WorldWideScience

Sample records for sorted polymodal gravel

  1. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Orrú, C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic models. Two measuring techniques have been developed. The first technique is aimed at measuring the size stratification of a sand-gravel deposit through combining image analysis and a sediment remov...

  2. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orrú, C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic

  3. Effect of Hydrograph Characteristics on Vertical Grain Sorting in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Parker, G.; Egozi, R.

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the formation of armour layers over a range of hydrologic conditions that includes two limiting cases; a relatively flat hydrograph that represents conditions produced by continuous snowmelt and a sharply peaked hydrograph that represents conditions associated with flash floods. To achieve our objective we analyzed field evidence, conducted flume experiments and performed numerical simulations. Sediment supply appears to be a first-order control on bed surface armouring, while the shape of the hydrograph plays a secondary role. All constant hydrograph experiments developed a well-armored structured surface while short asymmetrical hydrographs did not show substantial vertical sorting. All symmetrical hydrographs show some degree of sorting, and the sorting tended to become more pronounced with longer duration. Using the numerical framework of Parker, modified Powell, et al. and Wilcock and Crowe, we were able to achieve similar results.

  4. METHODS OF POLYMODAL INFORMATION TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Basov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research results upon the application of the existing information transmission methods in polymodal info communication systems are presented herein. The analysis of the existing commutation ways and multiplexing schemes has revealed that modern means of telecommunication are capable of providing polymodal information delivery with the required quality to the customer correspondent terminal. Under these conditions substantial capacity resource consumption in the data transmission networks with a simultaneous static time multiplexing is required, however, it is easier to achieve the modality synchronization within that kind of an infrastructure. The data networks with a static time multiplexing demand employing more sophisticated supporting algorithms of the guaranteed data blocks delivery quality. However, due to the stochastic data blocks delays modality synchronizing during the off-line processing is more difficult to provide. Nowadays there are objective preconditions for a data networking realization which is invariable to the applied transmission technology. This capability is defined by a wide (person-to-person application of the optical technologies in the transport infrastructure of the polymodal info communication systems. In case of the availability of the customer terminal and networking functioning matching mode it becomes possible to organize channels in the latter which can adaptively select the most effective networking technology according to the current volume allocation and modality types in the messages.

  5. Pebble breakage in gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    enhances particle breakage. The quantitative analysis and modelling conducted in this study suggested the following principal conclusion: Well sorted, imbricated fluvial gravel is highly accessible to particle breakage compared to sediments comprised of more spherical and/or non- or less oriented particles. (author) [de

  6. Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has

  7. Sorting Out Sorts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  8. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  9. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  10. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  11. Experimental Study of Irregular Waves on a Gravel Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2017-04-01

    In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved

  12. Ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.P.; Richards, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    In an ore sorting apparatus, ore particles are bombarded with neutrons in a chamber and sorted by detecting radiation emitted by isotopes of elements, such as gold, forming or contained in the particles, using detectors and selectively controlling fluid jets. The isotopes can be selectively recognised by their radiation characteristics. In an alternative embodiment, shorter life isotopes are formed by neutron bombardment and detection of radiation takes place immediately adjacent the region of bombardment

  13. Sorting waves and associated eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonari, Costanza; Colombini, Marco; Solari, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The presence of mixed sediment always characterizes gravel bed rivers. Sorting processes take place during bed load transport of heterogeneous sediment mixtures. The two main elements necessary to the occurrence of sorting are the heterogeneous character of sediments and the presence of an active sediment transport. When these two key ingredients are simultaneously present, the segregation of bed material is consistently detected both in the field [7] and in laboratory [3] observations. In heterogeneous sediment transport, bed altimetric variations and sorting always coexist and both mechanisms are independently capable of driving the formation of morphological patterns. Indeed, consistent patterns of longitudinal and transverse sorting are identified almost ubiquitously. In some cases, such as bar formation [2] and channel bends [5], sorting acts as a stabilizing effect and therefore the dominant mechanism driving pattern formation is associated with bed altimetric variations. In other cases, such as longitudinal streaks, sorting enhances system instability and can therefore be considered the prevailing mechanism. Bedload sheets, first observed by Khunle and Southard [1], represent another classic example of a morphological pattern essentially triggered by sorting, as theoretical [4] and experimental [3] results suggested. These sorting waves cause strong spatial and temporal fluctuations of bedload transport rate typical observed in gravel bed rivers. The problem of bed load transport of a sediment mixture is formulated in the framework of a 1D linear stability analysis. The base state consists of a uniform flow in an infinitely wide channel with active bed load transport. The behaviour of the eigenvalues associated with fluid motion, bed evolution and sorting processes in the space of the significant flow and sediment parameters is analysed. A comparison is attempted with the results of the theoretical analysis of Seminara Colombini and Parker [4] and Stecca

  14. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  15. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  16. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  17. Binar Sort: A Linear Generalized Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilreath, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Sorting is a common and ubiquitous activity for computers. It is not surprising that there exist a plethora of sorting algorithms. For all the sorting algorithms, it is an accepted performance limit that sorting algorithms are linearithmic or O(N lg N). The linearithmic lower bound in performance stems from the fact that the sorting algorithms use the ordering property of the data. The sorting algorithm uses comparison by the ordering property to arrange the data elements from an initial perm...

  18. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Abbate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI- DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS. The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder.

  19. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV Ion Channels in Chondrogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Szűcs Somogyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mature and developing chondrocytes exist in a microenvironment where mechanical load, changes of temperature, osmolarity and acidic pH may influence cellular metabolism. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV receptors are environmental sensors mediating responses through activation of linked intracellular signalling pathways. In chondrogenic high density cultures established from limb buds of chicken and mouse embryos, we identified TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPV6 mRNA expression with RT-PCR. In both cultures, a switch in the expression pattern of TRPVs was observed during cartilage formation. The inhibition of TRPVs with the non-selective calcium channel blocker ruthenium red diminished chondrogenesis and caused significant inhibition of proliferation. Incubating cell cultures at 41 °C elevated the expression of TRPV1, and increased cartilage matrix production. When chondrogenic cells were exposed to mechanical load at the time of their differentiation into matrix producing chondrocytes, we detected increased mRNA levels of TRPV3. Our results demonstrate that developing chondrocytes express a full palette of TRPV channels and the switch in the expression pattern suggests differentiation stage-dependent roles of TRPVs during cartilage formation. As TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was altered by thermal and mechanical stimuli, respectively, these are candidate channels that contribute to the transduction of environmental stimuli in chondrogenic cells.

  20. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Carlo; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Inglese, Silvia; Viti, Niccolò; Cantatore, Alessandra; De Agostini, Lisa; Pirri, Federico; Marino, Lorenza; Bagarolo, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI-) DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder. PMID:24868122

  1. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  2. Verification of counting sort and radix sort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.C. Rot (Jurriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSorting is an important algorithmic task used in many applications. Two main aspects of sorting algorithms which have been studied extensively are complexity and correctness. [Foley and Hoare, 1971] published the first formal correctness proof of a sorting algorithm (Quicksort). While

  3. What Characterizes the Polymodal Media of the Mobile Phone? The Multiple Media within the World’s Most Popular Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hilbert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While the mobile phone is the world’s most popular media device, it is actually not one single medium, but is effectively used as a different medium by different user groups. The article characterizes polymodal differences in mobile apps usage among different user groups, including gender, education, occupation, screen size, and price. We monitored the complete app usage of 10,725 smartphone users for one month each (56 million sessions, recording almost 1 million hours. Our key contribution consists in developing and analyzing a theoretical framework to classify the over 16,000 apps used into five categories. Exploring nine research questions we provide a broad characterization by asking who, with which characteristics, uses which kinds of apps in what extensity and intensity? For example, it is not the young and high occupational grades that use the mobile phone as a human-to-machine computer (including gaming and artificial intelligence tools. Large screen size is related to extensive long sessions, while a small screen size is related to intensive frequent usage. The results go beyond providing ample empirical evidence for the inherently polymodal nature of the mobile phone, but also proposes a framework on how to deal with it analytically.

  4. Shrinkage Properties of Cement Stabilized Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Cement stabilized gravel is an attractive material in road construction because its strength prop-erties are accommodating the increasingly higher requirements to the bearing capacity of a base course. However, reflection cracking of cement stabilized gravel is a major concern. In this pa...

  5. Stabilization of gravel deposits using microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Star, W.R.L.; Van Wijngaarden, W.K.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Van Baalen, L.R.; Zwieten, G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the techniques used for the construction of underground infrastructure is horizontal directional drilling (HDD). This trenchless method is complicated when crossing gravel deposits as a borehole in coarse gravel tends to collapse, causing the drill pipe to get stuck or the failure of

  6. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G

    1985-01-01

    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  7. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  8. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  9. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  10. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...

  11. The Grain-size Patchiness of Braided Gravel-Bed Streams - example of the Urumqi River (northeast Tian Shan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L.; Barrier, L.; Narteau, C.; Métivier, F.; Liu, Y.; Lajeunesse, E.; Gayer, E.; Meunier, P.; Malverti, L.; Ye, B.

    2014-02-01

    In gravel-bed rivers, sediments are often sorted into patches of different grain-sizes, but in braided streams, the link between this sorting and the channel morpho-sedimentary elements is still unclear. In this study, the size of the bed sediment in the shallow braided gravel-bed Urumqi River is characterized by surface-count and volumetric sampling methods. Three morpho-sedimentary elements are identified in the active threads of the river: chutes at flow constrictions, which pass downstream to anabranches and bars at flow expansions. The surface and surface-layer grain-size distributions of these three elements show that they correspond to only two kinds of grain-size patches: (1) coarse-grained chutes, coarser than the bulk river bed, and (2) finer-grained anabranches and bars, consistent with the bulk river bed. In cross-section, the chute patches are composed of one coarse-grained top layer, which can be interpreted as a local armour layer overlying finer deposits. In contrast, the grain size of the bar-anabranch patches is finer and much more homogeneous in depth than the chute patches. Those patches, which are features of lateral and vertical sorting associated to the transport dynamics that build braided patterns, may be typical of active threads in shallow gravel-bed rivers and should be considered in future works on sorting processes and their geomorphologic and stratigraphic results.

  12. Perbandingan Kecepatan Gabungan Algoritma Quick Sort dan Merge Sort dengan Insertion Sort, Bubble Sort dan Selection Sort

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rivan, Muhammad Ezar

    2017-01-01

    Ordering is one of the process done before doing data processing. The sorting algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses. By taking strengths of each algorithm then combined can be a better algorithm. Quick Sort and Merge Sort are algorithms that divide the data into parts and each part divide again into sub-section until one element. Usually one element join with others and then sorted by. In this experiment data divide into parts that have size not more than threshold. This part then so...

  13. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  14. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  15. A Visual Basic program to classify sediments based on gravel-sand-silt-clay ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Nomenclature describing size distributions is important to geologists because grain size is the most basic attribute of sediments. Traditionally, geologists have divided sediments into four size fractions that include gravel, sand, silt, and clay, and classified these sediments based on ratios of the various proportions of the fractions. Definitions of these fractions have long been standardized to the grade scale described by Wentworth (1922), and two main classification schemes have been adopted to describe the approximate relationship between the size fractions.Specifically, according to the Wentworth grade scale gravel-sized particles have a nominal diameter of ⩾2.0 mm; sand-sized particles have nominal diameters from <2.0 mm to ⩾62.5 μm; silt-sized particles have nominal diameters from <62.5 to ⩾4.0 μm; and clay is <4.0 μm. As for sediment classification, most sedimentologists use one of the systems described either by Shepard (1954) or Folk (1954, 1974). The original scheme devised by Shepard (1954) utilized a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, does not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme (Fig. 1) was subsequently modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram to account for the gravel fraction (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974) is also based on two triangular diagrams (Fig. 2), but it has 23 major categories, and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). The patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of

  16. The ADP receptor P2Y1 is necessary for normal thermal sensitivity in cutaneous polymodal nociceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Michael P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P2Y1 is a member of the P2Y family of G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. Using ratiometric calcium imaging of isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that the majority of neurons responding to adenosine diphosphate, the preferred endogenous ligand, bound the lectin IB4 and expressed the ATP-gated ion channel P2X3. These neurons represent the majority of epidermal afferents in hairy skin, and are predominantly C-fiber polymodal nociceptors (CPMs, responding to mechanical stimulation, heat and in some cases cold. Results To characterize the function of P2Y1 in cutaneous afferents, intracellular recordings from sensory neuron somata were made using an ex vivo preparation in which the hindlimb skin, saphenous nerve, DRG and spinal cord were dissected in continuum, and cutaneous receptive fields characterized using digitally-controlled mechanical and thermal stimuli in male wild type mice. In P2Y1-/- mice, CPMs showed a striking increase in mean heat threshold and a decrease in mean peak firing rate during a thermal ramp from 31-52°C. A similar change in mean cold threshold was also observed. Interestingly, mechanical testing of CPMs revealed no significant differences between P2Y1-/- and WT mice. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that P2Y1 is required for normal thermal signaling in cutaneous sensory afferents. Furthermore, they suggest that nucleotides released from peripheral tissues play a critical role in the transduction of thermal stimuli in some fiber types.

  17. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...... are derivable without compromising data abstraction. Finally we point out that stable sorting functions as default representations of ordering relations have the advantage of permitting linear-time sorting algorithms; inequality tests forfeit this possibility....... function if and only it is an intrinsically parametric permutation function. It is a stable sorting function if and only if it is an intrinsically stable permutation function. We show that ordering relations can be represented isomorphically as inequality tests, comparators and stable sorting functions...

  18. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, ... the particle size distribution curve following the relationship by Christensen .... where f = friction factor, ρ = mass density of fluid, and V = mean velocity of flow. .... for the incipient motion of gravel and coal beds have been represented by simple empirical.

  19. LazySorted: A Lazily, Partially Sorted Python List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LazySorted is a Python C extension implementing a partially and lazily sorted list data structure. It solves a common problem faced by programmers, in which they need just part of a sorted list, like its middle element (the median, but sort the entire list to get it. LazySorted presents them with the abstraction that they are working with a fully sorted list, while actually only sorting the list partially with quicksort partitions to return the requested sub-elements. This enables programmers to use naive "sort first" algorithms but nonetheless attain linear run-times when possible. LazySorted may serve as a drop-in replacement for the built-in sorted function in most cases, and can sometimes achieve run-times more than 7 times faster.

  20. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  1. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  2. Decontamination process development for gravels contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Seung Su; Kim, Won Suk; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is impossible to scrub gravels in a washing tank, because gravels sinks to the bottom of the washing tank. In addition, when electrokinetic decontamination technology is applied to gravels larger than 10 cm, the removal efficiency of uranium from the gravels is reduced, because electro-osmotic flux at the surface of the gravel in electrokinetic cell reduces owing to a reduction of the particle surface area attributable to large-sized gravel. The volume ratio of gravel larger than10 cm in total volume of the soil in KAERI was about 20%. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination process of gravels contaminated with radionuclides. The optimum number of washings for contaminated gravels is considered to be two. In addition, the removal efficiency of contaminated gravel was not related to its weight. For an electrokinetic-electrodialytic decontamination period of 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, and 20 days, {sup 238}U in gravel was removed by about 42%, 64%, 74%, and 80%, respectively. The more the decontamination time elapsed, the greater the reduction of the removal efficiency ratio of {sup 238}U. The decontamination process for gravels was generated on the basis of the results of washing and electrokinetic electrodialtic experiments.

  3. Variability of hyporheic exchange in an experimental gravel bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, M. van der; Petticrew, E.L.; Owens, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments in a large outdoor flume were conducted to examine the variability of hyporheic exchange in gravel bed sediments. An 18 m long section of a 2 m wide flume was filled with a 30 cm thick gravel layer with a porosity of 0.39. The gravel of the 17 cm top layer was

  4. Magnet sorting algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1996-01-01

    Several new algorithms for sorting of dipole and/or quadrupole magnets in synchrotrons and storage rings are described. The algorithms make use of a combinatorial approach to the problem and belong to the class of random search algorithms. They use an appropriate metrization of the state space. The phase-space distortion (smear) is used as a goal function. Computational experiments for the case of the JINR-Dubna superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON have shown a significant reduction of the phase-space distortion after the magnet sorting. (orig.)

  5. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  6. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  7. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes : Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are

  8. Effect of gravel on hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, T.L.; Daniel, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    How much gravel should be allowed in low-hydraulic-conductivity, compacted soil liners? To address this question, two clayey soils are uniformly mixed with varying percentages of gravel that, by itself, has a hydraulic conductivity of 170 cm/s. Soil/gravel mixtures are compacted and then permeated. Hydraulic conductivity of the compacted gravel/soil mixtures is less than 1 x 10 -7 cm/s for gravel contents as high as 50-60%. For gravel contents ≤ 60%, gravel content is not important: all test specimens have a low hydraulic conductivity. For gravel contents > 50-60%, the clayey soils does not fill voids between gravel particles, and high hydraulic conductivity results. The water content of the nongravel fraction is found to be a useful indicator of proper moisture conditions during compaction. From these experiments in which molding water content and compactive energy are carefully controlled, and gravel is uniformly mixed with the soil, it is concluded that the maximum allowable gravel content is approximately 50%

  9. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  10. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  11. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  12. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.......Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  13. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  14. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  15. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  16. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  17. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  18. Track data sort program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, N.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of the MASKA program, based on the principle of sorting points array at surface due to their belonging to the topologically connected regions with boundaries of locked broken lines. The algorithm is realized on the ES-1010 computer for automatic image processing from the bubble chambers by scanning measuring projector. The methods are considered for constructing the above mentioned regions for all the images according to the base points measured on the semiautomatic measuring table. The MASKA program is written in the ASSEMBLER-2 language and equals 3.5K words of the main memory. The average processing time for 10000 points according to one mask is 1 sec

  19. Can coarse surface layers in gravel-bedded rivers be mobilized by finer gravel bedload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Nelson, P. A.; Wydzga, M. A.; Fadde, J.; Sklar, L.

    2005-12-01

    In response to reductions in sediment supply, gravel-bed rivers undergo a coarsening of the sediments that comprise the river's bed and, over some longer time scale, a river's grade may also be reduced as sediments are depleted from upstream reaches. Coarse, degraded river reaches are commonly observed downstream of dams across the Western United States. Following dam closure, these riverbeds become immobile under the altered flow and sediment supply regimes, leading to a reduction in the available salmon spawning and rearing habitat. Gravel augmentation to these streams is now common practice. This augmentation is typically seen as resurfacing the static coarse bed. As an alternative, we propose that the addition of appropriately finer gravels to these channels may be capable of mobilizing an otherwise immobile coarse surface layer, creating the potential to release fine material trapped beneath the surface. A series of laboratory experiments are being undertaken to test this hypothesis in a 30 m long and 0.86 m wide gravel-bedded flume channel using a constant discharge and a unimodal bed sediment with a median grain size of 8 mm and no sand present. The channel width-to-depth ratio of ~4 suppresses the development of lateral topography and allows us to focus on grain-to-grain interactions. Experiments proceed by maintaining a constant sediment feed until an equilibrium grade and transport rate are established, starving the flume of sediment for at least 24 hours, and then adding narrowly graded gravel over a period of one to two hours at a rate that is ~4x the bedload rate observed prior to terminating the sediment supply. The bed prior to sediment addition has an armor median grain size that is typically twice that of the subsurface and feed size distribution. The volume and median grain size of the resulting pulses are varied. Pulses move downstream rapidly with well-defined fronts in the form of bedload sheets and cause peaks in the sediment flux

  20. Algorithm Sorts Groups Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    For efficient sorting, algorithm finds set containing minimum or maximum most significant data. Sets of data sorted as desired. Sorting process simplified by reduction of each multielement set of data to single representative number. First, each set of data expressed as polynomial with suitably chosen base, using elements of set as coefficients. Most significant element placed in term containing largest exponent. Base selected by examining range in value of data elements. Resulting series summed to yield single representative number. Numbers easily sorted, and each such number converted back to original set of data by successive division. Program written in BASIC.

  1. Discrete Element Modeling of the Mobilization of Coarse Gravel Beds by Finer Gravel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Tan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown that the addition of fine gravel particles to a coarse bed will mobilize the coarser bed, and that the effect is sufficiently strong that a pulse of fine gravel particles can mobilize an impacted coarser bed. Recent flume experiments have demonstrated that the degree of bed mobilization by finer particles is primarily dependent on the particle size ratio of the coarse and fine particles, rather than absolute size of either particle, provided both particles are sufficiently large. However, the mechanism behind the mobilization is not understood. It has previously been proposed that the mechanism is driven by a combination of geometric effects and hydraulic effects. For example, it has been argued that smaller particles fill in gaps along the bed, resulting in a smoother bed over which the larger particles are less likely to be disentrained and a reduced near-bed flow velocity and subsequent increased drag on protruding particles. Altered near-bed turbulence has also been cited as playing an important role. We perform simulations using the discrete element method with one-way fluid-solid coupling to conduct simulations of mobilization of a gravel bed by fine gravel particles. By independently and artificially controlling average and fluctuating velocity profiles, we systematically investigate the relative role that may be played by particle-particle interactions, average near-bed velocity profiles, and near-bed turbulence statistics. The simulations indicate that the relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the degree of mobilization of the bed. For higher bed mobility similar to bed sheets, particle-particle interactions, plays a significant role in an apparent rheology in the bed sheets, not unlike that observed in a dense granular flow of particles of different sizes. For conditions closer to a critical shear stress for bedload transport, the near-bed velocity profiles and turbulence statistics become increasingly important.

  2. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    OpenAIRE

    Reina, Reina; Gautama, Josef Bernadi

    2013-01-01

    Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. ...

  3. Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Elizabeth H; Attal, Mikaël; Sinclair, Hugh D

    2017-04-26

    Rivers sourced in the Himalayan mountain range carry some of the largest sediment loads on the planet, yet coarse gravel in these rivers vanishes within approximately 10-40 kilometres on entering the Ganga Plain (the part of the North Indian River Plain containing the Ganges River). Understanding the fate of gravel is important for forecasting the response of rivers to large influxes of sediment triggered by earthquakes or storms. Rapid increase in gravel flux and subsequent channel bed aggradation (that is, sediment deposition by a river) following the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reduced channel capacity and increased flood inundation. Here we present an analysis of fan geometry, sediment grain size and lithology in the Ganga Basin. We find that the gravel fluxes from rivers draining the central Himalayan mountains, with upstream catchment areas ranging from about 350 to 50,000 square kilometres, are comparable. Our results show that abrasion of gravel during fluvial transport can explain this observation; most of the gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream is converted into sand by the time it reaches the Ganga Plain. These findings indicate that earthquake-induced sediment pulses sourced from the Greater Himalayas, such as that following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, are unlikely to drive increased gravel aggradation at the mountain front. Instead, we suggest that the sediment influx should result in an elevated sand flux, leading to distinct patterns of aggradation and flood risk in the densely populated, low-relief Ganga Plain.

  4. The Development of Treatment Process Technology for Radioactive Gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Dong Bin; Kim, Gye Nam; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Wan Suk; Lee, Kun Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The soil washing method holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil as it is very efficient at removal and is time-effective for a great deal of contaminated soils. In addition, this method compensates for a weak point in that is generates a great deal of uranium-contaminated leachate with a short reaction time. Therefore, the soil washing method technology is a good method to remove the initial radioactive substance. The soil dimension compositions consist of clay with small particle sizes, and gravel of larger particle sizes than clay. Also, large gravel creates several problems. Gravel weakens the intensity of the equipment. In addition, intercept soil is discharged in the equipment. And interfere with the pedal recurrence occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to classify the soil. The gravel particle size ranges from 0.5cm to 7.5cm and the granulated gravel particle size ranges from 7.5cm to 20cm. We suppose that the radioactive concentrations are stronger in soil particles larger than the soil particle size (below a 0.5cm diameter). The purpose of this study is to develop a soil washing system for uranium gravel and to define the most suitable operational conditions for the individual elemental equipment in a soil washing system for decontaminating the radioactive gravel from contaminated soil

  5. Removal of uranium from gravel using soil washing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Kye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of nuclear technology has led to increasing radioactive waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the nuclear sites. Fine grained soils with a size of less than 4 mm are normally decontaminated using soil washing and electro-kinetic technologies. However, there have been few studies on the decontamination of gravels with a size of more than 4 mm. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination of gravel contaminated with radionuclides. The main objective of the present study on soil washing was to define the optimal condition for acid treatment of uranium-polluted gravel. In this study, soil washing method was applied to remove uranium from gravel. The gravel was crushed and classified as particle sizes. The gravel particles were treated with sulfuric acid in a shaking incubator at 60 .deg. C and 150 rpm for 3 h. The optimal particle size of gravel for soil washing in removal of uranium was between 0.45 and 2.0 mm.

  6. Large submarine sand waves and gravel lag substrates on Georges Bank off Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.; Harris, Peter T; Baker, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow, continental shelf feature offshore of New England and Atlantic Canada. The bank is mantled with a veneer of glacial debris transported during the late Pleistocene from continental areas lying to the north. These sediments were reworked by marine processes during postglacial sea-level transgression and continue to be modified by the modern oceanic regime. The surficial geology of the Canadian portion of the bank is a widespread gravel lag overlain in places by well sorted sand occurring as bedforms. The most widespread bedforms are large, mobile, asymmetrical sand waves up to 19 m in height formed through sediment transport by strong tidal-driven and possibly storm-driven currents. Well-defined curvilinear bedform crests up to 15 km long form a complex bifurcating pattern having an overall southwest–northeast strike, which is normal to the direction of the major axis of the semidiurnal tidal current ellipse. Minor fields of immobile, symmetrical sand waves are situated in bathymetric lows. Rare mobile, asymmetrical barchan dunes are lying on the gravel lag in areas of low sand supply. On Georges Bank, the management of resources and habitats requires an understanding of the distribution of substrate types, their surface dynamics and susceptibility to movement, and their associated fauna.

  7. Experiment on Physical Desalinisation of Uranium-contaminated Gravel Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jai-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    As a result, the method to wash uranium-contaminated gravels could not get satisfactory desalinization rate. During the long oxidization process it was judged that uranium penetrated inside the gravels, so we tried to increase the desalinization rate by fragmentizing them into pieces and then washing them. The desalinization rate after fragmentizing the gravels into pieces and washing them brought a satisfactory result.. However, we could obtain desired concentration for gravels with high uranium concentration by fragmentizing them and breaking them further into even smaller pieces. Likewise, desalinization using soil washing process is complicated and has to go through multiple washing steps, resulting in too much of waste fluid generated accordingly. The increase of waste fluid generated leads to the increase in by-products of the final disposal process later on, bringing a not good economic result. Furthermore, taking into account that the desalinization rate is 65% during soil washing process, it is expected that gravel washing will show a similar desalinization result; it is considered uneasy to have a perfect desalinization only by soil washing. The grinding method is actually used in the primary desalinization process in order to desalinize radioactivity-contaminated concrete. This method does desalinization by grinding the radioactivity-contaminated area of the concrete surface with desalinization equipment, which enables a near-to-perfect desalinization for relatively thinly contaminated surface. Likewise, this research verified the degree of desalinization by applying the grinding method and comparing it to the fragmentizing-washing method, and attempted to find a method to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively. In order to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively and compare to the existing washing-desalinization method, we conducted a desalinization experiment with grinding method that grinds gravel surface. As a

  8. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  9. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Reckermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological parameters (radiotracer-uptake rates, to the production of clonal or non-clonal cultures from mixtures, to the isolaton of cell groups from natural assemblages for molecular analyses, and for taxonomic identification of sorted cells by microscopy. The application of cell sorting from natural water samples from the Wadden Sea, including different cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and diatoms, is shown, as well as the establishment of laboratory cultures from field samples. The optional use of a red laser to account for phycocyanine-rich cells is also discussed.

  10. Gravel addition as a habitat restoration technique for tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McManamay; D. Orth; Charles Dolloff; Mark Cantrell

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of passive gravel addition at forming catostomid spawning habitat under various flow regimes in the Cheoah River, a high-gradient tailwater river in North Carolina. The purpose was to provide a case study that included recommendations for future applications. A total of 76.3 m3 (162 tons) of washed gravel (10-50 mm) was passively dumped down...

  11. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss Among Sand and Gravel Miners

    OpenAIRE

    Landen, Deborah; Wilkins, Steve; Stephenson, Mark; McWilliams, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss, and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. Sand and gravel miners (n = 317) were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures, and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed both before...

  12. Gravel Mobility in a High Sand Content Riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In sand-gravel channels, sand may modify gravel transport by changing conditions of entrainment and promoting longer displacements or gravel may inhibit sand transport if concentrated into distinct deposits, which restrict sand supply with consequences for migrating bedform size or form. This study reports on gravel mobility in the lower San Antonio River, Texas, where gravel content in the bed material ranges from about 1% to more than 20%. Sediment transport observations were collected at three U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations by deploying a Helley-Smith sampler with a 0.2 mm mesh bag from which transport rates and mobile grain sizes were determined. The flow rates sampled translate into an annual exceedance expectation from 0.2% to 98%. Gravel transport rates are generally two orders of magnitude smaller than the rates of sand transport. However, the finest gravels are transported at rates on the same order of magnitude as the coarsest sands. At all sites, the 2 and 2.8 mm fractions are transported at the lowest flow rate sampled, suggesting mobility for at least 38% to as much as 98% of the year. Fractions as large as 8 mm are mobilized at flow rates that are expected between 25% and 53% of the year. The largest fractions captured in the sampling (16 to 32 mm) require flows closer to bankfull conditions that occur no more than 0.8% of the year. Results document that some gravel sizes can be frequently transported in low gradient riverbeds with high sand content.

  13. Reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss shape, scale and superimposed types of sandy gravel bodies in sandy-gravel braided distributary channel. Lithofacies analysis, hierarchy bounding surface analysis and subsurface dense well pattern combining with outcrops method were used to examine reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel based on cores, well logging, and outcrops data, and the reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channels in different grades have been established. The study shows: (1 The main reservoir architecture elements for sandy gravel braided channel delta are distributary channel and overbank sand, while reservoir flow barrier elements are interchannel and lacustrine mudstone. (2 The compound sand bodies in the sandy gravel braided delta distributary channel take on three shapes: sheet-like distributary channel sand body, interweave strip distributary channel sand body, single strip distributary channel sand body. (3 Identification marks of single distributary channel include: elevation of sand body top, lateral overlaying, “thick-thin-thick” feature of sand bodies, interchannel mudstone and overbank sand between distributary channels and the differences in well log curve shape of sand bodies. (4 Nine lithofacies types were distinguished in distributary channel unit interior, different channel units have different lithofacies association sequence.

  14. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  15. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  16. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  17. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    for a particular patient. Due to the limited resources within the Danish healthcare system, initiating cancer pathways for all patients with a remote suspicion of cancer would crash the system, as it would be impossible for healthcare professionals to commit to the prescribed schedules and times defined...... they show that sorting patients before initiating a standardized cancer pathway is not a simple process of deciding on a predefined category that will stipulate particular dates and times. Instead, these informal sorting mechanisms show that the process of sorting patients prior to diagnosis......In the last couple of years, widespread use of standardized cancer pathways has been seen across a range of countries, including Denmark, to improve prognosis of cancer patients. In Denmark, standardized cancer pathways take the form of guidelines prescribing well-defined sequences where steps...

  18. The gravel sand transition in a disturbed catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, A. David

    1999-03-01

    More than 40 million cubic metres of mining waste were supplied to the Ringarooma River between 1875 and 1984, leading to successive phases of aggradation and degradation. The natural bed material is gravel but, given the volume of introduced load and the fact that much of the input was less than 5 mm in diameter, the size composition of the bed changed from gravel to sand during the phase of downstream progressive aggradation. A very sharp gravel-sand transition developed in which median grain size decreased from over 30 mm to under 3 mm in less than 500 m. With upstream supplies of mining debris becoming depleted first, degradation followed the same downstream progressive pattern as aggradation, causing the transition to migrate downstream. By 1984, the river could be regarded as a series of zones, each characterized by a particular bed condition: a natural cobble-gravel bed, unaffected by mining inputs (0-32 km); pre-disturbance bed re-exposed by degradation over 35-40 years (32-53 km); sandy substrate with a gravel armour produced by differential transport during degradation (53-65 km); sand dominated but with developing surface patches of coarser material (65-75 km); sandy bed reflecting the size composition of the original mining input (75-118 km). Although the gravel-sand transition itself is sharp, the transitional zone is lengthy (53-75 km). As degradation continues, the gravel-sand transition is expected to progress downstream but it has remained in a stable position for 12 years. Indeed, two major floods during the period released large quantities of sand from the sub-armour layer and newly-formed banks of mine tailings, causing fining both above and below the transition. Surface grain size is an adjustable component in the transitional zone as the river strives to recover from a major anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; Hermsen, Jerome M.; Valentine, Page C.

