major adverse cardiac or cerebral events (MACCE, defined as death, reinfarction, stroke, and target vessel revascularization), and any bleeding at 30 days. Among 2047 STEMI patients, 1123 (54.9%) were treated with postprocedural bivalirudin full-dose infusion (median 120 minutes) while the other 924 (45.1%) received low-dose (0.25 mg/kg/h) or null postprocedural infusion. A total of three acute ST (0.3%) occurred in STEMI patients with none or low-dose prolonged infusion of bivalirudin, but none was observed in those treated with post-PCI full-dose infusion (0.3% vs 0.0%, P=.092). Outcomes on MACCE (2.1% vs 2.7%, P=.402) and total bleeding (2.1% vs 1.4%, P=.217) at 30 days showed no significant difference between the two groups, and no subacute ST was observed. Post-PCI full-dose bivalirudin infusion is safe and has a trend to protect against acute ST in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in real-world settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Wind tunel tests of Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.; Antoniou, I.


    This report contains 2D measurements of the Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The measurements were conducted in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel, which has a background turbulence intensity of 1%, and an inlet flow velocity of 42 m/s. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m giving a Reynolds number of 1.6Oe106. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimize 3D flow effects. The measurements comprised both static and dynamic inflow. Static inflow covered angles of attack from 5o to 30 deg. Dynamic inflow was obtained by pitching the airfoil in a harmonic motion around various mean angles of attack. The test matrix involved smooth flow, various kinds of leading edge roughness, stall strips, vortex generators and Gurney flaps in different combinations. The quality of the measurements was good and the agreement between measurements and numerical CFD predictions with EllipSys2D was good. For both airfoils predictions with turbulent flow captured very well the shapes of lift and drag curves as well as the magnitude of maximum lift. Measurements of Risoe-B1-18 showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.64 at an angle of attack of approximately 13 deg. The airfoil was not very sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high maximum lift. Measurements with stall strips showed that stall strips could control the level of maximum lift. The Risoe-B1-24 measurements showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.62 at an angle of attack of approximately 14 deg. The airfoil was only little sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high relative thickness and high maximum lift. Measurements with delta wing shaped vortex generators increased the maximum lift coefficient to 2.02 and measurements with Gurney flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient to 1.85. Measurements with combination of vortex generators and Gurney flaps showed a maximum increase in the maximum lift coefficient to 2.17. At the design Reynolds number of 6Oe10{sup 6} numerical predictions showed that there was a clear increase in the maximum lift coefficient of 0.22 for Risoe-B1-18 and 0.21 for Risoe-B1-24. (au)

  7. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.


    methodologies to be used and the CD-ROM included with this monograph contains the evaluators' comments for each radionuclide in addition to the data tables included in the monograph. This volume includes the evaluation of the following radionuclides: 22 Na, 40 K, 75 Se, 124 Sb, 207 Bi, 211 Bi, 217 At, 222 Ra, 225 Ac, 228 Ra, 231 Th, 232 Th, 233 Th, 233 Pa, 234 Th, 235 U, 237 U, 238 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Pu, 242 Am, 243 Am, 244 Am, 244 Am m . Primary recommended data comprise half-lives, decay modes, X-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions, alpha -and beta- particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties

  8. Inoculation methods and virulence of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera:Curculionidae in laboratory / Métodos de inoculação e virulência de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera:Curculionidae em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Francelli


