Sample records for sorted output resulting

  1. External parallel sorting with multiprocessor computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comanceau, S.I.


    This article describes methods of external sorting in which the entire main computer memory is used for the internal sorting of entries, forming out of them sorted segments of the greatest possible size, and outputting them to external memories. The obtained segments are merged into larger segments until all entries form one ordered segment. The described methods are suitable for sequential files stored on magnetic tape. The needs of the sorting algorithm can be met by using the relatively slow peripheral storage devices (e.g., tapes, disks, drums). The efficiency of the external sorting methods is determined by calculating the total sorting time as a function of the number of entries to be sorted and the number of parallel processors participating in the sorting process

  2. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R. (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin


    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  3. Development of sorting system control using LABVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Noriah Mod Ali; John Konsoh; Mohd Idris Taib; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali


    The development of the Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System, proposed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is to enhance the system or work flow in preparing the personnel dosimeter. The main objective of the system is to reduce stamping error, time and cost. The Personnel Dosimeter Sorting System is a semi-automatic system with an interfacing method using the Advantec 32 bit PCI interface card of 64 digital input and output. The system is integrated with the Labview version 7.1 programming language to control the sorting system and operation. (Author)

  4. A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Vitz, Philipp; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard


    A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and

  5. An empirical study on SAJQ (Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan I. Mathkour


    Full Text Available Most queries that applied on database management systems (DBMS depend heavily on the performance of the used sorting algorithm. In addition to have an efficient sorting algorithm, as a primary feature, stability of such algorithms is a major feature that is needed in performing DBMS queries. In this paper, we study a new Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries (SAJQ that has both advantages of being efficient and stable. The proposed algorithm takes the advantage of using the m-way-merge algorithm in enhancing its time complexity. SAJQ performs the sorting operation in a time complexity of O(nlogm, where n is the length of the input array and m is number of sub-arrays used in sorting. An unsorted input array of length n is arranged into m sorted sub-arrays. The m-way-merge algorithm merges the sorted m sub-arrays into the final output sorted array. The proposed algorithm keeps the stability of the keys intact. An analytical proof has been conducted to prove that, in the worst case, the proposed algorithm has a complexity of O(nlogm. Also, a set of experiments has been performed to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms other Stable–Sorting algorithms that are designed for join-based queries.

  6. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    (submodular). The model is estimated on Danish matched employer-employee data. We find evidence of positive assortative matching. In the estimated equilibrium match distribution, the correlation between worker skill and firm productivity is 0.12. The assortative matching has a substantial impact on wage......This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...... to mismatch by asking how much greater output would be if the estimated population of matches were perfectly positively assorted. In this case, output would increase by 7.7%....

  7. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Reina


    Full Text Available Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. First is randomized data, and the second is data of descending list. Comparison of process time has been done in two kinds of programming language that is C programming language and FORTRAN programming language. The result shows that bubble sort needs more time than insertion sort does.

  8. Perbandingan Kecepatan Gabungan Algoritma Quick Sort dan Merge Sort dengan Insertion Sort, Bubble Sort dan Selection Sort


    Al Rivan, Muhammad Ezar


    Ordering is one of the process done before doing data processing. The sorting algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses. By taking strengths of each algorithm then combined can be a better algorithm. Quick Sort and Merge Sort are algorithms that divide the data into parts and each part divide again into sub-section until one element. Usually one element join with others and then sorted by. In this experiment data divide into parts that have size not more than threshold. This part then so...

  9. Binar Sort: A Linear Generalized Sorting Algorithm


    Gilreath, William F.


    Sorting is a common and ubiquitous activity for computers. It is not surprising that there exist a plethora of sorting algorithms. For all the sorting algorithms, it is an accepted performance limit that sorting algorithms are linearithmic or O(N lg N). The linearithmic lower bound in performance stems from the fact that the sorting algorithms use the ordering property of the data. The sorting algorithm uses comparison by the ordering property to arrange the data elements from an initial perm...

  10. LazySorted: A Lazily, Partially Sorted Python List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Harris


    Full Text Available LazySorted is a Python C extension implementing a partially and lazily sorted list data structure. It solves a common problem faced by programmers, in which they need just part of a sorted list, like its middle element (the median, but sort the entire list to get it. LazySorted presents them with the abstraction that they are working with a fully sorted list, while actually only sorting the list partially with quicksort partitions to return the requested sub-elements. This enables programmers to use naive "sort first" algorithms but nonetheless attain linear run-times when possible. LazySorted may serve as a drop-in replacement for the built-in sorted function in most cases, and can sometimes achieve run-times more than 7 times faster.

  11. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K


    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  12. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin


    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  13. Sorting Out Sorts


    Jonathan B. Berk


    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  14. pSort search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data File URL: Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us pSort search result - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Verification of counting sort and radix sort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.C. Rot (Jurriaan)


    textabstractSorting is an important algorithmic task used in many applications. Two main aspects of sorting algorithms which have been studied extensively are complexity and correctness. [Foley and Hoare, 1971] published the first formal correctness proof of a sorting algorithm (Quicksort). While

  16. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehnen


    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP+ cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies.

  17. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran


    Reina, Reina; Gautama, Josef Bernadi


    Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. ...

  18. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. (United States)

    Lehnen, Daniela; Barral, Serena; Cardoso, Tiago; Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Smiyakin, Andrej; Kirkeby, Agnete; Kollet, Jutta; Cremer, Harold; Parmar, Malin; Bosio, Andreas; Knöbel, Sebastian


    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP) is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP + cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Miltenyi Biotec GmbH. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions. (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying


    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  20. Validation of neural spike sorting algorithms without ground-truth information. (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H; Magland, Jeremy F; Greengard, Leslie F


    The throughput of electrophysiological recording is growing rapidly, allowing thousands of simultaneous channels, and there is a growing variety of spike sorting algorithms designed to extract neural firing events from such data. This creates an urgent need for standardized, automatic evaluation of the quality of neural units output by such algorithms. We introduce a suite of validation metrics that assess the credibility of a given automatic spike sorting algorithm applied to a given dataset. By rerunning the spike sorter two or more times, the metrics measure stability under various perturbations consistent with variations in the data itself, making no assumptions about the internal workings of the algorithm, and minimal assumptions about the noise. We illustrate the new metrics on standard sorting algorithms applied to both in vivo and ex vivo recordings, including a time series with overlapping spikes. We compare the metrics to existing quality measures, and to ground-truth accuracy in simulated time series. We provide a software implementation. Metrics have until now relied on ground-truth, simulated data, internal algorithm variables (e.g. cluster separation), or refractory violations. By contrast, by standardizing the interface, our metrics assess the reliability of any automatic algorithm without reference to internal variables (e.g. feature space) or physiological criteria. Stability is a prerequisite for reproducibility of results. Such metrics could reduce the significant human labor currently spent on validation, and should form an essential part of large-scale automated spike sorting and systematic benchmarking of algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei


    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  2. Algorithm Sorts Groups Of Data (United States)

    Evans, J. D.


    For efficient sorting, algorithm finds set containing minimum or maximum most significant data. Sets of data sorted as desired. Sorting process simplified by reduction of each multielement set of data to single representative number. First, each set of data expressed as polynomial with suitably chosen base, using elements of set as coefficients. Most significant element placed in term containing largest exponent. Base selected by examining range in value of data elements. Resulting series summed to yield single representative number. Numbers easily sorted, and each such number converted back to original set of data by successive division. Program written in BASIC.

  3. Stochastic Model of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles (United States)

    Vagne, Quentin; Sens, Pierre


    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intracellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations, considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values lead to fast sorting but result in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well-defined sorted compartments but sorting is exponentially slow. Our results suggest an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organization of intracellular compartments.

  4. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G


    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  5. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather


    This study investigates how the choice of analysis method for card sorting studies affects the suggested information structure for websites. In the card sorting technique, a variety of methods are used to analyse the resulting data. The analysis of card sorting data helps user experience (UX......) designers to discover the patterns in how users make classifications and thus to develop an optimal, user-centred website structure. During analysis, the recurrence of patterns of classification between users influences the resulting website structure. However, the algorithm used in the analysis influences...... the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  6. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework. (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza


    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  7. RL5SORT/RL5PLOT. A graphite package for the JRC-Ispra IBM version of RELAP5/MOD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, W.; Brewka, W.


    The present report describes the programs RL5SORT and RL5PLOT, their implementation and ''how to use''. Both programs base on the IBM version of RELAP5 as developed at JRC-ISPRA. RL5SORT creates from the output file (restart plot file) of a RELAP5 calculation data files, which serve as input data base for the program RL5PLOT. RL5PLOT retrieves the previous stored data records (minor edit quantities of RELAP5), allows arithmetic operations with the retrieved data and enables a print or graphic output on the terminal screen of a TEKTRONIX graphic terminal. A set of commands, incorporated in the program RL5PLOT, facilitates the user's work. Program RL5SORT has been developed as a batch program, while RL5PLOT has been conceived for interactive working mode

  8. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information. (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie


    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  9. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz


    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...... are derivable without compromising data abstraction. Finally we point out that stable sorting functions as default representations of ordering relations have the advantage of permitting linear-time sorting algorithms; inequality tests forfeit this possibility....... function if and only it is an intrinsically parametric permutation function. It is a stable sorting function if and only if it is an intrinsically stable permutation function. We show that ordering relations can be represented isomorphically as inequality tests, comparators and stable sorting functions...