    2009-09-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m 2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  20. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; Hermsen, Jerome M.; Valentine, Page C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  1. Treatment of Gravel Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M. A.; Kamal, S. M.; Mamoon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental protection primarily means controlling the releases of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes to the environment and involves treatment, storage, cleanup and disposal of these wastes. The present study concerns the cleanup of gravel that has been contaminated with 2 26 R a. Aqueous solutions of different compositions including water and various concentrations of calcium chloride and barium chloride were used to leach the contaminated gravel. The leaching experiments were carried out in glass column. In some leaching experiments, samples of sandy soil were placed below the gravel to test the sorption of the leached 2 26 R a by the soil. The relative efficiencies of the leachant and the extent of sorption of the leached radionuclide were determined both by the liquid scintillation counting and by the thermoluminescent chips. The TLD chips record the dose before and after decontamination of the gravel and before and after contamination of the soil samples when used. The results obtained indicated that acidified barium chloride was relatively the most effective leachant of 2 26 R a contamination. It reduced the dose from the contaminated gravel to almost half. The soil sample used adsorbs the leached radionuclides efficiently, increasing the soil naturally low dose to about six folds

  2. Leaching of RA-226 contaminated gravel using different aqueous treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A; Abulfaraj, W H; Sohsah, M A [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arbabia (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Investigation of the efficiencies of different aqueous leaching treatments was carried out on gravel artificially contaminated with Ra-226. The extent of leaching efficiency was determined in terms of Ra-226 and its daughter Rn-222. Liquid scintillation counting using high efficiency mineral oil based liquid scintillator was the technique adopted for measuring Ra-226 and Rn-222 leached off the contaminated gravel. Water, dilute solutions of barium chloride and HCl were used as leachants. Different masses of gravel were leached with 200 mL of leachant for various contact time periods. The leached Rn-222 activity measured was plotted vs the decay factor e; from which Rn-222 and Ra-226 originally present in the sample were determined. Several leaching parameters were tested; namely type of leachant, leachant volume/gravel mass ratio, leachant contact time, effect of varying Ba Cl{sub 2} concentration, and successive leaching. Optimization of the leaching parameters for desorption of Ra-226 off the contaminated gravel under laboratory conditions may help determine the ideal conditions for remediating soil contaminated with radium or chemically similar radionuclides. 7 figs.

  3. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  4. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  5. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A; Teplykh, S; Bukhman, N

    2016-01-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks. (paper)

  6. Learning banknote fitness for sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Markus, P.; Balke, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a machine learning method is proposed for banknote soiling determination. We apply proven techniques from computer vision to come up with a robust and effective method for automatic sorting of banknotes. The proposed method is evaluated with respect to various invariance classes. The

  7. Quantum lower bound for sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2000-01-01

    We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).

  8. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  9. Filtration and transport of Bacillus subtilis spores and the F-RNA phage MS2 in a coarse alluvial gravel aquifer: implications in the estimation of setback distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Goltz, Mark; Noonan, Mike; Sinton, Lester

    2005-04-01

    water standards for the downgradient wells under natural gradient conditions. Based on the results of this study, a 7-log reduction would require 125-280 m travel in clean coarse gravel aquifers, 1.7-3.9 km travel in contaminated coarse gravel aquifers, 33-61 m travel in clean sandy fine gravel aquifers, 33-129 m travel in contaminated sandy fine gravel aquifers, and 37-44 m travel in contaminated river and coastal sand aquifers. These recommended setback distances are for a worst-case scenario, assuming direct discharge of raw effluent into the saturated zone of an aquifer. Filtration theory was applied to calculate collision efficiency (alpha) from model-derived attachment rates (katt), and the results are compared with those reported in the literature. The calculated alpha values vary by two orders-of-magnitude, depending on whether collision efficiency is estimated from the effective particle size (d10) or the mean particle size (d50). Collision efficiency values for MS-2 are similar to those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ) [DeBorde, D.C., Woessner, W.W., Kiley, QT., Ball, P., 1999. Rapid transport of viruses in a floodplain aquifer. Water Res. 33 (10), 2229-2238]. However, the collision efficiency values calculated for Bacillus subtilis spores were unrealistic, suggesting that filtration theory is not appropriate for theoretically estimating filtration capacity for poorly sorted coarse gravel aquifer media. This is not surprising, as filtration theory was developed for uniform sand filters and does not consider particle size distribution. Thus, we do not recommend the use of filtration theory to estimate the filter factor or setback distances. Either of the methods applied in this work (BTC or concentration vs. distance analyses), which takes into account aquifer heterogeneities and site-specific conditions, appear to be most useful in determining filter factors and setback distances.

  10. Stabilizing cinder gravels for heavily trafficked base course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the improvement of natural cinder gravels with the use of stabilization techniques was made using samples collected from quarry sites near Alemgena and Lake Chamo. Mechanical and cement stabilizations were investigated in two subsequent phases. In the first phase, optimum amount of fine soils that ...

  11. stabilization of cinder gravel with cment for base course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Girma Berhanu

    techniques was made using samples collected from quarry sites near ... design standards for heavily trafficked base course without adding ... Cinder gravel, Mechanized stabilization, Optimum cement content ... respectively. In the presentation through out the .... here to indicate the general response of cement stabilization in ...

  12. Radon diffusion studies in air, gravel, sand, soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon isotopes are practically inert and have properties of gases under conditions of geological interest. During their brief lives their atoms are capable of moving from sites of their generation. Radon diffusion studies were carried out in air, gravel, sand, soil and water using silicon diffused junction electronic detector, Alphameter-400. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials. (author)

  13. Effects of gravel mulch on emergence of galleta grass seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office, Technology Development and Program Management Division, has identified the need to clean up several sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range contaminated with surface plutonium. An important objective of the project identified as the Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop technologies to stabilize and restore the disturbed sites after decontamination. Revegetation of these contaminated sites will be difficult due to their location in the arid Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The major factors which will affect successful plant establishment and growth at these sites are limited and sporadic precipitation, limited soil water, extreme air and soil temperatures, limited topsoil, and herbivory . Research has shown that providing microsites for seed via mulching can aid in plant emergence and establishment. Since many of the soils at the sites slated for plutonium decontamination have a large percentage of gravel in the upper 10 cm of soil, the use of gravel as mulch could provide microsites for seed and stabilize soils during subsequent revegetation of the sites. In July 1992, EG ampersand G/EM Environmental Sciences Department initiated a greenhouse study to examine the possible benefits of gravel mulch. The specific objectives of this greenhouse study were to: (1) determine the effects seedling emergence and soil water, and (2) determine effects of irrigation rates on seedling emergence for gravel mulches and other conventional seedbed preparation techniques. A secondary objective was to determine the depth of gravel mulch that was optimal for seedling emergence. Results from this greenhouse study will assist in formulating specific reclamation plans for sites chosen for cleanup

  14. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  15. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L S

    1990-06-01

    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  16. Fisher Sand & Gravel New Mexico, Inc. General Air Quality Permit: Related Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to the Fisher Sand & Gravel – New Mexico, Inc., Grey Mesa Gravel Pit General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country.

  17. School accountability Incentives or sorting?

    OpenAIRE

    Hege Marie Gjefsen; Trude Gunnes

    2015-01-01

    We exploit a nested school accountability reform to estimate the causal effect on teacher mobility, sorting, and student achievement. In 2003, lower-secondary schools in Oslo became accountable to the school district authority for student achievement. In 2005, information on school performance in lower secondary education also became public. Using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, we find a significant increase in teacher mobility and that almost all non-stayers leave the tea...

  18. External parallel sorting with multiprocessor computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comanceau, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes methods of external sorting in which the entire main computer memory is used for the internal sorting of entries, forming out of them sorted segments of the greatest possible size, and outputting them to external memories. The obtained segments are merged into larger segments until all entries form one ordered segment. The described methods are suitable for sequential files stored on magnetic tape. The needs of the sorting algorithm can be met by using the relatively slow peripheral storage devices (e.g., tapes, disks, drums). The efficiency of the external sorting methods is determined by calculating the total sorting time as a function of the number of entries to be sorted and the number of parallel processors participating in the sorting process

  19. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan

    2011-01-01

    from two decades ago by Faigle and Turán. In particular, we present the first algorithm that sorts a width-$w$ poset of size $n$ with query complexity $O(n(w+\\log n))$ and prove that this query complexity is asymptotically optimal. We also describe a variant of Mergesort with query complexity $O......(wn\\log\\frac{n}{w})$ and total complexity $O(w^{2}n\\log\\frac{n}{w})$; an algorithm with the same query complexity was given by Faigle and Turán, but no efficient implementation of that algorithm is known. Both our sorting algorithms can be applied with negligible overhead to the more general problem of reconstructing transitive......Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...

  20. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Reina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. First is randomized data, and the second is data of descending list. Comparison of process time has been done in two kinds of programming language that is C programming language and FORTRAN programming language. The result shows that bubble sort needs more time than insertion sort does.

  1. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  2. Macroinvertebrate Community responses to gravel addition in a Southeastern regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; A. Charles. Dolloff

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread...

  3. Woody biomass comminution and sorting - a review of mechanical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Umeaa (Sweden)], e-mail: gunnar.eriksson@slu.se

    2012-11-01

    The increased demand for woody biomass for heat and electricity and biorefineries means that each bio component must be used efficiently. Any increase in raw material supply in the short term is likely to require the use of trees from early thinnings, logging residues and stumps, assortments of low value compared to stemwood. However, sorting of the novel materials into bio components may increase their value considerably. The challenge is to 1) maximise the overall values of the different raw material fractions for different users, 2) minimise costs for raw material extraction, processing, storage and transportation. Comminution of the raw material (e.g. to chips, chunks, flakes and powder) and sorting the bio components (e.g. separating bark from pulp chips and separating alkali-rich needles and shots for combustion and gasification applications) are crucial processes in this optimisation. The purpose of this study has been to make a literature review of principles for comminution and sorting, with an emphasis on mechanical methods suitable outside industries. More efficient comminution methods can be developed when the wood is to a larger extent cut along the fibre direction, and closer to the surface (with less pressure to the sides of the knife). By using coarse comminution (chunking) rather than fine comminution (chipping), productivity at landings can be increased and energy saved, the resulting product will have better storage and drying properties. At terminals, any further comminution (if necessary) could use larger-scale equipment of higher efficiency. Rolls and flails can be used to an increasing extent for removing foliage and twigs, possibly in the terrain (for instance fitted on grapples). Physical parameters used for sorting of the main components of trees include particle size, density and shape (aerodynamic drag and lift), optical and IR properties and X-ray fluorescence. Although methods developed for pulp chip production from whole trees may not

  4. Evidence for aeolian origins of heuweltjies from buried gravel layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cramer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although heuweltjies (19–32 m diameter dominate the surface of much of the southwestern Cape of South Africa, their origins, distribution and age remain controversial. Current hypotheses are that the heuweltjies are (1 constructed by the excavation and mounding habits of burrowing animals; (2 the result of erosion by water of areas between patches protected from fluvial action by denser vegetation or (3 the product of localised aeolian sediment accumulation beneath denser vegetation associated with termitaria. At a site where quartz-containing gravels occur on the soil surface in areas between heuweltjies, these gravels were found to extend as a relatively intact layer of uniform concentration from the inter-mound area into the mound at the same plane as the surrounding soil surface. This buried layer suggests that heuweltjies were either built-up by deposition on a previous soil surface layer or eroded from sediment accumulated above the buried gravel layer. Mounds contain a relatively large proportion of silt consistent with sediment deposition. Mound sediment elemental composition was strongly correlated with that of local shale, indicating a local source of sediment. Pedogenesis was considerably more advanced off- than on-mound. There was no evidence of extensive regional aeolian sediment mantling over the vast area in which the heuweltjies occur. These findings and observations support the aeolian deposition hypothesis of heuweltjie origins combined with a degree of erosion, rather than a termite bioturbation hypothesis or a predominantly erosion-based hypothesis.

  5. Measurement of earthquake-induced shear strain in sandy gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, I.; Futaki, M.; Yamanouchi, H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power reactor buildings have been constructed on the hard rock ground formed in or before the Tertiary in Japan. This is mainly because the nuclear reactor building is much heavier than the common buildings and requires a large bearing capacity of the underlying soil deposit, and additionally the excessive deformation in soil deposit might cause damage in reactor building and subsequently cause the malfunction of the internal important facilities. Another reason is that the Quaternary soil deposit is not fully known with respect to its dynamic property. The gravel, and the sandy gravel, the representative soils of the Quaternary, have been believed to be suitable soil deposits to support the foundation of a common building, although the soils have rarely been investigated so closely on their physical properties quantitatively. In this paper, the dynamic deformability, i.e., the shear stress-strain relationship of the Quaternary diluvial soil deposit is examined through the earthquake ground motion measurement using accelerometers, pore-pressure meters, the specific devices developed in this research work. The objective soil deposit in this research is the sandy gravel of the diluvial and the alluvial

  6. Evolution of completion tools gravel pack systems for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Hightower, Chad; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Conventional gravel pack or frac pack completions typically require the use of wash pipe to act as a conduit for fluid returns as well as to carry a shifting mechanism to open or close a return port. Using properly sized wash pipe can enhance the placement of the gravel across the entire annular space and the formation. It can also be used in conjunction with a shifting mechanism and a sliding sleeve to force the fluid returns to pass through the bottom of the screen. It can allow a wash-down capability while running the assembly into an open hole. In specialty systems, it can even act as a pumping conduit for post-gravel pack stimulation. However, the use of wash pipe, especially in long horizontal wells, means the loss of valuable rig time due to make up and break out of the wash pipe, or recovery if the wash pipe is stuck. Economic considerations, along with completion efficiencies, are especially important on deep water completions. Not using wash pipe reduces rig time, generating significant cost savings, and also eliminates the risk of a fishing operation. This paper reviews conventional wash pipe applications and describes new systems that accomplish the same goal with a minimum amount of wash pipe or no wash pipe at all. (author)

  7. Comparison of different forms of gravel as aggregate in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru ORITOLA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gradation plays an important role in the workability, segregation, and pump ability of concrete. Uniformly distributed aggregates require less paste which will also decrease bleeding, creep and shrinkage while producing better workability, more durable concrete and higher packing. This attempt looks at the effect of particle size distribution pattern for five types of gravel aggregate forms, angular, elongated, smooth rounded, irregular and flaky as related to the strength of concrete produced. Different forms of naturally existing gravel aggregate were collected from a particular location and tests were carried out on them to determine their gradation. Based on the gradation the aggregates were used to prepare different samples of grade 20 concrete with water-cement ratio of 0.5. The particle size distribution resulted in coefficients of uniformity ranging from 1.24 to 1.44. The granite aggregate, which serves as a reference, had a coefficient of uniformity of 1.47. Tests were conducted on fresh and hardened concrete cube samples. The concrete sample CT5 recorded a slump of 32mm and highest compressive strength value of 21.7 N/mm2, among the concrete produced from different forms of gravel.

  8. Ecological Effects of Re-introduction of Salmonid Spawning Gravel in Lowland Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    recently been conducted in many streams and rivers. However, systematic monitoring of these spawning gravel restoration projects is limited. The overall aim of this paper was to evaluate gravel reintroduction as a long-term salmonid rehabilitation method in 32 lowland streams. Displacement of gravel......, including both restored reaches and upstream control reaches. Downstream displacement of gravel was most common at sites where gravel was reintroduced without further improvement, although these sites exhibited the highest density of YOY brown trout (Salmo trutta), evidencing that the remaining gravel...... is still functional. The intensive study of three streams showed that spawning was enhanced by the introduction of spawning gravel at the restored sites compared to control sites and that habitat quality generally were improved. Our results also suggest complex interactions exist between spawning activity...

  9. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian; Hö pfner, Hagen; Roychoudhury, Suman; Mansour, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  10. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractTim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting

  11. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  12. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1·8–4·1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  13. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  14. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  15. Sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation planning using microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariffin, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the application of microcomputers, also known as personal computers, in planning for sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation at a site in Story County, Iowa. This site, called the Arrasmith Pit, is operated by Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc. The Arrasmith site, which encompasses an area of about 25 acres, is a relatively small site for aggregate mining. However, planning for the concurrent mine operation and reclamation program at this site is just as critical as with larger sites and the planning process is the same.

  16. Particulate removal processes and hydraulics of porous gravel media filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, J. M.; Phoenix, V. R.; Dorea, C. C.; Haynes, H.; Sloan, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) are rapidly gaining acceptance as a low-cost tool for treating urban runoff pollutants close to source. Road runoff water in particular requires treatment due to the presence of high levels of suspended particles and heavy metals adsorbed to these particles. The aim of this research is to elucidate the particle removal processes that occur within gravel filters that have so far been considered as 'black-box' systems. Based on these findings, a better understanding will be attained on what influences gravel filter removal efficiency and how this changes throughout their design life; leading to a more rational design of this useful technology. This has been achieved by tying together three disparate research elements: tracer residence time distribution curves of filters during clogging; 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of clogging filters and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of complex filter pore networks. This research relates column average changes in particle removal efficiency and tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) due to clogging with non-invasive measurement of the spatial variability in particle deposition. The CFD modelling provides a link between observed deposition patterns, flow velocities and wall shear stresses as well as the explanations for the change in RTD with clogging and the effect on particle transport. Results show that, as a filter clogs, particles take a longer, more tortuous path through the filter. This is offset by a reduction in filter volume resulting in higher flow velocities and more rapid particle transport. Higher velocities result in higher shear stresses and the development of preferential pathways in which the velocity exceeds the deposition threshold and the overall efficiency of the filter decreases. Initial pore geometry is linked to the pattern of deposition and subsequent formation of preferential pathways. These results shed light on the 'black-box' internal

  17. Experimental investigation on heat transport in gravel-sand materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureschat, Gerald; Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    in sand-gravel material, the storage media is to be water satured. In this case, handling of such material on site is rather complex. The conduction is highly dependent on the thermal properties of the storage media and so is the overall thermal performance of a storage applying such media. For sandy...... out in a small size experiment. The experiment consists of a highly insulated box filled with two kinds of sand material crossed by a plastic heat pipe. Heat transfer is measured under dry and water satured conditions in a cross-section.The conclusions are clear. To obtain necessary heat conduction...

  18. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farooq Umar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Shafqat Ali Shad; Muhammad Wasif Nisar

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insert...

  19. Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A

    2010-03-21

    We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.

  20. Algorithm 426 : Merge sort algorithm [M1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.

    1972-01-01

    Sorting by means of a two-way merge has a reputation of requiring a clerically complicated and cumbersome program. This ALGOL 60 procedure demonstrates that, using recursion, an elegant and efficient algorithm can be designed, the correctness of which is easily proved [2]. Sorting n objects gives

  1. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  2. Heuristic framework for parallel sorting computations | Nwanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parallel sorting techniques have become of practical interest with the advent of new multiprocessor architectures. The decreasing cost of these processors will probably in the future, make the solutions that are derived thereof to be more appealing. Efficient algorithms for sorting scheme that are encountered in a number of ...

  3. Magnethophoretic sorting of fluid catalytic cracking particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Nieuwelink, A. E.; Odijk, Mathieu; Meirer, Florian; Abelmann, Leon; Olthuis, Wouter; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; van den Berg, Albert; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip particle activity sorter, focused on iron concentration and based on magnetophoresis. This device was used for fast sorting of stepwise homogenously distributed [Fe]s. The preliminary results are very encouraging. We show that we can sort particles on magnetic moment, with

  4. Data parallel sorting for particle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.

  5. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  6. Big Five Measurement via Q-Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D. Fluckinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Socially desirable responding presents a difficult challenge in measuring personality. I tested whether a partially ipsative measure—a normatively scored Q-sort containing traditional Big Five items—would produce personality scores indicative of less socially desirable responding compared with Likert-based measures. Across both instructions to respond honestly and in the context of applying for a job, the Q-sort produced lower mean scores, lower intercorrelations between dimensions, and similar validity in predicting supervisor performance ratings to Likert. In addition, the Q-sort produced a more orthogonal structure (but not fully orthogonal when modeled at the latent level. These results indicate that the Q-sort method did constrain socially desirable responding. Researchers and practitioners should consider Big Five measurement via Q-sort for contexts in which high socially desirable responding is expected.

  7. A study on the decontamination of the gravels contaminated by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ukryang; Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Moon, Jaikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The amount of gravels contaminated by uranium is usually about 10% of the contaminated soil. Since such contaminated gravels show different kinds and volumes, it would cost a considerable amount of money if they are to be disposed of without going through any special process. Also, there has not been any particular way or technology for processing the gravels contaminated by uranium. Therefore, various fundamental experiments and researches have been carried out for the decontamination of the gravels contaminated by uranium. Through such experiments and researches, it has been possible to obtain some significant results. The acid cleaning process, which is based on the application of the soil cleaning method, can be regarded as one of the major ways used for decontamination. When the gravels contaminated by uranium are cleaned as they are, most of them tend to show an extremely-low level of decontamination. Therefore, it could be said that the inside of each gravel is also contaminated by uranium. As a result, the gravels contaminated by uranium need to be crushed before being cleaned, which would result in a higher level of efficiency for decontamination compared to the previous way. Therefore, it is more effective to crush the subject gravels before cleaning them in terms of decontamination. However, such test results can only be applied to the gravels contaminated by an average level of uranium concentration. Regarding the gravels showing a higher level of uranium concentration than the average, it is still necessary to carry out more researches. Therefore, this study focused on the level of efficiency for decontamination after the contaminated gravels were crushed before being cleaned, in order to find a way to effectively dispose of the gravels contaminated by high-concentration uranium and secure a high level of efficiency for decontamination. In order to decontaminate the gravels which were contained in the soil contaminated by uranium and showed a higher

  8. Gravel Image Segmentation in Noisy Background Based on Partial Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Because of wide variation in gray levels and particle dimensions and the presence of many small gravel objects in the background, as well as corrupting the image by noise, it is difficult o segment gravel objects. In this paper, we develop a partial entropy method and succeed to realize gravel objects segmentation. We give entropy principles and fur calculation methods. Moreover, we use minimum entropy error automaticly to select a threshold to segment image. We introduce the filter method using mathematical morphology. The segment experiments are performed by using different window dimensions for a group of gravel image and demonstrates that this method has high segmentation rate and low noise sensitivity.

  9. Gravel packing dual zones in one trip reduces offshore completion time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, D.H.; Harrison, D.T.; van Sickle, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    A single trip, dual-zone gravel pack system was used to successfully gravel pack two wells on Green Canyon platform 52 A in the Gulf of Mexico. An average 56 hours was saved on each well, representing reductions of about 25% in completion time and 26% in completion cost per well. Time-sensitive costs had the largest impact on Green Canyon 52 A final well completion cost; therefore, new technology or more efficient operations were required to minimize completion time. One way to enhance project economics was to gravel pack two separate zones in one trip. In this paper, four objectives are addressed during development of a single trip tool to gravel pack the stacked zones of the Marquette project. These were time and cost reduction, removal of loss circulation material (LCM) prior to gravel packing, zone isolation during gravel packing and use of conventional gravel placement techniques. The design requirement that all LCM (salt and/or viscous polymer pills), perforation debris and formation sand be removed from the wellbore prior to gravel packing was accomplished by incorporating a washdown feature that allows circulation at the bottom of the gravel pack assembly prior to landing in the sump packer

  10. Water quality in gravel pits in the Bratislava area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Rohacikova, A.; Zenisova, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The gravel pits around Bratislava have an esthetic, urban and recreational function. Open water table areas are in a direct contact with the air and acquire some characteristics of the surface water. The quality of open water table is much more susceptible to pollution than that of groundwater. Wet and dry deposition, water inflow from the surrounding surface, unmanageable sewerage effluents, solid and liquid wastes, but also the water birds contribute to the pollution. The Department of Hydrogeology has monitored the water quality in six gravel pits (Cunovo, Drazdiak, Strkovec, Pasienky, Zlate Piesky, Vajnory) since 1976 with an an interruption between 1988 - 1993. Two sampling per year have been made since 1994 and after 1998 the analyses have been supplemented by Na, K, Fe, Mn, by oxygen regime parameters, by trace elements (As, Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and by organic pollutants. As regards the oxygen regime, the water quality pits is very good. The anthropogenic influence is expressed mainly by the increased contents of sulfates and chlorides. Most problematic trace elements are the mercury and vanadium (Drazdiak, Zlate Piesky and Vajnory). (authors)

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  12. Gravel road stabilisation of Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik[Using fly ash]; Skogsbilvaegsrenovering av Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Fly ash in geotechnical applications has stabilising, isolating, low permeability and hardening effect. Fly ash can be used in road constructions with low bearing capacity, as well as on top cover material on landfills. The aim of the project was to build a road section with fly ash stabilised gravel, based on laboratory studies, and follow up technical and environmental aspect during the first year after stabilisation. The overall aim of this project was to evaluate fly ash from Holmen Paper, Hallstavik, from technical and environmental point of view in a gravel road construction. A gravel road, Ehnsjoevaegen, was stabilised with fly ash during autumn 2004. This road was a low priority road. The fly ash stabilised road section was 1300 m long. Gravel from the road Ehnsjoevaegen was stabilised and investigated in a laboratory study. Leachability of metals and geotechnical aspects were investigated. The laboratory study showed that fly ash stabilised gravel has high shear strength, however its thawing resistance is not fully acceptable. Additives of cement or merit are needed in order to increase its thawing resistance. The actual road section is not going to be used during thawing period and no additives were used. The test road is divided into different sections including a reference section. The road stabilisation work was conducted with gravel transported to Ehnsjoevaegen from off site and not with gravel from the site. Fly ash was tipped off on a levelled road, followed by tipping of gravel. Mixing fly ash and gravel was done on site by a road scraper. After the mixing the road was gravelled with 0,1 m graded gravel. In this project the fly ash had low water content. In order to get optimal compaction water was added from a tanker supplying water before compacted with a compactor. Results from the pilot test shows that fly ash stabilised gravel can be tipped, mixed and compacted effectively. Tipping can be optimised if fly ash and gravel is mixed in a mixer

  13. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  14. The Q sort theory and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice.

  15. Development of sorting system control using LABVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Noriah Mod Ali; John Konsoh; Mohd Idris Taib; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System, proposed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is to enhance the system or work flow in preparing the personnel dosimeter. The main objective of the system is to reduce stamping error, time and cost. The Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System is a semi-automatic system with an interfacing method using the Advantec 32 bit PCI interface card of 64 digital input and output. The system is integrated with the Labview version 7.1 programming language to control the sorting system and operation. (Author)

  16. On Sorting Genomes with DCJ and Indels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marília D. V.

    A previous work of Braga, Willing and Stoye compared two genomes with unequal content, but without duplications, and presented a new linear time algorithm to compute the genomic distance, considering double cut and join (DCJ) operations, insertions and deletions. Here we derive from this approach an algorithm to sort one genome into another one also using DCJ, insertions and deletions. The optimal sorting scenarios can have different compositions and we compare two types of sorting scenarios: one that maximizes and one that minimizes the number of DCJ operations with respect to the number of insertions and deletions.

  17. Injury experience in sand and gravel mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of sand and gravel mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, and occupation. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  18. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbergen, K.; Stone, M.; Krishnappan, B.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.

    2015-03-01

    While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (armour layer of the gravel bed (>16 Pa), cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  19. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    Properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with two types of coarse aggregate - sea dredged gravel with smooth and rounded particles and crushed granite with rough and angular particles - have been studied. Sea gravel allowed a higher aggregate proportion in the concrete leading to a higher...

  20. Impact of recycled gravel obtained from low or medium concrete grade on concrete properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abdelghany Fawzy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of recycled gravel obtained from low (Gl or medium (Gm concrete grade on fresh property of concrete (slump, mechanical properties (compressive-splitting tensile strength and mass transport properties (ISAT-sorptivity of concrete containing dolomite as a natural coarse aggregate. Concrete specimens were prepared with cement, water, sand and dolomite admixed with recycled gravel. The percentage of recycled gravel/dolomite was 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at w/c = 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60. The effect of silica fume and bonding admixture at w/c = 0.55 on concrete properties were also considered. The results indicated that, increasing the percentage of recycled gravel/dolomite led to decreasing the slump. All mechanical properties of concrete discussed were inversely affected by increasing percentage of recycled gravel/dolomite from low and medium concrete. Adding 10% SF or bonding admixture increased the mechanical properties of concrete. Mass transport properties of concrete (ISAT-sorptivity were enhanced by decreasing the percentage of recycled gravel/dolomite. The optimum percentage of recycled gravel/dolomite = 25%. Keywords: Recycled gravel, Concrete, Silica fume, Compressive strength, Mass transport

  1. Evaluation of an ion adsorption method to estimate intragravel flow velocity in salmonid spawning gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Clayton; John G. King; Russell F. Thurow

    1996-01-01

    Intragravel water exchange provides oxygenated water, removes metabolic waste, and is an essential factor in salmonid embryo survival. Measurements of intragravel flow velocity have been suggested as an index of gravel quality and also as a useful predictor of fry emergence; however, proposed methods for measuring velocity in gravel are problematic. We evaluate an ion...

  2. Chapter J: Issues and challenges in the application of geostatistics and spatial-data analysis to the characterization of sand-and-gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    as common drilling methods jeopardizing the accuracy of the size-distribution curve, the application of formal geostatistical principles has other limitations. Many of the variables used in evaluating gravel deposits, including such sedimentologic parameters as sorting and such United Soil Classification System parameters as gradation coefficient, are nonadditive. Also, uniform sampling methods, such as drilling, are relatively uncommon, and sampling is generally accomplished by a combination of boreholes, water-well logs, test pits, trenches, stratigraphic columns from exposures, and, possibly, some geophysical cross sections. When evaluated in consideration of the fact that uniform mining blocks are also uncommon in practice, subsequent complexities in establishment of the volume/variance relation are inevitable. Several approaches exist to confront the limitations of geostatistical methods in evaluating sand-and-gravel deposits. Initially, we must acknowledge the practical requirements of the aggregate industry, as well as the limitations of the data collected by that industry, as a function of what the industry requires at the practical level, and consider that broader acceptance of formal geostatistics may require modifications of typical exploration and sampling protocols. Future investigations should utilize data from the full spectrum of sand-and-gravel deposits (flood plain, glacial, catastrophic flood, and marine), integrate such other disci plines as sedimentology and geophysics into the research, develop commodity-specific approaches to nonadditive variables, and include the results of comparative drilling.

  3. The Devil is in the Details: Using X-Ray Computed Tomography to Develop Accurate 3D Grain Characteristics and Bed Structure Metrics for Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, H.; Hodge, R. A.; Leyland, J.; Sear, D. A.; Ahmed, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty for bedload estimates in gravel bed rivers is largely driven by our inability to characterize the arrangement and orientation of the sediment grains within the bed. The characteristics of the surface structure are produced by the water working of grains, which leads to structural differences in bedforms through differential patterns of grain sorting, packing, imbrication, mortaring and degree of bed armoring. Until recently the technical and logistical difficulties of characterizing the arrangement of sediment in 3D have prohibited a full understanding of how grains interact with stream flow and the feedback mechanisms that exist. Micro-focus X-ray CT has been used for non-destructive 3D imaging of grains within a series of intact sections of river bed taken from key morphological units (see Figure 1). Volume, center of mass, points of contact, protrusion and spatial orientation of individual surface grains are derived from these 3D images, which in turn, facilitates estimates of 3D static force properties at the grain-scale such as pivoting angles, buoyancy and gravity forces, and grain exposure. By aggregating representative samples of grain-scale properties of localized interacting sediment into overall metrics, we can compare and contrast bed stability at a macro-scale with respect to stream bed morphology. Understanding differences in bed stability through representative metrics derived at the grain-scale will ultimately lead to improved bedload estimates with reduced uncertainty and increased understanding of interactions between grain-scale properties on channel morphology. Figure 1. CT-Scans of a water worked gravel-filled pot. a. 3D rendered scan showing the outer mesh, and b. the same pot with the mesh removed. c. vertical change in porosity of the gravels sampled in 5mm volumes. Values are typical of those measured in the field and lab. d. 2-D slices through the gravels at 20% depth from surface (porosity = 0.35), and e. 75% depth from

  4. Pengembangan Algoritma Pengurutan SMS (Scan, Move, And Sort)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Denni Aprilsyah

    2015-01-01

    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers. And many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reas...