    Full Text Available The research aimed to assess different inoculation methods of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar adults, in laboratory conditions on an isolates selection bioassay. Conidial suspensions of UEL151 strain were applied on insects through the following methods: spray, immersion, dorsal and ventral topical. Low mortalities were achieved for all inoculation methods, with a higher value for immersion (21.7% at 37 days after application (DAA, as the rest of methods were significantly lower. The evaluation must be extended to a maximum of 22 DAA because the sporulation rate (confirmed mortality / total mortality decreased with time in all methods, with values of 95.8 and 75.3%, at 22 and 37 DAA, respectively, on the immersion method. Dorsal and ventral topical methods caused not significant C. sordidus virulence, so new tests are necessary with different fungus concentrations.A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar distintos métodos de inoculação de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. em adultos de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em condições de laboratório para utilização em bioensaios de seleção de isolados. Suspensões de conídios do isolado UEL151 foram aplicadas nos insetos através dos seguintes métodos: pulverização, imersão, tópica dorsal e tópica ventral. Em todos os métodos de inoculação obtiveram-se baixos valores de mortalidade total e confirmada, com valor máximo para a imersão dos insetos (21,7% aos 37 dias após a aplicação (DAA, o qual foi significativamente maior ao resto dos métodos. Verificou-se que a avaliação deve ser de no máximo 22 DAA nas condições deste experimento, já que a taxa de esporulação (mortalidade confirmada/mortalidade total diminuiu com o tempo em todos os métodos, com valores de 95,8 e 75,3%, aos 22 e 37 daa, respectivamente no caso da imersão. Os métodos de inoculação tópica dorsal e ventral não causaram virulência significativa de C. sordidus com B. bassiana, pelo que se precisam pesquisar os mesmos, com diferentes concentrações do fungo as usadas neste ensaio.

  9. Hypertension Treatment in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Analysis of the Therapy Effectivity and the Therapeutic Inertia in Outpatient Study. (United States)

    Farský, Štefan; Strišková, Andrea; Borčin, Marián


    We have analysed the database of 1,595 consecutive patients visiting our department of cardiology and internal medicine clinic in 2005-2014. The analysis included 13,990 visit records, and the average number of visits per patient was 8.5 ± 7.0. Our goals were to evaluate the effectivity of hypertension treatment as for drug choice, decrease of sBP and dBP associated with a certain drug, a drug combination, and therapeutic inertia in patients with metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus. The final number of patients for analysis who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for interpenetration of both diagnostic circles was 570. Results . 15% of patients were treated using hypertension monotherapy, 70% of patients were treated using 2- to 4-drug combination therapy, and 15% of patients were treated using 5- to 6-drug combination. The drugs used most frequently were perindopril (perin), nitrendipine (nitre), amlodipine (amlo), telmisartan (telmi), hydrochlorothiazide (hydro), rilmenidine, and nebivolol (used in >100 patients). The most significant decrease of sBP was associated with treatment by nitre, hydro, telmi, and urapidil (>19 mmHg). The most significant decrease of dBP was associated with treatment by nitre, hydro, telmi, and verapamil (>10 mmHg). The most significant decrease of both sBP and dBP was associated with treatment using 3-drug combination of telmi + hydro + spironolactone (41 and 16 mmHg, resp.), telmi + hydro + nitre (34 and 15 mmHg, resp.), and telmi + hydro + urapidil (34 and 15 mmHg, resp.). At the last visit, 281 out of 413 patients at the first visit had sBP >140 mmHg (68%); that is, sBP control was 32%. At the last visit, 76 patients out of 217 at the first visit had dBP >90 mmHg (35%); that is, dBP control was 65%. Therapeutic inertia was calculated by evaluating the proportion of visits at which sBP was above the target for eligible visits minus the proportion of visits where the change was made in

  10. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Murine Gene Expression in Skin and Bone (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Globus, Ruth K.


    Long duration spaceflight causes a negative calcium balance and reduces bone density in astronauts. The potential for exposure to space radiation to contribute to lasting decrements in bone mass is not yet understood. Sustained changes to bone mass have a relatively long latency for development, however skin is a radiation sensitive organ and changes in skin gene expression may serve as an early radiation biomarker of exposures and may correlate with adverse effects on skeletal tissue. Previous studies have shown that FGF18 gene expression levels of hair follicles collected from astronauts on the ISS rose over time. In the hair follicle, FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in the telogen by arresting the cell cycle, and FGF18 has the potential to function as a radioprotector. In bone, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively during osteogenesis and negatively during chondrogenesis. Cellular defense responses to radiation are shared by a variety of organs, hence in this study, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We have examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (TBI). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and TBI (0.5 Gy Fe-56 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy H-1 150 MeV/n). Animals were euthanized one and 11 days post-IR. Statistical analysis was performed via a Student's ttest. In skin samples one day after IR, skin expression of FGF18 was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls (3.8X), but did not differ 11 days post TBI. Expression levels of other radiation related genes (Nfe2l2, Trp53, Cdkn1a, FoxO3, Gadd45g, SOD1), was not different due to TBI at either time point. In bone (femora) TBI significantly increased (3.8X) expression of the pro-bone resorption cytokine, MCP-1, one day after TBI. FGF18 expression in skin and MCP- 1 expression in bone were found to be positively correlated (P less than 0.002, r=0.8779). Further, microcomputed tomography analysis of tibae from these animals showed reduced fractional cancellous bone volume (-21.7%) at 11 days post exposure. These results suggest that early radiation induced changes in FGF18 gene expression in skin may have value for predicting subsequent loss of cancellous bone mass.