  10. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić


    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  11. Big Five Measurement via Q-Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D. Fluckinger


    Full Text Available Socially desirable responding presents a difficult challenge in measuring personality. I tested whether a partially ipsative measure—a normatively scored Q-sort containing traditional Big Five items—would produce personality scores indicative of less socially desirable responding compared with Likert-based measures. Across both instructions to respond honestly and in the context of applying for a job, the Q-sort produced lower mean scores, lower intercorrelations between dimensions, and similar validity in predicting supervisor performance ratings to Likert. In addition, the Q-sort produced a more orthogonal structure (but not fully orthogonal when modeled at the latent level. These results indicate that the Q-sort method did constrain socially desirable responding. Researchers and practitioners should consider Big Five measurement via Q-sort for contexts in which high socially desirable responding is expected.

  12. AMDLIBGZ, IBM 360 Subroutine Library for Data Processing, Graphics, Sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jesse Y.


    Description of problem or function: AMDLIBGZ is a subset of the IBM 360 Subroutine Library at the Applied Mathematics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. This subset includes library categories G-Z: Identification/Description: G552S F RANF: Random number generator; J952S F YOLYPLOT: CalComp plots; J955S P GRAF: Prints a graph of points on line printer; K250S A1: Core to core conversion; K251S A HEXINP: Hexadecimal input for PL/I programs; K252S A HEXOUT: Hexadecimal output conv. PL/I programs; M101S F SORT: Algebraic sort; M150S F CSORT: Algebraic sort; M151S P2 ANLKWIC: KWIC sort; M250S A SMALLIST: Squeezes assembler listing to 8 x 11; N251S A ABEND: Calls ABEND dump; Q052S A CLOCK: Time; Q053S A COPYAGO: Copy load module from tape to disk; Q054S A DATE: Current date in form MM/DD/YY; Q055S A TIME: Time (24 hour clock) in EBCDIC HH.MM.SS; Z013S F: Variable metric minimization; Z057S A LOCF: Locate machine addresses of variables; Z071S A ALLOC: Allocate LCS for FORTRAN programs; Z074S A ANLMNP: Exponent and mantissa manipulative functs.

  13. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting. (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E


    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  14. Sorting waves and associated eigenvalues (United States)

    Carbonari, Costanza; Colombini, Marco; Solari, Luca


    The presence of mixed sediment always characterizes gravel bed rivers. Sorting processes take place during bed load transport of heterogeneous sediment mixtures. The two main elements necessary to the occurrence of sorting are the heterogeneous character of sediments and the presence of an active sediment transport. When these two key ingredients are simultaneously present, the segregation of bed material is consistently detected both in the field [7] and in laboratory [3] observations. In heterogeneous sediment transport, bed altimetric variations and sorting always coexist and both mechanisms are independently capable of driving the formation of morphological patterns. Indeed, consistent patterns of longitudinal and transverse sorting are identified almost ubiquitously. In some cases, such as bar formation [2] and channel bends [5], sorting acts as a stabilizing effect and therefore the dominant mechanism driving pattern formation is associated with bed altimetric variations. In other cases, such as longitudinal streaks, sorting enhances system instability and can therefore be considered the prevailing mechanism. Bedload sheets, first observed by Khunle and Southard [1], represent another classic example of a morphological pattern essentially triggered by sorting, as theoretical [4] and experimental [3] results suggested. These sorting waves cause strong spatial and temporal fluctuations of bedload transport rate typical observed in gravel bed rivers. The problem of bed load transport of a sediment mixture is formulated in the framework of a 1D linear stability analysis. The base state consists of a uniform flow in an infinitely wide channel with active bed load transport. The behaviour of the eigenvalues associated with fluid motion, bed evolution and sorting processes in the space of the significant flow and sediment parameters is analysed. A comparison is attempted with the results of the theoretical analysis of Seminara Colombini and Parker [4] and Stecca

  15. Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo


    Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.

  16. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  17. Method of an apparatus for x-radiation sorting of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotkov, M.I.; Revnivtsev, V.I.; Sataev, I.S.; Vasiliev, N.F.; Ponomarev, V.S.


    An apparatus is described for X-ray sorting of feed stock, consisting essentially of: a feed hopper for containing lumps of feed stock to be sorted; a small gradient conveyor arranged under the feed hopper and provided with a vibrator, means for spreading the lumps in a single layer across a width of the conveyor, and means arranged over the conveyor to adjust the lumps into a stable position; a high gradient conveyor mounted downstream of said small gradient conveyor along the path of movement of the lumps said high gradient conveyor having a vibrator and a horizontal discharge line to provide a single layer of stable unsupported lumps in a free fall state; means to prevent rotation of the lumps, arranged at a joint between the small gradient and high gradient conveyors; a coordinate system to determine the dimensions of the lumps and their position over the width of the single layer of free failing lumps, having electric outputs and provided in the immediate vicinity of said discharge line of said high gradient conveyor; sources of primary X-ray radiation arranged in the immediate vicinity of said coordinate system along the path of movement of said freely falling single layer for directing X-ray radiation toward the lumps in said layer which interacts with the lumps for producing characteristic secondary X-ray radiation of the lumps; a plurality of secondary X-ray radiation detectors, each of which has an electric output and which are positioned in the immediate vicinity of said plurality of primary X-ray radiation sources along the path of movement of said single layer of freely failing lumps for detecting said characteristic secondary X-ray radiation of the lumps; a computing device having a plurality of inputs connected to the respective said outputs of the coordinate system and to the outputs of the secondary X-ray radiation detectors, and having a plurality of outputs

  18. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam


    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Clear and uninterrupted operation of humps depends on the quality of technical equipment and control technology of cuts speed. Technology of interval and purposive regulation of cuts speed is used at most humps. The article discusses ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings equipped with quasi-continuous speed control system. Methodology. It proposed three fundamentally different ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding. The analysis of the ways to reduce cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings was conducted using simulation the process of cuts rolling from humps equipped with quasi-continuous speed control. Findings. As a result of analysis, the inappropriateness of opposite elevation using on the roll-out part of the hump after the last separation switch point. Spot regulators of cars speed can be used to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding, but this leads to a division conditions deterioration on the last separating switch points of long cuts with the following after them short cuts. Reducing the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite simple. All produce should be unhooked from it at a safe speed. If the accuracy of the implementation of the set speed output to unhook from the park brake position is low, it is possible to eliminate the error of point regulators cars speed. Originality. The question where to start location point of wagon retarders zone to reduce speed to cut level requires additional research. Reducing rolling cut the speed at the beginning of the sorting sidings can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Practical value. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite

  20. Application of radix sorting in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuan; Gu Minhao; Zhu Kejun


    In the high energy physics experiments, there are always requirements to sort the large scale of experiment data. To meet the demand, this paper introduces one radix sorting algorithms, whose sub-sort is counting sorting and time complex is O (n), based on the characteristic of high energy physics experiment data that is marked by time stamp. This paper gives the description, analysis, implementation and experimental result of the sorting algorithms. (authors)

  1. A real time sorting algorithm to time sort any deterministic time disordered data stream (United States)

    Saini, J.; Mandal, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.


    In new generation high intensity high energy physics experiments, millions of free streaming high rate data sources are to be readout. Free streaming data with associated time-stamp can only be controlled by thresholds as there is no trigger information available for the readout. Therefore, these readouts are prone to collect large amount of noise and unwanted data. For this reason, these experiments can have output data rate of several orders of magnitude higher than the useful signal data rate. It is therefore necessary to perform online processing of the data to extract useful information from the full data set. Without trigger information, pre-processing on the free streaming data can only be done with time based correlation among the data set. Multiple data sources have different path delays and bandwidth utilizations and therefore the unsorted merged data requires significant computational efforts for real time manifestation of sorting before analysis. Present work reports a new high speed scalable data stream sorting algorithm with its architectural design, verified through Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware simulation. Realistic time based simulated data likely to be collected in an high energy physics experiment have been used to study the performance of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses parallel read-write blocks with added memory management and zero suppression features to make it efficient for high rate data-streams. This algorithm is best suited for online data streams with deterministic time disorder/unsorting on FPGA like hardware.

  2. Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha


    Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.