  5. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  6. Sand and gravel mining: effects on ground water resources in Hancock county, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Whalen, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Based on this preliminary study, existing sand and gravel mining regulations (in Maine, USA) can be inferred to provide some protection to water resources. Sand and gravel deposits are important natural resources that have dual uses: mining for construction material and pumping for drinking water. How the mining of sand and gravel affects aquifers and change aquifer vulnerability to contamination is not well documented. Mining regulations vary greatly by state and local jurisdiction. This study test metrics to measure the effectiveness of mining regulations. The sand and gravel aquifer system studied is covered with former and active gravel pits to nearly 25% of its areal extent. Data from homeowner interviews and field measurements found scant evidence of changes in water quantity. Water quality analyses collected from springs, streams, ponds and wells indicate that the aquifer was vulnerable to contamination by chloride and nitrate. However, water quality changes can not be related directly to mining activities.

  7. NeatSort - A practical adaptive algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    La Rocca, Marcello; Cantone, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    We present a new adaptive sorting algorithm which is optimal for most disorder metrics and, more important, has a simple and quick implementation. On input $X$, our algorithm has a theoretical $\\Omega (|X|)$ lower bound and a $\\mathcal{O}(|X|\\log|X|)$ upper bound, exhibiting amazing adaptive properties which makes it run closer to its lower bound as disorder (computed on different metrics) diminishes. From a practical point of view, \\textit{NeatSort} has proven itself competitive with (and of...

  8. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  9. The solution space of sorting by DCJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens

    2010-09-01

    In genome rearrangements, the double cut and join (DCJ) operation, introduced by Yancopoulos et al. in 2005, allows one to represent most rearrangement events that could happen in multichromosomal genomes, such as inversions, translocations, fusions, and fissions. No restriction on the genome structure considering linear and circular chromosomes is imposed. An advantage of this general model is that it leads to considerable algorithmic simplifications compared to other genome rearrangement models. Recently, several works concerning the DCJ operation have been published, and in particular, an algorithm was proposed to find an optimal DCJ sequence for sorting one genome into another one. Here we study the solution space of this problem and give an easy-to-compute formula that corresponds to the exact number of optimal DCJ sorting sequences for a particular subset of instances of the problem. We also give an algorithm to count the number of optimal sorting sequences for any instance of the problem. Another interesting result is the demonstration of the possibility of obtaining one optimal sorting sequence by properly replacing any pair of consecutive operations in another optimal sequence. As a consequence, any optimal sorting sequence can be obtained from one other by applying such replacements successively, but the problem of finding the shortest number of replacements between two sorting sequences is still open.

  10. The air flow and heat transfer in gravel embankment in permafrost areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fan; LIU Shi; WANG Haigang; CHEN Huanzhuo

    2004-01-01

    A comparative numerical investigation of transient temperature profile and pore-air velocities in horizontal rock block embankments are conducted using the "gravels model", in which the embankment is composed of stones and air, and the "porous media model" respectively. As the velocities from the "gravels model" directly reflect the true flow of air and winter-time convection, in this paper it can be concluded that computational results from the "gravels model"are superior to the "porous media model". In addition, the "gravels model" has the advantages of reflecting the effect of the dimensions and collocation of gravels upon the temperature fields.Therefore, the computation of the gravels embankment is mainly based on the gravels model.Simulation results show that in summer, a clockwise circulation of the pore-air extends throughout most of the embankment. However its motion is very weak that results in relatively straight horizontal isotherm lines. And heat transfer is mainly maintained through conduction. But in winter, the pore-air velocities are higher and multiple vortexes are formed in the embankment.Natural convection then becomes the dominant influence on the isotherm shapes within the embankment. The isotherms are complex and alternative upward and downward flowing plumes exist. The winter-time convection can further reduce the temperature of the foundation soil beneath the gravel embankment. In addition, the effects of the gravel dimensions within the embankment have been analyzed and compared in the gravels model. It shows that in winter, large stones, e.g. 200 mm, lead to stronger vortexes than those of small stones, say 60 mm. Consequently, the zone of low-temperature beneath the large-stone embankment extends deeper into the ground.

  11. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  12. Delineation of gravel-bed clusters via factorial kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Chun; Wang, Chi-Kuei; Huang, Guo-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Gravel-bed clusters are the most prevalent microforms that affect local flows and sediment transport. A growing consensus is that the practice of cluster delineation should be based primarily on bed topography rather than grain sizes. Here we present a novel approach for cluster delineation using patch-scale high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). We use a geostatistical interpolation method, i.e., factorial kriging, to decompose the short- and long-range (grain- and microform-scale) DEMs. The required parameters are determined directly from the scales of the nested variograms. The short-range DEM exhibits a flat bed topography, yet individual grains are sharply outlined, making the short-range DEM a useful aid for grain segmentation. The long-range DEM exhibits a smoother topography than the original full DEM, yet groupings of particles emerge as small-scale bedforms, making the contour percentile levels of the long-range DEM a useful tool for cluster identification. Individual clusters are delineated using the segmented grains and identified clusters via a range of contour percentile levels. Our results reveal that the density and total area of delineated clusters decrease with increasing contour percentile level, while the mean grain size of clusters and average size of anchor clast (i.e., the largest particle in a cluster) increase with the contour percentile level. These results support the interpretation that larger particles group as clusters and protrude higher above the bed than other smaller grains. A striking feature of the delineated clusters is that anchor clasts are invariably greater than the D90 of the grain sizes even though a threshold anchor size was not adopted herein. The average areal fractal dimensions (Hausdorff-Besicovich dimensions of the projected areas) of individual clusters, however, demonstrate that clusters delineated with different contour percentile levels exhibit similar planform morphologies. Comparisons with a

  13. Economic Valuation of Sand and Gravel in Davao del Norte, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, Adrian; Tagalo, Romulo

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to quantify the economic value of the sand and gravel which is deemed as a non-renewable resource. A survey was conducted to extract the consumer surplus of the households, also construct the demand equation for the resource. With the demand equation for sand and gravel at , the consumer surplus was estimated at P8271. Using the economic valuation technique, the economic value of sand and gravel was estimated at P729,568,368. Thus, a very high value imputed on the environmenta...

  14. Efficiency of Cleanup of Ra-226 Contaminated Gravel Assayed by LSC and TL Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kamal, S.M.; Sohsah, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study concerns itself with decontamination of gravel that had been contaminated with Ra-226 from natural origins. Aqueous solutions of different compositions including water, and various concentrations of CaCl 2 and BaCl 2 were used to leach the contaminated gravel. The leaching experiments were carried out in glass columns. In some leaching experiments a sample of a common brand of sandy soil (fine sand with traces of silt )was placed below the gravel to test the binding capacity (sorption) of this soil for the leached Ra-226

  15. Radiological characteristic of an area reclaimed by means of an ash-gravel power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Kusyk, M.; Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Florowska, K.

    2002-01-01

    A sand excavation after extraction of gravel and sand was filled with an ash-gravel mix. The mix was covered with shielding layers of clay and soil and grass was cultivated on it. Investigations of radiological characteristic such as: gamma radiation dose rate, radon concentration in soil air and radionuclide concentration in the ground were carried out in the both areas reclaimed one and in the vicinity of it. Radon exhalation coefficients were determined for uncovered ash-gravel mix layer, the shielding soil layer and for the ground in the vicinity. Analysis of the results revealed that the reclaimed area can be used for building development. (author)

  16. A new CT scan methodology to characterize a small aggregation gravel clast contained in a soft sediment matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Montet, Xavier; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly applied in the geosciences community. CT scanning is a rapid, non-destructive method allowing the assessment of relative density of clasts in natural archives samples. This study focuses on the use of this method to explore instantaneous deposits as major contributors to sedimentation of high-elevation lakes in the Alps, such as the Lake Lauvitel system (western French Alps). This lake is located within a very steep valley prone to episodic flooding and features gullies ending in the lake. This variety of erosion processes leads to deposition of sedimentary layers with distinct clastic properties. We identified 18 turbidites and 15 layers of poorly sorted fine sediment associated with the presence of gravels since AD 1880. These deposits are respectively interpreted as being induced by flood and wet avalanche. This constitutes a valuable record from a region where few historical records exist. This CT scan approach is suitable for instantaneous deposit identification to reconstruct past evolution and may be applicable to a wider variety of sedimentary archives alongside existing approaches.

  17. SEISMIC VELOCITY DETERMINATION IN GRAVEL AND SANDS USING PIEZOCRYSTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamarina Juan Carlos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact determination of seismic waves' propagation velocities has great importance in the geotechnics due to from that it is possible to determine, among other parameters, the dynamic ones: Elasticity E, Rigidity G, Poisson !, compressibility B; as well as to reach a knowledge on the stress-strain behavior for the studied soil samples. The seismic waves transmission considered in tests at laboratory scale carried out in the present work is a phenomenon that produces very small deformation, and so doesn't disturb the material. This allows
    to apply the results in a more general scale to study the behavior of soils in situ and to predict their answer to stress.
    With the purpose to study the response of particulate material subjected to seismic excitements at small scale, samples of gravels and sands were successively introduced in an odometric cell, exciting them with impulsive signals and registering the corresponding seismograms through general purpose piezoelectric transducers embedded in ends of the cell.
    The distance source-receiver was interval increased, which enabled, from the corresponding regression straight lines, to calculate in precise form the propagation velocities (for P waves.
    The tests were carried out in samples of dry alluvial soil with three different grain sizes. The respective frequency spectra of the signals were determined for two packing modes: loose and compact, what added information on the medium characteristics.

  18. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  19. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  20. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  1. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Naraoka, Kenitsu; Adachi, Masao; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1984-10-01

    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  2. Application of radix sorting in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuan; Gu Minhao; Zhu Kejun

    2012-01-01

    In the high energy physics experiments, there are always requirements to sort the large scale of experiment data. To meet the demand, this paper introduces one radix sorting algorithms, whose sub-sort is counting sorting and time complex is O (n), based on the characteristic of high energy physics experiment data that is marked by time stamp. This paper gives the description, analysis, implementation and experimental result of the sorting algorithms. (authors)

  3. Environmental laws for mining activities in Provincia de San Juan (Argentina), gravel mines exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Carrascosa, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses San Juan Province - Argentina prevailing environmental legislation for mining activity and gravel mines. The study focuses the subject from a mining engineering point of view. (author)

  4. [Effects of gravel mulch technology on soil erosion resistance and plant growth of river flinty slope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, San-Tao; Ruan, Ai-Dong; Bian, Xun-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the technical difficulties such as the stability and water balance in the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope, a gravel mulch technology was proposed, with the effects of different gravel mulch treatments on the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property, and plant growth investigated by anti-erosion and pot experiments. The results showed that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size could obviously enhance the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property and plant biomass, but no obvious differences were observed between the mulch thickness of 5 cm and 8 cm. It was indicated that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size and 5 cm in thickness was an effective and economical technology for the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope.

  5. Influence of vegetation and gravel mesh on the tertiary treatment of wastewater from a cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos G; Mai, Sofia T H; Barampouti, Elli Maria P; Loukakis, Haralampos N

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the influence of gravel mesh (fine and coarse) and vegetation (Phragmites and Arundo) on the efficiency of a reed bed, a pilot plant was included after the wastewater treatment plant of a cosmetic industry treatment system according to a 22 factorial experimental design. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorous (TP) reduction was observed in the reactor, where Phragmites and fine gravel were used. In the reactor with Phragmites and coarse gravel, the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction was observed. The maximum total solids reduction was measured in the reed bed, which was filled with Arundo and coarse gravel. Conclusively, the treatment of a cosmetic industry's wastewater by reed beds as a tertiary treatment method is quite effective.

  6. Macroinvertebrate community responses to gravel augmentation in a high-gradient, Southeastern regulated river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS) and Virginia Pol

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread practice, it is essential to evaluate the biotic response to restoration projects in order to improve the efficacy of future applications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the response of the macroinvertebrate community to gravel addition in a high-gradient, regulated river in western North Carolina. We collected benthic macroinvertebrate samples from gravel-enhanced areas and unenhanced areas for 1 season before gravel addition, and for 4 seasons afterwards. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the responses of macroinvertebrates to gravel addition were generally specific to individual taxa or particular functional feeding groups and did not lead to consistent patterns in overall family richness, diversity, density, or evenness. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition were temporary and dependent upon site conditions and season. Correlations between macroinvertebrate response variables and substrate microhabitat variables existed with or without the inclusion of data from enhanced areas, which suggests that substrate-biotic relationships were present before gravel addition. A review of the current literature suggests that the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to substrate restoration are inconsistent and dependent upon site conditions and the degree habitat improvement of pre-restoration site conditions.

  7. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  8. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  9. A note on sorting buffrs offline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, H.L.; Megow, N.; Sitters, R.A.; van Stee, R.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the offline sorting buffer problem. The input is a sequence of items of different types. All items must be processed one by one by a server. The server is equipped with a random-access buffer of limited capacity which can be used to rearrange items. The problem is to design a scheduling

  10. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  12. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  13. 6. Algorithms for Sorting and Searching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Algorithms - Algorithms for Sorting and Searching. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  14. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, F. Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Nelson, Cara; Proctor, Michael F.; Rood, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologicaltering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth.

  15. Modeling the effect of dune sorting on the river long profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A.

    2012-12-01

    River dunes, which occur in low slope sand bed and sand-gravel bed rivers, generally show a downward coarsening pattern due to grain flows down their avalanche lee faces. These grain flows cause coarse particles to preferentially deposit at lower elevations of the lee face, while fines show a preference for its upper elevations. Before considering the effect of this dune sorting mechanism on the river long profile, let us first have a look at some general trends along the river profile. Tributaries increasing the river's water discharge in streamwise direction also cause a streamwise increase in flow depth. As under subcritical conditions mean dune height generally increases with increasing flow depth, the dune height shows a streamwise increase, as well. This means that also the standard deviation of bedform height increases in streamwise direction, as in earlier work it was found that the standard deviation of bedform height linearly increases with an increasing mean value of bedform height. As a result of this streamwise increase in standard deviation of dune height, the above-mentioned dune sorting then results in a loss of coarse particles to the lower elevations of the bed that are less and even rarely exposed to the flow. This loss of coarse particles to lower elevations thus increases the rate of fining in streamwise direction. As finer material is more easily transported downstream than coarser material, a smaller bed slope is required to transport the same amount of sediment downstream. This means that dune sorting adds to river profile concavity, compared to the combined effect of abrasion, selective transport and tributaries. A Hirano-type mass conservation model is presented that deals with dune sorting. The model includes two active layers: a bedform layer representing the sediment in the bedforms and a coarse layer representing the coarse and less mobile sediment underneath migrating bedforms. The exposure of the coarse layer is governed by the rate

  16. Cutaneous C-polymodal fibers lacking TRPV1 are sensitized to heat following inflammation, but fail to drive heat hyperalgesia in the absence of TPV1 containing C-heat fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerber H Richard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that the TRPV1 ion channel plays a critical role in the development of heat hyperalgesia after inflammation, as inflamed TRPV1-/- mice develop mechanical allodynia but fail to develop thermal hyperalgesia. In order to further investigate the role of TRPV1, we have used an ex vivo skin/nerve/DRG preparation to examine the effects of CFA-induced-inflammation on the response properties of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative cutaneous nociceptors. Results In wildtype mice we found that polymodal C-fibers (CPMs lacking TRPV1 were sensitized to heat within a day after CFA injection. This sensitization included both a drop in average heat threshold and an increase in firing rate to a heat ramp applied to the skin. No changes were observed in the mechanical response properties of these cells. Conversely, TRPV1-positive mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive fibers (CHs were not sensitized following inflammation. However, results suggested that some of these fibers may have gained mechanical sensitivity and that some previous silent fibers gained heat sensitivity. In mice lacking TRPV1, inflammation only decreased heat threshold of CPMs but did not sensitize their responses to the heat ramp. No CH-fibers could be identified in naïve nor inflamed TRPV1-/- mice. Conclusions Results obtained here suggest that increased heat sensitivity in TRPV1-negative CPM fibers alone following inflammation is insufficient for the induction of heat hyperalgesia. On the other hand, TRPV1-positive CH fibers appear to play an essential role in this process that may include both afferent and efferent functions.

  17. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  18. ScanSort{sup SM} at Whiteshell Laboratories for sorting of experimental cesium pond soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, H., E-mail: heath.downey@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The ScanSort{sup SM} soil sorting system is a unique and efficient radiological instrument used for measuring and sorting bulk soils and volumetric materials. The system performs automatic radioassay and segregation of preconditioned material using a gamma spectroscopy system mounted above a conveyor belt. It was deployed to the Whiteshell Laboratories site to process the excavated soils generated during the decommissioning of the former Experimental Cesium Pond. The ScanSort{sup SM} system was utilized to segregate material with Cs-137 concentrations above the established site unrestricted release and restricted site reuse levels as well as demonstrated the ability to accurately determine the radioactivity concentrations of the radiologically-impacted material and to confidently segregate volumes of that material for appropriate final disposition. (author)

  19. Sorting signed permutations by short operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  20. Measurement of the bed material of gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the physical properties of a gravel-bed river is important in the calculation of sediment transport and physical habitat values for aquatic animals. These properties are not always easy to measure. One recent report on flushing of fines from the Klamath River did not contain information on one location because the grain size distribution of the armour could not be measured on a dry river bar. The grain size distribution could have been measured using a barrel sampler and converting the measurements to the same as would have been measured if a dry bar existed at the site. In another recent paper the porosity was calculated from an average value relation from the literature. The results of that paper may be sensitive to the actual value of porosity. Using the bulk density sampling technique based on a water displacement process presented in this paper the porosity could have been calculated from the measured bulk density. The principle topics of this paper are the measurement of the size distribution of the armour, and measurement of the porosity of the substrate. The 'standard' method of sampling of the armour is to do a Wolman-type count of the armour on a dry section of the river bed. When a dry bar does not exist the armour in an area of the wet streambed is to sample and the measurements transformed analytically to the same type of results that would have been obtained from the standard Wolman procedure. A comparison of the results for the San Miguel River in Colorado shows significant differences in the median size of the armour. The method use to determine the porosity is not 'high-tech' and there is a need improve knowledge of the porosity because of the importance of porosity in the aquatic ecosystem. The technique is to measure the in-situ volume of a substrate sample by measuring the volume of a frame over the substrate and then repeated the volume measurement after the sample is obtained from within the frame. The difference in the

  1. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  2. Sorting processes with energy-constrained comparisons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Barbara; Penna, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    We study very simple sorting algorithms based on a probabilistic comparator model. In this model, errors in comparing two elements are due to (1) the energy or effort put in the comparison and (2) the difference between the compared elements. Such algorithms repeatedly compare and swap pairs of randomly chosen elements, and they correspond to natural Markovian processes. The study of these Markov chains reveals an interesting phenomenon. Namely, in several cases, the algorithm that repeatedly compares only adjacent elements is better than the one making arbitrary comparisons: in the long-run, the former algorithm produces sequences that are "better sorted". The analysis of the underlying Markov chain poses interesting questions as the latter algorithm yields a nonreversible chain, and therefore its stationary distribution seems difficult to calculate explicitly. We nevertheless provide bounds on the stationary distributions and on the mixing time of these processes in several restrictions.

  3. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  4. A Novel and Simple Spike Sorting Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring the activity of multiple, individual neurons that fire spikes in the vicinity of an electrode, namely perform a Spike Sorting (SS) procedure, comprises one of the most important tools for contemporary neuroscience in order to reverse-engineer the brain. As recording electrodes' technology rabidly evolves by integrating thousands of electrodes in a confined spatial setting, the algorithms that are used to monitor individual neurons from recorded signals have to become even more reliable and computationally efficient. In this work, we propose a novel framework of the SS approach in which a single-step processing of the raw (unfiltered) extracellular signal is sufficient for both the detection and sorting of the activity of individual neurons. Despite its simplicity, the proposed approach exhibits comparable performance with state-of-the-art approaches, especially for spike detection in noisy signals, and paves the way for a new family of SS algorithms with the potential for multi-recording, fast, on-chip implementations.

  5. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  6. Efficient sorting using registers and caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickremesinghe, Rajiv; Arge, Lars Allan; Chase, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    . Inadequate models lead to poor algorithmic choices and an incomplete understanding of algorithm behavior on real machines.A key step toward developing better models is to quantify the performance effects of features not reflected in the models. This paper explores the effect of memory system features...... on sorting performance. We introduce a new cache-conscious sorting algorithm, R-MERGE, which achieves better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the theoretical models. R-MERGE is designed to minimize memory stall cycles rather than cache misses by considering features common to many......Modern computer systems have increasingly complex memory systems. Common machine models for algorithm analysis do not reflect many of the features of these systems, e.g., large register sets, lockup-free caches, cache hierarchies, associativity, cache line fetching, and streaming behavior...

  7. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  8. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  9. Efficient Sorting on the Tilera Manycore Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Valero, Mateo

    2012-10-24

    e present an efficient implementation of the radix sort algo- rithm for the Tilera TILEPro64 processor. The TILEPro64 is one of the first successful commercial manycore processors. It is com- posed of 64 tiles interconnected through multiple fast Networks- on-chip and features a fully coherent, shared distributed cache. The architecture has a large degree of flexibility, and allows various optimization strategies. We describe how we mapped the algorithm to this architecture. We present an in-depth analysis of the optimizations for each phase of the algorithm with respect to the processor’s sustained performance. We discuss the overall throughput reached by our radix sort implementation (up to 132 MK/s) and show that it provides comparable or better performance-per-watt with respect to state-of-the art implemen- tations on x86 processors and graphic processing units.

  10. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  11. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  12. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  13. Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1993-01-01

    Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.

  14. Stochastic Model of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagne, Quentin; Sens, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intracellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations, considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values lead to fast sorting but result in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well-defined sorted compartments but sorting is exponentially slow. Our results suggest an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organization of intracellular compartments.

  15. Effect of percentage of low plastic fines on the unsaturated shear strength of compacted gravel soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low plastic fines in gravel soils affect its unsaturated shear strength due to the contribution of matric suction that arises in micro and macro pores found within and between aggregates. The shear strength of five different types of prepared gravel soils is measured and is compared with a theoretical model (Fredlund et al., 1978 to predict the unsaturated shear strength. The results are consistent to a great extent except the case of dry clayey gravel soil. It is also found that on inundation of gravel soils containing plastic fines greater than 12% a considerable reduction in both the strength and the stiffness modulus is noticed. This 12% percentage is close to the accepted 15% percentage of fines given by ASTM D4318 (American society for testing material. The angle of internal friction that arises due to matric suction decreases with the increase of degree of saturation of soil. The hysteresis of some tested gravel soils is measured and found that it increases by increasing the percentage of fines.

  16. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  18. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  19. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  20. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  1. Development of practical decontamination process for the removal of uranium from gravel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a practical decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from gravel using a soil washing method. The effects of critical parameters including particle size, H 2 SO 4 concentration, temperature, and reaction time on uranium removal were evaluated. The optimal condition for two-stage washing of gravel was found to be particle size of 1-2 mm, 1.0 M H 2 SO 4 , temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 3 h, which satisfied the required uranium concentration for self-disposal. Furthermore, most of the extracted uranium was removed from the waste solution by precipitation, implying that the treated solution can be reused as washing solution. These results clearly demonstrated that our proposed process can be indeed a practical technique to decontaminate uranium-polluted gravel.

  2. Evolution of Fine-Grained Channel Margin Deposits behind Large Woody Debris in an Experimental Gravel-Bed Flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeill, B.; Marks, S.; Skalak, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Wilcock, P. R.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Fine grained channel margin (FGCM) deposits of the South River, Virginia sequester a substantial volume of fine-grained sediment behind large woody debris (LWD). FGCM deposits were created in a laboratory setting meant to simulate the South River environment using a recirculating flume (15m long by 0.6m wide) with a fixed gravel bed and adjustable slope (set to 0.0067) to determine how fine sediment is transported and deposited behind LWD. Two model LWD structures were placed 3.7 m apart on opposite sides of the flume. A wire mesh screen with attached wooden dowels simulated LWD with an upstream facing rootwad. Six experiments with three different discharge rates, each with low and high sediment concentrations, were run. Suspended sediment was very fine grained (median grain size of 3 phi) and well sorted (0.45 phi) sand. Upstream of the wood, water depths averaged about 0.08m, velocities averaged about 0.3 m/s, and Froude numbers averaged around 0.3. Downstream of the first LWD structure, velocities were reduced tenfold. Small amounts of sediment passed through the rootwad and fell out of suspension in the area of reduced flow behind LWD, but most of the sediment was carried around the LWD by the main flow and then behind the LWD by a recirculating eddy current. Upstream migrating dunes formed behind LWD due to recirculating flow, similar to reattachment bars documented in bedrock canyon rivers partially obstructed by debouching debris fans. These upstream migrating dunes began at the reattachment point and merged with deposits formed from sediment transported through the rootwad. Downstream migrating dunes formed along the channel margin behind the LWD, downstream of the reattachment point. FGCM deposits were about 3 m long, with average widths of about 0.8 m. Greater sediment concentration created thicker FGCM deposits, and higher flows eroded the sides of the deposits, reducing their widths.

  3. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol...... for the GenericSort algorithm by Estivill-Castro and Wood. From both algorithms we derive I/O-optimal cache-aware and cache-oblivious adaptive sorting algorithms. These are the first I/O-optimal adaptive sorting algorithms....

  4. Fabrication of gravel for concrete in brown-coal mining. The gravel works at Inden; Betonkiesherstellung im Braunkohlentagebau - Das Kieswerk Inden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrams, H.J. [Rheinbraun AG, Abt. Tagebau- und Landschaftsplanung, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    The brown-coal open-pit mine is operated by Rheinbraun AG, a Cologne-based company. The mining process offers the possibility to separate gravel and sand from the overburden for marketing, unless they are indispensable for reclaiming the open-pit mine. This combination of raw material production particularly prevents additional landscape consumption by separate gravel dredging and spares the population of an overproportionately densely populated region further inconveniences. Moreover, it helps to save resources. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die Braunkohlengewinnung erfolgt durch die in Koeln ansaessige Rheinbraun AG in Tagebauen. Dabei ergibt sich die Moeglichkeit, im Abraum befindliche Kiese und Sande auszusortieren und dem Markt zuzufuehren, soweit sie nicht zwingend zur Wiedernutzbarmachung des Tagebaus verwendet werden muessen. Durch die Buendelung der Rohstoffgewinnung wird insbesondere der Landschaftsverbrauch durch gesonderte Abgrabungen ausserhalb des Tagebaus und damit verbundene Belastungen der Bevoelkerung in einer ueberdurchschnittlich dicht besiedelten Region verringert. Sie traegt ebenfalls zur Ressourcenschonung bei. (orig./MSK)

  5. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  6. Thermal remediation of tar-contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, E.J.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    High temperature treatments are commonly considered for the decontamination of soil as they have the advantages of reliability, high capacity, and effective destruction of hazardous materials with reduced long-term liability. This paper examined the remediation of soil contaminated by coal tar as well as gravel contaminated by oil. Pilot plant studies were conducted using 2 representative incineration technologies: rotary kiln and fluidized bed. The coal tar contaminated soil had accumulated over a few decades at a calcination plant in western Canada. The soil was sticky and could not be handled by conventional feeding and combustion systems. Crushed lignite was mixed with the soil as an auxiliary fuel and to reduce stickiness. A pilot plant furnace was used to evaluate the potential of decontamination in a rotary calciner. An analysis of both a modelling study and the test results showed that complete decontamination could be achieved in the targeted calciner. The results suggested that energy recovery was also possible, which could in turn make the remediation process more cost-effective. Decontamination of oil-contaminated gravel was conducted with a pilot plant fluidized bed combustor to study the feasibility of using incineration technology in the remediation of gravel and debris contaminated by oil spills. Results indicated that the gravel was decontaminated with acceptable emission performance. It was concluded that the study will be valuable to the application of commercial incineration processes for the remediation of polluted soils. It was observed that the weathering of the oiled gravel lowered the rate of decontamination. A small amount of salt water resulted in lowered decontamination rates, which may be an important factor for situations involving the remediation of shoreline gravel contaminated by oil. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  8. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Land Use and River Degradation Impact of Sand and Gravel Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syah, Putra Rizal Ichsan; Hartuti, Purnaweni

    2018-02-01

    Sand and gravel mining is aimed at providing materials for infrastructure development, as well as providing economical source to the miners. However, the impacts of sand and gravel mining could also cause disturbances to ecological balance, since it is closely related to land use change and river degradation, besides causing conflicts in the miners, the government, and the private relationship. Therefore the government regulation and proper supervision are needed to preserve the ecological balance and decreasing the negative impacts of this mining, and therefore guarantee sustainable development.

  10. STRUCTURE, GROWTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF FISH POPULATIONS FROM GRAVEL-PIT VUKOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jakovlić

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available After the structure of fish populations from gravel-pit Vukovina was determined, those populations were checked for 10 morphometric and 4 meristic parameters, as well as for length-mass relationship. For chub (Leuciscus cephalus and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus some meristic characters expressed the values beyond those mentioned in the standard key for the freshwater fish species determination. When compared to other locations, length-mass relationship and condition factor (CF were significantly lower for all checked populations. This indicates that gravel-pit Vukovina is extremely oligotrophic and has very poor fish production.

  11. Labour-based bitumen roads as cost-effective alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available and streets. The potential for large-scale application of labour-based road works is therefore enormous. Delivery of a quality product is seen as key to the acceptance of labour-based road works. In Gundo Lashu it was realised early on that finding good... quality wearing course gravel in itself constituted a major problem in many areas of the province, thus bringing the costs for a fully rehabilitated and gravelled 5.5m wide road to about R230 000 in some instances. Aside from depleting an increasingly...

  12. Ore sorting using natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Dickson, B.L.; Gray, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method of sorting an ore which emits natural gamma radiation is described, comprising the steps of: (a) mining the ore, (b) placing, substantially at the mining location, the sampled or mined ore on to a moving conveyor belt, (c) measuring the natural gamma emission, water content and mass of the ore while the ore is on the conveyor belt, (d) using the gamma, water content and mass measurements to determine the ore grade, and (e) directing the ore to a location characteristic of its grade when it leaves the conveyor belt

  13. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  14. Effects of Surface and Subsurface Bed Material Composition on Gravel Transport and Flow Competence Relations—Possibilities for Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, K.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.; Cenderelli, D. A.; Gaeuman, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport and flow competence relations are difficult to predict in coarse-bedded steep streams where widely differing sediment supply, bed stability, and complex flow hydraulics greatly affect amounts and sizes of transported gravel particles. This study explains how properties of bed material surface and subsurface size distributions are directly related to gravel transport and may be used for prediction of gravel transport and flow competence relations. Gravel transport, flow competence, and bed material size were measured in step-pool and plane-bed streams. Power functions were fitted to gravel transport QB=aQb and flow competence Dmax=cQd relations; Q is water discharge. Frequency distributions of surface FDsurf and subsurface FDsub bed material were likewise described by power functions FDsurf=hD j and FDsub=kDm fitted over six 0.5-phi size classes within 4 to 22.4 mm. Those gravel sizes are typically mobile even in moderate floods. Study results show that steeper subsurface bed material size distributions lead to steeper gravel transport and flow competence relations, whereas larger amounts of sediment contained in those 6 size bedmaterial classes (larger h and k) flatten the relations. Similarly, steeper surface size distributions decrease the coefficients of the gravel transport and flow competence relations, whereas larger amounts of sediment within the six bed material classes increase the intercepts of gravel transport and flow competence relations. Those relations are likely causative in streams where bedload stems almost entirely from the channel bed as opposed to direct (unworked) contributions from hillslopes and tributaries. The exponent of the subsurface bed material distribution m predicted the gravel transport exponent b with r2 near 0.7 and flow competence exponent d with r2 near 0.5. The intercept of bed surface distributions h increased the intercept a of gravel transport and c of the flow competence relations with r2 near 0.6.

  15. Polymodal students argumentations about electrical interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stipcich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2008v25n3p397 En este trabajo se exploran y analizan las justificaciones que estudiantes de segundo año de polimodal emplean cuando responden preguntas sobre los modelos que explican la interacción eléctrica. Para ello se seleccionan las respuestas escritas elaboradas al contestar dos preguntas correspondientes a dos temarios de una evaluación integradora, que se aplican a un mismo curso. Las dos cuestiones se proponen el reconocimiento del modelo de campo de fuerzas más explicativo que el de acción a distancia. El análisis tiene una doble intención: por una parte, busca identificar las formas argumentativas que los estudiantes emplean durante el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje y por la otra, aspira a generar recomendaciones didácticas que pudieran ayudar durante ese proceso.