  11. Velocidade de estabelecimento de acessos de amendoim forrageiro na Amazônia Ocidental Speed of establishment of accessions of forage peanut in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judson Ferreira Valentim


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a velocidade de estabelecimento de acessos de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis repens e Arachis pintoi, visando selecionar materiais adaptados aos sistemas intensivos de produção pecuária do Acre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de dois acessos de A. repens, sete acessos e duas cultivares de Arachis pintoi identificados como promissores para as condições ambientais de Rio Branco, Acre. Foi adotado como testemunha A. pintoi cv. Amarillo. Os acessos Ap 65, Ap 39 e Ar 10, com desempenho semelhante às cultivares Amarillo e Belmonte, destacaram-se por apresentar excelente velocidade de estabelecimento, com índice de sobrevivência das mudas e cobertura do solo superiores a 80% e comprimento dos estolões acima de 85 cm, respectivamente, aos 50, 70 e 120 dias após o plantio. Estes genótipos apresentaram produtividade de matéria seca (MS superior a 2.300 kg/ha, taxas de acúmulo de MS iguais ou superiores a 20 kg/ha/dia e teor de proteína bruta variando entre 17,9 e 21,7%, no final do período de estabelecimento. Entre os quatro grupos heteróticos, o formado pelo acesso Ap 39 destacou-se dos demais, por apresentar valores médios a altos para todas as características avaliadas, de acordo com a análise de agrupamento realizada pelo Método de Otimização de Tocher, com base na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Para que os materiais promissores possam ser recomendados para uso nos sistemas intensivos de produção de bovinos no Acre, devem ser desenvolvidos estudos adicionais com relação à: 1 produtividade e qualidade de MS nos períodos chuvoso e seco; 2 ocorrência de pragas e doenças; 3 produção de sementes; 4 adaptação a solos de baixa permeabilidade; 5 compatibilidade com gramíneas forrageiras e espécies arbóreas e arbustivas perenes; 6 produção animal e persistência sob pastejo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the speed of establishment of accessions of Arachis repens and Arachis pintoi with the purpose of selecting materials capable of producing adequate quantities of high quality forage, according to the requirements of the intensive cattle production systems of Acre. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. The treatments consisted of two accessions of Arachis repen, seven accession and two cultivars of Arachis pintoi, identified as promising for the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre. The control treatment was A. pintoi cv. Amarillo. The accessions Ap 65, Ap 39 and Ar 10, with performance similar to the cultivars Amarillo and Belmonte, were selected because of their excellent speed of establishment with index of survival of stolon and rhizome plantings and ground cover higher than 80% and length of stolons above 85 cm, respectively, 50, 70 and 120 days after planting. These genotypes showed DM yields above 2,300 kg/ha, DM accumulation rates equal or superior to 20 kg/ha/day and crude protein content ranging from 17.9 to 21.7%, at the end of the establishment period. Among the four heterotic groups, the one consisting of accession Ap 39 outranked the others by presenting high mean values for all the characteristics evaluated according to the cluster analysis by the Tocher Optimization Method, based on the generalized Mahalanobis. For the recommendation of the promising accessions for use in the intensive cattle production systems in Acre, additional studies should be conducted in relation to: 1 dry matter yield and quality during the rainy and dry seasons; 2 occurrence of pests and diseases; 3 seed production; 4 adaptation to low permability soils; 5 compatibility with grasses and shrub and tree species; 6 animal production and persistence under grazing.