  3. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies. (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy


    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja


    of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60......This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  5. Position Control Method For Pick And Place Robot Arm For Object Sorting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Moe Myint


    Full Text Available The more increase the number of industries in developing countries the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at XYZ coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic the input parameters are position at XYZ coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

  6. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M


    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  7. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys. (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde


    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  9. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Reckermann


    Full Text Available Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological parameters (radiotracer-uptake rates, to the production of clonal or non-clonal cultures from mixtures, to the isolaton of cell groups from natural assemblages for molecular analyses, and for taxonomic identification of sorted cells by microscopy. The application of cell sorting from natural water samples from the Wadden Sea, including different cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and diatoms, is shown, as well as the establishment of laboratory cultures from field samples. The optional use of a red laser to account for phycocyanine-rich cells is also discussed.

  10. Ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.P.; Richards, A.W.


    In an ore sorting apparatus, ore particles are bombarded with neutrons in a chamber and sorted by detecting radiation emitted by isotopes of elements, such as gold, forming or contained in the particles, using detectors and selectively controlling fluid jets. The isotopes can be selectively recognised by their radiation characteristics. In an alternative embodiment, shorter life isotopes are formed by neutron bombardment and detection of radiation takes place immediately adjacent the region of bombardment

  11. Magnethophoretic sorting of fluid catalytic cracking particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Nieuwelink, A. E.; Odijk, Mathieu; Meirer, Florian; Abelmann, Leon; Olthuis, Wouter; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; van den Berg, Albert; Lee, Abraham; DeVoe, Don


    We demonstrate an on-chip particle activity sorter, focused on iron concentration and based on magnetophoresis. This device was used for fast sorting of stepwise homogenously distributed [Fe]s. The preliminary results are very encouraging. We show that we can sort particles on magnetic moment, with

  12. GROPPER, an output program for results from BERSAFE. Phase 3 for graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.G.


    BERSAFE, the CEGB's Finite Element Stress Analysis System has been extended to enable analyses to be performed on structures made from irradiated graphite. As with all non-linear analyses there is a considerable amount of output data produced which needs to be selectively processed. GROPPER reads the tape file produced by such an analysis and outputs selected results to the line printer as well as preparing tapes for plotting of results. (author)

  13. The Q sort theory and technique. (United States)

    Nyatanga, L


    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice.

  14. A Simple Deep Learning Method for Neuronal Spike Sorting (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu


    Spike sorting is one of key technique to understand brain activity. With the development of modern electrophysiology technology, some recent multi-electrode technologies have been able to record the activity of thousands of neuronal spikes simultaneously. The spike sorting in this case will increase the computational complexity of conventional sorting algorithms. In this paper, we will focus spike sorting on how to reduce the complexity, and introduce a deep learning algorithm, principal component analysis network (PCANet) to spike sorting. The introduced method starts from a conventional model and establish a Toeplitz matrix. Through the column vectors in the matrix, we trains a PCANet, where some eigenvalue vectors of spikes could be extracted. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is used to sort spikes. In experiments, we choose two groups of simulated data from public databases availably and compare this introduced method with conventional methods. The results indicate that the introduced method indeed has lower complexity with the same sorting errors as the conventional methods.

  15. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA


    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin


    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  16. A Quality Sorting of Fruit Using a New Automatic Image Processing Method (United States)

    Amenomori, Michihiro; Yokomizu, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents an innovative approach for quality sorting of objects such as apples sorting in an agricultural factory, using an image processing algorithm. The objective of our approach are; firstly to sort the objects by their colors precisely; secondly to detect any irregularity of the colors surrounding the apples efficiently. An experiment has been conducted and the results have been obtained and compared with that has been preformed by human sorting process and by color sensor sorting devices. The results demonstrate that our approach is capable to sort the objects rapidly and the percentage of classification valid rate was 100 %.

  17. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille


    for a particular patient. Due to the limited resources within the Danish healthcare system, initiating cancer pathways for all patients with a remote suspicion of cancer would crash the system, as it would be impossible for healthcare professionals to commit to the prescribed schedules and times defined...... they show that sorting patients before initiating a standardized cancer pathway is not a simple process of deciding on a predefined category that will stipulate particular dates and times. Instead, these informal sorting mechanisms show that the process of sorting patients prior to diagnosis......In the last couple of years, widespread use of standardized cancer pathways has been seen across a range of countries, including Denmark, to improve prognosis of cancer patients. In Denmark, standardized cancer pathways take the form of guidelines prescribing well-defined sequences where steps...

  18. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman


    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  19. A graph-Laplacian-based feature extraction algorithm for neural spike sorting. (United States)

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Spence, Larry; Papamichalis, Panos


    Analysis of extracellular neural spike recordings is highly dependent upon the accuracy of neural waveform classification, commonly referred to as spike sorting. Feature extraction is an important stage of this process because it can limit the quality of clustering which is performed in the feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method (which we call Graph Laplacian Features, GLF) based on minimizing the graph Laplacian and maximizing the weighted variance. The algorithm is compared with Principal Components Analysis (PCA, the most commonly-used feature extraction method) using simulated neural data. The results show that the proposed algorithm produces more compact and well-separated clusters compared to PCA. As an added benefit, tentative cluster centers are output which can be used to initialize a subsequent clustering stage.

  20. Denni Algorithm An Enhanced Of SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) Algorithm (United States)

    Aprilsyah Lubis, Denni; Salim Sitompul, Opim; Marwan; Tulus; Andri Budiman, M.


    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers, and many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. Sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reasons namely, the necessary to sort information is inherent in many applications, algorithms often use sorting as a key subroutine, in algorithm design there are many essential techniques represented in the body of sorting algorithms, and many engineering issues come to the fore when implementing sorting algorithms., Many algorithms are very well known for sorting the unordered lists, and one of the well-known algorithms that make the process of sorting to be more economical and efficient is SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) algorithm, an enhancement of Quicksort invented Rami Mansi in 2010. This paper presents a new sorting algorithm called Denni-algorithm. The Denni algorithm is considered as an enhancement on the SMS algorithm in average, and worst cases. The Denni algorithm is compared with the SMS algorithm and the results were promising.

  1. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew


    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  2. The solution space of sorting by DCJ. (United States)

    Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens


    In genome rearrangements, the double cut and join (DCJ) operation, introduced by Yancopoulos et al. in 2005, allows one to represent most rearrangement events that could happen in multichromosomal genomes, such as inversions, translocations, fusions, and fissions. No restriction on the genome structure considering linear and circular chromosomes is imposed. An advantage of this general model is that it leads to considerable algorithmic simplifications compared to other genome rearrangement models. Recently, several works concerning the DCJ operation have been published, and in particular, an algorithm was proposed to find an optimal DCJ sequence for sorting one genome into another one. Here we study the solution space of this problem and give an easy-to-compute formula that corresponds to the exact number of optimal DCJ sorting sequences for a particular subset of instances of the problem. We also give an algorithm to count the number of optimal sorting sequences for any instance of the problem. Another interesting result is the demonstration of the possibility of obtaining one optimal sorting sequence by properly replacing any pair of consecutive operations in another optimal sequence. As a consequence, any optimal sorting sequence can be obtained from one other by applying such replacements successively, but the problem of finding the shortest number of replacements between two sorting sequences is still open.

  3. The Container Problem in Bubble-Sort Graphs (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuto; Kaneko, Keiichi

    Bubble-sort graphs are variants of Cayley graphs. A bubble-sort graph is suitable as a topology for massively parallel systems because of its simple and regular structure. Therefore, in this study, we focus on n-bubble-sort graphs and propose an algorithm to obtain n-1 disjoint paths between two arbitrary nodes in time bounded by a polynomial in n, the degree of the graph plus one. We estimate the time complexity of the algorithm and the sum of the path lengths after proving the correctness of the algorithm. In addition, we report the results of computer experiments evaluating the average performance of the algorithm.

  4. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison (United States)

    Stone, H. S.


    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  5. Continuous Size-Dependent Sorting of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Laser-Ablated Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Fan


    Full Text Available This paper reports a low-cost method of continuous size-dependent sorting of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer-based microfluidic devices by magnetic force. A neodymium permanent magnet was used to generate a magnetic field perpendicular to the fluid flow direction. Firstly, FeNi3 magnetic nanoparticles were chemically synthesized with diameter ranges from 80 nm to 200 nm; then, the solution of magnetic nanoparticles and a buffer were passed through the microchannel in laminar flow; the magnetic nanoparticles were deflected from the flow direction under the applied magnetic field. Nanoparticles in the microchannel will move towards the direction of high-gradient magnetic fields, and the degree of deflection depends on their sizes; therefore, magnetic nanoparticles of different sizes can be separated and finally collected from different output ports. The proposed method offers a rapid and continuous approach of preparing magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution from an arbitrary particle size distribution. The proposed new method has many potential applications in bioanalysis field since magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used as solid support for biological entities such as DNA, RNA, virus, and protein. Other than the size sorting application of magnetic nanoparticles, this approach could also be used for the size sorting and separation of naturally magnetic cells, including blood cells and magnetotactic bacteria.