  16. Fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads; Flygaska som foerstaerkningslager i grusvaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef

    2006-01-15

    Majority of the existing gravel roads have low bearing capacity during spring and autumn, due to thaw and/or rain. Low bearing capacity leads often to bad road conditions. This situation results in higher costs for the lumber industry and the public. Management of gravel roads all the year around would traditionally require excavation of frost susceptible soils and replacement with natural materials. Fly ash (from bio fuels) has good technical properties as bearing layer in road constructions. Fly ash stabilised gravel roads have better function and longer life span with less maintenance than traditional gravel roads. The aim of this project is to show how fly ash stabilisation of gravel roads can increase bearing capacity and what its environmental impact is. The overall aim is to make it easier for entrepreneurs and consulting companies to use fly ash during gravel road renovation and/or constructing new gravel roads. This report targets fly ash producers and road constructors as well as environmental agencies. Two different pilot tests were investigated in this study, Norberg with fly ash from Stora Enso Fors AB, and Boerje (Uppsala) with fly ash from Vattenfall Uppsala AB. Both road sections with related reference section were investigated during a two year period. Only fly ash was used in the bearing layer at Norberg and fly ash gravel was used at Boerje. Bearing capacity was investigated twice, for both locations, November 2003 one month after the road renovation and during thawing, April 2004. Water samples from lysimeters, ground water and surface water were only collected and analysed from Norberg. Experience from the fly ash stabilised road sections show that curing and traffic load can with time compensate for less compaction. The same is noticed at Boerje, although deflection measurements show that there are small differences. Stabilisation of gravel roads increases the roads bearing capacity. Two years after stabilisation 90 timber loads were

  17. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  18. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.

    1964-01-01

    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  19. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  20. Bacterial lipoproteins; biogenesis, sorting and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a subset of membrane proteins localized on either leaflet of the lipid bilayer. These proteins are anchored to membranes through their N-terminal lipid moiety attached to a conserved Cys. Since the protein moiety of most lipoproteins is hydrophilic, they are expected to play various roles in a hydrophilic environment outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli possess an outer membrane, to which most lipoproteins are sorted. The Lol pathway plays a central role in the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane after lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature forms in the cytoplasmic membrane. Most lipoproteins are anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane with their protein moiety in the periplasm. However, recent studies indicated that some lipoproteins further undergo topology change in the outer membrane, and play critical roles in the biogenesis and quality control of the outer membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the eastern Sierra Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondolf, G.M.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Felando, T.

    1991-01-01

    Interest in small hydroelectric development (< 5 MW) has recently focused attention on steep streams and the resident trout populations they contain. High-gradient boulder-bed streams have been the sites of relatively few studies of salmonid spawning habitat, although they have geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics - and therefore gravel distributions - that are quite different from the more commonly described lower-gradient channels. The authors documented gravel distribution in seven high-gradient stream reaches in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Gravels occurred only in locations characterized by relatively low shear stress; they formed small pockets in sites of low divergence and larger deposits upstream of natural hydraulic controls. In 1986 (a wet year), all tracer gravels placed in gravel pockets at nine sites on four streams were completely swept away, and substantial scour, fill, and other channel changes occurred at many sites. In 1987 (a dry year), tracer gravels and the channel cross sections were generally stable. Periodic mobility of gravel may explain why brown trout Salmo trutta are more abundant than rainbow trout Oncorhychus mykiss in the study reaches, where high flows occur every May and June during snowmelt. Brown trout are fall spawners, and their fry emerge long before the high snowmelt flows, whereas rainbow trout are spring spawners whose eggs are in the gravel, and thus vulnerable to scour, during snowmelt flows

  2. Resistivity profiling for mapping gravel layers that may control contaminant migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  3. A laboratory experiment on the evolution of a sand gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias Borras, V.; Ferrara, V.; Stecca, G.; Blom, A.

    2015-01-01

    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. A bed composed of a bimodal sediment mixture was installed with a uniform slope and an gradual fining pattern. At the upstream end of the flume the initial bed consisted of 100% gravel,

  4. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures. 644.551 Section 644.551 National Defense Department of Defense...

  5. Response of bed mobility to sediment supply in natural gravel bed channels: A detailed examination and evaluation of mobility parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Lisle; J. M. Nelson; B. L. Barkett; J. Pitlick; M. A. Madej

    1998-01-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that bed mobility in gravel bed channels responds to changes in sediment supply, but detailed examinations of this adjustment in natural channels have been lacking, and practical methodologies to measure bed mobility have not been tested. We examined six gravel-bed, alternate-bar channels which have a wide range in annual...

  6. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers : a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  7. Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremiášová Renata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis. Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.

  8. Frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel used in Pearl-Chain Bridges: an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Andersen, Iben Brøndum

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel determined by the ASTM D5918-13 standard as a conservative estimate of the frost heave risk of fill in overfilled arch bridges, particularly in Pearl-Chain Bridges. Frost heave of granular materials has been of great research interes...

  9. Sediment transport primer: estimating bed-material transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcock; John Pitlick; Yantao Cui

    2009-01-01

    This primer accompanies the release of BAGS, software developed to calculate sediment transport rate in gravel-bed rivers. BAGS and other programs facilitate calculation and can reduce some errors, but cannot ensure that calculations are accurate or relevant. This primer was written to help the software user define relevant and tractable problems, select appropriate...

  10. GRAIN-SIZE MEASUREMENTS OF FLUVIAL GRAVEL BARS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for classifying the average grain size in gravel bars require manual measurements of each grain diameter. Aiming productivity, more efficient methods have been developed by applying remote sensing techniques and digital image processing. This research proposes an Object-Based Image Analysis methodology to classify gravel bars in fluvial channels. First, the study evaluates the performance of multiresolution segmentation algorithm (available at the software eCognition Developer in performing shape recognition. The linear regression model was applied to assess the correlation between the gravels’ reference delineation and the gravels recognized by the segmentation algorithm. Furthermore, the supervised classification was validated by comparing the results with field data using the t-statistic test and the kappa index. Afterwards, the grain size distribution in gravel bars along the upper Bananeiras River, Brazil was mapped. The multiresolution segmentation results did not prove to be consistent with all the samples. Nonetheless, the P01 sample showed an R2 =0.82 for the diameter estimation and R2=0.45 the recognition of the eliptical ft. The t-statistic showed no significant difference in the efficiencies of the grain size classifications by the field survey data and the Object-based supervised classification (t = 2.133 for a significance level of 0.05. However, the kappa index was 0.54. The analysis of the both segmentation and classification results did not prove to be replicable.

  11. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  12. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Glasbergen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (16 Pa, cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  13. The relationship between emergence from spawning gravel and growth in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; SILVA, P.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the timing of emergence from spawning gravel and growth after emergence was investigated in farmed Oncorhynchus mykiss. A relationship between the time of emergence and growth became evident after 6 months of rearing, where individuals with an intermediate emergence time...

  14. Effects of Gravel Bars on Nutrient Spiraling in Bedrock-Alluvium Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iobst, B. R.; Carroll, E. P.; Furbish, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The importance of the connection between nutrient transport and local stream geomorphology is becoming increasingly important. Studies have shown that the interconnectivity of nutrient cycles in the downstream direction is in part controlled by the distribution and size of gravel bars in low order streams, as hyporheic flow occurs dominantly through alternate and mid-channel gravel bars. For this investigation multiple gravel bars in a 3rd order bedrock-alluvium stream were studied to determine general relationships between nutrient spiraling and hyporheic flow. The first goal was to understand (1) the extent to which water moves through hyporheic zones and (2) the basic chemistry of the hyporheic water. The second part of the study was to understand how nutrients, notably nitrogen, are affected in their cycling by the relatively long residence times encountered in gravel bars during hyporheic flow. Wells were installed along a 600 m reach of Panther Creek, KY in selected bars, as well as in a secondary location involving a grid installation pattern in one large bar. Results have shown that hyporheic flow through gravel bars is an important factor in influencing stream chemistry. Background water chemistry surveys have shown that certain parameters, specifically ammonium and nitrogen concentrations vary downstream, and that the dominant control over these changes is gravel bar location. Rhodamine WT was used in field tracer tests to track the travel times of water through bars as well as partitioning of water between the open channel and hyporheic flows. Further tests will be conducted utilizing a stable isotope study to determine how nitrogen is affected by hyporheic flow, and what implications this has for nutrient transport. We expect results to show that the spacing and size of gravel bars is a dominant control in key nutrient spiraling parameters, namely uptake lengths and overall nitrogen cycling rates. This has implications for how natural systems will

  15. Ecological significance of riverine gravel bars in regulated river reaches below dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, G.; Takemon, Y.; Sumi, T.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    A gravel bar has been recognized as ecologically significant in that they provide simplified habitat with topographical, hydrological and thermo-chemical diversity, while enhancing material exchanges as interfaces laterally between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and vertically between surface and subsurface waters. During past several decades, regulated rivers below dams have been loss of a number of the geomorphological features due to sediment starvation by upstream dams, accompanied by a subsequent degradation of their ecological functions. Despite a growing concern for gravel bar management recognizing its importance in recovering riverine ecosystem services, the ecological roles of gravel bars have not been assessed enough from the empirical perspectives of habitat diversity and organic matter interactions. In this study, we investigate the 'natural filtering effects' for reducing lentic plankton and contaminants associated with self-purification, and 'physicochemical habitat complexity' of gravel bars, focusing on reach-scaled gravel bars in rivers located in three different countries; First is the Uji River in central Japan, where there has been a loss of gravel bars in the downstream reaches since an upstream dam was constructed in 1965; second is the Tagliamento River in northeast Italy, which shows morphologically intact braided bar channels by natural flooding events and sediment supply; third is the Trinity River in the United States (located in northern California), the site of ongoing restoration efforts for creating new gravel bars through gravel augmentation and channel rehabilitation activities. We traced the downstream changes in particulate organic matter (POM) trophic sources (composed of allochthonous terrestrial inputs, autochthonous instream production and lentic plankton from dam outflows) in order to evaluate the roles of the geomorphological features in tailwater ecosystem food-resources shifting. We calculated suspended POM

  16. Estimated sand and gravel resources of the South Merrimack, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, 7.5-minute quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Drew, L.J.; Fowler, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A computer methodology is presented that allows natural aggregate producers, local governmental, and nongovernmental planners to define specific locations that may have sand and gravel deposits meeting user-specified minimum size, thickness, and geographic and geologic criteria, in areas where the surficial geology has been mapped. As an example, the surficial geologic map of the South Merrimack quadrangle was digitized and several digital geographic information system databases were downloaded from the internet and used to estimate the sand and gravel resources in the quadrangle. More than 41 percent of the South Merrimack quadrangle has been mapped as having sand and (or) gravel deposited by glacial meltwaters. These glaciofluvial areas are estimated to contain a total of 10 million m3 of material mapped as gravel, 60 million m3 of material mapped as mixed sand and gravel, and another 50 million m3 of material mapped as sand with minor silt. The mean thickness of these areas is about 1.95 meters. Twenty tracts were selected, each having individual areas of more than about 14 acres4 (5.67 hectares) of stratified glacial-meltwater sand and gravel deposits, at least 10-feet (3.0 m) of material above the watertable, and not sterilized by the proximity of buildings, roads, streams and other bodies of water, or railroads. The 20 tracts are estimated to contain between about 4 and 10 million short tons (st) of gravel and 20 and 30 million st of sand. The five most gravel-rich tracts contain about 71 to 82 percent of the gravel resources in all 20 tracts and about 54-56 percent of the sand. Using this methodology, and the above criteria, a group of four tracts, divided by narrow areas sterilized by a small stream and secondary roads, may have the highest potential in the quadrangle for sand and gravel resources. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006.

  17. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  18. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  19. Morphological evolution of the Maipo River in central Chile: Influence of instream gravel mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Felipe; Mao, Luca; Escauriaza, Cristián

    2018-04-01

    Instream gravel mining is one of the most important causes of channel degradation in South America, specifically in rivers located near large metropolitan areas with rapidly growing cities, where no river management strategies exist. In the western region of the continent, many of these rivers belong to Andean systems, in which significant parts of the watersheds are located in mountain areas at high altitude, with considerable seasonal rainfall variability and steep channel slopes. In these rivers, gravel mining has produced significant incision of the channels with serious physical and ecological consequences, affecting habitats, modifying the supply and transport of sediments, and amplifying the risk to infrastructure in and around the channel during floods. In spite of the degraded conditions of many channels, no quantitative studies of the geomorphic impacts of gravel mining have been carried out in the region, mostly because of the insufficient and sparse data available. In this investigation we perform an analysis of the morphodynamic evolution in a section of the Maipo River in the metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. This river is economically the most important in the country, as it provides drinking and irrigation water to urban and rural areas, is utilized by the energy generation industry, and runs along and below critical infrastructure. We have collected and analyzed data from 1954 to 2015, during which the city population increased by more than 5 million inhabitants whose presence accelerated land use changes. The analysis shows a rapid morphological evolution of the channel where in 31 years effects such as: river sections showing incision of up to 20 m, an increase of the area affected by gravel mining from 86.62 to 368.13 ha, and a net erosion volume of 39.4 million m3 can be observed. This work yields quantitative information on the consequences of gravel mining in the Maipo River, providing the necessary data to develop an integrated

  20. Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.

  1. On the Directly and Subdirectly Irreducible Many-Sorted Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent Vidal J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A theorem of single-sorted universal algebra asserts that every finite algebra can be represented as a product of a finite family of finite directly irreducible algebras. In this article, we show that the many-sorted counterpart of the above theorem is also true, but under the condition of requiring, in the definition of directly reducible many-sorted algebra, that the supports of the factors should be included in the support of the many-sorted algebra. Moreover, we show that the theorem of Birkhoff, according to which every single-sorted algebra is isomorphic to a subdirect product of subdirectly irreducible algebras, is also true in the field of many-sorted algebras.

  2. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristovici, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content ( 2 (2 counts/in 2 ) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm 2 (5-6 counts/in 2 ) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  3. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating...

  4. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  5. Using Design Sketch to Teach Bubble Sort in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Jiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Jason Jen-Yen

    2009-01-01

    Bubble Sort is simple. Yet, it seems a bit difficult for high school students. This paper presents a pedagogical methodology: Using Design Sketch to visualize the concepts in Bubble Sort, and to evaluate how this approach assists students to understand the pseudo code of Bubble Sort. An experiment is conducted in Wu-Ling Senior High School with 250 students taking part. The statistical analysis of experimental results shows that, for relatively high abstraction concepts, such as iteration num...

  6. An empirical study on SAJQ (Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan I. Mathkour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most queries that applied on database management systems (DBMS depend heavily on the performance of the used sorting algorithm. In addition to have an efficient sorting algorithm, as a primary feature, stability of such algorithms is a major feature that is needed in performing DBMS queries. In this paper, we study a new Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries (SAJQ that has both advantages of being efficient and stable. The proposed algorithm takes the advantage of using the m-way-merge algorithm in enhancing its time complexity. SAJQ performs the sorting operation in a time complexity of O(nlogm, where n is the length of the input array and m is number of sub-arrays used in sorting. An unsorted input array of length n is arranged into m sorted sub-arrays. The m-way-merge algorithm merges the sorted m sub-arrays into the final output sorted array. The proposed algorithm keeps the stability of the keys intact. An analytical proof has been conducted to prove that, in the worst case, the proposed algorithm has a complexity of O(nlogm. Also, a set of experiments has been performed to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms other Stable–Sorting algorithms that are designed for join-based queries.

  7. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph

    1987-01-01

    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  8. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1 the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2 the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3 the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management.

  9. [Runoff and sediment yielding processes on red soil engineering accumulation containing gravels by a simulated rainfall experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian-hua; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Bai, Yun; Deng, Li-qiang; Li, Jian-ming; Li, Yao-lin

    2015-09-01

    Engineering accumulation formed in production and construction projects is characterized by unique structure and complex material composition. Characteristics of soil erosion on the engineering accumulation significantly differ from those on farmland. An artificially simulated rainfall experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of rainfall intensity on the processes of runoff and sediment yielding on the engineering accumulation of different gravel contents (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) in red soil regions. Results showed that the initial time of runoff generation decreased with increases in rainfall intensity and gravel content, the decreased amplitudes being about 48.5%-77.9% and 4.2%-34.2%, respectively. The initial time was found to be a power function of rainfall intensity. Both runoff velocity and runoff rate manifested a trend of first rising and then in a steady state with runoff duration. Rainfall intensity was found to be the main factor influencing runoff velocity and runoff rate, whereas the influence of gravel content was not significant. About 10% of gravel content was determined to be a critical value in the influence of gravel content on runoff volume. For the underlying surface of 10% gravel content, the runoff volume was least at rainfall intensity of 1.0 mm · min(-1) and maximum at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). The runoff volume in- creased 10%-60% with increase in rainfall intensity. Sediment concentration showed a sharp decline in first 6 min and then in a stable state in rest of time. Influence of rainfall intensity on sediment concentration decreased as gravel content increased. Gravels could reduce sediment yield significantly at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). Sediment yield was found to be a linear function of rainfall intensity and gravel content.

  10. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 2. Direct measures of particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, D.; Rubin, D. M.

    2012-06-01

    In this, the second of a pair of papers on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated measurements from images of sediment, of: 1) particle-size standard deviation (arithmetic sorting) with and without apparent void fraction; and 2) mean particle size in material with void fraction. A variety of simulations of granular material are used for testing purposes, in addition to images of natural sediment. Simulations are also used to establish that the effects on automated particle sizing of grains visible through the interstices of the grains at the very surface of a granular material continue to a depth of approximately 4 grain diameters and that this is independent of mean particle size. Ensemble root-mean squared error between observed and estimated arithmetic sorting coefficients for 262 images of natural silts, sands and gravels (drawn from 8 populations) is 31%, which reduces to 27% if adjusted for bias (slope correction between observed and estimated values). These methods allow non-intrusive and fully automated measurements of surfaces of unconsolidated granular material. With no tunable parameters or empirically derived coefficients, they should be broadly universal in appropriate applications. However, empirical corrections may need to be applied for the most accurate results. Finally, analytical formulas are derived for the one-step pore-particle transition probability matrix, estimated from the image's autocorrelogram, from which void fraction of a section of granular material can be estimated directly. This model gives excellent predictions of bulk void fraction yet imperfect predictions of pore-particle transitions.

  11. Sediment sorting at a side channel bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Denderen, Pepijn; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Side channels have been constructed to reduce the flood risk and to increase the ecological value of the river. In various Dutch side channels large aggradation in these channels occurred after construction. Measurements show that the grain size of the deposited sediment in the side channel is smaller than the grain size found on the bed of the main channel. This suggest that sorting occurs at the bifurcation of the side channel. The objective is to reproduce with a 2D morphological model the fining of the bed in the side channel and to study the effect of the sediment sorting on morphodynamic development of the side channel. We use a 2D Delft3D model with two sediment fractions. The first fraction corresponds with the grain size that can be found on the bed of the main channel and the second fraction corresponds with the grain size found in the side channel. With the numerical model we compute several side channel configurations in which we vary the length and the width of the side channel, and the curvature of the upstream channel. From these computations we can derive the equilibrium state and the time scale of the morphodynamic development of the side channel. Preliminary results show that even when a simple sediment transport relation is used, like Engelund & Hansen, more fine sediment enters the side channel than coarse sediment. This is as expected, and is probably related to the bed slope effects which are a function of the Shields parameter. It is expected that by adding a sill at the entrance of the side channel the slope effect increases. This might reduce the amount of coarse sediment which enters the side channel even more. It is unclear whether the model used is able to reproduce the effect of such a sill correctly as modelling a sill and reproducing the correct hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviour is not straightforward in a 2D model. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by STW, part of the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research under

  12. Frost Resistance and Permeability of Cement Stabilized Gravel used as Filling Material for Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2014-01-01

    several requirements on its moisture properties. In this paper the frost resistance, the liquid water permeability and the water vapour permeability of cement stabilized gravel are examined for two different cement contents. It is found that a small increase in cement content from 4% to 5% increases...... the 28-days compressive strength from 6.2 MPa to 12.3 MPa. The frost resistance of cement stabilized gravel with 5% cement content is better than for cement stabilized gravel with 4% cement content. The liquid water permeability coefficient and the water vapour permeability coefficient are significantly...

  13. A Preliminary Study of MSD-First Radix-Sorting Methed

    OpenAIRE

    小田, 哲久

    1984-01-01

    Many kinds of sorting algorithms have been developed from the age of Punched Card System. Nowadays, any sorting algorithm can be called either (1) internal sorting methed or (2) external sorting method. Internal sorting method is used only when the number of records to be sorted (N) is not so large for the internal memory of the computer system. Larger memory space has become available with the aid of semiconductor technology. Therefore, it might be desired to develop a new internal sorting m...

  14. Transcriptional profiling of cells sorted by RNA abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Sandy; Semrau, Stefan; Wiebrands, Kay; Mooijman, Dylan; Faddah, Dina A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    We have developed a quantitative technique for sorting cells on the basis of endogenous RNA abundance, with a molecular resolution of 10-20 transcripts. We demonstrate efficient and unbiased RNA extraction from transcriptionally sorted cells and report a high-fidelity transcriptome measurement of

  15. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  16. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and acceptable…

  17. New age radiometric ore sorting - the elegant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.P.; Heuer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radiometric ore sorting technology and application are described in two parts. Part I reviews the history of radiometric sorting in the minerals industry and describes the latest developments in radiometric sorting technology. Part II describes the history, feasibility study and approach used in the application of the new technology at Rossing Uranium Limited. There has been little progress in the field of radiometric sorting since the late 1970s. This has changed with the development of a high capacity radiometric sorter designed to operate on low-grade ore in the +75mm / -300mm size fraction. This has been designed specifically for an application at Rossing. Rossing has a long history in radiometric sorting dating back to 1968 when initial tests were conducted on the Rossing prospect. Past feasibility studies concluded that radiometric sorting would not conclusively reduce the unit cost of production unless sorting was used to increase production levels. The current feasibility study shows that the application of new radiometric sorter technology makes sorting viable without increasing production, and significantly more attractive with increased production. A pilot approach to confirm sorter performance is described. (author)

  18. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G.; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed

  19. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees

  20. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide...

  1. Science and technology of kernels and TRISO coated particle sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothnagel, G.

    2006-09-01

    The ~1mm diameter TRISO coated particles, which form the elemental units of PBMR nuclear fuel, has to be close to spherical in order to best survive damage during sphere pressing. Spherical silicon carbide layers further provide the strongest miniature pressure vessels for fission product retention. To make sure that the final product contains particles of acceptable shape, 100% of kernels and coated particles have to be sorted on a surface-ground sorting table. Broken particles, twins, irregular (odd) shapes and extreme ellipsoids have to be separated from the final kernel and coated particle batches. Proper sorting of particles is an extremely important step in quality fuel production as the final failure fraction depends sensitively on the quality of sorting. After sorting a statistically significant sample of the sorted product is analysed for sphericity, which is defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum diameter, as part of a standard QC test to ensure conformance to German specifications. In addition a burn-leach test is done on coated particles (before pressing) and fuel spheres (after pressing) to ensure adherence to failure specifications. Because of the extreme importance of particle sorting for assurance of fuel quality it is essential to have an in-depth understanding of the capabilities and limitations of particle sorting. In this report a systematic scientific rationale is developed, from fundamental principles, to provide a basis for understanding the relationship between product quality and sorting parameters. The principles and concepts, developed in this report, will be of importance when future sorting tables (or equivalents) are to be designed. A number of new concepts and methodologies are developed to assist with equivalence validation of any two sorting tables. This is aimed in particular towards quantitative assessment of equivalence between current QC tables (closely based on the original NUKEM parameters, except for the driving mechanism

  2. A Fully Automated Approach to Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jason E; Magland, Jeremy F; Barnett, Alex H; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Lee, Kye Y; Shah, Kedar G; Felix, Sarah H; Frank, Loren M; Greengard, Leslie F

    2017-09-13

    Understanding the detailed dynamics of neuronal networks will require the simultaneous measurement of spike trains from hundreds of neurons (or more). Currently, approaches to extracting spike times and labels from raw data are time consuming, lack standardization, and involve manual intervention, making it difficult to maintain data provenance and assess the quality of scientific results. Here, we describe an automated clustering approach and associated software package that addresses these problems and provides novel cluster quality metrics. We show that our approach has accuracy comparable to or exceeding that achieved using manual or semi-manual techniques with desktop central processing unit (CPU) runtimes faster than acquisition time for up to hundreds of electrodes. Moreover, a single choice of parameters in the algorithm is effective for a variety of electrode geometries and across multiple brain regions. This algorithm has the potential to enable reproducible and automated spike sorting of larger scale recordings than is currently possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Particle sorting by Paramecium cilia arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Richard; Whiting, James G H; Wheway, Gabrielle; Melhuish, Chris; Adamatzky, Andrew

    Motile cilia are cell-surface organelles whose purposes, in ciliated protists and certain ciliated metazoan epithelia, include generating fluid flow, sensing and substance uptake. Certain properties of cilia arrays, such as beating synchronisation and manipulation of external proximate particulate matter, are considered emergent, but remain incompletely characterised despite these phenomena having being the subject of extensive modelling. This study constitutes a laboratory experimental characterisation of one of the emergent properties of motile cilia: manipulation of adjacent particulates. The work demonstrates through automated videomicrographic particle tracking that interactions between microparticles and somatic cilia arrays of the ciliated model organism Paramecium caudatum constitute a form of rudimentary 'sorting'. Small particles are drawn into the organism's proximity by cilia-induced fluid currents at all times, whereas larger particles may be held immobile at a distance from the cell margin when the cell generates characteristic feeding currents in the surrounding media. These findings can contribute to the design and fabrication of biomimetic cilia, with potential applications to the study of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Parallel Modular Biomimetic Cilia Sorting Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. H. Whiting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic unicellular organism Paramecium caudatum uses cilia to swim around its environment and to graze on food particles and bacteria. Paramecia use waves of ciliary beating for locomotion, intake of food particles and sensing. There is some evidence that Paramecia pre-sort food particles by discarding larger particles, but intake the particles matching their mouth cavity. Most prior attempts to mimic cilia-based manipulation merely mimicked the overall action rather than the beating of cilia. The majority of massive-parallel actuators are controlled by a central computer; however, a distributed control would be far more true-to-life. We propose and test a distributed parallel cilia platform where each actuating unit is autonomous, yet exchanging information with its closest neighboring units. The units are arranged in a hexagonal array. Each unit is a tileable circuit board, with a microprocessor, color-based object sensor and servo-actuated biomimetic cilia actuator. Localized synchronous communication between cilia allowed for the emergence of coordinated action, moving different colored objects together. The coordinated beating action was capable of moving objects up to 4 cm/s at its highest beating frequency; however, objects were moved at a speed proportional to the beat frequency. Using the local communication, we were able to detect the shape of objects and rotating an object using edge detection was performed; however, lateral manipulation using shape information was unsuccessful.

  5. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  6. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  7. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  8. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  9. Queue and stack sorting algorithm optimization and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingzhu; Wang, Xiaobao

    2018-04-01

    Sorting algorithm is one of the basic operation of a variety of software development, in data structures course specializes in all kinds of sort algorithm. The performance of the sorting algorithm is directly related to the efficiency of the software. A lot of excellent scientific research queue is constantly optimizing algorithm, algorithm efficiency better as far as possible, the author here further research queue combined with stacks of sorting algorithms, the algorithm is mainly used for alternating operation queue and stack storage properties, Thus avoiding the need for a large number of exchange or mobile operations in the traditional sort. Before the existing basis to continue research, improvement and optimization, the focus on the optimization of the time complexity of the proposed optimization and improvement, The experimental results show that the improved effectively, at the same time and the time complexity and space complexity of the algorithm, the stability study corresponding research. The improvement and optimization algorithm, improves the practicability.

  10. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  11. Development of a reactor thermalhydraulic experiment databank(SORTED1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seck; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hho Jung; Lee, Sang Yong

    1994-01-01

    The recent trend in thermalhydraulic safety analysis of nuclear power plant shows the best-estimate and probabilistic approaches, therefore, the verification of the best-estimate code based on the applicable experiment data has been required. The present study focused on developing a simple databank, SORTED1, to be effectively used for code verification. The development of SORTED1 includes a data collection from the various sources including ENCOUNTER, which is the reactor safety data bank of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a reorganization of collected resources suitable for requirements of SORTED1 database management system (DBMS), and a development of a simple DBMS. The SORTED1 is designed in Unix environment with graphic user interface to improve a user convenience and has a capability to provide the test related information. The currently registered data in SORTED1 cover 759 thermalhydraulic tests including LOFT, Semiscale, etc

  12. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the choice of analysis method for card sorting studies affects the suggested information structure for websites. In the card sorting technique, a variety of methods are used to analyse the resulting data. The analysis of card sorting data helps user experience (UX......) designers to discover the patterns in how users make classifications and thus to develop an optimal, user-centred website structure. During analysis, the recurrence of patterns of classification between users influences the resulting website structure. However, the algorithm used in the analysis influences...... the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  13. Isotope Investigations of Groundwater Movement in a Coarse Gravel Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, N. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kozar-Logar, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Leis, A. [Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydrogeology and Geophysics, Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The unsaturated zone above an aquifer serves as a water reservoir which discharges water and possible pollution to the saturated zone. This paper presents the application of oxygen-18 and tritium isotope methods in the study of groundwater transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Selniska Dobrava coarse gravel aquifer. The Selniska Dobrava gravel aquifer is an important water resource for Maribor and its surroundings, therefore the determination of transport processes in the unsaturated zone is important regarding its protection. Groundwater flow characteristics were estimated using isotopes and based on experimental work in a lysimeter. Tritium investigation results were compared with the results of long term oxygen-18 isotope investigation. In this paper the analytical approach, results and interpretation of {delta}{sup 18}O and tritium measurements in the unsaturated zone are presented. (author)

  14. Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed

    OpenAIRE

    Hersberger, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed In the narrow valleys in Alpine regions, rivers frequently flow across constructed zones, passing through villages and cities. Due to limited space, the protection from high floods often needs to be ensured by protection walls. During floods, these protection walls may be endangered by scour phenomena, especially if they are located in bends. In the past, the potential danger of underscoured structures was reduced ...

  15. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-01-01

    Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia). This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of ...

  17. Surface particle sizes on armoured gravel streambeds: Effects of supply and hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Whiting; John G. King

    2003-01-01

    Most gravel-bed streams exhibit a surface armour in which the median grain size of the surface particles is coarser than that of the subsurface particles. This armour has been interpreted to result when the supply of sediment is less than the ability of the stream to move sediment. While there may be certain sizes in the bed for which the supply is less than the...

  18. Compositional Signatures in Acoustic Backscatter Over Vegetated and Unvegetated Mixed Sand-Gravel Riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  19. Experiences made with tritium-containing water used as tracer in laboratory experiments with fluvioglacial gravels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Rauert, W.

    1982-01-01

    Batch tests performed on 11 different Bavarian fluvioglacial gravels led to tritium distribution coefficients, which deviated not or only insignificantly from zero within the range of experimental accuracy applied to routine testings. The result of nine flow experiments in a gravelfilled column was a mean retardation factor of 1.01 +- 0.01. These experiments thus showed - as it had been expected - that 3 HHO is not significantly delayed with regard to the flow or movement of the water. (orig.) [de

  20. Physical Characteristics of Laboratory Tested Concrete as a Substituion of Gravel on Normal Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butar-butar, Ronald; Suhairiani; Wijaya, Kinanti; Sebayang, Nono

    2018-03-01

    Concrete technology is highly potential in the field of construction for structural and non-structural construction. The amount uses of this concrete material raise the problem of solid waste in the form of concrete remaining test results in the laboratory. This waste is usually just discarded and not economically valuable. In solving the problem, this experiment was made new materials by using recycle material in the form of recycled aggregate which aims to find out the strength characteristics of the used concrete as a gravel substitution material on the normal concrete and obtain the value of the substitution composition of gravel and used concrete that can achieve the strength of concrete according to the standard. Testing of concrete characteristic is one of the requirements before starting the concrete mixture. This test using SNI method (Indonesian National Standard) with variation of comparison (used concrete : gravel) were 15: 85%, 25: 75%, 35:65%, 50:50 %, 75: 25%. The results of physical tests obtained the mud content value of the mixture gravel and used concrete is 0.03 larger than the standard of SNI 03-4142-1996 that is equal to 1.03%. so the need watering or soaking before use. The water content test results show an increase in the water content value if the composition of the used concrete increases. While the specific gravity value for variation 15: 85% until 35: 65% fulfilled the requirements of SNI 03-1969-1990. the other variasion show the specifics gravity value included on the type of light materials.

  1. Compositional signatures in acoustic backscatter over vegetated and unvegetated mixed sand-gravel riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  2. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.

  3. Evaluation of Hydraulic Parameters Obtained by Different Measurement Methods for Heterogeneous Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic parameters for the van Genuchten function is important to characterize soil water movement for watershed management. Accurate and rapid prediction of soil water flow in heterogeneous gravel soil has become a hot topic in recent years. However, it is difficult to precisely estimate hydraulic parameters in a heterogeneous soil with rock fragments. In this study, the HYDRUS-2D numerical model was used to evaluate hydraulic parameters for heterogeneous gravel soil that was irregularly embedded with rock fragments in a grape production base. The centrifugal method (CM, tensiometer method (TM and inverse solution method (ISM were compared for various parameters in the van Genuchten function. The soil core method (SCM, disc infiltration method (DIM and inverse solution method (ISM were also investigated for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity. Simulation with the DIM approach revealed a problem of overestimating soil water infiltration whereas simulation with the SCM approach revealed a problem of underestimating water movement as compared to actual field observation. The ISM approach produced the best simulation result even though this approach slightly overestimated soil moisture by ignoring the impact of rock fragments. This study provides useful information on the overall evaluation of soil hydraulic parameters attained with different measurement methods for simulating soil water movement and distribution in heterogeneous gravel soil.

  4. Bed Load Variability and Morphology of Gravel Bed Rivers Subject to Unsteady Flow: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.

  5. Synthesis of AL-MCM-41 using gravel drilling the source of silica from wells drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, M.S.B.; Costa, C.C.; Melo, D.M.A.; Viana, L.M.; Viana, S.O.; Santos, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize Al-MCM-41 using gravel drilling as alternative source of silica, aiming at sustainable production and low cost. For hydrothermal synthesis of Al-MCM-41 was used gravel and sodium silicate as source of silica and sodium, respectively. The structural driver used was cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr) and solvent distilled water. The hydrothermal synthesis was conducted at 100 ° C in a Teflon autoclave 45 ml jacketed stainless steel for a period of 120 hours with daily correcting pH (range 9-10) using 30% acetic acid. The material obtained was filtered, washed, dried at 100 ° C for 3 hours and then calcined at 550 ° C for 2 hours. Then it was characterized by XRD, FTIR and TG. For the results of characterization has been observed that the use of the gravel drilling as a source of silica was promising alternative for producing a mesoporous material with a high degree of hexagonal ordering. (author)

  6. Indoor radon in houses built on gravel and sand deposits in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutri, K.-L.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK have shown that, in Finland, indoor radon concentrations are almost twice as high in houses built on sand or gravel as in houses built on other soil types. The aim of this study was to assess the radon risk on eskers, ice-marginal formations, and other gravel and sand deposits on the basis of factors that can be determined from geological maps. Altogether, 514 houses built on gravel and sand deposits were selected for the study from the indoor radon database of STUK. Several geological parameters were determined. Empirical statistical models were used to assess the significance of factors affecting indoor radon in glaciofluvial deposits and the sand-dominant littoral deposits occurring in association with them. A relationship was found between increased indoor radon concentrations and the location of a house on a steep-sided esker, in the southeastern rapakivi granite area and on the upper slope or top of an esker. The steepness of the slope also increased the radon concentration in houses on steep-sided eskers. The effect of the topographic features is due to subterranean air-flows. As estimated from the very sparse till sampling, the elevated uranium concentration increased the indoor radon concentration only in houses built on littoral deposits around eskers and ice-marginal formations.

  7. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil

  8. Triaxial shear behavior of a cement-treated sand–gravel mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Amini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of parameters, e.g. cement content, cement type, relative density, and grain size distribution, can influence the mechanical behaviors of cemented soils. In the present study, a series of conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted on a cemented poorly graded sand–gravel mixture containing 30% gravel and 70% sand in both consolidated drained and undrained conditions. Portland cement used as the cementing agent was added to the soil at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% (dry weight of sand–gravel mixture. Samples were prepared at 70% relative density and tested at confining pressures of 50 kPa, 100 kPa, and 150 kPa. Comparison of the results with other studies on well graded gravely sands indicated more dilation or negative pore pressure in poorly graded samples. Undrained failure envelopes determined using zero Skempton's pore pressure coefficient (A¯=0 criterion were consistent with the drained ones. Energy absorption potential was higher in drained condition than undrained condition, suggesting that more energy was required to induce deformation in cemented soil under drained state. Energy absorption increased with increase in cement content under both drained and undrained conditions.

  9. Development of a submerged gravel scrubber for containment venting applications: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Although hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) are not design basis accidents for breeder reactor plants, extensive assessments of HCDA consequences have been made and design features for providing margins beyond the design base have been considered for future fast reactor plants. One feature proposed for increasing the safety margin is a containment vent and/or purge system which would mitigate the challenge to containment integrity resulting from excessive temperature and pressure or excessive hydrogen. A cleanup system would be required for removal of vented aerosols and condensible vapors to mitigate radiological consequences to the environment. A study is in progress at HEDL to select and develop a suitable air cleaning system for use in potential breeder reactor containment venting applications. A concept was conceived whereby the passiveness and high loading capacity of a water pool scrubber was combined with the high efficiency of a sand and gravel bed. It was termed a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS). A schematic drawing of the concept is shown. The SGS consists of a bed of gravel (or other packing) submerged in a pool of water

  10. Cement Type Influence on Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete with Crushed Gravel Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, A.; Nagrockienė, D.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction is one of the chemical reactions which have a significant influence for durability of concrete. During alkali and silica reaction, silicon located in aggregates of the concrete, reacts with high alkali content. This way in the micropores of concrete is forming hygroscopic gel, which at wet environment, expanding and slowly but strongly destroying concrete structures. The goal of this paper- to determine the influence of cement type on alkali-silica reaction of mortars with crushed gravel. In the study crushed gravel with fraction 4/16 mm was used and four types of cements tested: CEM I 42.5 R; CEM I 42.5 SR; CEM II/A-S 42.5; CEM II/A-V 52.5. This study showed that crushed gravel is low contaminated on reactive particles containing of amorphous silica dioxide. The expansion after 14 days exceed 0.054 %, by RILEM AAR-2 research methodology (testing specimen dimension 40×40×160 mm). Continuing the investigation to 56 days for all specimens occurred alkaline corrosion features: microcracking and the surface plaque of gel. The results showed that the best resistance to alkaline corrosion after 14 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 SR containing ash additive, and after 56 days with cement CEM II/A-V 52.5 containing low alkali content. The highest expansion after 14 and 56 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 R without active mineral additives.

  11. CellSort: a support vector machine tool for optimizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reducing experimental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica S; Pertusi, Dante A; Adeniran, Adebola V; Tyo, Keith E J

    2017-03-15

    High throughput screening by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a common task in protein engineering and directed evolution. It can also be a rate-limiting step if high false positive or negative rates necessitate multiple rounds of enrichment. Current FACS software requires the user to define sorting gates by intuition and is practically limited to two dimensions. In cases when multiple rounds of enrichment are required, the software cannot forecast the enrichment effort required. We have developed CellSort, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that identifies optimal sorting gates based on machine learning using positive and negative control populations. CellSort can take advantage of more than two dimensions to enhance the ability to distinguish between populations. We also present a Bayesian approach to predict the number of sorting rounds required to enrich a population from a given library size. This Bayesian approach allowed us to determine strategies for biasing the sorting gates in order to reduce the required number of enrichment rounds. This algorithm should be generally useful for improve sorting outcomes and reducing effort when using FACS. Source code available at http://tyolab.northwestern.edu/tools/ . k-tyo@northwestern.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Sheet-gravel evidence for a late Holocene tsunami run-up on beach dunes, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Scott L.; Lian, Olav B.; Carter, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    A semi-continuous sheet of granule to cobble-size clasts forms a distinctive deposit on sand dunes located on a coastal barrier in Whangapoua Bay, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand. The gravel sheet extends from the toe of the foredune to 14.3 m above mean sea level and 200 m landward from the beach. Clasts are rounded to sub-rounded and comprise lithologies consistent with local bedrock. Terrestrial sources for the gravel are considered highly unlikely due to the isolation of the dunes from hillslopes and streams. The only source for the clasts is the nearshore to inner shelf of Whangapoua Bay, where gravel sediments have been previously documented. The mechanism for transport of the gravel is unlikely to be storm surge due to the elevation of the deposit; maximum-recorded storm surge on this coast is 0.8 m above mean high water spring tide. Aeolian processes are also discounted due to the size of clasts and the elevation at which they occur. Tsunami is therefore considered the most probable mechanism for gravel transport. Minimum run-up height of the tsunami was 14.3 m, based on maximum elevation of gravel deposits. Optical ages on dune sands beneath and covering the gravel allow age bracketing to 0-4.7 ka. Within this time frame, numerous documented regional seismic and volcanic events could have generated the tsunami, notably submarine volcanism along the southern Kermadec arc to the east-southeast of Great Barrier Island where large magnitude events are documented for the late Holocene. Radiocarbon ages on shell from Maori middens that appear to have been reworked by tsunami run-up constrain the age of this event to post ca. 1400 AD. Regardless of the precise age of this event, the well-preserved nature of the Whangapoua gravel deposit provides for an improved understanding of the high degree of spatial variability in tsunami run-up.

  13. Gravel-Sand-Clay Mixture Model for Predictions of Permeability and Velocity of Unconsolidated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Gravel-sand-clay mixture model is proposed particularly for unconsolidated sediments to predict permeability and velocity from volume fractions of the three components (i.e. gravel, sand, and clay). A well-known sand-clay mixture model or bimodal mixture model treats clay contents as volume fraction of the small particle and the rest of the volume is considered as that of the large particle. This simple approach has been commonly accepted and has validated by many studies before. However, a collection of laboratory measurements of permeability and grain size distribution for unconsolidated samples show an impact of presence of another large particle; i.e. only a few percent of gravel particles increases the permeability of the sample significantly. This observation cannot be explained by the bimodal mixture model and it suggests the necessity of considering the gravel-sand-clay mixture model. In the proposed model, I consider the three volume fractions of each component instead of using only the clay contents. Sand becomes either larger or smaller particles in the three component mixture model, whereas it is always the large particle in the bimodal mixture model. The total porosity of the two cases, one is the case that the sand is smaller particle and the other is the case that the sand is larger particle, can be modeled independently from sand volume fraction by the same fashion in the bimodal model. However, the two cases can co-exist in one sample; thus, the total porosity of the mixed sample is calculated by weighted average of the two cases by the volume fractions of gravel and clay. The effective porosity is distinguished from the total porosity assuming that the porosity associated with clay is zero effective porosity. In addition, effective grain size can be computed from the volume fractions and representative grain sizes for each component. Using the effective porosity and the effective grain size, the permeability is predicted by Kozeny-Carman equation

  14. MANUAL. Fly ash in civil engineering, Gravel roads; HANDBOK. Flygaska i mark- och vaegbyggnad, Grusvaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munde, Hanna; Svedberg, Bo; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Ekdahl, Peter; Neren, Jens [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Vaerme Norden

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash based on biofuels or coal has been used as construction material for a long time in roads and other civil engineering applications. Some example, where it has been used in roadbase and subbase of gravel roads, are in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland, Vaestmanland and in Finland. The use of fly ash has contributed to good function for example as bearing capacity, thaw and frost capacity and good durability. This has also reduced costs for maintenance. The objective of this project was to develop a manual to provide a base for contemporary use of fly ash in road constructions. In the manual experience from studies, field tests and regulations has been compiled. The manual handles fly ash as base for products to be used in base and subbase in gravel roads. Future user of the guidelines are mainly consultant engineers and contractors. However the aim of the manual is to also support road administrators, environmental authorities and industry. The project has been carried out parallel to another ongoing national project titled 'Guidelines, Use of alternative materials in civil engineering'. The objective of that project is to establish a base for handling of alternative materials in Sweden. Fly ash in gravel roads are mainly used in two typical applications, one without any additive in a single layer and one with fly ash mixed with gravel. The use of flyash provides functional properties such as increased stiffness, stability and enhanced frost and thaw capacity for the road construction in total. Furthermore the products based on fly ash will have low permeability and good frost and thaw durability. These properties are for example related to fly ash quality, design and construction and are in general expected to be better than for traditional constructions using, for example, sand or gravel. The properties can be enhanced further by using binders such as cement and Merit. Fly ash should always be used above the ground water table with

  15. A Simple Deep Learning Method for Neuronal Spike Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Spike sorting is one of key technique to understand brain activity. With the development of modern electrophysiology technology, some recent multi-electrode technologies have been able to record the activity of thousands of neuronal spikes simultaneously. The spike sorting in this case will increase the computational complexity of conventional sorting algorithms. In this paper, we will focus spike sorting on how to reduce the complexity, and introduce a deep learning algorithm, principal component analysis network (PCANet) to spike sorting. The introduced method starts from a conventional model and establish a Toeplitz matrix. Through the column vectors in the matrix, we trains a PCANet, where some eigenvalue vectors of spikes could be extracted. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is used to sort spikes. In experiments, we choose two groups of simulated data from public databases availably and compare this introduced method with conventional methods. The results indicate that the introduced method indeed has lower complexity with the same sorting errors as the conventional methods.

  16. Seasonal movement change of sediments using RFID tracer monitoring in composite gravel beach, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Yu, J.; Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate seasonal movement patterns of gravel movements on the west coast of Korean peninsula. This study aims improve understanding of the process of coastal sediments movement and contribute to coastal erosion management. The study site is Taean Bangpo Beach, which is characterized by its macro tide and composite gravel beach (CGB). In this study, we carried out a radio frequency identifier (RFID) tracer movement monitoring experiment. Four hundred tracers, similar in size and shape to beach sediment, were inserted into the beach in February and December 2015. From the results, it was confirmed that generally, gravel moved southward in the winter and northward in the summer. It was also confirmed that the gravel moved long distances in the summer and winter, but much shorter distances in the spring. At the end of the results, it is confirmed that the tracer recovery rate in summer is lower than in winter. Bangpo Beach was influenced by strong wind and wave energy driven by the East Asian winter monsoon, and by normal tidal energy during the other seasons. It means that seasonal variation of gravel movement in the beach is attributed to the difference of seasonal energy conditions. In addition, it is interpreted that the sand at the intertidal zone cannot be removed in the summer when the wave energy is weak, causing the tracer to be buried. This study is expected to contribute to the study of composite gravel beach and coastal coarse sediment movement which have been lacking in research.

  17. The Container Problem in Bubble-Sort Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuto; Kaneko, Keiichi

    Bubble-sort graphs are variants of Cayley graphs. A bubble-sort graph is suitable as a topology for massively parallel systems because of its simple and regular structure. Therefore, in this study, we focus on n-bubble-sort graphs and propose an algorithm to obtain n-1 disjoint paths between two arbitrary nodes in time bounded by a polynomial in n, the degree of the graph plus one. We estimate the time complexity of the algorithm and the sum of the path lengths after proving the correctness of the algorithm. In addition, we report the results of computer experiments evaluating the average performance of the algorithm.

  18. Automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    The modified bubble-sort graph of dimension $n$ is the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by $n$ cyclically adjacent transpositions. In the present paper, it is shown that the automorphism group of the modified bubble sort graph of dimension $n$ is $S_n \\times D_{2n}$, for all $n \\ge 5$. Thus, a complete structural description of the automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph is obtained. A similar direct product decomposition is seen to hold for arbitrary normal Cayley graphs generate...

  19. Design and analysis on sorting blade for automated size-based sorting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Samsudin, Yasser Suhaimi; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays rubbish separating or recycling is a main problem of nation, where peoples dumped their rubbish into dumpsite without caring the value of the rubbish if it can be recycled and reused. Thus the author proposed an automated segregating device, purposely to teach people to separate their rubbish and value the rubbish that can be reused. The automated size-based mechanical segregating device provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in this segregating process. This device is designed to make recycling easier, user friendly, in the hope that more people will take responsibility if it is less of an expense of time and effort. This paper discussed about redesign a blade for the sorting device which is to develop an efficient automated mechanical sorting device for the similar material but in different size. The machine is able to identify the size of waste and it depends to the coil inside the container to separate it out. The detail design and methodology is described in detail in this paper.

  20. A real time sorting algorithm to time sort any deterministic time disordered data stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J.; Mandal, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    In new generation high intensity high energy physics experiments, millions of free streaming high rate data sources are to be readout. Free streaming data with associated time-stamp can only be controlled by thresholds as there is no trigger information available for the readout. Therefore, these readouts are prone to collect large amount of noise and unwanted data. For this reason, these experiments can have output data rate of several orders of magnitude higher than the useful signal data rate. It is therefore necessary to perform online processing of the data to extract useful information from the full data set. Without trigger information, pre-processing on the free streaming data can only be done with time based correlation among the data set. Multiple data sources have different path delays and bandwidth utilizations and therefore the unsorted merged data requires significant computational efforts for real time manifestation of sorting before analysis. Present work reports a new high speed scalable data stream sorting algorithm with its architectural design, verified through Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware simulation. Realistic time based simulated data likely to be collected in an high energy physics experiment have been used to study the performance of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses parallel read-write blocks with added memory management and zero suppression features to make it efficient for high rate data-streams. This algorithm is best suited for online data streams with deterministic time disorder/unsorting on FPGA like hardware.

  1. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  2. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel

    2014-05-21

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.

  3. Recent progress in multi-electrode spike sorting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Yger, Pierre; Marre, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting. Here we review different methods that have been developed to sort spikes from these large-scale recordings. We describe the common properties of these algorithms, as well as their main differences. Finally, we outline the issues that remain to be solved by future spike sorting algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  5. Unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separability in the learned subspace than in the subspace obtained by principal component analysis or wavelet transform.

  6. In-flight Sorting of BNNTs by Aspect Ratio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key technical challenges are: (a) mechanical sorting is ineffective for nanoscale product, (b) BNNTs are non-conductive and the agglomeration tendency is strong,...

  7. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  9. A Model Vision of Sorting System Application Using Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maralo Sinaga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the Moduler Processing System (MPS laboratory which consists of four integrated stations of distribution, testing, processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Supported by OpenCV, image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in realtime by a webcam and then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator (Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-M1 that does pick-and-place mechanism. Extensive testing proves that this color based object sorting system works 100% accurate under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects’ shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are silver, red and black. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

  10. Gravel bar thermal variability and its potential consequences for CO2 evasion from Alpine coldwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodoo, Kyle; Battin, Tom; Schelker, Jakob

    2017-04-01

    Gravel bars (GB) are ubiquitous in-stream structures with relatively large exposed surfaces, capable of absorbing heat and possibly acting as a heat source to the underlying hyporheic zone (HZ). The distinctive mixing of groundwater and surface water within their HZ largely determines its characteristic physical and biogeochemical properties, including temperature distribution. To study thermal variability within GBs and its possible consequences for CO2 evasion fluxes we analysed high frequency spatio-temporal data for a range of stream and atmospheric physical parameters including the vertical GB temperature, in an Alpine cold water stream (Oberer Seebach, Austria) over the course of a year. We found the vertical temperature profiles within the GB to vary seasonally and with discharge. We extended our study to 13 other gravel bars of varying physical characteristics within the surrounding Ybbs and Erlauf catchments, conducting diurnal spot samplings in summer 2016. Temperatures within the observed permanently wetted hyporheic zone (-56 to -100cm depth below GB surface) of the OSB, were warmer than both end members, surface water and groundwater >18% of the year, particularly during summer. There was a general increase in exceedance within the periodically wetted gravel bar sediment toward the gravel bar surface, further evidencing downward heat transfer to the wetted HZ. Average CO2 flux from the GB was significantly higher than that of streamwater during summer and winter, with significantly higher temperatures and CO2 outgassing rates occurring at the GB tail as compared to streamwater and the head and mid of the GB throughout the year. Higher cumulative (over 6 h) GB seasonal temperatures were associated with increased CO2 evasion fluxes within the OSB, particularly during summer. This enhanced CO2 flux may result from the input of warmer CO2-rich groundwater into the HZ in autumn, while downward heat transfer in summer may enhance GB metabolism and therefore

  11. Treatment of heavy metals by iron oxide coated and natural gravel media in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Pulford, I D; Haynes, H; Dorea, C C; Phoenix, V R

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) filter drains are simple, low-cost systems utilized as a first defence to treat road runoff by employing biogeochemical processes to reduce pollutants. However, the mechanisms involved in pollution attenuation are poorly understood. This work aims to develop a better understanding of these mechanisms to facilitate improved SuDS design. Since heavy metals are a large fraction of pollution in road runoff, this study aimed to enhance heavy metal removal of filter drain gravel with an iron oxide mineral amendment to increase surface area for heavy metal scavenging. Experiments showed that amendment-coated and uncoated (control) gravel removed similar quantities of heavy metals. Moreover, when normalized to surface area, iron oxide coated gravels (IOCGs) showed poorer metal removal capacities than uncoated gravel. Inspection of the uncoated microgabbro gravel indicated that clay particulates on the surface (a natural product of weathering of this material) augmented heavy metal removal, generating metal sequestration capacities that were competitive compared with IOCGs. Furthermore, when the weathered surface was scrubbed and removed, metal removal capacities were reduced by 20%. When compared with other lithologies, adsorption of heavy metals by microgabbro was 10-70% higher, indicating that both the lithology of the gravel, and the presence of a weathered surface, considerably influence its ability to immobilize heavy metals. These results contradict previous assumptions which suggest that gravel lithology is not a significant factor in SuDS design. Based upon these results, weathered microgabbro is suggested to be an ideal lithology for use in SuDS.

  12. The morphodynamics and internal structure of intertidal fine-gravel dunes: Hills Flats, Severn Estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P. A.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.; Williams, J. J.; Rumble, B.; Meshkova, L.; Bell, P.; Breakspear, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the macrotidal Severn estuary, UK, the dynamics of intertidal fine-gravel dunes were investigated. These dunes are migrating across a bedrock platform. Systematic observations were made of hydraulic climate, geometry, migration rates and internal sedimentary structures of the dunes. During spring tides, the ebb flow is dominant, dunes grow in height and have ebb orientated geometry with bedrock floors in the troughs. During neap tides, a weak flood flow may dominate. Dunes then are flood orientated or symmetrical. Neap dune heights decrease and the eroded sediment is stored in the dune troughs where the bedrock becomes blanketed by muddy gravel. During spring tides, instantaneous bed shear stresses reach 8 N m - 2 , sufficient to disrupt a 9 mm-gravel armour layer. However, a sustained bed shear stress of 4 N m - 2 is required to initiate dune migration at which time the critical depth-mean velocity is 1 m s - 1 . Ebb and flood inequalities in the bed shear stress explain the changes in dune asymmetry and internal structures. During flood tides, the crests of the dunes reverse such that very mobile sedimentary 'caps' overlie a more stable dune 'core'. Because ebb tides dominate, internal structures of the caps often are characterised by ebb orientated steep open-work foresets developed by strong tidal currents and some lower angle crossbeds deposited as weaker currents degrade foresets. The foresets forming the caps may be grouped into cosets (tidal bundles) and are separated from mud-infused cores of crossbeds that lie below, by reactivation and erosion surfaces blanketed by discontinuous mud drapes. The cores often exhibit distinctive muddy toe sets that define the spacing of tidal cosets.

  13. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J. (AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R[sub D] values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R[sub D] for radioactive Ca but higher R[sub D] values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R[sub D] for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R[sub D] values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R[sub D] values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.).

  14. Sorption of activation products on London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Littleboy, A.K.; Pilkington, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The sortpion of a series of activation-product radionuclides onto London clay and Dungeness aquifer gravel from the nuclear reactor sites at Bradwell and Dungeness, has been examined. Batch sorption and through-diffusion experiments with clay determined chlorine as the chloride ion to be effectively non-sorbing; calcium to be weakly sorbing, whereas cobalt, nickel, niobium and samarium were moderately to strongly sorbing and silver was strongly sorbing. Distribution ratios (R D values) for Nb, Sm and Ag were found to have a strong dependence on the liquid-solid separation technique employed. The presence of high concentrations of calcium hydroxide led to lower values of R D for radioactive Ca but higher R D values for Sm and Ag. The sorption of Ni showed no apparent dependence on groundwater composition at low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The values of R D for Co decreased as the DOC content was increased by addition of humic materials. Batch sorption studies with aquifer gravel demonstrated that Ca is weakly sorbing whereas Nb, Ag and Eu are moderately to strongly sorbing. R D values for Ca and for Ag under neutral pH conditions show little sensitivity to the liquid/solid separation technique used. However, R D values for Nb and Eu under neutral pH conditions and for Ag in alkaline solution (pH = 11 - 12) show a marked effect. The aquifer gravel was found to be highly inhomogeneous unlike the clay and sorption was greatest on samples with a high proportion of sand, reflecting the clay mineral content. (orig.)

  15. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  16. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  17. Alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses on low volume rural roads: Phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adviser Abstract Gundo Lashu, the ‘Labour Intensive Rural Roads Maintenance Programme’ that is currently being implemented in Limpopo Province, South Africa has set out to train 24 emerging contractors in rehabilitation of rural gravel roads. All.... The proposal is to treat the in situ materials and sand with a diluted emulsion and a nominal cement application (to assist with breaking of the emulsion) and surface the road with an Otta seal. The aggregate for the Otta seal can be obtained form...

  18. Fluvial sediment inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments: potential ecological impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Marks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As identified by the detailed long-term monitoring networks at Plynlimon, increased sediment supply to upland fluvial systems is often associated with forestry land-use and practice. Literature is reviewed, in the light of recent results from Plynlimon sediment studies, to enable identification of the potential ecological impacts of fluvial particulate inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments similar to the headwaters of the River Severn. Both sediment transport and deposition can have significant impacts upon aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates and plants.

  19. Sodium fire aerosol loading capacity of several sand and gravel filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreca, J.R.; McCormack, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Improved specific loading capacity for sodium fire aerosols was the objective of a sand and gravel test series. The aerosol capacity and related differential pressure of eight aggregate filters is presented. A maximum specific aerosol capacity, for dry aerosol, of 2.4 kg (Na) m -2 was obtained. This filter was loaded to a final differential pressure of 2.6 kPa. The average superficial face velocity was 0.5 cm/s and the average efficiency was 99.8%. The test results indicate that filter capacity increases with aerosol moisture content and with decreasing superficial velocity

  20. The diagnosis of old gravel aspiration in adults by MDCT: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jung, Ki Hwan [Ansan Hospital, Korea University Medical Center, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    We report a case of old gravel aspiration in a 57-year-old man who had been accidentally buried in a field of construction for ten hours, three years prior. A chest radiograph showed peribronchial pneumonic infiltrates in the right lower lobe, with a proximal ovoid radiopaque endobronchial density at the trunchus basalis. These findings were more clearly visualized on the 64-channel multidetector CT (MDCT). Moreover, the patient recovered from his condition, following a bronchoscopic retrieval. However, the patient had persistent bronchiectasis of the right lower lobe on a subsequent follow-up chest radiograph, one month later.

  1. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population.

  2. Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal—Self-Healing Sustainable Techniques for Low-Volume Gravel Road Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased traffic flow on low-volume gravel roads and deficiencies of national road infrastructure, are increasingly apparent in Lithuania. Gravel roads do not comply with requirements, resulting in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and dustiness. The control of dustiness is one of the most important road maintenance activities on gravel roads. Another important issue is the assurance of required driving comfort and safety. Soft asphalt and Otta Seal technologies were proposed as a sustainable solution for the improvement of low-volume roads in Lithuania. Five gravel roads were constructed with soft asphalt, and 13 gravel roads were sealed with double Otta Seal, in 2012. The main aim of this research was to check soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal, on the basis of the results of the qualitative visual assessment of pavement defects and distress. The qualitative visual assessment was carried out twice a year following the opening of the rehabilitated road sections. The results confirmed soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal. The healing effect was more than 13% and 19% on roads with soft asphalt and double Otta Seal, respectively. In addition, on some roads, all cracks observed in spring self-healed during summer.

  3. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  4. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  5. The timing of scour and fill in a gravel-bedded river measured with buried accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    A device that measures the timing of streambed scour and the duration of sediment mobilization at specific depths of a streambed was developed using data-logging accelerometers placed within the gravel substrate of the Cedar River, Washington, USA. Each accelerometer recorded its orientation every 20 min and remained stable until the surrounding gravel matrix mobilized as sediment was transported downstream and scour reached the level of the accelerometer. The accelerometer scour monitors were deployed at 26 locations in salmon-spawning habitat during the 2010–2011 flood season to record when the streambed was scoured to the depth of typical egg-pocket deposition. Scour was recorded at one location during a moderate high-flow event (65 m3/s; 1.25–1.5-year recurrence interval) and at 17 locations during a larger high-flow event (159 m3/s; 7-year recurrence interval). Accelerometer scour monitors recorded periods of intermittent sediment mobilization and stability within a high-flow event providing insight into the duration of scour. Most scour was recorded during the rising limb and at the peak of a flood hydrograph, though some scour occurred during sustained high flows following the peak of the flood hydrograph.

  6. Instream sand and gravel mining: Environmental issues and regulatory process in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Layher, A.O.

    1998-01-01

    Sand and gravel are widely used throughout the U.S. construction industry, but their extraction can significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of mined streams. Fisheries biologists often find themselves involved in the complex environmental and regulatory issues related to instream sand and gravel mining. This paper provides an overview of information presented in a symposium held at the 1997 midyear meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society in San Antonio, Texas, to discuss environmental issues and regulatory procedures related to instream mining. Conclusions from the symposium suggest that complex physicochemical and biotic responses to disturbance such as channel incision and alteration of riparian vegetation ultimately determine the effects of instream mining. An understanding of geomorphic processes can provide insight into the effects of mining operations on stream function, and multidisciplinary empirical studies are needed to determine the relative effects of mining versus other natural and human-induced stream alterations. Mining regulations often result in a confusing regulatory process complicated, for example, by the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has undergone numerous changes and remains unclear. Dialogue among scientists, miners, and regulators can provide an important first step toward developing a plan that integrates biology and politics to protect aquatic resources.

  7. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  8. The possibility of using materials based on secondary gravel in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galitskova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, the wear and tear of housing stock is more than 50%. Each year the number of old and dilapidated housing is growing, but it is gradually replaced by modern buildings. However, wastes accumulated from dismantling of buildings and constructions, are underutilized and, usually are just stored at landfills, or used for temporary roads construction. The purpose of this research is to define construction wastes characteristics and to explore possibilities for recycling of wastes from construction materials production. The paper also analyzes housing stock condition and basic requirements to building materials used in construction; and demonstrates results building materials based on secondary gravel investigation. While working with materials based on waste requirements the authors conducted laboratory research. Thus, the paper presents the analysis of laboratory tests results that made it possible to draw conclusions about the possible use of building materials based on secondary gravel and about their conformity to specified requirements. The researchers also developed proposals and recommendations to improve the competitiveness of such materials.

  9. Application of ELJ to create and maintain side channels in a dynamic gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, E.; Crowe Curran, J.; Ockelford, A.

    2017-12-01

    Braided and anastomosing rivers create and maintain a large amount of side channel habitat. Unfortunately, many rivers that were once multi-channel rivers have been constrained to single thread channels as a consequence of land use changes that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries or earlier. An increasingly common management goal today is the re-creation of self-maintaining side and tributary habitat through as natural means as possible. This work examines the geomorphic history of one such channel and the success of recent rehabilitation efforts. Our case study comes from the South Fork Nooksack River in the Cascades Range in Washington State. The Nooksack River is a gravel and sand bed channel with a snowmelt dominated hydrograph. Engineered log jams (ELJ) have been employed to direct flow into side and chute channels with the larger goals of increasing overall channel complexity and salmon spawning opportunities. ELJs have been constructed on the channel since the 2000s, and the ELJs in the study reaches range in age up to 10 years. The size and design of individual jams within the reach vary, enabling a comparison between jam types. ELJs are evaluated for their ability to maintain gravel bar locations and open tributary channels through the snowmelt season over the reach scale. Additional goals of trapping wood onto the jams and existing bars, stabilizing channel banks, and allowing for the growth of bar vegetation are also examined.

  10. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  11. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sorting signed permutations by inversions in O(nlogn) time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Krister M; Rajan, Vaibhav; Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2010-03-01

    The study of genomic inversions (or reversals) has been a mainstay of computational genomics for nearly 20 years. After the initial breakthrough of Hannenhalli and Pevzner, who gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for sorting signed permutations by inversions, improved algorithms have been designed, culminating with an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the inversion distance and a subquadratic algorithm for providing a shortest sequence of inversions--also known as sorting by inversions. Remaining open was the question of whether sorting by inversions could be done in O(nlogn) time. In this article, we present a qualified answer to this question, by providing two new sorting algorithms, a simple and fast randomized algorithm and a deterministic refinement. The deterministic algorithm runs in time O(nlogn + kn), where k is a data-dependent parameter. We provide the results of extensive experiments showing that both the average and the standard deviation for k are small constants, independent of the size of the permutation. We conclude (but do not prove) that almost all signed permutations can be sorted by inversions in O(nlogn) time.