  6. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.


    Purpose: T2-weighted MRI provides excellent tumor-to-tissue contrast for target volume delineation in radiation therapy treatment planning. This study aims at developing a novel T2-weighted retrospective four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) phase sorting technique for imaging organ/tumor respiratory motion. Methods: A 2D fast T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MR sequence was used for image acquisition of 4D-MRI, with a frame rate of 2–3 frames/s. Respiratory motion was measured using an external breathing monitoring device. A phase sorting method was developed to sort the images by their corresponding respiratory phases. Besides, a result-driven strategy was applied to effectively utilize redundant images in the case when multiple images were allocated to a bin. This strategy, selecting the image with minimal amplitude error, will generate the most representative 4D-MRI. Since we are using a different image acquisition mode for 4D imaging (the sequential image acquisition scheme) with the conventionally used cine or helical image acquisition scheme, the 4D dataset sufficient condition was not obviously and directly predictable. An important challenge of the proposed technique was to determine the number of repeated scans (N_R) required to obtain sufficient phase information at each slice position. To tackle this challenge, the authors first conducted computer simulations using real-time position management respiratory signals of the 29 cancer patients under an IRB-approved retrospective study to derive the relationships between N_R and the following factors: number of slices (N_S), number of 4D-MRI respiratory bins (N_B), and starting phase at image acquisition (P_0). To validate the authors’ technique, 4D-MRI acquisition and reconstruction were simulated on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom using simulation derived parameters. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in an IRB-approved study

  7. Playing with curricular milestones in the educational sandbox: Q-sort results from an internal medicine educational collaborative. (United States)

    Meade, Lauren B; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Swing, Susan R; Jones, Ron R; O'Malley, Cheryl W; Yamazaki, Kenji; Zaas, Aimee K


    In competency-based medical education, the focus of assessment is on learner demonstration of predefined outcomes or competencies. One strategy being used in internal medicine (IM) is applying curricular milestones to assessment and reporting milestones to competence determination. The authors report a practical method for identifying sets of curricular milestones for assessment of a landmark, or a point where a resident can be entrusted with increased responsibility. Thirteen IM residency programs joined in an educational collaborative to apply curricular milestones to training. The authors developed a game using Q-sort methodology to identify high-priority milestones for the landmark "Ready for indirect supervision in essential ambulatory care" (EsAMB). During May to December 2010, the programs'ambulatory faculty participated in the Q-sort game to prioritize 22 milestones for EsAMB. The authors analyzed the data to identify the top 8 milestones. In total, 149 faculty units (1-4 faculty each) participated. There was strong agreement on the top eight milestones; six had more than 92% agreement across programs, and five had 75% agreement across all faculty units. During the Q-sort game, faculty engaged in dynamic discussion about milestones and expressed interest in applying the game to other milestones and educational settings. The Q-sort game enabled diverse programs to prioritize curricular milestones with interprogram and interparticipant consistency. A Q-sort exercise is an engaging and playful way to address milestones in medical education and may provide a practical first step toward using milestones in the real-world educational setting.

  8. ScanSort{sup SM} at Whiteshell Laboratories for sorting of experimental cesium pond soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, H., E-mail: [Amec Foster Wheeler, Portland, ME (United States)


    The ScanSort{sup SM} soil sorting system is a unique and efficient radiological instrument used for measuring and sorting bulk soils and volumetric materials. The system performs automatic radioassay and segregation of preconditioned material using a gamma spectroscopy system mounted above a conveyor belt. It was deployed to the Whiteshell Laboratories site to process the excavated soils generated during the decommissioning of the former Experimental Cesium Pond. The ScanSort{sup SM} system was utilized to segregate material with Cs-137 concentrations above the established site unrestricted release and restricted site reuse levels as well as demonstrated the ability to accurately determine the radioactivity concentrations of the radiologically-impacted material and to confidently segregate volumes of that material for appropriate final disposition. (author)

  9. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  10. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)


    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  11. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system (United States)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong


    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  12. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans


    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...

  13. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm


    Muhammad Farooq Umar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Shafqat Ali Shad; Muhammad Wasif Nisar


    In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insert...

  14. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  15. CellSort: a support vector machine tool for optimizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reducing experimental effort. (United States)

    Yu, Jessica S; Pertusi, Dante A; Adeniran, Adebola V; Tyo, Keith E J


    High throughput screening by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a common task in protein engineering and directed evolution. It can also be a rate-limiting step if high false positive or negative rates necessitate multiple rounds of enrichment. Current FACS software requires the user to define sorting gates by intuition and is practically limited to two dimensions. In cases when multiple rounds of enrichment are required, the software cannot forecast the enrichment effort required. We have developed CellSort, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that identifies optimal sorting gates based on machine learning using positive and negative control populations. CellSort can take advantage of more than two dimensions to enhance the ability to distinguish between populations. We also present a Bayesian approach to predict the number of sorting rounds required to enrich a population from a given library size. This Bayesian approach allowed us to determine strategies for biasing the sorting gates in order to reduce the required number of enrichment rounds. This algorithm should be generally useful for improve sorting outcomes and reducing effort when using FACS. Source code available at . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS). (United States)

    Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A


    We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.

  17. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel


    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol...... for the GenericSort algorithm by Estivill-Castro and Wood. From both algorithms we derive I/O-optimal cache-aware and cache-oblivious adaptive sorting algorithms. These are the first I/O-optimal adaptive sorting algorithms....

  18. Queue and stack sorting algorithm optimization and performance analysis (United States)

    Qian, Mingzhu; Wang, Xiaobao


    Sorting algorithm is one of the basic operation of a variety of software development, in data structures course specializes in all kinds of sort algorithm. The performance of the sorting algorithm is directly related to the efficiency of the software. A lot of excellent scientific research queue is constantly optimizing algorithm, algorithm efficiency better as far as possible, the author here further research queue combined with stacks of sorting algorithms, the algorithm is mainly used for alternating operation queue and stack storage properties, Thus avoiding the need for a large number of exchange or mobile operations in the traditional sort. Before the existing basis to continue research, improvement and optimization, the focus on the optimization of the time complexity of the proposed optimization and improvement, The experimental results show that the improved effectively, at the same time and the time complexity and space complexity of the algorithm, the stability study corresponding research. The improvement and optimization algorithm, improves the practicability.

  19. Magnet sorting algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.


    Several new algorithms for sorting of dipole and/or quadrupole magnets in synchrotrons and storage rings are described. The algorithms make use of a combinatorial approach to the problem and belong to the class of random search algorithms. They use an appropriate metrization of the state space. The phase-space distortion (smear) is used as a goal function. Computational experiments for the case of the JINR-Dubna superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON have shown a significant reduction of the phase-space distortion after the magnet sorting. (orig.)

  20. Pengembangan Algoritma Pengurutan SMS (Scan, Move, And Sort)


    Lubis, Denni Aprilsyah


    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers. And many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reas...

  1. Word Sorts for General Music Classes (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger


    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  2. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies. (United States)

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.


    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  3. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  4. Unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning. (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi


    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separability in the learned subspace than in the subspace obtained by principal component analysis or wavelet transform.

  5. Technology to sort lumber by color and grain for furniture parts (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman


    This paper describes an automatic color and grain sorting system for wood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. In-plant test results show that the system...

  6. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank)


    htmlabstractTim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo


    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  8. Using Design Sketch to Teach Bubble Sort in High School


    Liu, Chih-Hao; Jiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Jason Jen-Yen


    Bubble Sort is simple. Yet, it seems a bit difficult for high school students. This paper presents a pedagogical methodology: Using Design Sketch to visualize the concepts in Bubble Sort, and to evaluate how this approach assists students to understand the pseudo code of Bubble Sort. An experiment is conducted in Wu-Ling Senior High School with 250 students taking part. The statistical analysis of experimental results shows that, for relatively high abstraction concepts, such as iteration num...

  9. Model design and simulation of automatic sorting machine using proximity sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole I. Oladapo


    Full Text Available The automatic sorting system has been reported to be complex and a global problem. This is because of the inability of sorting machines to incorporate flexibility in their design concept. This research therefore designed and developed an automated sorting object of a conveyor belt. The developed automated sorting machine is able to incorporate flexibility and separate species of non-ferrous metal objects and at the same time move objects automatically to the basket as defined by the regulation of the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC with a capacitive proximity sensor to detect a value range of objects. The result obtained shows that plastic, wood, and steel were sorted into their respective and correct position with an average, sorting, time of 9.903 s, 14.072 s and 18.648 s respectively. The proposed developed model of this research could be adopted at any institution or industries, whose practices are based on mechatronics engineering systems. This is to guide the industrial sector in sorting of object and teaching aid to institutions and hence produce the list of classified materials according to the enabled sorting program commands.

  10. Sorting signed permutations by inversions in O(nlogn) time. (United States)

    Swenson, Krister M; Rajan, Vaibhav; Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E


    The study of genomic inversions (or reversals) has been a mainstay of computational genomics for nearly 20 years. After the initial breakthrough of Hannenhalli and Pevzner, who gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for sorting signed permutations by inversions, improved algorithms have been designed, culminating with an optimal linear-time algorithm for computing the inversion distance and a subquadratic algorithm for providing a shortest sequence of inversions--also known as sorting by inversions. Remaining open was the question of whether sorting by inversions could be done in O(nlogn) time. In this article, we present a qualified answer to this question, by providing two new sorting algorithms, a simple and fast randomized algorithm and a deterministic refinement. The deterministic algorithm runs in time O(nlogn + kn), where k is a data-dependent parameter. We provide the results of extensive experiments showing that both the average and the standard deviation for k are small constants, independent of the size of the permutation. We conclude (but do not prove) that almost all signed permutations can be sorted by inversions in O(nlogn) time.

  11. A Preliminary Study of MSD-First Radix-Sorting Methed


    小田, 哲久


    Many kinds of sorting algorithms have been developed from the age of Punched Card System. Nowadays, any sorting algorithm can be called either (1) internal sorting methed or (2) external sorting method. Internal sorting method is used only when the number of records to be sorted (N) is not so large for the internal memory of the computer system. Larger memory space has become available with the aid of semiconductor technology. Therefore, it might be desired to develop a new internal sorting m...

  12. Data parallel sorting for particle simulation (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo


    Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.

  13. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting (United States)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine


    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  14. The use of radiometric ore sorting on South African gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Freer, J.S.


    This paper refers to the radiometric sorting tests reported during the 7th CMMI Congress, and then describes the photometric and radiometric sorter installations in operation and under construction in South Africa at present. As radiometric sorting of gold ores uses the radiation from the uranium content as a tracer, it is essential that the sortability of the ore should be reliably determined before sorting is adopted. The method of obtaining the important ore characteristics is described, with examples. The possible increase in gold production from a hypothetical plant as a result of sorting is shown

  15. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew


    Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown...... mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined...... phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated...


    Evans, J. D.


    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  17. Optimization of magnet sorting in a storage ring using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jia; Wang Lin; Li Weimin; Gao Weiwei


    In this paper, the genetic algorithms are applied to the optimization problem of magnet sorting in an electron storage ring, according to which the objectives are set so that the closed orbit distortion and beta beating can be minimized and the dynamic aperture maximized. The sorting of dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets is optimized while the optimization results show the power of the application of genetic algorithms in magnet sorting. (authors)

  18. Sorting signed permutations by short operations. (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni


    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  19. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults. (United States)

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L


    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population.

  20. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri


    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  1. Sorting live stem cells based on Sox2 mRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans M Larsson

    Full Text Available While cell sorting usually relies on cell-surface protein markers, molecular beacons (MBs offer the potential to sort cells based on the presence of any expressed mRNA and in principle could be extremely useful to sort rare cell populations from primary isolates. We show here how stem cells can be purified from mixed cell populations by sorting based on MBs. Specifically, we designed molecular beacons targeting Sox2, a well-known stem cell marker for murine embryonic (mES and neural stem cells (NSC. One of our designed molecular beacons displayed an increase in fluorescence compared to a nonspecific molecular beacon both in vitro and in vivo when tested in mES and NSCs. We sorted Sox2-MB(+SSEA1(+ cells from a mixed population of 4-day retinoic acid-treated mES cells and effectively isolated live undifferentiated stem cells. Additionally, Sox2-MB(+ cells isolated from primary mouse brains were sorted and generated neurospheres with higher efficiency than Sox2-MB(- cells. These results demonstrate the utility of MBs for stem cell sorting in an mRNA-specific manner.

  2. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas


    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  3. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata


    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  4. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.


    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  5. The impact of search engine selection and sorting criteria on vaccination beliefs and attitudes: two experiments manipulating Google output. (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter Johannes; Nakamoto, Kent


    During the past 2 decades, the Internet has evolved to become a necessity in our daily lives. The selection and sorting algorithms of search engines exert tremendous influence over the global spread of information and other communication processes. This study is concerned with demonstrating the influence of selection and sorting/ranking criteria operating in search engines on users' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of websites about vaccination. In particular, it is to compare the effects of search engines that deliver websites emphasizing on the pro side of vaccination with those focusing on the con side and with normal Google as a control group. We conducted 2 online experiments using manipulated search engines. A pilot study was to verify the existence of dangerous health literacy in connection with searching and using health information on the Internet by exploring the effect of 2 manipulated search engines that yielded either pro or con vaccination sites only, with a group receiving normal Google as control. A pre-post test design was used; participants were American marketing students enrolled in a study-abroad program in Lugano, Switzerland. The second experiment manipulated the search engine by applying different ratios of con versus pro vaccination webpages displayed in the search results. Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform where it was published as a human intelligence task (HIT). Both experiments showed knowledge highest in the group offered only pro vaccination sites (Z=-2.088, P=.03; Kruskal-Wallis H test [H₅]=11.30, P=.04). They acknowledged the importance/benefits (Z=-2.326, P=.02; H5=11.34, P=.04) and effectiveness (Z=-2.230, P=.03) of vaccination more, whereas groups offered antivaccination sites only showed increased concern about effects (Z=-2.582, P=.01; H₅=16.88, P=.005) and harmful health outcomes (Z=-2.200, P=.02) of vaccination. Normal Google users perceived information quality to be positive despite a

  6. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga


    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas


    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  7. A cargo-sorting DNA robot. (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu


    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. New age radiometric ore sorting - the elegant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.P.; Heuer, T.


    Radiometric ore sorting technology and application are described in two parts. Part I reviews the history of radiometric sorting in the minerals industry and describes the latest developments in radiometric sorting technology. Part II describes the history, feasibility study and approach used in the application of the new technology at Rossing Uranium Limited. There has been little progress in the field of radiometric sorting since the late 1970s. This has changed with the development of a high capacity radiometric sorter designed to operate on low-grade ore in the +75mm / -300mm size fraction. This has been designed specifically for an application at Rossing. Rossing has a long history in radiometric sorting dating back to 1968 when initial tests were conducted on the Rossing prospect. Past feasibility studies concluded that radiometric sorting would not conclusively reduce the unit cost of production unless sorting was used to increase production levels. The current feasibility study shows that the application of new radiometric sorter technology makes sorting viable without increasing production, and significantly more attractive with increased production. A pilot approach to confirm sorter performance is described. (author)

  9. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site (United States)

    Whang, Michael


    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  10. Automated spike sorting algorithm based on Laplacian eigenmaps and k-means clustering. (United States)

    Chah, E; Hok, V; Della-Chiesa, A; Miller, J J H; O'Mara, S M; Reilly, R B


    This study presents a new automatic spike sorting method based on feature extraction by Laplacian eigenmaps combined with k-means clustering. The performance of the proposed method was compared against previously reported algorithms such as principal component analysis (PCA) and amplitude-based feature extraction. Two types of classifier (namely k-means and classification expectation-maximization) were incorporated within the spike sorting algorithms, in order to find a suitable classifier for the feature sets. Simulated data sets and in-vivo tetrode multichannel recordings were employed to assess the performance of the spike sorting algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm yields significantly improved performance with mean sorting accuracy of 73% and sorting error of 10% compared to PCA which combined with k-means had a sorting accuracy of 58% and sorting error of 10%.A correction was made to this article on 22 February 2011. The spacing of the title was amended on the abstract page. No changes were made to the article PDF and the print version was unaffected.

  11. Three Sorts of Naturalism


    Fink, Hans


    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  12. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S


    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  13. Design of mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of recyclable cans (United States)

    Resti, Y.; Mohruni, A. S.; Burlian, F.; Yani, I.; Amran, A.


    The use of a mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of used cans should be designed carefully. The right design will result in a high precision sorting rate and a short sorting time. The design includes first; design manipulator,second; determine link and joint specifications, and third; build mechanical systems and control systems. This study aims to design the mechanical arm as a hardware system for automatic cans sorting system. The material used for the manipulator is the aluminum plate. The manipulator is designed using 6 links and 6 join where the 6th link is the end effectorand the 6th join is the gripper. As a driving motor used servo motor, while as a microcontroller used Arduino Uno which is connected with Matlab programming language. Based on testing, a mechanical arm designed for this recyclable canned recycling system has a precision sorting rate at 93%, where the average total time required for sorting is 10.82 seconds.