  13. UNIFICATION OF PROCESSES OF SORTING OUT OF DESTROYED CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. Technogenic catastrophes, failures or natural calamities, result in destruction of build objects. Under the obstructions of destructions can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure is explosions of gas. The structure of obstructions changes and depends on parameters and direction of explosion, firstly its size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is carried out with machines and mechanisms which do not meet the requirements of these works, that predetermines of carrying out of rescue or restoration works on imperfect scheme , especially on the initial stages, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development technological solution is needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of construction objects. Purpose. Development of unification solution on the improvement of technological processes of sorting out of destructions of buildings and constructions. Conclusion. The analysis of experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed construction objects, show that they are carried out on imperfect scheme, which do not take into account character of destruction of objects and are based on the use of construction machines which do not meet the requirements of these processes, and lead to considerable resource losses. Developed unified scheme of sorting out of the destroyed construction objects depending on character of their destruction and possibility of line of works, and also with the use of build machines with a multipurpose equipment, provide the increase of efficiency of carrying out of rescue and construction works.

  14. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  15. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier

    1999-08-01

    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n2p180.html

  16. Optimizing the use of natural gravel Brantas river as normal concrete mixed with quality fc = 19.3 Mpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limantara, A. D.; Widodo, A.; Winarto, S.; Krisnawati, L. D.; Mudjanarko, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    The use of natural gravel (rivers) as concrete mixtures is rarely encountered after days of demands for a higher strength of concrete. Moreover, today people have found High-Performance Concrete which, when viewed from the rough aggregate consisted mostly of broken stone, although the fine grain material still used natural sand. Is it possible that a mixture of concrete using natural gravel as a coarse aggregate is capable of producing concrete with compressive strength equivalent to a concrete mixture using crushed stone? To obtain information on this, a series of tests on concrete mixes with crude aggregates of Kalitelu Crusher, Gondang, Tulungagung and natural stone (river gravel) from the Brantas River, Ngujang, Tulungagung in the Materials Testing Laboratory Tugu Dam Construction Project, Kab. Trenggalek. From concrete strength test results using coarse material obtained value 19.47 Mpa, while the compressive strength of concrete with a mixture of crushed stone obtained the value of 21.12 Mpa.

  17. Sorting Real Numbers in $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ Time and Linear Space

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    We present an $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ time and linear space algorithm for sorting real numbers. This breaks the long time illusion that real numbers have to be sorted by comparison sorting and take $\\Omega (n\\log n)$ time to be sorted.

  18. Deposition of Suspended Clay to Open and Sand-Filled Framework Gravel Beds in a Laboratory Flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooneyham, Christian; Strom, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Pulses of fine sediment composed of sand, silt, and clay can be introduced to gravel bed rivers through runoff from burn-impacted hillslopes, landslides, bank failure, or the introduction of reservoir sediment as a result of sluicing or dam decommissioning. Here we present a study aimed at quantifying exchange between suspensions of clay and gravel beds. The questions that motivate the work are: how do bed roughness and pore space characteristics, shear velocity (u∗), and initial concentration (C0) affect clay deposition on or within gravel beds? Where does deposition within these beds occur, and can deposited clay be resuspended while the gravel is immobile? We examine these questions in a laboratory flume using acrylic, open-framework gravel, and armored sand-gravel beds under conditions of varying u∗ and C0. Deposition of clay occurred to all beds (even with Rouse numbers ˜ 0.01). We attribute deposition under full suspension conditions to be an outcome of localized protected zones where clay can settle and available pore space in the bed. For smooth wall cases, protection came from the viscous wall region and the development of bed forms; for the rough beds, protection came from separation zones and low-velocity pore spaces. Bed porosity was the strongest influencer of nondimensional deposition rate; deposition increased with porosity. Deposition was inversely related to u∗ for the acrylic bed runs; no influence of u∗ was found for the porous bed runs. Increases in discharge resulted in resuspension of clay from acrylic beds; no resuspension was observed in the porous bed runs.

  19. McGET: A rapid image-based method to determine the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yue; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Bangyou; Guo, Wei; Feng, Yiming

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between morphological characteristics (e.g. gravel size, coverage, angularity and orientation) and local geomorphic features (e.g. slope gradient and aspect) of desert has been used to explore the evolution process of Gobi desert. Conventional quantification methods are time-consuming, inefficient and even prove impossible to determine the characteristics of large numbers of gravels. We propose a rapid image-based method to obtain the morphological characteristics of gravels on the Gobi desert surface, which is called the "morphological characteristics gained effectively technique" (McGET). The image of the Gobi desert surface was classified into gravel clusters and background by a machine-learning "classification and regression tree" (CART) algorithm. Then gravel clusters were segmented into individual gravel clasts by separating objects in images using a "watershed segmentation" algorithm. Thirdly, gravel coverage, diameter, aspect ratio and orientation were calculated based on the basic principles of 2D computer graphics. We validated this method with two independent datasets in which the gravel morphological characteristics were obtained from 2728 gravels measured in the field and 7422 gravels measured by manual digitization. Finally, we applied McGET to derive the spatial variation of gravel morphology on the Gobi desert along an alluvial-proluvial fan located in Hami, Xinjiang, China. The validated results show that the mean gravel diameter measured in the field agreed well with that calculated by McGET for large gravels (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Compared to manual digitization, the McGET accuracies for gravel coverage, gravel diameter and aspect ratio were 97%, 83% and 96%, respectively. The orientation distributions calculated were consistent across two different methods. More importantly, McGET significantly shortens the time cost in obtaining gravel morphological characteristics in the field and laboratory. The spatial variation results

  20. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  1. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  2. Real-World Sorting of RHIC Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Harrison, M.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1999-01-01

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have bene put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-β interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process

  3. Long term estimates for sorting strategies of the LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Todesco, Ezio

    1998-01-01

    Sorting strategies are investigated in view of improving the dynamic aperture of the CERN-LHC. Local and quasi-local compensation of the random field shape imperfections are discussed and applied to simplified model of the LHC lattice. The most promising strategies are further investigated on a realistic LHC model with particular emphasis on the analysis of the robustness of the dynamic aperture improvements including long term effects. First results on the application of the recently developed extrapolation law for the prediction of the dynamic aperture to the sorting problem are presented.

  4. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  5. Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro; Soba, Alejandro; Johansen, Tom H.; Sagués, Francesc

    2008-11-01

    We use a uniaxial garnet film with a magnetic bubble lattice to sort paramagnetic colloidal particles with different diameters, i.e., 1.0 and 2.8μm. We apply an external magnetic field which precesses around an axis normal to the film with a frequency Ω =62.8s-1 and intensity 3120A/m bubbles while the others are transported through the array. We complement the experimental measurements with numerical simulations to explore the sorting capability for particles with different magnetic moments.

  6. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Carr, R.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  7. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...

  8. Constructing Efficient Dictionaries in Close to Sorting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    to be a particularly challenging task. We present solutions to the static dictionary problem that significantly improve the previously known upper bounds and bring them close to obvious lower bounds. Our dictionaries have a constant lookup cost and use linear space, which was known to be possible, but the worst......-case cost of construction of the structures is proportional to only loglogn times the cost of sorting the input. Our claimed performance bounds are obtained in the word RAM model and in the external memory models; only the involved sorting procedures in the algorithms need to be changed between the models....

  9. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  10. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  11. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  12. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  13. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.

    1994-08-01

    The authors introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but they find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long FEL's. Their application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. They present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  14. The influence of sediment transport rate on the development of structure in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Steve; Powell, Mark; Reid, Ian; Nguyen, Thao; Tate, Nick; Wood, Jo

    2013-04-01

    Although adjustments of surface grain size are known to be strongly influenced by sediment transport rate little work has systematically explored how different transport rates can affect the development of surface structure in gravel bed rivers. Specifically, it has been well established that the transport of mixed sized sediments leads to the development of a coarser surface or armour layer which occurs over larger areas of the gravel bed. Armour layer development is known to moderate overall sediment transport rate as well as being extremely sensitive to changes in applied shear stress. However, during this armouring process a bed is created where, smaller gain scale changes, to the bed surface are also apparent such as the development of pebble clusters and imbricate structures. Although these smaller scale changes affect the overall surface grain size distribution very little their presence has the ability to significantly increase the surface stability and hence alter overall sediment transport rates. Consequently, the interplay between the moderation of transport rate as a function of surface coarsening at a larger scale and moderation of transport rate as a function of the development of structure on the bed surface at the smaller scale is complicated and warrants further investigation. During experiments a unimodal grain size distribution (σg = 1.30, D50 = 8.8mm) was exposed to 3 different levels of constant discharge that produced sediment transport conditions ranging from marginal transport to conditions approaching full mobility of all size fractions. Sediment was re-circulated during the experiments surface grain size distribution bed load and fractional transport rates were measured at a high temporal resolution such that the time evolution of the beds could be fully described. Discussion concentrates on analysing the effects of the evolving bed condition sediment transport rate (capacity) and transported grain size (competence). The outcome of this

  15. Performance of a half-saturated vertical flow wetland packed with volcanic gravel in stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoping; Park, Kisoo; Niu, Siping; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-01-01

    A half-saturated pilot-scale wetland planted with Acorus calamus was built to treat urban stormwater. The design comprises a sedimentation tank for pretreatment, and a vertical flow volcanic gravel wetland bed equipped with a recirculation device. Eighteen rainfall events were monitored in 2012. The treatment system achieved total removal efficiencies of 99.4, 81, 50, and 86% for suspended solids, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, and 29, 68, and 25% for copper, zinc, and lead, respectively, at a 3-day hydraulic residence time. In the wetland bed, the removal of ammonia, total nitrogen, and zinc were improved by recirculation. Plant uptake provided 18% of nitrogen removal and 39% of phosphorus removal. During the experimental stage, only 1.4% of the pore volume in substrate was reduced due to clogging, implying that the wetland can operate without clogging for a relatively long period.

  16. Sampling surface and subsurface particle-size distributions in wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams for analyses in sediment transport, hydraulics, and streambed monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Bunte; Steven R. Abt

    2001-01-01

    This document provides guidance for sampling surface and subsurface sediment from wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams. After a short introduction to streams types and classifications in gravel-bed rivers, the document explains the field and laboratory measurement of particle sizes and the statistical analysis of particle-size distributions. Analysis of particle...

  17. Unintended consequences of restoration: loss of riffles and gravel substrates following weir installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Nira L; Schmidt, John C; Budy, Phaedra; Wilcock, Peter R

    2012-10-30

    We used pre- and post-restoration channel surveys of the Donner und Blitzen River, Oregon, to evaluate the effects of grade-control structures on channel morphology and baseflow habitat conditions for native redband trout and other aquatic biota. Six years after installation, we found that the channel had a smaller proportion of riffles and pools and less gravel substrate, combined with an increase in the proportion of flat waters and consolidated clay on the bed surface. Both local scour downstream from weirs and backwater effects upstream from weirs appear to have caused the general flattening and fining of the channel. A direct-step backwater calculation indicates that backwaters extended to the upstream weir at both low and high flows, creating long sections of flat water separated by short, steep drops. Despite backwater effects, a comparison of longitudinal profiles before and six years after weir installation showed bed erosion downstream of nearly all weirs, likely a consequence of the cohesive clay material that dominates the channel bed and banks. A deep inner channel reflects the cohesive nature of the clay and the mechanisms of abrasion, and indicates that sediment load is low relative to the transport capacity of the flow. Unfortunately, weirs were problematic in this system because of the cohesive clay substrate, limited sediment supply, and low channel gradient. Although deeper flows due to backwaters might be more favorable for resident trout, less gravel and fewer riffles are likely to negatively impact trout spawning habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and biofilm productivity. Our results demonstrate the potential limitations of a single-feature approach to restoration that may be ineffective for a given geomorphic context and may overlook other aspects of the ecosystem. We highlight the need to incorporate geomorphic characteristics of a system into project design and predictions of system response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Temporal and spatial variability in thalweg profiles of a gravel-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    This study used successive longitudinal thalweg profiles in gravel-bed rivers to monitor changes in bed topography following floods and associated large sediment inputs. Variations in channel bed elevations, distributions of residual water depths, percentage of channel length occupied by riffles, and a spatial autocorrelation coefficient (Moran's I) were used to quantify changes in morphological diversity and spatial structure in Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California. Bed topography in Redwood Creek and its major tributaries consists primarily of a series of pools and riffles. The size, frequency and spatial distribution of the pools and riffles have changed significantly during the past 20 years. Following large floods and high sediment input in Redwood Creek and its tributaries in 1975, variation in channel bed elevations was low and the percentage of the channel length occupied by riffles was high. Over the next 20 years, variation in bed elevations increased while the length of channel occupied by riffles decreased. An index [(standard deviation of residual water depth/bankfull depth) × 100] was developed to compare variations in bed elevation over a range of stream sizes, with a higher index being indicative of greater morphological diversity. Spatial autocorrelation in the bed elevation data was apparent at both fine and coarse scales in many of the thalweg profiles and the observed spatial pattern of bed elevations was found to be related to the dominant channel material and the time since disturbance. River reaches in which forced pools dominated, and in which large woody debris and bed particles could not be easily mobilized, exhibited a random distribution of bed elevations. In contrast, in reaches where alternate bars dominated, and both wood and gravel were readily transported, regularly spaced bed topography developed at a spacing that increased with time since disturbance. This pattern of regularly spaced bed features was reversed

  19. Comparison of Machine Learning methods for incipient motion in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport of natural gravel bed streams are important processes which affect both the morphology as well as the ecology of earth's surface. For gravel bed rivers at near incipient flow conditions, particle entrainment dynamics are highly intermittent. This contribution reviews the use of modern Machine Learning (ML) methods implemented for short term prediction of entrainment instances of individual grains exposed in fully developed near boundary turbulent flows. Results obtained by network architectures of variable complexity based on two different ML methods namely the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are compared in terms of different error and performance indices, computational efficiency and complexity as well as predictive accuracy and forecast ability. Different model architectures are trained and tested with experimental time series obtained from mobile particle flume experiments. The experimental setup consists of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a laser optics system, which acquire data for the instantaneous flow and particle response respectively, synchronously. The first is used to record the flow velocity components directly upstream of the test particle, while the later tracks the particle's displacements. The lengthy experimental data sets (millions of data points) are split into the training and validation subsets used to perform the corresponding learning and testing of the models. It is demonstrated that the ANFIS hybrid model, which is based on neural learning and fuzzy inference principles, better predicts the critical flow conditions above which sediment transport is initiated. In addition, it is illustrated that empirical knowledge can be extracted, validating the theoretical assumption that particle ejections occur due to energetic turbulent flow events. Such a tool may find application in management and regulation of stream flows downstream of dams for stream

  20. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A

    2010-01-01

    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  1. Image processing. A system for the automatic sorting of chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najai, Amor

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with two aspects of the system: - an automata (specialized hardware) dedicated to image processing. Images are digitized, divided into sub-units and computations are carried out on their main parameters. - A software for the automatic recognition and sorting of chromosomes is implemented on a Multi-20 minicomputer, connected to the automata. (author) [fr

  2. System for sorting microscopic objects using electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is presented a system 10,100 for sorting microscopic objects 76, 78, 80, where the system comprises a fluid channel 66 with an inlet 68 and an outlet 70, where the fluid channel is arranged for allowing the fluid flow to be laminar. The system furthermore comprises a detection system 52 whi...

  3. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  4. Real-time implementation of a color sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanteswara, Srikathyanyani; Lu, Qiang O.; King, William; Drayer, Thomas H.; Conners, Richard W.; Kline, D. Earl; Araman, Philip A.

    1997-09-01

    Wood edge glued panels are used extensively in the furniture and cabinetry industries. They are used to make doors, tops, and sides of solid wood furniture and cabinets. Since lightly stained furniture and cabinets are gaining in popularity, there is an increasing demand to color sort the parts used to make these edge glued panels. The goal of the sorting processing is to create panels that are uniform in both color and intensity across their visible surface. If performed manually, the color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is very labor intensive and prone to error. This paper describes a complete machine vision system for performing this sort. This system uses two color line scan cameras for image input and a specially designed custom computing machine to allow real-time implementation. Users define the number of color classes that are to be used. An 'out' class is provided to handle unusually colored parts. The system removes areas of character mark, e.g., knots, mineral streak, etc., from consideration when assigning a color class to a part. The system also includes a better face algorithm for determining which part face would be the better to put on the side of the panel that will show. The throughput is two linear feet per second. Only a four inch between part spacing is required. This system has undergone extensive in plant testing and will be commercially available in the very near future. The results of this testing will be presented.

  5. A correctness proof of sorting by means of formal procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We consider a recursive sorting algorithm in which, in each invocation, a new variable and a new procedure (using the variable globally) are defined and the procedure is passed to recursive calls. This algorithm is proved correct with Hoare-style pre- and postassertions. We also discuss the same

  6. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodar; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    We study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint, providing a generalization of the previous algorithmic models for MapReduce. We present optimal solutions for the fundamental problems of all-prefix-sums, sorting and multi-searching. Additionally, we design optimal simulations...

  7. An efficient non-dominated sorting method for evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbing; Wang, Qian; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Horstemeyer, Mark F

    2008-01-01

    We present a new non-dominated sorting algorithm to generate the non-dominated fronts in multi-objective optimization with evolutionary algorithms, particularly the NSGA-II. The non-dominated sorting algorithm used by NSGA-II has a time complexity of O(MN(2)) in generating non-dominated fronts in one generation (iteration) for a population size N and M objective functions. Since generating non-dominated fronts takes the majority of total computational time (excluding the cost of fitness evaluations) of NSGA-II, making this algorithm faster will significantly improve the overall efficiency of NSGA-II and other genetic algorithms using non-dominated sorting. The new non-dominated sorting algorithm proposed in this study reduces the number of redundant comparisons existing in the algorithm of NSGA-II by recording the dominance information among solutions from their first comparisons. By utilizing a new data structure called the dominance tree and the divide-and-conquer mechanism, the new algorithm is faster than NSGA-II for different numbers of objective functions. Although the number of solution comparisons by the proposed algorithm is close to that of NSGA-II when the number of objectives becomes large, the total computational time shows that the proposed algorithm still has better efficiency because of the adoption of the dominance tree structure and the divide-and-conquer mechanism.

  8. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  9. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  10. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard

    2017-01-01

    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and

  11. Sorting Tubules Regulate Blood-Brain Barrier Transcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB regulates key processes of the brain, but the intracellular sorting mechanisms that determine successful receptor-mediated transcytosis in brain endothelial cells (BECs remain unidentified. Here, we used Transferrin receptor-based Brain Shuttle constructs to investigate intracellular transport in BECs, and we uncovered a pathway for the regulation of receptor-mediated transcytosis. By combining live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling in vitro with super-resolution microscopy of the BBB, we show that intracellular tubules promote transcytosis across the BBB. A monovalent construct (sFab sorted for transcytosis was localized to intracellular tubules, whereas a bivalent construct (dFab sorted for degradation formed clusters with impaired transport along tubules. Manipulating tubule biogenesis by overexpressing the small GTPase Rab17 increased dFab transport into tubules and induced its transcytosis in BECs. We propose that sorting tubules regulate transcytosis in BECs and may be a general mechanism for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB.

  12. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  13. AMDLIBGZ, IBM 360 Subroutine Library for Data Processing, Graphics, Sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jesse Y.

    1980-01-01

    Description of problem or function: AMDLIBGZ is a subset of the IBM 360 Subroutine Library at the Applied Mathematics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. This subset includes library categories G-Z: Identification/Description: G552S F RANF: Random number generator; J952S F YOLYPLOT: CalComp plots; J955S P GRAF: Prints a graph of points on line printer; K250S A1: Core to core conversion; K251S A HEXINP: Hexadecimal input for PL/I programs; K252S A HEXOUT: Hexadecimal output conv. PL/I programs; M101S F SORT: Algebraic sort; M150S F CSORT: Algebraic sort; M151S P2 ANLKWIC: KWIC sort; M250S A SMALLIST: Squeezes assembler listing to 8 x 11; N251S A ABEND: Calls ABEND dump; Q052S A CLOCK: Time; Q053S A COPYAGO: Copy load module from tape to disk; Q054S A DATE: Current date in form MM/DD/YY; Q055S A TIME: Time (24 hour clock) in EBCDIC HH.MM.SS; Z013S F: Variable metric minimization; Z057S A LOCF: Locate machine addresses of variables; Z071S A ALLOC: Allocate LCS for FORTRAN programs; Z074S A ANLMNP: Exponent and mantissa manipulative functs.

  14. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  15. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  16. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDevanter, D. R.; Choongkittaworn, N. M.; Dyer, K. A.; Aten, J. A.; Otto, P.; Behler, C.; Bryant, E. M.; Rabinovitch, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted

  17. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available and that the scattering force can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Following this, I report on transient photo-transfection of mammalian cells including neuroblastomas (rat/mouse and human...

  18. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  19. System of radwaste sorting out physical features and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Bozhko, V.P.; Ganenko, V.B.; Olejnik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Classification of radioactive waste sources in Ukraine is provided. General technological sorting scheme of the RAW of chiefly. Chernobyl origin is offered. Some measures to treat short-lived and long-lived High-Level Waste, Intermediate-Active Waste and Low-Level Active Waste in the Center for waste treatment and disposal are offered. 4 refs., 2 tab., 8 figs

  20. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington

    2010-01-01

    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  1. Bed stability in unconfined gravel bed mountain streams: With implications for salmon spawning viability in future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim McKean; Daniele Tonina

    2013-01-01

    Incubating eggs of autumn-spawning Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) could be at risk of midwinter high flows and substrate scour in a changing climate. A high-spatial-resolution multidimensional hydrodynamics model was used to assess the degree of scour risk in low-gradient unconfined gravel bed channels that are the favored environment for autumn-spawning...

  2. Removal of Zn(II) from electroplating effluent using yeast biofilm formed on gravels: batch and column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Present study deals with the removal of Zn(II) ions from effluent using yeast biofilm formed on gravels. Methods The biofilm forming ability of Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was evaluated using XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay and monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Copious amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by yeast species was quantified and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Results Yeast biofilm formed on gravels by C. rugosa and C. laurentii showed 88% and 74.2% removal of Zn(II) ions respectively in batch mode. In column mode, removal of Zn(II) ions from real effluent was found to be 95.29% by C. rugosa biofilm formed on gravels. Conclusion The results of the present study showed that there is a scope to develop a cost effective method for the efficient removal of Zn(II) from effluent using gravels coated with yeast biofilm. PMID:24397917

  3. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  4. Denni Algorithm An Enhanced Of SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilsyah Lubis, Denni; Salim Sitompul, Opim; Marwan; Tulus; Andri Budiman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers, and many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. Sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reasons namely, the necessary to sort information is inherent in many applications, algorithms often use sorting as a key subroutine, in algorithm design there are many essential techniques represented in the body of sorting algorithms, and many engineering issues come to the fore when implementing sorting algorithms., Many algorithms are very well known for sorting the unordered lists, and one of the well-known algorithms that make the process of sorting to be more economical and efficient is SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) algorithm, an enhancement of Quicksort invented Rami Mansi in 2010. This paper presents a new sorting algorithm called Denni-algorithm. The Denni algorithm is considered as an enhancement on the SMS algorithm in average, and worst cases. The Denni algorithm is compared with the SMS algorithm and the results were promising.

  5. A Quality Sorting of Fruit Using a New Automatic Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, Michihiro; Yokomizu, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents an innovative approach for quality sorting of objects such as apples sorting in an agricultural factory, using an image processing algorithm. The objective of our approach are; firstly to sort the objects by their colors precisely; secondly to detect any irregularity of the colors surrounding the apples efficiently. An experiment has been conducted and the results have been obtained and compared with that has been preformed by human sorting process and by color sensor sorting devices. The results demonstrate that our approach is capable to sort the objects rapidly and the percentage of classification valid rate was 100 %.

  6. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  7. Using Pneumatics to Perform Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests on Gravel with Underdamped Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    A permeameter has been designed and built to perform laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on various kinds of gravel samples with hydraulic conductivity values ranging from 0.1 to 1 m/s. The tests are commenced by applying 200 Pa of pneumatic pressure to the free surface of the water column in a riser connected above a cylinder that holds large gravel specimens. This setup forms a permeameter specially designed for these tests which is placed in a barrel filled with water, which acts as a reservoir. The applied pressure depresses the free surface in the riser 2 cm until it is instantly released by opening a ball valve. The water then flows through the base of the cylinder and the specimen like a falling head test, but the water level oscillates about the static value. The water pressure and the applied air pressure in the riser are measured with vented pressure transducers at 100 Hz. The change in diameter lowers the damping frequency of the fluctuations of the water level in the riser, which allows for underdamped responses to be observed for all tests. The results of tests without this diameter change would otherwise be a series of critically damped responses with only one or two oscillations that dampen within seconds and cannot be evaluated with equations for the falling head test. The underdamped responses oscillate about the static value at about 1 Hz and are very sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity of all the soils tested. These fluctuations are also very sensitive to the inertia and friction in the permeameter that are calculated considering the geometry of the permeameter and verified experimentally. Several gravel specimens of various shapes and sizes are tested that show distinct differences in water level fluctuations. The friction of the system is determined by calibrating the model with the results of tests performed where the cylinder had no soil in it. The calculation of the inertia in the response of the water column for the typical testing

  8. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  9. Oscillating microbubbles for selective particle sorting in acoustic microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Xu, Lin; Neild, Adrian

    2012-05-01

    In this study, acoustic waves were used to excite a microbubble for selective particle trapping and sorting. Excitation of the bubble at its volume resonance, as necessary to drive strong fluid microstreaming, resulted in the particles being either selectively attracted to the bubble or continuing to follow the local microstreamlines. The operating principle exploited two acoustic phenomena acting on the particle suspension: the drag force arising from the acoustic microstreaming and the secondary Bjerknes force, i.e. the attractive radiation force produced between an oscillating bubble and a non-buoyant particle. It was also found that standing wave fields within the fluid chamber could be used to globally align bubbles and particles for local particle sorting by the bubble.

  10. Past, present and future of spike sorting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Hernan Gonzalo; Pedreira, Carlos; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-10-01

    Spike sorting is a crucial step to extract information from extracellular recordings. With new recording opportunities provided by the development of new electrodes that allow monitoring hundreds of neurons simultaneously, the scenario for the new generation of algorithms is both exciting and challenging. However, this will require a new approach to the problem and the development of a common reference framework to quickly assess the performance of new algorithms. In this work, we review the basic concepts of spike sorting, including the requirements for different applications, together with the problems faced by presently available algorithms. We conclude by proposing a roadmap stressing the crucial points to be addressed to support the neuroscientific research of the near future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Isaac; Hartman, Tzvika

    2006-01-01

    Sorting permutations by transpositions is an important problem in genome rearrangements. A transposition is a rearrangement operation in which a segment is cut out of the permutation and pasted in a different location. The complexity of this problem is still open and it has been a 10-year-old open problem to improve the best known 1.5-approximation algorithm. In this paper, we provide a 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions. The algorithm is based on a new upper bound on the diameter of 3-permutations. In addition, we present some new results regarding the transposition diameter: we improve the lower bound for the transposition diameter of the symmetric group and determine the exact transposition diameter of simple permutations.

  12. Comparison of spike-sorting algorithms for future hardware implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Applications such as brain-machine interfaces require hardware spike sorting in order to (1) obtain single-unit activity and (2) perform data reduction for wireless transmission of data. Such systems must be low-power, low-area, high-accuracy, automatic, and able to operate in real time. Several detection and feature extraction algorithms for spike sorting are described briefly and evaluated in terms of accuracy versus computational complexity. The nonlinear energy operator method is chosen as the optimal spike detection algorithm, being most robust over noise and relatively simple. The discrete derivatives method [1] is chosen as the optimal feature extraction method, maintaining high accuracy across SNRs with a complexity orders of magnitude less than that of traditional methods such as PCA.

  13. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  14. System Architecture For High Speed Sorting Of Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, J. A.; Onyango, C. M.; Street, M. J.

    1989-03-01

    This paper illustrates an industrial application of vision processing in which potatoes are sorted according to their size and shape at speeds of up to 40 objects per second. The result is a multi-processing approach built around the VME bus. A hardware unit has been designed and constructed to encode the boundary of the potatoes, to reducing the amount of data to be processed. A master 68000 processor is used to control this unit and to handle data transfers along the bus. Boundary data is passed to one of three 68010 slave processors each responsible for a line of potatoes across a conveyor belt. The slave processors calculate attributes such as shape, size and estimated weight of each potato and the master processor uses this data to operate the sorting mechanism. The system has been interfaced with a commercial grading machine and performance trials are now in progress.

  15. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  16. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  17. Spatial patterns in gravel habitats and communities in the central and eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Roger; Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Diesing, Markus; Aldridge, John

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of sediment type and benthic communities in the central and eastern English Channel is shown to be polarised around a distinctive local hydrodynamic feature. The seabed in the region includes an extensive area of gravel substrate which is both an important habitat for benthic marine fauna and a valuable source of material for the marine aggregate industry. Effective management of the area is predicated on an understanding of whether it represents a single homogeneous unit, or several different units that may need to be managed in different ways. The aim of this study was to provide information that would inform such management decisions. Spatial patterns in gravel habitats and communities were studied by investigating the physical environment through modelled and empirical data, and the distribution of infauna and epifauna along an east-west trending transect. A common spatial pattern was observed in both physical and biological parameters, but rather than indicating a simple longitudinal gradient, there was a distinct polarisation around a central feature, a bedload parting (BLP) zone situated between the Isle of Wight and Cotentin peninsula. Sediments and communities at the eastern and western ends of the transect were more similar to each other than to those in the middle. The strong hydrodynamic regime in the BLP area controls sediment distribution, transporting finer material, mainly sand, away from the mid transect area. The pattern in sand content of the substrate mirrors the magnitude of the potential bedload transport, which is complex in this region due to the interplay between the M2 and M4 tidal constituents and produced a series of erosional and depositional zones. The structure of benthic communities reflected the local substrate and hydrodynamic conditions, with sponges observed among the stable substrates and stronger currents that characterised the mid transect area, while infauna became more diverse towards the ends of the

  18. The morphology and morphodynamics of sand-gravel subaquatic dunes: the Raba River estuary, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the outlet of the Raba River to the Vistula, the biggest river in Poland, the morphology and morphodynamics of sand and fine-gravel subaquatic dunes were investigated. The site is situated in highland region just about the entrance to Polish Carpathians. The dunes formed on the Raba River bed estuary are composed of sand and fine gravel (d50 up to 11 mm. Systematic observation (within the 2000-2005 were made of geometry, sediment composition and hydraulic climate under which the dunes grew and decomposed. The investigation focuses here mostly on the geometrical parameters of these bed forms such as height, length, as well as granulometric characteristics of the sediment. Based on in-site measurements different hydraulic parameters were calculated such as shear stresses, resistant coefficient, Froude and Reynolds numbers and roughness coefficient. It was found that the relation between height (H and length (L of the Raba estuary dunes describes the formula: H = 0.05L0.35. Also these dunes are steeper and flatter then classical H/L index is: H/L = 0.0518L0.622. During the field campaign, when the foot access to the estuary was possible and dunes were spotted on the river bed the range of measured water velocity was from v = 0.39 m∙s-1 to v = 0.81 m∙s-1 with the highest velocity over the dune crest. At the same time the measured range of shear stresses within the dune field formation were from t = 0.115 N×m-2 to t = 1.59 N×m-2. On the field investigations the CCHE2D - two-dimensional unsteady flow and sediment transport model for non-equilibrium transport of non-uniform sediment mixtures – was applied. The model was used to simulate the morphodynamic changes along the outlet of the Raba River basing on field observations of the 2005 summer flood as well as calculate hydraulics parameters. It was also used to test and confirm the range of morphodynamic changes, which take place along the research reach where the dunes are being developed

  19. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....