  14. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer


    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  15. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory. (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard


    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  16. Estimation of hospital efficiency--do different definitions and casemix measures for hospital output affect the results? (United States)

    Vitikainen, Kirsi; Street, Andrew; Linna, Miika


    Hospital efficiency has been the subject of numerous health economics studies, but there is little evidence on how the chosen output and casemix measures affect the efficiency results. The aim of this study is to examine the robustness of efficiency results due to these factors. Comparison is made between activities and episode output measures, and two different output grouping systems (Classic and FullDRG). Non-parametric data envelopment analysis is used as an analysis technique. The data consist of all public acute care hospitals in Finland in 2005 (n=40). Efficiency estimates were not found to be highly sensitive to the choice between episode and activity descriptions of output, but more so to the choice of DRG grouping system. Estimates are most sensitive to scale assumptions, with evidence of decreasing returns to scale in larger hospitals. Episode measures are generally to be preferred to activity measures because these better capture the patient pathway, while FullDRGs are preferred to Classic DRGs particularly because of the better description of outpatient output in the former grouping system. Attention should be paid to reducing the extent of scale inefficiency in Finland.

  17. Differential regulation of amyloid precursor protein sorting with pathological mutations results in a distinct effect on amyloid-β production. (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chen; Wang, Jia-Yi; Wang, Kai-Chen; Liao, Jhih-Ying; Cheng, Irene H


    The deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three APP familial AD mutations (D678H, D678N, and H677R) located at the sixth and seventh amino acid of Aβ have distinct effect on Aβ aggregation, but their influence on the physiological and pathological roles of APP remain unclear. We found that the D678H mutation strongly enhances amyloidogenic cleavage of APP, thus increasing the production of Aβ. This enhancement of amyloidogenic cleavage is likely because of the acceleration of APPD678H sorting into the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. In contrast, the APPD678N and APPH677R mutants do not cause the same effects. Therefore, this study indicates a regulatory role of D678H in APP sorting and processing, and provides genetic evidence for the importance of APP sorting in AD pathogenesis. The internalization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increases its opportunity to be processed by β-secretase and to produce Amyloid-β (Aβ) that causes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report a pathogenic APPD678H mutant that enhances APP internalization into the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and thus promotes the β-secretase cleavage and Aβ production. This study provides genetic evidence for the importance of APP sorting in AD pathogenesis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Performance evaluation of firefly algorithm with variation in sorting for non-linear benchmark problems (United States)

    Umbarkar, A. J.; Balande, U. T.; Seth, P. D.


    The field of nature inspired computing and optimization techniques have evolved to solve difficult optimization problems in diverse fields of engineering, science and technology. The firefly attraction process is mimicked in the algorithm for solving optimization problems. In Firefly Algorithm (FA) sorting of fireflies is done by using sorting algorithm. The original FA is proposed with bubble sort for ranking the fireflies. In this paper, the quick sort replaces bubble sort to decrease the time complexity of FA. The dataset used is unconstrained benchmark functions from CEC 2005 [22]. The comparison of FA using bubble sort and FA using quick sort is performed with respect to best, worst, mean, standard deviation, number of comparisons and execution time. The experimental result shows that FA using quick sort requires less number of comparisons but requires more execution time. The increased number of fireflies helps to converge into optimal solution whereas by varying dimension for algorithm performed better at a lower dimension than higher dimension.

  19. On the Directly and Subdirectly Irreducible Many-Sorted Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent Vidal J.


    Full Text Available A theorem of single-sorted universal algebra asserts that every finite algebra can be represented as a product of a finite family of finite directly irreducible algebras. In this article, we show that the many-sorted counterpart of the above theorem is also true, but under the condition of requiring, in the definition of directly reducible many-sorted algebra, that the supports of the factors should be included in the support of the many-sorted algebra. Moreover, we show that the theorem of Birkhoff, according to which every single-sorted algebra is isomorphic to a subdirect product of subdirectly irreducible algebras, is also true in the field of many-sorted algebras.

  20. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  1. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick


    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  2. Reducing 4D CT artifacts using optimized sorting based on anatomic similarity. (United States)

    Johnston, Eric; Diehn, Maximilian; Murphy, James D; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G


    Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has been widely used as a tool to characterize respiratory motion in radiotherapy. The two most commonly used 4D CT algorithms sort images by the associated respiratory phase or displacement into a predefined number of bins, and are prone to image artifacts at transitions between bed positions. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a method of reducing motion artifacts in 4D CT by incorporating anatomic similarity into phase or displacement based sorting protocols. Ten patient datasets were retrospectively sorted using both the displacement and phase based sorting algorithms. Conventional sorting methods allow selection of only the nearest-neighbor image in time or displacement within each bin. In our method, for each bed position either the displacement or the phase defines the center of a bin range about which several candidate images are selected. The two dimensional correlation coefficients between slices bordering the interface between adjacent couch positions are then calculated for all candidate pairings. Two slices have a high correlation if they are anatomically similar. Candidates from each bin are then selected to maximize the slice correlation over the entire data set using the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. To assess the reduction of artifacts, two thoracic radiation oncologists independently compared the resorted 4D datasets pairwise with conventionally sorted datasets, blinded to the sorting method, to choose which had the least motion artifacts. Agreement between reviewers was evaluated using the weighted kappa score. Anatomically based image selection resulted in 4D CT datasets with significantly reduced motion artifacts with both displacement (P = 0.0063) and phase sorting (P = 0.00022). There was good agreement between the two reviewers, with complete agreement 34 times and complete disagreement 6 times. Optimized sorting using anatomic similarity significantly reduces 4D CT motion

  3. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu


    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  4. Comparison Of Hybrid Sorting Algorithms Implemented On Different Parallel Hardware Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Zurek


    Full Text Available Sorting is a common problem in computer science. There are lot of well-known sorting algorithms created for sequential execution on a single processor. Recently, hardware platforms enable to create wide parallel algorithms. We have standard processors consist of multiple cores and hardware accelerators like GPU. The graphic cards with their parallel architecture give new possibility to speed up many algorithms. In this paper we describe results of implementation of a few different sorting algorithms on GPU cards and multicore processors. Then hybrid algorithm will be presented which consists of parts executed on both platforms, standard CPU and GPU.

  5. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale


    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  6. Free Sorting and Association Task: A Variant of the Free Sorting Method Applied to Study the Impact of Dried Sourdough as an Ingredienton the Related Bread Odor. (United States)

    Pétel, Cécile; Courcoux, Philippe; Génovesi, Noémie; Rouillé, Jocelyn; Onno, Bernard; Prost, Carole


    This paper presents a new variant of the free sorting method developed to analyze the relationship between dried sourdough (DSD) and corresponding DSD-bread (bread) odors. The comparison of DSD and bread sensory characteristics is complicated due to their specific features (for example, acidity for DSD and a characteristic "baked bread" aroma for breads). To analyze them at the same time, this study introduces a new variant of the free sorting method, which adds an association task between DSD and bread after those of free sorting and verbalization. This separation makes it possible to change the product between tasks. It was applied to study the impact of 6 European commercial DSDs on their related DSD-bread. According to our results, this methodology enabled an association between different kinds of products and thus underlined the relationship between them. Moreover, as this methodology contains a verbalization task, it provides product descriptions. Compared with the standard free sorting method, free sorting with an association task gives the distance (i) between DSDs, (ii) between breads, and (iii) between DSDs and breads. The separation of product assessment through sorting and association avoids the separation of products according to their category (DSD or bread). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris


    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  8. Neural spike sorting using iterative ICA and a deflation-based approach. (United States)

    Tiganj, Z; Mboup, M


    We propose a spike sorting method for multi-channel recordings. When applied in neural recordings, the performance of the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm is known to be limited, since the number of recording sites is much lower than the number of neurons. The proposed method uses an iterative application of ICA and a deflation technique in two nested loops. In each iteration of the external loop, the spiking activity of one neuron is singled out and then deflated from the recordings. The internal loop implements a sequence of ICA and sorting for removing the noise and all the spikes that are not fired by the targeted neuron. Then a final step is appended to the two nested loops in order to separate simultaneously fired spikes. We solve this problem by taking all possible pairs of the sorted neurons and apply ICA only on the segments of the signal during which at least one of the neurons in a given pair was active. We validate the performance of the proposed method on simulated recordings, but also on a specific type of real recordings: simultaneous extracellular-intracellular. We quantify the sorting results on the extracellular recordings for the spikes that come from the neurons recorded intracellularly. The results suggest that the proposed solution significantly improves the performance of ICA in spike sorting.

  9. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian; Hö pfner, Hagen; Roychoudhury, Suman; Mansour, Essam


    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  10. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan


    from two decades ago by Faigle and Turán. In particular, we present the first algorithm that sorts a width-$w$ poset of size $n$ with query complexity $O(n(w+\\log n))$ and prove that this query complexity is asymptotically optimal. We also describe a variant of Mergesort with query complexity $O......(wn\\log\\frac{n}{w})$ and total complexity $O(w^{2}n\\log\\frac{n}{w})$; an algorithm with the same query complexity was given by Faigle and Turán, but no efficient implementation of that algorithm is known. Both our sorting algorithms can be applied with negligible overhead to the more general problem of reconstructing transitive......Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...

  11. Magnet sorting algorithms for insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.; Hoyer, E.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Schlueter, R.


    Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate up to 3,000 magnet blocks each for pole energization. In order to minimize field errors, these magnets must be measured, sorted and assigned appropriate locations and orientation in the magnetic structures. Sorting must address multiple objectives, including pole excitation and minimization of integrated multipole fields from minor field components in the magnets. This is equivalent to a combinatorial minimization problem with a large configuration space. Multi-stage sorting algorithms use ordering and pairing schemes in conjunction with other combinatorial methods to solve the minimization problem. This paper discusses objective functions, solution algorithms and results of application to magnet block measurement data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  13. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting. (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang


    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang


    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  15. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Carr, R.


    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  16. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.


    The authors introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but they find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long FEL's. Their application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. They present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  17. On Sorting Genomes with DCJ and Indels (United States)

    Braga, Marília D. V.

    A previous work of Braga, Willing and Stoye compared two genomes with unequal content, but without duplications, and presented a new linear time algorithm to compute the genomic distance, considering double cut and join (DCJ) operations, insertions and deletions. Here we derive from this approach an algorithm to sort one genome into another one also using DCJ, insertions and deletions. The optimal sorting scenarios can have different compositions and we compare two types of sorting scenarios: one that maximizes and one that minimizes the number of DCJ operations with respect to the number of insertions and deletions.

  18. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  19. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry. (United States)

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier


    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.

  20. Algorithm 426 : Merge sort algorithm [M1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.


    Sorting by means of a two-way merge has a reputation of requiring a clerically complicated and cumbersome program. This ALGOL 60 procedure demonstrates that, using recursion, an elegant and efficient algorithm can be designed, the correctness of which is easily proved [2]. Sorting n objects gives

  1. Sorting Tubules Regulate Blood-Brain Barrier Transcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villaseñor


    Full Text Available Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB regulates key processes of the brain, but the intracellular sorting mechanisms that determine successful receptor-mediated transcytosis in brain endothelial cells (BECs remain unidentified. Here, we used Transferrin receptor-based Brain Shuttle constructs to investigate intracellular transport in BECs, and we uncovered a pathway for the regulation of receptor-mediated transcytosis. By combining live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling in vitro with super-resolution microscopy of the BBB, we show that intracellular tubules promote transcytosis across the BBB. A monovalent construct (sFab sorted for transcytosis was localized to intracellular tubules, whereas a bivalent construct (dFab sorted for degradation formed clusters with impaired transport along tubules. Manipulating tubule biogenesis by overexpressing the small GTPase Rab17 increased dFab transport into tubules and induced its transcytosis in BECs. We propose that sorting tubules regulate transcytosis in BECs and may be a general mechanism for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB.

  2. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph


    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  3. Real-time implementation of a color sorting system (United States)

    Srikanteswara, Srikathyanyani; Lu, Qiang O.; King, William; Drayer, Thomas H.; Conners, Richard W.; Kline, D. Earl; Araman, Philip A.


    Wood edge glued panels are used extensively in the furniture and cabinetry industries. They are used to make doors, tops, and sides of solid wood furniture and cabinets. Since lightly stained furniture and cabinets are gaining in popularity, there is an increasing demand to color sort the parts used to make these edge glued panels. The goal of the sorting processing is to create panels that are uniform in both color and intensity across their visible surface. If performed manually, the color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is very labor intensive and prone to error. This paper describes a complete machine vision system for performing this sort. This system uses two color line scan cameras for image input and a specially designed custom computing machine to allow real-time implementation. Users define the number of color classes that are to be used. An 'out' class is provided to handle unusually colored parts. The system removes areas of character mark, e.g., knots, mineral streak, etc., from consideration when assigning a color class to a part. The system also includes a better face algorithm for determining which part face would be the better to put on the side of the panel that will show. The throughput is two linear feet per second. Only a four inch between part spacing is required. This system has undergone extensive in plant testing and will be commercially available in the very near future. The results of this testing will be presented.

  4. Science and technology of kernels and TRISO coated particle sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothnagel, G.


    The ~1mm diameter TRISO coated particles, which form the elemental units of PBMR nuclear fuel, has to be close to spherical in order to best survive damage during sphere pressing. Spherical silicon carbide layers further provide the strongest miniature pressure vessels for fission product retention. To make sure that the final product contains particles of acceptable shape, 100% of kernels and coated particles have to be sorted on a surface-ground sorting table. Broken particles, twins, irregular (odd) shapes and extreme ellipsoids have to be separated from the final kernel and coated particle batches. Proper sorting of particles is an extremely important step in quality fuel production as the final failure fraction depends sensitively on the quality of sorting. After sorting a statistically significant sample of the sorted product is analysed for sphericity, which is defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum diameter, as part of a standard QC test to ensure conformance to German specifications. In addition a burn-leach test is done on coated particles (before pressing) and fuel spheres (after pressing) to ensure adherence to failure specifications. Because of the extreme importance of particle sorting for assurance of fuel quality it is essential to have an in-depth understanding of the capabilities and limitations of particle sorting. In this report a systematic scientific rationale is developed, from fundamental principles, to provide a basis for understanding the relationship between product quality and sorting parameters. The principles and concepts, developed in this report, will be of importance when future sorting tables (or equivalents) are to be designed. A number of new concepts and methodologies are developed to assist with equivalence validation of any two sorting tables. This is aimed in particular towards quantitative assessment of equivalence between current QC tables (closely based on the original NUKEM parameters, except for the driving mechanism

  5. Heuristic framework for parallel sorting computations | Nwanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parallel sorting techniques have become of practical interest with the advent of new multiprocessor architectures. The decreasing cost of these processors will probably in the future, make the solutions that are derived thereof to be more appealing. Efficient algorithms for sorting scheme that are encountered in a number of ...

  6. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian


    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  7. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin


    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  8. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta


    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  9. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel


    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  10. Recent progress in multi-electrode spike sorting methods. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Yger, Pierre; Marre, Olivier


    In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting. Here we review different methods that have been developed to sort spikes from these large-scale recordings. We describe the common properties of these algorithms, as well as their main differences. Finally, we outline the issues that remain to be solved by future spike sorting algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment. (United States)

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel


    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.


    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. Technogenic catastrophes, failures or natural calamities, result in destruction of build objects. Under the obstructions of destructions can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure is explosions of gas. The structure of obstructions changes and depends on parameters and direction of explosion, firstly its size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is carried out with machines and mechanisms which do not meet the requirements of these works, that predetermines of carrying out of rescue or restoration works on imperfect scheme , especially on the initial stages, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development technological solution is needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of construction objects. Purpose. Development of unification solution on the improvement of technological processes of sorting out of destructions of buildings and constructions. Conclusion. The analysis of experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed construction objects, show that they are carried out on imperfect scheme, which do not take into account character of destruction of objects and are based on the use of construction machines which do not meet the requirements of these processes, and lead to considerable resource losses. Developed unified scheme of sorting out of the destroyed construction objects depending on character of their destruction and possibility of line of works, and also with the use of build machines with a multipurpose equipment, provide the increase of efficiency of carrying out of rescue and construction works.

  13. Optimal Time-Space Trade-Offs for Non-Comparison-Based Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Pagter, Jacob Illeborg


    We study the problem of sorting n integers of w bits on a unit-cost RAM with word size w, and in particular consider the time-space trade-off (product of time and space in bits) for this problem. For comparison-based algorithms, the time-space complexity is known to be Θ(n2). A result of Beame...... shows that the lower bound also holds for non-comparison-based algorithms, but no algorithm has met this for time below the comparison-based Ω(nlgn) lower bound.We show that if sorting within some time bound &Ttilde; is possible, then time T = O(&Ttilde; + nlg* n) can be achieved with high probability...... using space S = O(n2/T + w), which is optimal. Given a deterministic priority queue using amortized time t(n) per operation and space nO(1), we provide a deterministic algorithm sorting in time T = O(n(t(n) + lg* n)) with S = O(n2/T + w). Both results require that w ≤ n1-Ω(1). Using existing priority...

  14. Automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph


    Ganesan, Ashwin


    The modified bubble-sort graph of dimension $n$ is the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by $n$ cyclically adjacent transpositions. In the present paper, it is shown that the automorphism group of the modified bubble sort graph of dimension $n$ is $S_n \\times D_{2n}$, for all $n \\ge 5$. Thus, a complete structural description of the automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph is obtained. A similar direct product decomposition is seen to hold for arbitrary normal Cayley graphs generate...

  15. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology (United States)

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.


    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non–biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non–biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise. PMID:24297290

  16. Real-World Sorting of RHIC Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Harrison, M.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.