  20. A novel automated spike sorting algorithm with adaptable feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestel, Robert; Daus, Andreas W; Thielemann, Christiane

    2012-10-15

    To study the electrophysiological properties of neuronal networks, in vitro studies based on microelectrode arrays have become a viable tool for analysis. Although in constant progress, a challenging task still remains in this area: the development of an efficient spike sorting algorithm that allows an accurate signal analysis at the single-cell level. Most sorting algorithms currently available only extract a specific feature type, such as the principal components or Wavelet coefficients of the measured spike signals in order to separate different spike shapes generated by different neurons. However, due to the great variety in the obtained spike shapes, the derivation of an optimal feature set is still a very complex issue that current algorithms struggle with. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm that (i) extracts a variety of geometric, Wavelet and principal component-based features and (ii) automatically derives a feature subset, most suitable for sorting an individual set of spike signals. Thus, there is a new approach that evaluates the probability distribution of the obtained spike features and consequently determines the candidates most suitable for the actual spike sorting. These candidates can be formed into an individually adjusted set of spike features, allowing a separation of the various shapes present in the obtained neuronal signal by a subsequent expectation maximisation clustering algorithm. Test results with simulated data files and data obtained from chick embryonic neurons cultured on microelectrode arrays showed an excellent classification result, indicating the superior performance of the described algorithm approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Why study abroad? : Sorting of Chinese students across British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Cebolla-Boado, H; Hu, Yang; Soysal, Y

    2018-01-01

    This research contributes to the booming literature on the mobility of international students in higher education. Specifically, it analyzes university-level factors that affect the sorting of Chinese international students across British universities. To do so, we produced a unique dataset merging university-level data from the the 2014 UK Higher Education Statistics Agency and the Higher Expectations Survey, supplemented by qualitative evidence from six focus groups which we use for illustr...

  2. Are Korean Industry-Sorted Portfolios Mean Reverting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongman Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the weak-form efficient market hypothesis for Korean industry-sorted portfolios. Based on a panel variance ratio approach, we find significant mean reversion of stock returns over long horizons in the pre Asian currency crisis period but little evidence in the post-crisis period. Our empirical findings are consistent with the fact that Korea accelerated its integration with international financial market by implementing extensive capital liberalization since the crisis.

  3. Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...

  4. Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions were studied to improve ways of obtaining agricultural vegetation mutations and to find out the genotype role in induced mutagenesis. It is established that rhizome onion seeds are more radiosensitive than bulbous ones, ephemeroide form seeds are most stable among bulbous plants. Table data on dependence of seed germination and plant survival on radiation dose are presented

  5. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  6. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting in plants: The next generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 331-337 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chromosome sorting * Flow cytometry * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.641, year: 2012

  7. Hyperexpansion of wheat chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Takashi R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 181-185 ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : flow cytometry * flow sorting * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25747042

  8. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  9. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  10. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  11. Fast sorting measurement technique to determine decontamination priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Brosey, B.; Igarashi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The method used to select decontamination priorities for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building (RB) is systematic, but costs in personnel exposure and time must be borne. One way of minimizing exposure is to define and treat the one or two surface sources that are important contributors to the collective dose of the recovery personnel. Surface characteristics can then be determined and decontamination techniques developed to match the removal requirements. At TMI-2, a fast sorting technique was developed and used to prioritize surfaces for exposure reduction. A second quick sort can then be used to determine the next generation of surface characterization, decontamination method selection, and performance. The quick-sort method that was developed is based on the Eberline HP 220A probes directional survey system. The angular response of the HP 220A probes approaches 2 pi steradians and allows toward-away type measurements. Sources distributed over 4 pi steradians are hard to define with this system. Angular differentiation was improved to about pi/2 steradians by redesigning the probe shield. The change allows unambiguous six-direction measurements, such as up, down, front, rear, right, and left with practically no angular overlap or exclusion. A simple, light-weight stand was used to establish an angular reference for the rectangular packaged probe. The six surface planes of the rectangle work with the angular reference to establish the six viewing angles

  12. Trapping, focusing, and sorting of microparticles through bubble streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating microbubbles can set up vigorous steady streaming flows around the bubbles. In contrast to previous work, we make use of the interaction between the bubble streaming and the streaming induced around mobile particles close to the bubble. Our experiment superimposes a unidirectional Poiseuille flow containing a well-mixed suspension of neutrally buoyant particles with the bubble streaming. The particle-size dependence of the particle-bubble interaction selects which particles are transported and which particles are trapped near the bubbles. The sizes selected for can be far smaller than any scale imposed by the device geometry, and the selection mechanism is purely passive. Changing the amplitude and frequency of ultrasound driving, we can further control focusing and sorting of the trapped particles, leading to the emergence of sharply defined monodisperse particle streams within a much wider channel. Optimizing parameters for focusing and sorting are presented. The technique is applicable in important fields like cell sorting and drug delivery.

  13. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. Reda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  14. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  15. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao

    2014-12-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied.

  16. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  17. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  18. Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Mutlu, Mehmet; Park, Joonsuk; Park, Woosung; Goodson, Kenneth E; Sinclair, Robert; Fan, Shanhui; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L

    2018-01-22

    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

  19. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  20. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  1. Performance of a forced convection solar drier integrated with gravel as heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanraj, M. [Dr Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chandrasekar, P. [Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering Sciences

    2009-07-01

    Sun drying is the most common method used in India to dry agricultural products such as grains, fruits and vegetables. The rate of drying depends on solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, initial moisture content, type of crops, crop absorptivity and mass product per unit exposed area. However, this method of spreading the crop in a thin layer on the ground has several disadvantages. This paper reported on a study that focused on developing a forced convection solar drier integrated with heat storage materials for drying various agricultural crops. The indirect forced convection solar drier, integrated with gravel as a sensible heat material, was used to dry pineapple slices under conditions similar to those found in Pollachi, India. The performance of the system was discussed along with the drying characteristics, drying rate, and specific moisture extraction rate. The results showed that the moisture content (wet basis) of pineapple was reduced from about 87.5 to 14.5 per cent (equilibrium moisture content) in about 29 hours in the bottom tray and 32 hours in the top tray. The thermal efficiency of the solar air heater was also reviewed. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Engineered channel controls limiting spawning habitat rehabilitation success on regulated gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.

    2008-05-01

    In efforts to rehabilitate regulated rivers for ecological benefits, the flow regime has been one of the primary focal points of management strategies. However, channel engineering can impact channel geometry such that hydraulic and geomorphic responses to flow reregulation do not yield the sought for benefits. To illustrate and assess the impacts of structural channel controls and flow reregulation on channel processes and fish habitat quality in multiple life stages, a highly detailed digital elevation model was collected and analyzed for a river reach right below a dam using a suite of hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and ecological methods. Results showed that, despite flow reregulation to produce a scaled-down natural hydrograph, anthropogenic boundary controls have severely altered geomorphic processes associated with geomorphic self-sustainability and instream habitat availability in the case study. Given the similarity of this stream to many others, we concluded that the potential utility of natural flow regime reinstatement in regulated gravel-bed rivers is conditional on concomitant channel rehabilitation.

  3. Performance evaluation and modelling studies of gravel--coir fibre--sand multimedia stormwater filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Tamilmani, D; Mathew, A C

    2012-09-01

    A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Gravel, coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibre and sand were selected as the media and filled in 1:1:1 proportion. A fabric screen made up of woven sisal hemp was used to separate the media. The adsorption behaviour of coir fibre was determined in a series of column and batch studies and the corresponding isotherms were developed. The hydraulic efficiency of the filter showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increased. The filter exhibited 100% sediment removal at lower sediment concentrations in inflow water (>6 g L(-1)). The filter could remove NO3(-), SO4(2-) and total solids (TS) effectively. Removal percentages of Mg(2+) and Na(+) were also found to be good. Similar results were obtained from a field evaluation study. Studies were also conducted to determine the pattern of silt and sediment deposition inside the filter body. The effects of residence time and rate of flow on removal percentages of NO3(-) and TS were also investigated out. In addition, a multiple regression equation that mathematically represents the filtration process was developed. Based on estimated annual costs and returns, all financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value and benefit-cost ratio) were found favourable and affordable to farmers for investment in the developed filtration system. The model MUSIC was calibrated and validated for field conditions with respect to the developed stormwater filter.

  4. Measuring gravel transport and dispersion in a mountain river using passive radio tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. N.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Random walk models of fluvial sediment transport recognize that grains move intermittently, with short duration steps separated by rests that are comparatively long. These models are built upon the probability distributions of the step length and the resting time. Motivated by these models, tracer experiments have attempted to measure directly the steps and rests of sediment grains in natural streams. This paper describes results from a large tracer experiment designed to test stochastic transport models. We used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to label 893 coarse gravel clasts and placed them in Halfmoon Creek, a small alpine stream near Leadville, Colorado, USA. The PIT tags allow us to locate and identify tracers without picking them up or digging them out of the streambed. They also enable us to find a very high percentage of our rocks, 98% after three years and 96% after the fourth year. We use the annual tracer displacement to test two stochastic transport models, the Einstein–Hubbell–Sayre (EHS) model and the Yang–Sayre gamma-exponential model (GEM). We find that the GEM is a better fit to the observations, particularly for slower moving tracers and suggest that the strength of the GEM is that the gamma distribution of step lengths approximates a compound Poisson distribution. Published in 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. A new approach to define surface/sub-surface transition in gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Heather; Ockelford, Anne-Marie; Vignaga, Elisa; Holmes, William

    2012-12-01

    The vertical structure of river beds varies temporally and spatially in response to hydraulic regime, sediment mobility, grain size distribution and faunal interaction. Implicit are changes to the active layer depth and bed porosity, both critical in describing processes such as armour layer development, surface-subsurface exchange processes and siltation/ sealing. Whilst measurements of the bed surface are increasingly informed by quantitative and spatial measurement techniques (e.g., laser displacement scanning), material opacity has precluded the full 3D bed structure analysis required to accurately define the surface-subsurface transition. To overcome this problem, this paper provides magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of vertical bed porosity profiles. Uniform and bimodal (σ g = 2.1) sand-gravel beds are considered following restructuring under sub-threshold flow durations of 60 and 960 minutes. MRI data are compared to traditional 2.5D laser displacement scans and six robust definitions of the surface-subsurface transition are provided; these form the focus of discussion.

  6. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  7. Migration rates of volatile organic compounds in an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.E.; Porcelli, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The movement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an aquifer is dictated by its solubility, attenuation characteristics, recharge volume, and ground-water movement (velocity and direction). At Brookhaven National Laboratory, past handling and disposal practices at the Hazardous Waste Management Facility and current landfill have resulted in the release of VOCs and the radioisotope tritium to the underlying upper glacial aquifer which characterized by unconsolidated sands and gravel. The rate of VOC migration from these source areas was examined using the following parameters: (1) distribution of VOCs and tritium; (2) tritium/helium ratios, which provide an estimate of the age of the water, and hence the rate of ground-water movement; (3) ground-water flow velocities within the upper glacial aquifer utilizing conductivity, porosity, and gradient data. Preliminary results indicate that whereas the comparison of the calculated ground-water flow gradient to tritium/helium age determinations are fairly consistent, application to VOC movement is inconclusive, and will require additional monitoring which would also focus on the vertical component as well

  8. EVALUATION OF THE INITIAL TREE COMMUNITY ESTABBLISHED ON A GRAVEL MINE IN THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Álvares Leão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities for urbanization purposes have been practiced in the BrazilianFederal District for the last fifty years. Exploitation of sand, clay, stones, calcareous rocks,and gravel deposits resulted in 0.6% of the territory degraded by mining. Deposits explored inthe last ten years have been reclaimed as demanded by local laws.The natural restoration of areas degraded by mining explotation is unpraticable,because the seed-bed and seedlings-bed is very injuried. Also the superficial layers of soil aretaken off, causing loss of microorganism like fungi, which contributes for environmental’squality improvement for the vegetation reestablishment (Vargas & Hungria, 1997.Fortunatelly, environmental laws oblige miners to replace these superficial layers of soil(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004.The recovering of a degradaded area doesn’t necessarily mean restoration. Restorationonly happens when the damage is minimal, for example, a glade opened by the death of a tree(Fonseca et al., 2001. When an area is hardly damaged, the vegetal climax community,resulting from secondary succession, will never be the same as the one standed there before(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004; Fonseca et al., 2001. In the case of areas degraded by mining,human intervention is necessary, because the vegetation has lost its resilience, and is not ableto commence a secondary succession by itself.

  9. PGDP Trichloroethene Biodegradation Investigation Summary Report: Regional Gravel Aquifer & Northwest Plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Steve [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2008-09-01

    The evaluation of biological degradation processes addressed by this report are part of a broad trichloroethene (TCE) Fate and Transport Investigation that includes four (4) topics of phased investigation (Table ES1) relative to degradation and/or attenuation of TCE in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) underlying the United States Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). In order of implementation the project phases are: (1) derivation of a TCE first-order rate constant by normalization of TCE values against technetium-99 (99Tc) and chloride. 2) identification of the presence of microbes capable of aerobic co-metabolic TCE biodegradation using enzyme activity probes (this report); 3) Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to support prevalence of biotic and/or abiotic degradation processes; and 4) evaluation of potential abiotic RGA-TCE attenuation mechanisms including sorption. This report summarizes the Phase II activities related to the identification and evaluation of biological degradation processes that may be actively influencing TCE fate and transport in the RGA contaminant plumes at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) PGDP and its environs (Figure ES1). The goals of these activities were to identify active biological degradation mechanisms in the RGA through multiple lines of evidence and to provide DOE with recommendations for future TCE biological degradation investigations.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental tests helping to understand the gravel pack displacement in petroleum wells; Fluidodinamica computacional (CFD) e testes experimentais ajudam a compreender o fenomeno do deslocamento do gravel pack em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Joao Vicente Martins de; Leal, Rafael Amorim Ferreira; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Calderon, Agostinho; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Duarte [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: ivmm@petrobras.com.br, rafaelleal@petrobras.com.br, aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, agoscal@petrobras.com.br, mvdferreira@petrobras.com.br; Simoes, Bruno; Barbosa, Diego [Halliburton, Novo Cavaleiros, Macae, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: bruno.simoes@halliburton.com.br, diego.barbosa@halliburton.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the petroleum exploitation and production in deep water, at the fields operated by PETROBRAS, Brazil, one of the problems frequently found is the need of elimination of sand production, having in mind that the most of those fields produce from the non consolidated sandstones. The opened well Gravel Packing is the technique most used for that task. Due to the fact of Gravel Packing operations occurs at thousand of meters below the surface, it is necessary the computational simulation for forecasting how particle deposition (Gravel) in the well occurs. So, it was used the commercial pack of fluid dynamics FLUENT 12, which calculates the fluid velocity field, coupled to another commercial pack, the EDEM, based on discrete elements that treat of particle mechanics. The coupling of the two software has shown adequate the comparison of the computational results with the experimental data shows a good adjustment. Besides, it was possible to simulate problems of well early clogging, showing that the computational simulation is strong and capable of captivating such a phenomena.

  11. Experimental tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps in determination the new operational limits for gravel packing; Testes experimentais e simulacoes em fluidodinamica computacional (CFD) auxiliam na determinacao de novos limites operacionais para o gravel packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Joao Vicente Martins de [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). E e P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Construcao e Manutencao de Pocos], e-mail: jvmm@petrobras.com.br; Calderon, Agostinho [PETROBRAS, rj (bRAZIL). E e P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Construcao e Manutencao de Pocos], e-mail: agoscal@petrobras.com.br; Leal, Rafael Amorim Ferreira [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES), RJ (Brazil). P e D em Geoengenharia e Engenharia de Poco. Gerencia de Perfuracao e Completacao de Pocos], e-mail: rafaelleal@petrobras.com.br; Miranda, Daniel Bonavides [Halliburton Energy Services (Brazil)], e-mail: daniel.miranda@halliburton.com; Simoes, Bruno Campos; Nunes, Mauro Jose de Souza Custodio [Halliburton Brasil. Setor de Estimulacao e Controle de Areia (Brazil)], e-mails: bruno.simoes@halliburton.com, mauro.nunes@halliburton.com; Barbosa, Diego Paiva [Halliburton Brasil. Coordenador de Servicos de Campo (Brazil)], e-mail: diego.barbosa@halliburton.com; Souza, Jairo Zago de [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software - ESSS (Brazil)], e-mail: jairo@esss.com.br

    2010-06-15

    Open hole Gravel Packing was the sand control strategy adopted by PETROBRAS while developing Campos Basin fields. One of the big problems in the oil industry is based on stems from the fact of that all the whole operations are carried out many thousands of feet in the underground, without direct visualization supervision. All the controls used in the operations are based upon direct and/or indirect measurements, but without, however, the necessary visual aid. This was the motivator for the construction of an experimental device that could simulate both the open well and the rat-hole allowing the study of how the deposition of Gravel occurs around the screens. Such experimental apparatus was built with casing pipes it which common rat-hole/open-hole inside diameters (12 1/'' and 8 1/2''). For the tests representativeness the simulator was equipped with real screens and wash pipes, reproducing the real operation dynamics. In the apparatus it was possible: to see Gravel settling through acrylic windows, to test new low-cost proppants and new concentrations, to define new minimal pump operational rates, as well as to record by filming the turbulent structures that occurs at the rat-hole/open-hole contraction zone. This paper treats of these results release and show CFD results used to enlarge test matrix. (author)

  12. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  13. Technology to sort lumber by color and grain for furniture parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color and grain sorting system for wood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. In-plant test results show that the system...

  14. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  15. Machine Vision System for Color Sorting Wood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang Lu; S. Srikanteswara; W. King; T. Drayer; Richard Conners; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "better" color given specified color uniformity and priority defined by management. The real-time color sorting system software and hardware are briefly...

  16. A Laboratory Experiment on the Evolution of a Sand Gravel Reach Under a Lack of Sediment Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias, V.; Ferrara, V.; Blom, A.

    2014-12-01

    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. The experimental data are used to validate a numerical sand-gravel model. A bed composed of a bi-modal sediment mixture is installed with a uniform slope and an imposed gradual fining pattern. Initially, the sand fraction gradually increases in streamwise direction until the bed is fully composed of sand. The water discharge and downstream water level were constant, and the sediment feed rate was equal to zero. The experiment was dominated by bed load, partial transport, and a subcritical flow regime was imposed. The flow rate was such that only sand was mobile (partial transport), which led to a coarsening over the upstream reach and a gradual reduction of the sediment transport rate during the experiment. New equipment was used to measure the evolution of the grain size distribution of the bed surface during the experiment over the entire flume using image analysis. In the upstream reach we observed a gradual coarsening over time and the formation of an armour layer, which resulted in a more abrupt transition in grain size of the bed surface. Bed degradation increased in streamwise direction. This is due to the initial streamwise increase in the availability of sand in the bed. The different volume fraction content of sand in the bed allowed for the gravel to sink more in the downstream part of the upstream reach. The sand reach suffered from a larger degradation. Finally, we see one reach dominated by sand, small bedforms, and a small bed slope, and a gravel reach dominated by a larger bed slope.

  17. The effects of flooding disturbance on the distribution and behaviour of riparian arthropods along a lowland gravel river

    OpenAIRE

    Lambeets, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D.-thesis aimed to address which environmental factors influence the assemblage structure of mobile, riparian arthropods along spatially structured river banks of a rain-fed, lowland gravel river, the Common Meuse. As riverine ecosystems are basically non-equilibrium, dynamic ecosystems, mainly flow regimes and flood pulse characteristics are expected to shape both the distribution and behaviour of its inhabitants. The river banks along the Common Meuse are (in)frequently disturbed by...

  18. A New Method for Tracking Individual Particles During Bed Load Transport in a Gravel-Bed River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M.; Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Chaire de Recherche Du Canada En Dynamique Fluviale

    2010-12-01

    Many particle tracers (passive or active) have been developed to study gravel movement in rivers. It remains difficult, however, to document resting and moving periods and to know how particles travel from one deposition site to another. Our new tracking method uses the Hobo Pendant G acceleration Data Logger to quantitatively describe the motion of individual particles from the initiation of movement, through the displacement and to the rest, in a natural gravel river. The Hobo measures the acceleration in three dimensions at a chosen temporal frequency. The Hobo was inserted into 11 artificial rocks. The rocks were seeded in Ruisseau Béard, a small gravel-bed river in the Yamaska drainage basin (Québec) where the hydraulics, particle sizes and bed characteristics are well known. The signals recorded during eight floods (Summer and Fall 2008-2009) allowed us to develop an algorithm which classifies the periods of rest and motion. We can differentiate two types of motion: sliding and rolling. The particles can also vibrate while remaining in the same position. The examination of the movement and vibration periods with respect to the hydraulic conditions (discharge, shear stress, stream power) showed that vibration occurred mostly before the rise of hydrograph and allowed us to establish movement threshold and response times. In all cases, particle movements occurred during floods but not always in direct response to increased bed shear stress and stream power. This method offers great potential to track individual particles and to establish a spatiotemporal sequence of the intermittent transport of the particle during a flood and to test theories concerning the resting periods of particles on a gravel bed.

  19. Hydraulic characterisation of iron-oxide-coated sand and gravel based on nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation mode analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costabel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry to characterise hydraulic properties of iron-oxide-coated sand and gravel was evaluated in a laboratory study. Past studies have shown that the presence of paramagnetic iron oxides and large pores in coarse sand and gravel disturbs the otherwise linear relationship between relaxation time and pore size. Consequently, the commonly applied empirical approaches fail when deriving hydraulic quantities from NMR parameters. Recent research demonstrates that higher relaxation modes must be taken into account to relate the size of a large pore to its NMR relaxation behaviour in the presence of significant paramagnetic impurities at its pore wall. We performed NMR relaxation experiments with water-saturated natural and reworked sands and gravels, coated with natural and synthetic ferric oxides (goethite, ferrihydrite, and show that the impact of the higher relaxation modes increases significantly with increasing iron content. Since the investigated materials exhibit narrow pore size distributions, and can thus be described by a virtual bundle of capillaries with identical apparent pore radius, recently presented inversion approaches allow for estimation of a unique solution yielding the apparent capillary radius from the NMR data. We found the NMR-based apparent radii to correspond well to the effective hydraulic radii estimated from the grain size distributions of the samples for the entire range of observed iron contents. Consequently, they can be used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity using the well-known Kozeny–Carman equation without any calibration that is otherwise necessary when predicting hydraulic conductivities from NMR data. Our future research will focus on the development of relaxation time models that consider pore size distributions. Furthermore, we plan to establish a measurement system based on borehole NMR for localising iron clogging and controlling its remediation

  20. Efficiency of phenol biodegradation by planktonic Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes (a constructed wetland isolate) vs. root and gravel biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, Eyal; Kirzhner, Felix; Sela, Shlomo; Zimmels, Yoram; Armon, Robert

    2010-09-01

    In the last two decades, constructed wetland systems gained increasing interest in wastewater treatment and as such have been intensively studied around the world. While most of the studies showed excellent removal of various pollutants, the exact contribution, in kinetic terms, of its particular components (such as: root, gravel and water) combined with bacteria is almost nonexistent. In the present study, a phenol degrader bacterium identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was isolated from a constructed wetland, and used in an experimental set-up containing: plants and gravel. Phenol removal rate by planktonic and biofilm bacteria (on sterile Zea mays roots and gravel surfaces) was studied. Specific phenol removal rates revealed significant advantage of planktonic cells (1.04 × 10(-9) mg phenol/CFU/h) compared to root and gravel biofilms: 4.59 × 10(-11)-2.04 × 10(-10) and 8.04 × 10(-11)-4.39 × 10(-10) (mg phenol/CFU/h), respectively. In batch cultures, phenol biodegradation kinetic parameters were determined by biomass growth rates and phenol removal as a function of time. Based on Haldane equation, kinetic constants such as μ(max) = 1.15/h, K(s) = 35.4 mg/L and K(i) = 198.6 mg/L fit well phenol removal by P. pseudoalcaligenes. Although P. pseudoalcaligenes planktonic cells showed the highest phenol removal rate, in constructed wetland systems and especially in those with sub-surface flow, it is expected that surface associated microorganisms (biofilms) will provide a much higher contribution in phenol and other organics removal, due to greater bacterial biomass. Factors affecting the performance of planktonic vs. biofilm bacteria in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands are further discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydraulic characterisation of iron-oxide-coated sand and gravel based on nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation mode analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, Stephan; Weidner, Christoph; Müller-Petke, Mike; Houben, Georg

    2018-03-01

    The capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry to characterise hydraulic properties of iron-oxide-coated sand and gravel was evaluated in a laboratory study. Past studies have shown that the presence of paramagnetic iron oxides and large pores in coarse sand and gravel disturbs the otherwise linear relationship between relaxation time and pore size. Consequently, the commonly applied empirical approaches fail when deriving hydraulic quantities from NMR parameters. Recent research demonstrates that higher relaxation modes must be taken into account to relate the size of a large pore to its NMR relaxation behaviour in the presence of significant paramagnetic impurities at its pore wall. We performed NMR relaxation experiments with water-saturated natural and reworked sands and gravels, coated with natural and synthetic ferric oxides (goethite, ferrihydrite), and show that the impact of the higher relaxation modes increases significantly with increasing iron content. Since the investigated materials exhibit narrow pore size distributions, and can thus be described by a virtual bundle of capillaries with identical apparent pore radius, recently presented inversion approaches allow for estimation of a unique solution yielding the apparent capillary radius from the NMR data. We found the NMR-based apparent radii to correspond well to the effective hydraulic radii estimated from the grain size distributions of the samples for the entire range of observed iron contents. Consequently, they can be used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity using the well-known Kozeny-Carman equation without any calibration that is otherwise necessary when predicting hydraulic conductivities from NMR data. Our future research will focus on the development of relaxation time models that consider pore size distributions. Furthermore, we plan to establish a measurement system based on borehole NMR for localising iron clogging and controlling its remediation in the gravel pack of

  2. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order to examine radon entry into buildings, the authors have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon

  3. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  4. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order-to examine radon entry into buildings, we have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon. (orig.). (7 refs., 3 figs.)

  5. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  6. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  7. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  8. Assessment of Large Wood budget in the gravel-bed Piave River: first attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Alessia; Picco, Lorenzo; Ravazzolo, Diego; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, the dynamics of large wood (LW) in rivers were analyzed to consider and define the LW budget. The space-time variations of LW amount results from the differences among input (e.g. fluvial transport, lateral recruitment) and output (e.g. fluvial transport, overbank deposition, natural chronic dead) of LW along a riverine environment. Different methodologies were applied in several fluvial environments, however in large river systems characterized by complex LW dynamics, the processes are still poor quantified. Aim of this contribution is to perform a LW budget estimation over the short period, assessing the effect of an over bankfull flood (Q=1039 m3 s-1; R.I=3.5 years). The research was carried out along a 1 km-long reach (around 15 ha) located into the middle course of the large gravel-bed Piave River (North East of Italy). The LW budget has been defined considering the recruitment through bank erosion and the fluvial transport of LW into and out of the study reach. The former factor was achieved integrating field data on riparian vegetation with the monitoring of riverbanks with a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). The latter was obtained detecting all LW elements (diameter ≥ 0.10 m and/or length ≥ 1 m) stored along the study reach, before and after the flood. For each LW the GPS position was recorded and a numbered tag was installed with the addition of colored paint to permit a rapid post-event recovery. Preliminary results indicate that, along the study area, the floating transport of LW is one of the most significant processes able to modify the amount of LW deposited along a riverine system. In fact, considering the input of LW, the 99.4 % (102 m3 km-1) comes from upstream due to floating, whereas the 0.6% (0.17 m3 km-1) was recruited through bank erosion. Analyzing the output, 94.3% (40.26 m3 km-1) of LW was transported downstream of the study area, whereas only the 5.7 % (2.43 m3 km-1) of LW was involved in the

  9. Aldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skin

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro; Gragnani, Alfredo; Pereira, Thiago Antônio Calado; Correa, Silvana Aparecida Alves; Bonucci, Jessica; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the use Aldefluor® and N, N - Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. Methods: Activated Aldefluor® aliquots were prepared and maintained at temperature between 2 to 8°C, or stored at -20°C. Next, the cells were collected following the standard protocol of sample preparation. Results: Best results were obtained with Aldefluor® 1.5µl and DEAB 15 µl for 1 x 106 c...

  10. Simulating Sediment Sorting of Streambed Surfaces - It's the Supply, Stupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The grain size of the streambed surface is an integral part of the transport system because it represents the grains immediately available for transport. If the rate and size of grains entrained from the bed surface differ from that delivered to the bed surface, the bed surface grain size will change. Although this balance is intuitively clear, its implications can surprise. The relative mobility of different sizes in a mixture change as transport rates increase. At small transport rates, smaller sizes are more mobile. As transport rate increases, the transport grain size approaches that of the bed. This presents a dilemma when using flumes to simulate surface sorting and transport. When sediment is fed into a flume, the same sediment is typically used regardless of feed rate. The transport grain size remains constant at all rates, which does not match the pattern observed in the field. This operational constraint means that sediment supply is coarser than transport capacity in feed flumes, increasingly so as transport rates diminish. This imbalance drives a coarsening of the stream bed as less mobile coarse grains concentrate on the surface as the system approaches steady-state. If sediment is recirculated in a flume, sediment supply and entrainment are perfectly matched. Surface coarsening is not imposed, but does occur via kinematic sieving. The coarsening of the transport (and supply) accommodates the rate-dependent change in mobility such that the bed surface grain size does not change with transport rate. Streambed armoring depends on both the rate and grain size of sediment supply - their implications do not seem to be fully appreciated. A coarsened bed surface does not indicate sorting of the bed surface during waning flows - it can persist with active sediment supply and transport. Neither sediment feed nor sediment recirculating flumes accurately mimic natural conditions but instead represent end members that bracket the dynamics of natural streams

  11. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  12. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  13. The influence of topology on hydraulic conductivity in a sand-and-gravel aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Troutman, Brent M.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of geophysical logging and tracer testing was conducted in a single well that penetrated a sand-and-gravel aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Geophysical logs and flowmeter/pumping measurements were obtained to estimate vertical profiles of porosity ϕ, hydraulic conductivity K, temperature, and bulk electrical conductivity under background, freshwater conditions. Saline-tracer fluid was then injected into the well for 2 h and its radial migration into the surrounding deposits was monitored by recording an electromagnetic-induction log every 10 min. The field data are analyzed and interpreted primarily through the use of Archie's (1942) law to investigate the role of topological factors such as pore geometry and connectivity, and grain size and packing configuration in regulating fluid flow through these coarse-grained materials. The logs reveal no significant correlation between K and ϕ, and imply that groundwater models that link these two properties may not be useful at this site. Rather, it is the distribution and connectivity of the fluid phase as defined by formation factor F, cementation index m, and tortuosity α that primarily control the hydraulic conductivity. Results show that F correlates well with K, thereby indicating that induction logs provide qualitative information on the distribution of hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of α, which incorporates porosity data, with K produces only a slightly better correlation and further emphasizes the weak influence of the bulk value of ϕ on K.

  14. Bedform morphology of salmon spawning areas in a large gravel-bed river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-05-01

    While the importance of river channel morphology to salmon spawning habitat is increasingly recognized, quantitative measures of the relationships between channel morphology and habitat use are lacking. Such quantitative measures are necessary as management and regulatory agencies within the Pacific Northwestern region of the USA, and elsewhere, seek to quantify potential spawning habitat and develop recovery goals for declining salmon populations. The objective of this study was to determine if fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, were correlated with specific bed form types at the pool-riffle scale. A bed form differencing technique was used to objectively quantify the longitudinal riverbed profile into four distinct pool-riffle units that were independent of discharge. The vertical location of thalweg points within these units was quantified with a riffle proximity index. Chinook salmon spawning areas were mapped and correlated with the pool-riffle units through the use of cross-tabulation tables. The results indicate that 84% of fall Chinook salmon spawning areas were correlated with riffles (Chi-square=152.1, df=3, p<0.001), with 53% of those areas located on the upstream side of riffle crests. The majority of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning occurred at a vertical location within 80% of the nearest riffle crest elevation. The analyses of bed form morphology will assist regional fish mangers in quantifying existing and potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, and will provide a quantitative framework for evaluating general ecological implications of channel morphology in large gravel-bed rivers.

  15. More than ten million years of hyper-aridity recorded in the Atacama Gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Bao, Huiming; Reich, Martin; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2018-04-01

    The Atacama Desert's hyper-aridity is closely linked to the development of world-class copper and nitrate/iodine ores and to regional tectonics and global paleoclimate changes in the Cenozoic era. The timing when the hyper-aridity commenced remains controversial, with proposed ages ranging from Late Oligocene to Pleistocene. In this study, we provide an independent constraint on the initiation of Atacama hyper-aridity utilizing a 100-m deep profile within the Atacama Gravels and underneath porphyry copper deposit in Spence, northern Chile. The overall high concentration of sulfate (up to 10 wt%) and a multimodal distribution of water soluble salt (sulfates, chlorides and nitrates) indicate multiple generations of sedimentation and salt accumulation events under semi-arid to hyper-arid climate conditions. The multiple sulfate isotope compositions (Δ17O, δ18O, δ34S) of the upper section (-15.0 to -34.5 m) are close to those of modern hyperarid surface sulfates, while the lower section (-34.5 to -65 m) displays a depth dependent isotope trend that is best interpreted as marking a period of climate change from semi-arid to hyper-arid. When these data are combined with new chronological 40Ar/39Ar dates obtained from a volcanic ash layer at depth of -28.0 m, our results show that hyper-arid condition in the Atacama Desert was prevailing at least prior to 9.47 Ma and may go back as old as the middle Miocene.

  16. Analytical study on the suitability of using bentonite coated gravel as a landfill liner material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Anel A.; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using bentonite coated gravel (BCG) as a liner material for waste landfills. BCG has proven to be a very effective capping material/method for the remediation of contaminated sediments in aquatic environments. The concept of BCG is similar to that of peanuts/almonds covered with chocolate; each aggregate particle has been covered with the clayey material. Laboratory tests were aimed at evaluating regulated and non-regulated factors for liner materials, i.e., permeability and strength. Tests included X-ray diffraction, methylene blue absorption, compaction, free swelling, permeability, 1D consolidation, triaxial compression and cone penetration. The compactive efforts used for this study were the reduced Proctor, standard Proctor, intermediate Proctor, modified Proctor and super modified Proctor. The compactive energy corresponding to each effort, respectively, is as follows: 355.5, 592.3, 1196.3, 2693.3, and 5386.4 kJ/m 3 . Results revealed that even though aggregate content represents 70% of the weight of the material, hydraulic conductivities as low as 6 x 10 -10 cm/s can be achieved when proper compactive efforts are used. Compressibility is very low for this material even at low (or no) compactive efforts. Results also demonstrated how higher compactive efforts can lower the permeability of BCG; however, over-compaction creates fractures in the aggregate core of BCG that could increase permeability. Moreover, higher compactive efforts create higher swelling pressures that could compromise the performance of a barrier constructed using BCG. As a result of this study, moderate compactive efforts, i.e., intermediate Proctor or modified Proctor, are recommended for constructing a BCG barrier. Using moderate compactive efforts, very low hydraulic conductivities, good workability and good trafficability are easily attainable

  17. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø

    2017-01-01

    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary. To...

  18. Soil sorting, new approach to site remediation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Woods, J.A.; Dillon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sorting is the technology which conveys soil beneath contaminant detectors and, based on contaminant signal, automatically toggles a gate at the conveyor end to send soil with contamination above a guideline to a separate location from soil which meets the guideline. The technology was perfected for remediation of sites having soils with radioactive contamination, but it is applicable to other contaminants when instrumental methods exist for rapid contaminant detection at levels of concern. This paper examines the three methods for quantifying contamination in soil in support of site remediation management. Examples are discussed where the primary contaminant is plutonium, a radioactive substance and source of nuclear energy which can be hazardous to health when in the environment without controls. Field survey instruments are very sensitive to plutonium and can detect it in soil at levels below a part per billion, and there are a variety of soils which have been contaminated by plutonium and thoroughly investigated. The lessons learned with plutonium are applicable to other types of contaminants and site remediations. The paper concludes that soil sorting can be the most cost effective approach to site remediation, and it leads to the best overall cleanup

  19. Performance evaluation of PCA-based spike sorting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Dimitrios A; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the electrical activity of individual neurons from multi-unit noisy recordings is critical for understanding complex neural systems. A widely used spike sorting algorithm is being evaluated for single-electrode nerve trunk recordings. The algorithm is based on principal component analysis (PCA) for spike feature extraction. In the neuroscience literature it is generally assumed that the use of the first two or most commonly three principal components is sufficient. We estimate the optimum PCA-based feature space by evaluating the algorithm's performance on simulated series of action potentials. A number of modifications are made to the open source nev2lkit software to enable systematic investigation of the parameter space. We introduce a new metric to define clustering error considering over-clustering more favorable than under-clustering as proposed by experimentalists for our data. Both the program patch and the metric are available online. Correlated and white Gaussian noise processes are superimposed to account for biological and artificial jitter in the recordings. We report that the employment of more than three principal components is in general beneficial for all noise cases considered. Finally, we apply our results to experimental data and verify that the sorting process with four principal components is in agreement with a panel of electrophysiology experts.

  20. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F

    2007-02-15

    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/pmh20/spikes.

  1. Design and construction of automatic sorting station with machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Velasco-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, construction and testing of an automatic product sorting system in belt conveyor with machine vision that integrates Free and Open Source Software technology and Allen Bradley commercial equipment. Requirements are defined to determine features such as: mechanics of manufacturing station, an app of product sorting with machine vision and for automation system. For the app of machine vision a library is used for optical digital image processing Open CV, for the mechanical design of the manufacturing station is used the CAD tool Solid Edge and for the design and implementation of automation ISA standards are used along with an automation engineering project methodology integrating a PLC, an inverter, a Panel View and a DeviceNet Network. Performance tests are shown by classifying bottles and PVC pieces in four established types, the behavior of the integrated system is checked so as the efficiency of the same. The processing time on machine vision is 0.290 s on average for a piece of PVC, a capacity of 206 accessories per minute, for bottles was obtained a processing time of 0.267 s, a capacity of 224 bottles per minute. A maximum mechanical performance is obtained with 32 products per minute (1920 products/hour with the conveyor to 22 cm/s and 40 cm of distance between products obtaining an average error of 0.8%.

  2. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, I B; Dejus, Roger J; Moog, E; Trakhtenberg, E; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators.

  3. A Linear Criterion to sort Color Components in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barriga Rodriguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The color and its representation play a basic role in Image Analysis process. Several methods can be beneficial whenever they have a correct representation of wave-length variations used to represent scenes with a camera. A wide variety of spaces and color representations is founded in specialized literature. Each one is useful in concrete circumstances and others may offer redundant color information (for instance, all RGB components are high correlated. This work deals with the task of identifying and sorting which component from several color representations offers the majority of information about the scene. This approach is based on analyzing linear dependences among each color component, by the implementation of a new sorting algorithm based on entropy. The proposal is tested in several outdoor/indoor scenes with different light conditions. Repeatability and stability are tested in order to guarantee its use in several image analysis applications. Finally, the results of this work have been used to enhance an external algorithm to compensate the camera random vibrations.

  4. Assessing of bulk materials mixing and sorting by radiotracer methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Various applications are indicated of tracer techniques for the evaluation of mixing and sorting of mixtures of solid particles. The evaluation of the process of mixing, i.e., the determination of the homogenization time is done by labelling of the entire volume of the monitored component of the mixture and continuous detection of radiation through the walls of the mixer using one or several detectors. The evaluation of the character of the flow and the evacuation of solid particles from the bin is done by labelling with a radiotracer the material which is spread out on the top along the whole cross-section of the bin, and the concentration is monitored of the tracer in the material outflow. The evaluation of material sorting in bins which takes place during the filling and emptying is done on the basis of significance tests or using self-correlation functions and frequency characteristics. Also monitored was the dependence of the equalizing ability of the continuous gravity mixer at the vertex angle of the tip. (M.D.)

  5. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L. [School of Urban and Environmental Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Quan, C. [Jilin University, College of medicine, Changchun (China); Yang, Y.S., E-mail: yangy6@cf.ac.uk [Cardiff University, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Excess biomass produced within the degradation processes of organic pollutants is creating environmental challenges. The gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR) filled with crushed stone globular aggregates as carriers, has been demonstrated capable of reducing the excess sludge effectively in some pilot and small-scale engineering studies. In order to evaluate the variation and structure of the microbial community and their functions to excess sludge reduction in GCOR, a conventional activated sludge reactor (ASR) was studied as a comparison. The 16S rDNA library of the universal bacteria was constructed, Shannon's diversity index (H) and Species evenness (E) were calculated with distance-based operational taxonomic unit and richness (DOTUR) for microbial diversity. Real-time quantity PCR and optical microscope were used for absolute bacterial DNA concentration and eukarya identification, respectively. Meanwhile, the suspended solid index in GCOR and ASR was detected for assessing the excess sludge production. The results indicated that the most abundant bacteria in GCOR were those related to the {beta}-Proteobacteria group, then {gamma}-Proteobacteria and to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriode (CFB). In the ASR samples major bacteria were in the closest match with {gamma}-Proteobacteria, then {beta}-Proteobacteria and CFB. Shannon's index (H) was higher (3.41) for diversity of bacteria extracted from the carrier samples in GCOR than that (2.71) from the sludge sample in ASR. Species evenness (E) for the isolates from GCOR and ASR samples was 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison of the universal bacteria population in GCOR and ASR shows that the total bacterial DNA concentration on the GCOR carriers were 8.98 x 10{sup 5} {mu}g/{mu}l, twice that in ASR of 4.67 x 10{sup 5} {mu}g/{mu}l under normal operation of two reactors. But the MLSS in GCOR was only 4.5 mg/L, 25 times less than that in ASR of 115.4 mg/L. The most representative eukarya were protozoa

  6. Modeling wood dynamics, jam formation, and sediment storage in a gravel-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. C.; Hassan, M. A.; Davidson, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    In small and intermediate sized streams, the interaction between wood and bed material transport often determines the nature of the physical habitat, which in turn influences the health of the stream's ecosystem. We present a stochastic model that can be used to simulate the effects on physical habitat of forest fires, climate change, and other environmental disturbances that alter wood recruitment. The model predicts large wood (LW) loads in a stream as well as the volume of sediment stored by the wood; while it is parameterized to describe gravel bed streams similar to a well-studied field prototype, Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia, it can be calibrated to other systems as well. In the model, LW pieces are produced and modified over time as a result of random tree-fall, LW breakage, LW movement, and piece interaction to form LW jams. Each LW piece traps a portion of the annual bed material transport entering the reach and releases the stored sediment when the LW piece is entrained and moved. The equations governing sediment storage are based on a set of flume experiments also scaled to the field prototype. The model predicts wood loads ranging from 70 m3/ha to more than 300 m3/ha, with a mean value of 178 m3/ha: both the range and the mean value are consistent with field data from streams with similar riparian forest types and climate. The model also predicts an LW jam spacing that is consistent with field data. Furthermore, our modeling results demonstrate that the high spatial and temporal variability in sediment storage, sediment transport, and channel morphology associated with LW-dominated streams occurs only when LW pieces interact and form jams. Model runs that do not include jam formation are much less variable. These results suggest that river restoration efforts using engineered LW pieces that are fixed in place and not permitted to interact will be less successful at restoring the geomorphic processes responsible for producing diverse, productive

  7. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L.; Quan, C.; Yang, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Excess biomass produced within the degradation processes of organic pollutants is creating environmental challenges. The gravel contact oxidation reactor (GCOR) filled with crushed stone globular aggregates as carriers, has been demonstrated capable of reducing the excess sludge effectively in some pilot and small-scale engineering studies. In order to evaluate the variation and structure of the microbial community and their functions to excess sludge reduction in GCOR, a conventional activated sludge reactor (ASR) was studied as a comparison. The 16S rDNA library of the universal bacteria was constructed, Shannon's diversity index (H) and Species evenness (E) were calculated with distance-based operational taxonomic unit and richness (DOTUR) for microbial diversity. Real-time quantity PCR and optical microscope were used for absolute bacterial DNA concentration and eukarya identification, respectively. Meanwhile, the suspended solid index in GCOR and ASR was detected for assessing the excess sludge production. The results indicated that the most abundant bacteria in GCOR were those related to the β-Proteobacteria group, then γ-Proteobacteria and to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteriode (CFB). In the ASR samples major bacteria were in the closest match with γ-Proteobacteria, then β-Proteobacteria and CFB. Shannon's index (H) was higher (3.41) for diversity of bacteria extracted from the carrier samples in GCOR than that (2.71) from the sludge sample in ASR. Species evenness (E) for the isolates from GCOR and ASR samples was 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Comparison of the universal bacteria population in GCOR and ASR shows that the total bacterial DNA concentration on the GCOR carriers were 8.98 x 10 5 μg/μl, twice that in ASR of 4.67 x 10 5 μg/μl under normal operation of two reactors. But the MLSS in GCOR was only 4.5 mg/L, 25 times less than that in ASR of 115.4 mg/L. The most representative eukarya were protozoa both in GCOR (15 no. per 20 ml) and in ASR (15

  8. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  9. Suitability of parametric models to describe the hydraulic properties of an unsaturated coarse sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Andy; Rudolph, David L.; Kachanoski , R. Gary

    1998-01-01

    The performance of parametric models used to describe soil water retention (SWR) properties and predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a function of volumetric water content (θ) is examined using SWR and K(θ) data for coarse sand and gravel sediments. Six 70 cm long, 10 cm diameter cores of glacial outwash were instrumented at eight depths with porous cup ten-siometers and time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil water pressure head (h) and θ, respectively, for seven unsaturated and one saturated steady-state flow conditions. Forty-two θ(h) and K(θ) relationships were measured from the infiltration tests on the cores. Of the four SWR models compared in the analysis, the van Genuchten (1980) equation with parameters m and n restricted according to the Mualem (m = 1 - 1/n) criterion is best suited to describe the θ(h) relationships. The accuracy of two models that predict K(θ) using parameter values derived from the SWR models was also evaluated. The model developed by van Genuchten (1980) based on the theoretical expression of Mualem (1976) predicted K(θ) more accurately than the van Genuchten (1980) model based on the theory of Burdine (1953). A sensitivity analysis shows that more accurate predictions of K(θ) are achieved using SWR model parameters derived with residual water content (θr) specified according to independent measurements of θ at values of h where θ/h ∼ 0 rather than model-fit θr values. The accuracy of the model K(θ) function improves markedly when at least one value of unsaturated K is used to scale the K(θ) function predicted using the saturated K. The results of this investigation indicate that the hydraulic properties of coarse-grained sediments can be accurately described using the parametric models. In addition, data collection efforts should focus on measuring at least one value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and as complete a set of SWR data as possible, particularly in the dry range.

  10. Historical coseismic surface deformation of fluvial gravel deposits, Schafberg fault, Lower Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Friedrich, Anke M.; Gold, Ryan D.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-03-01

    Intraplate earthquakes pose a significant seismic hazard in densely populated rift systems like the Lower Rhine Graben in Central Europe. While the locations of most faults in this region are well known, constraints on their seismogenic potential and earthquake recurrence are limited. In particular, the Holocene deformation history of active faults remains enigmatic. In an exposure excavated across the Schafberg fault in the southwestern Lower Rhine Graben, south of Untermaubach, in the epicentral region of the 1756 Düren earthquake ( M L 6.2), we mapped a complex deformation zone in Holocene fluvial sediments. We document evidence for at least one paleoearthquake that resulted in vertical surface displacement of 1.2 ± 0.2 m. The most recent earthquake is constrained to have occurred after 815 AD, and we have modeled three possible earthquake scenarios constraining the timing of the latest event. Coseismic deformation is characterized by vertical offset of sedimentary contacts distributed over a 10-m-wide central damage zone. Faults were identified where they fracture and offset pebbles in the vertically displaced gravel layers and fracture orientation is consistent with the orientation of the Schafberg fault. This study provides the first constraint on the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake on the Schafberg fault. We cannot rule out that this fault acted as the source of the 1756 Düren earthquake. Our study emphasizes the importance of, and the need for, paleoseismic studies in this and other intracontinental regions, in particular on faults with subtle geomorphic expression that would not typically be recognized as being potentially seismically active. Our study documents textural features in unconsolidated sediment that formed in response to coseismic rupturing of the underlying bedrock fault. We suggest that these features, e.g., abundant oriented transgranular fractures in their context, should be added to the list of criteria used to identify a fault

  11. Relevance-aware filtering of tuples sorted by an attribute value via direct optimization of search quality metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spirin, N.V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kiseleva, Y.; Spirin, Y.V.; Izhutov, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorting tuples by an attribute value is a common search scenario and many search engines support such capabilities, e.g. price-based sorting in e-commerce, time-based sorting on a job or social media website. However, sorting purely by the attribute value might lead to poor user experience because

  12. Water and soil loss from landslide deposits as a function of gravel content in the Wenchuan earthquake area, China, revealed by artificial rainfall simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fengling; He, Binghui; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake which occurred on 12th May 2008. Landslides impacted extensive areas along the Mingjiang River and its tributaries. In the landslide deposits, soil and gravel fragments generally co-exist and their proportions may influence the hydrological and erosion processes on the steep slopes of the deposit surface. Understanding the effects of the mixtures of soil and gravels in landslide deposits on erosion processes is relevant for ecological reconstruction and water and soil conservation in Wenchuan earthquake area. Based on field surveys, indoor artificial rainfall simulation experiments with three rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm·min-1) and three proportions of gravel (50%, 66.7% and 80%) were conducted to measure how the proportion of gravel affected soil erosion and sediment yield in landslide sediments and deposits. Where the proportion of gravel was 80%, no surface runoff was produced during the 90 minute experiment under all rainfall intensities. For the 66.7% proportion, no runoff was generated at the lowest rainfall intensity (1.0 mm·min-1). As a result of these interactions, the average sediment yield ranked as 50> 66.6> 80% with different proportions of gravel. In addition, there was a positive correlation between runoff generation and sediment yield, and the sediment yield lagging the runoff generation. Together, the results demonstrate an important role of gravel in moderating the mobilization of landslide sediment produced by large earthquakes, and could lay the foundation for erosion models which provide scientific guidance for the control of landslide sediment in the Wenchuan earthquake zone, China.

  13. Effects of near-bed turbulence and micro-topography on macroinvertebrate movements across contrasting gravel-bed surfaces (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin-Belanger, T. K.; Rice, S. P.; Reid, I.; Lancaster, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fluvial habitats can be described from a series of physical variables but to adequately address the habitat quality it becomes necessary to develop an understanding that combines the physical variables with the behaviour of the inhabitating organisms. The hypothesis of flow refugia provide a rational that can explain the persistence of macroinvertebrate communities in gravel-bed rivers when spates occur. The movement behaviour of macroinvertebrates is a key element to the flow refugia hypothesis, but little is known about how local near-bed turbulence and bed microtopography may affect macroinvertebrate movements. We reproduced natural gravel-bed substrates with contrasting gravel bed textures in a large flume where we were able to document the movement behaviour of the cased caddisfly Potamophylax latipennis for a specific discharge. The crawling paths and drift events of animals were analysed from video recordings. Characteristics of movements differ from one substrate to another. The crawling speed is higher for the small grain-size substrates but the mean travel distance remains approximately the same between substrates. For each substrate, the animals tended to follow consistent paths across the surface. The number of drift events and mean distance drifted is higher for the small grain-size substrate. ADV measurements close to the boundary allow detailed characterisation of near-bed hydraulic variables, including : skewness coefficients, TKE, UV correlation coefficients and integral time scales from autocorrelation analysis. For these variables, the vertical patterns of turbulence parameters are similar between the substrates but the amplitude of the average values and standard errors vary significantly. The spatial distribution of this variability is considered in relation to the crawling paths. It appears that the animals tend to crawl within areas of the substrate where low flow velocities and low turbulent kinetic energies are found, while sites that

  14. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  15. Design of mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of recyclable cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Y.; Mohruni, A. S.; Burlian, F.; Yani, I.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    The use of a mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of used cans should be designed carefully. The right design will result in a high precision sorting rate and a short sorting time. The design includes first; design manipulator,second; determine link and joint specifications, and third; build mechanical systems and control systems. This study aims to design the mechanical arm as a hardware system for automatic cans sorting system. The material used for the manipulator is the aluminum plate. The manipulator is designed using 6 links and 6 join where the 6th link is the end effectorand the 6th join is the gripper. As a driving motor used servo motor, while as a microcontroller used Arduino Uno which is connected with Matlab programming language. Based on testing, a mechanical arm designed for this recyclable canned recycling system has a precision sorting rate at 93%, where the average total time required for sorting is 10.82 seconds.

  16. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    (submodular). The model is estimated on Danish matched employer-employee data. We find evidence of positive assortative matching. In the estimated equilibrium match distribution, the correlation between worker skill and firm productivity is 0.12. The assortative matching has a substantial impact on wage......This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...... to mismatch by asking how much greater output would be if the estimated population of matches were perfectly positively assorted. In this case, output would increase by 7.7%....

  17. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within......-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within......-firm inequality whereas we find no evidence that increased international trade at the industry level is associated with higher betweenor within-firm wage inequality. The key factors driving the observed increase in wage inequality are increased educational sorting and the inflow of foreign firms to the Czech...

  18. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown...... mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined...... phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated...

  19. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  20. The Sorting of Female Careers after First Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntz, Melanie; Dlugosz, Stephan; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    unprecedented insights into how women's skills, the quality of the previous job match, firm level characteristics, labour market conditions and leave legislation are related to the length of maternity duration. Expansionary leave policies, e.g. are found to be a key factor for the rising share of women who have......A number of contributions have found evidence that motherhood is a critical life event for women's employment careers. This study presents a detailed analysis for the duration of maternity leave in which young mothers can make a transition into different types of employment, unemployment as well...... as the next birth. We provide a comprehensive picture of the sorting mechanisms that lead to the differentiation of women's employment careers after birth. Our empirical evidence is derived from large-linked administrative individual labour market data from Germany for a period of three decades. We obtain...

  1. The Sorting of Female Careers after First Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntz, Melanie; Dlugosz, Stephan; Wilke, Ralf A.

    A number of contributions have found evidence for motherhood being a critical life event for women's employment careers. This study presents a detailed model for the du- ration of maternity leave in which young mothers can make a transition into a number of states related to employment......- rived from large linked administrative individual labour market data from Germany for a period of three decades. We obtain unprecedented insights how women's skills, the quality of the previous job match, firm level characteristics, labour market conditions and leave legislation are related...... and unemployment among others. The model incorporates a large number of factors including the legal framework, individual and firm character- istics. We provide a comprehensive picture of the sorting mechanisms that lead to the differentiation of women's employment careers after birth. Our empirical evidence is de...

  2. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  3. Sorting process of nanoparticles and applications of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy P.; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2017-10-31

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method for sorting nanoparticles includes preparing a high-viscosity density gradient medium filled in a container, dispersing nanoparticles into an aqueous solution to form a suspension of the nanoparticles, each nanoparticle having one or more cores and a shell encapsulating the one or more cores, layering the suspension of the nanoparticles on the top of the high-viscosity density gradient medium in the container, and centrifugating the layered suspension of the nanoparticles on the top of the high-viscosity density gradient medium in the container at a predetermined speed for a predetermined period of time to form a gradient of fractions of the nanoparticles along the container, where each fraction comprises nanoparticles in a respective one of aggregation states of the nanoparticles.

  4. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60......This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  5. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Kaless; Mario A. Lenzi; Luca Mao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina). The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence...

  6. Application of surface-geophysical methods to investigations of sand and gravel aquifers in the glaciated Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeni, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Combined use of seismic-refraction, direct-current resistivity, very-low-frequency terrain-resistivity, and inductive terrain-conductivity methods were demonstrated at sites in Connecticut, New York, and Maine. Although no single method can define both the hydrogeologic boundaries and general grain-size characteristics of sand and gravel aquifers, a combination of these methods can. Comparisons of measured electrical properties of aquifers with logs of test holes and wells indicate that, for a given conductivity of ground water, the bulk electrical resistivity of aquifers in the glaciated Northeast increases with grain size.

  7. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vors, Evelyne; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Dehayem-Massop, Alix; Gallou, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique of elemental analysis. A laser beam is focused on the surface of the sample to be analyzed. A small quantity of matter is ablated and a plasma formed by the atomized compounds is created. The spectral lines of the light emitted by the plasma are detected by an optical spectrometer. LIBS is a fully optical, multi-elementary and fast analytical technique, requiring no or little sample preparation. These features make the LIBS technique particularly suited for in situ measurements, and portable instruments are currently developed. LIBS analysis can be applied to the identification of materials using chemometric statistical methods (multivariate analysis) connecting the spectrum to the nature of the sample. Such methods have been successfully applied in our laboratory to the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cakes and to the identification of alloys. We present here the work performed with a portable LIBS instrument to meet the needs of waste sorting in industrial domain and in nuclear domain (inventory before decommissioning). A data base of LIBS spectra was built with a commercial instrument (IVEA SAS Easylibs) with samples of four categories of interest for industrial waste sorting: alloys, plastics, concrete and glasses. Different correct identification rates are requested by categories. The alloy spectra contain characteristic spectral lines and sub-categories can be easily discriminated (for example, different steel classes can be identified). The components of the plastics (mainly C, H, O and N) give rise to less characteristic lines and the plastics identification requires a separate study. Supervised statistical models are built with the data base spectra and predictions are instantly calculated for the spectra of unknown materials to identify in order to direct them to the correct waste stream. (authors)

  8. Electronic sorting of radioactive ores; Triage electronique des minerais radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandier, J.

    1958-01-15

    Electronic sorting of radioactive ores consists in passing the rock lumps, after sieving, one by one in front of radioactivity detectors; these detectors command electromechanical systems which class the ores according to their radioactivity level. This note sets on the state of progress of the work going on at the D.R.E.M.: use of scintillometers for γ-ray detection, with circuits carrying magnetic memories to improve their operation; results of laboratory and semi-industrial tests on several deposits; description of the material, data on the first factory project; notes on the financial returns of the process. A description is also given of the electronic sorting material used skip by skip for a first rough classification of the ores according to their content, as they leave the shaft. (author) [French] Le triage electronique des minerais radioactifs consiste a faire passer, apres criblage, les cailloux un par un devant des detecteurs de radioactivite; ces detecteurs commandent des systemes electromecaniques qui classent les minerais selon leur niveau de radioactivite. La note expose l'etat d'avancement des travaux en cours a la D.R.E.M: utilisation des scintillometres pour la detection des rayonnements γ, de circuits comportant des memoires magnetiques pour ameliorer le fonctionnement; resultats d'essais de laboratoire et semi-industriels sur plusieurs gisements; description du materiel, donnees sur le premier projet d'usine; notes sur la rentabilite du procede. Est egalement decrit le materiel de triage electronique skip par skip utilise pour une premiere classification grossiere des minerais selon leurs teneurs, des la sortie des puits. (auteur)

  9. Reducing 4D CT artifacts using optimized sorting based on anatomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Eric; Diehn, Maximilian; Murphy, James D; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has been widely used as a tool to characterize respiratory motion in radiotherapy. The two most commonly used 4D CT algorithms sort images by the associated respiratory phase or displacement into a predefined number of bins, and are prone to image artifacts at transitions between bed positions. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a method of reducing motion artifacts in 4D CT by incorporating anatomic similarity into phase or displacement based sorting protocols. Ten patient datasets were retrospectively sorted using both the displacement and phase based sorting algorithms. Conventional sorting methods allow selection of only the nearest-neighbor image in time or displacement within each bin. In our method, for each bed position either the displacement or the phase defines the center of a bin range about which several candidate images are selected. The two dimensional correlation coefficients between slices bordering the interface between adjacent couch positions are then calculated for all candidate pairings. Two slices have a high correlation if they are anatomically similar. Candidates from each bin are then selected to maximize the slice correlation over the entire data set using the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. To assess the reduction of artifacts, two thoracic radiation oncologists independently compared the resorted 4D datasets pairwise with conventionally sorted datasets, blinded to the sorting method, to choose which had the least motion artifacts. Agreement between reviewers was evaluated using the weighted kappa score. Anatomically based image selection resulted in 4D CT datasets with significantly reduced motion artifacts with both displacement (P = 0.0063) and phase sorting (P = 0.00022). There was good agreement between the two reviewers, with complete agreement 34 times and complete disagreement 6 times. Optimized sorting using anatomic similarity significantly reduces 4D CT motion

  10. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  11. Optimization of magnet sorting in a storage ring using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jia; Wang Lin; Li Weimin; Gao Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the genetic algorithms are applied to the optimization problem of magnet sorting in an electron storage ring, according to which the objectives are set so that the closed orbit distortion and beta beating can be minimized and the dynamic aperture maximized. The sorting of dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets is optimized while the optimization results show the power of the application of genetic algorithms in magnet sorting. (authors)

  12. Safe sorting of GFP-transduced live cells for subsequent culture using a modified FACS vantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T U; Gram, G J; Nielsen, S D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells...... culture. CONCLUSIONS: Sorting of live infected cells can be performed safely and with no deleterious effects on vector expression using the modified FACS Vantage instrument....

  13. Continuous sorting of Brownian particles using coupled photophoresis and asymmetric potential cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian; Heeraman, Pascal

    2008-03-15

    Feasible sorters need to function rapidly and permit the input and delivery of particles continuously. Here, we describe a scheme that incorporates (i) restricted spatial input location and (ii) orthogonal sort and movement direction features. Sorting is achieved using an asymmetric potential that is cycled on and off, whereas movement is accomplished using photophoresis. Simulations with 0.2 and 0.5 microm diameter spherical particles indicate that sorting can commence quickly from a continuous stream. Procedures to optimize the sorting scheme are also described.

  14. The use of radiometric ore sorting on South African gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Freer, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper refers to the radiometric sorting tests reported during the 7th CMMI Congress, and then describes the photometric and radiometric sorter installations in operation and under construction in South Africa at present. As radiometric sorting of gold ores uses the radiation from the uranium content as a tracer, it is essential that the sortability of the ore should be reliably determined before sorting is adopted. The method of obtaining the important ore characteristics is described, with examples. The possible increase in gold production from a hypothetical plant as a result of sorting is shown

  15. A New Algorithm Using the Non-Dominated Tree to Improve Non-Dominated Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Patrik; Syberfeldt, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This article presents a new, more efficient algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the article, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.

  16. Characteristics of the gravel size and potassium in the Ejin Alluvial Fan from remote sensing images and stratigraphic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Qinjun

    2014-01-01

    The Ejin Alluvial Fan (EAF), located in the north-west of China, is an important recorder of both paleoclimatic and tectonic information of the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote sensing technics, including optical and microwave sensors, have been the key spatial observation tools to extract the surface information related to the paleoenvironment. In this paper, the gravel size and chemical element potassium K distributions of the EAF were obtained from RadarSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and LandSat TM optical data, respectively. In addition, the stratigraphic section of the EAF was established and the corresponding geological information in the vertical direction with different periods was obtained. Combining the geological survey information and surface distribution information, it can be concluded as follows. 1) The EAF covers an area of above 30,000 km 2 and may be the largest arid and semi-arid alluvial fan in the world based on the remote sensing survey. 2) Some surface parameters which are related to the paleoenvironmental change can be obtained from remote sensing data, such as the gravel size and potassium K parameters. 3) The forming process of the EAF and the corresponding environments will be understood deeply, combining the paleoenvironmental related parameters derived from remote sensing data and the geologic survey data

  17. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  18. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  19. A 2D hydrodynamic-sedimentological model for gravel-bed rivers. Part I: theory and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kaless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel 2D-depth average model especially developed for gravel-bed rivers, named Lican-Leufú (Lican=pebble and Leufu=river, in Mapuche’s language, the native inhabitants of Central Patagonia, Argentina. The model consists of three components: a hydrodynamic, a sedimentological, and a morphological model. The flow of water is described by the depth-averaged Reynolds equations for unsteady, free-surface, shallow water flows. It includes the standard k-e model for turbulence closure. Sediment transport can be divided in different size classes (sand-gravel mixture and the equilibrium approach is used for Exner’s equation. The amour layer is also included in the structure of the model and the surface grain size distribution is also allowed to evolve. The model simulates bank slides that enable channel widening. Models predictions were tested against a flume experiment where a static armour layer was developed under conditions of sediment starvations and general good agreements were found: the model predicted adequately the sediment transport, grain size of transported material, final armour grain size distribution and bed elevation.

  20. Low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, B.; Wilcock, P.

    2011-12-01

    In an alluvial, gravel-bed stream governed by a plane-bed bedload transport regime, the physicochemical properties, size distribution, and granular architecture of the sediment grains that constitute the streambed surface influence many hydrodynamic, geomorphic, chemical, and ecological processes. Consequently, the abilities to accurately characterize the morphology and model the morphodynamics of the streambed surface and its interaction with the bedload above and subsurface below are necessary for a more complete understanding of how sediment, flow, organisms, and biogeochemistry interact. We report on our progress in the bottom-up development of low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream. These balance laws are assembled in a four stage process. First, the stream sediment-water system is conceptually abstracted as a nested, multi-phase, multi-species, structured continuum. Second, the granular surface of an aggregate of sediment grains is mathematically defined. Third, an integral approach to mass balance, founded in the continuum theory of multiphase flow, is used to formulate primordial, differential, instantaneous, local, continuum, mass balance laws applicable at any material point within a gravel-bed stream. Fourth, area averaging and time-after-area averaging, employing planform, low-pass filtering expressed as correlation or convolution integrals and based on the spatial and temporal filtering techniques found in the fields of multiphase flow, porous media flow, and large eddy simulation of turbulent fluid flow, are applied to smooth the primordial equations while maximizing stratigraphic resolution and preserving the definitions of relevant morphodynamic surfaces. Our approach unifies, corrects, contextualizes, and generalizes prior efforts at developing stream sediment continuity equations, including the top-down derivations of the surface layer (or "active layer") approach of Hirano