    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have bene put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-β interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process

  17. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review. (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa


    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  18. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  19. Development of a reactor thermalhydraulic experiment databank(SORTED1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seck; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hho Jung; Lee, Sang Yong


    The recent trend in thermalhydraulic safety analysis of nuclear power plant shows the best-estimate and probabilistic approaches, therefore, the verification of the best-estimate code based on the applicable experiment data has been required. The present study focused on developing a simple databank, SORTED1, to be effectively used for code verification. The development of SORTED1 includes a data collection from the various sources including ENCOUNTER, which is the reactor safety data bank of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a reorganization of collected resources suitable for requirements of SORTED1 database management system (DBMS), and a development of a simple DBMS. The SORTED1 is designed in Unix environment with graphic user interface to improve a user convenience and has a capability to provide the test related information. The currently registered data in SORTED1 cover 759 thermalhydraulic tests including LOFT, Semiscale, etc

  20. Automatic online spike sorting with singular value decomposition and fuzzy C-mean clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliynyk Andriy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions. An important problem in computational neuroscience is thus to develop algorithms to automatically detect and sort the spiking activity of individual neurons from extracellular recordings. While many algorithms for spike sorting exist, the problem of accurate and fast online sorting still remains a challenging issue. Results Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS (Fuzzy SPike Sorting, which is designed to optimize: (i fast and accurate detection, (ii offline sorting and (iii online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The method is based on a combination of Singular Value Decomposition for fast and highly accurate pre-processing of spike shapes, unsupervised Fuzzy C-mean, high-resolution alignment of extracted spike waveforms, optimal selection of the number of features to retain, automatic identification the number of clusters, and quantitative quality assessment of resulting clusters independent on their size. After being trained on a short testing data stream, the method can reliably perform supervised online classification and monitoring of single neuron activity. The generalized procedure has been implemented in our FSPS spike sorting software (available free for non-commercial academic applications at the address: using LabVIEW (National Instruments, USA. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm both on benchmark simulated datasets with different levels of background noise and on real extracellular recordings from premotor cortex of Macaque monkeys. The results of these tests showed an excellent accuracy in discriminating low-amplitude and overlapping spikes under strong background noise. The performance of our method is

  1. A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: effects on eyes, muscles and productivity. (United States)

    Hemphälä, Hillevi; Eklund, Jörgen


    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A real-time spike sorting method based on the embedded GPU. (United States)

    Zelan Yang; Kedi Xu; Xiang Tian; Shaomin Zhang; Xiaoxiang Zheng


    Microelectrode arrays with hundreds of channels have been widely used to acquire neuron population signals in neuroscience studies. Online spike sorting is becoming one of the most important challenges for high-throughput neural signal acquisition systems. Graphic processing unit (GPU) with high parallel computing capability might provide an alternative solution for increasing real-time computational demands on spike sorting. This study reported a method of real-time spike sorting through computing unified device architecture (CUDA) which was implemented on an embedded GPU (NVIDIA JETSON Tegra K1, TK1). The sorting approach is based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means. By analyzing the parallelism of each process, the method was further optimized in the thread memory model of GPU. Our results showed that the GPU-based classifier on TK1 is 37.92 times faster than the MATLAB-based classifier on PC while their accuracies were the same with each other. The high-performance computing features of embedded GPU demonstrated in our studies suggested that the embedded GPU provide a promising platform for the real-time neural signal processing.

  3. Long term estimates for sorting strategies of the LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Todesco, Ezio


    Sorting strategies are investigated in view of improving the dynamic aperture of the CERN-LHC. Local and quasi-local compensation of the random field shape imperfections are discussed and applied to simplified model of the LHC lattice. The most promising strategies are further investigated on a realistic LHC model with particular emphasis on the analysis of the robustness of the dynamic aperture improvements including long term effects. First results on the application of the recently developed extrapolation law for the prediction of the dynamic aperture to the sorting problem are presented.

  4. Multi-objective parametric optimization of Inertance type pulse tube refrigerator using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (United States)

    Rout, Sachindra K.; Choudhury, Balaji K.; Sahoo, Ranjit K.; Sarangi, Sunil K.


    The modeling and optimization of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator is a complicated task, due to its complexity of geometry and nature. The aim of the present work is to optimize the dimensions of pulse tube and regenerator for an Inertance-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator (ITPTR) by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The Box-Behnken design of the response surface methodology is used in an experimental matrix, with four factors and two levels. The diameter and length of the pulse tube and regenerator are chosen as the design variables where the rest of the dimensions and operating conditions of the ITPTR are constant. The required output responses are the cold head temperature (Tcold) and compressor input power (Wcomp). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model and solve the ITPTR. The CFD results agreed well with those of the previously published paper. Also using the results from the 1-D simulation, RSM is conducted to analyse the effect of the independent variables on the responses. To check the accuracy of the model, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method has been used. Based on the proposed mathematical RSM models a multi-objective optimization study, using the Non-sorted genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) has been performed to optimize the responses.

  5. NeatSort - A practical adaptive algorithm


    La Rocca, Marcello; Cantone, Domenico


    We present a new adaptive sorting algorithm which is optimal for most disorder metrics and, more important, has a simple and quick implementation. On input $X$, our algorithm has a theoretical $\\Omega (|X|)$ lower bound and a $\\mathcal{O}(|X|\\log|X|)$ upper bound, exhibiting amazing adaptive properties which makes it run closer to its lower bound as disorder (computed on different metrics) diminishes. From a practical point of view, \\textit{NeatSort} has proven itself competitive with (and of...

  6. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  7. Sorting cells of the microalga Chlorococcum littorale with increased triacylglycerol productivity. (United States)

    Cabanelas, Iago Teles Dominguez; van der Zwart, Mathijs; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J


    Despite extensive research in the last decades, microalgae are still only economically feasible for high valued markets. Strain improvement is a strategy to increase productivities, hence reducing costs. In this work, we focus on microalgae selection: taking advantage of the natural biological variability of species to select variations based on desired characteristics. We focused on triacylglycerol (TAG), which have applications ranging from biodiesel to high-value omega-3 fatty-acids. Hence, we demonstrated a strategy to sort microalgae cells with increased TAG productivity. 1. We successfully identified sub-populations of cells with increased TAG productivity using Fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). 2. We sequentially sorted cells after repeated cycles of N-starvation, resulting in five sorted populations (S1-S5). 3. The comparison between sorted and original populations showed that S5 had the highest TAG productivity [0.34 against 0.18 g l(-1) day(-1) (original), continuous light]. 4. Original and S5 were compared in lab-scale reactors under simulated summer conditions confirming the increased TAG productivity of S5 (0.4 against 0.2 g l(-1) day(-1)). Biomass composition analyses showed that S5 produced more biomass under N-starvation because of an increase only in TAG content and, flow cytometry showed that our selection removed cells with lower efficiency in producing TAGs. All combined, our results present a successful strategy to improve the TAG productivity of Chlorococcum littorale, without resourcing to genetic manipulation or random mutagenesis. Additionally, the improved TAG productivity of S5 was confirmed under simulated summer conditions, highlighting the industrial potential of S5 for microalgal TAG production.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of cells sorted by RNA abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Sandy; Semrau, Stefan; Wiebrands, Kay; Mooijman, Dylan; Faddah, Dina A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    We have developed a quantitative technique for sorting cells on the basis of endogenous RNA abundance, with a molecular resolution of 10-20 transcripts. We demonstrate efficient and unbiased RNA extraction from transcriptionally sorted cells and report a high-fidelity transcriptome measurement of

  9. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey


    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri


    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  10. Investigating output and energy variations and their relationship to delivery QA results using Statistical Process Control for helical tomotherapy. (United States)

    Binny, Diana; Mezzenga, Emilio; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B


    The aims of this study were to investigate machine beam parameters using the TomoTherapy quality assurance (TQA) tool, establish a correlation to patient delivery quality assurance results and to evaluate the relationship between energy variations detected using different TQA modules. TQA daily measurement results from two treatment machines for periods of up to 4years were acquired. Analyses of beam quality, helical and static output variations were made. Variations from planned dose were also analysed using Statistical Process Control (SPC) technique and their relationship to output trends were studied. Energy variations appeared to be one of the contributing factors to delivery output dose seen in the analysis. Ion chamber measurements were reliable indicators of energy and output variations and were linear with patient dose verifications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A probability-based multi-cycle sorting method for 4D-MRI: A simulation study. (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Liu, Yilin; Cai, Jing


    To develop a novel probability-based sorting method capable of generating multiple breathing cycles of 4D-MRI images and to evaluate performance of this new method by comparing with conventional phase-based methods in terms of image quality and tumor motion measurement. Based on previous findings that breathing motion probability density function (PDF) of a single breathing cycle is dramatically different from true stabilized PDF that resulted from many breathing cycles, it is expected that a probability-based sorting method capable of generating multiple breathing cycles of 4D images may capture breathing variation information missing from conventional single-cycle sorting methods. The overall idea is to identify a few main breathing cycles (and their corresponding weightings) that can best represent the main breathing patterns of the patient and then reconstruct a set of 4D images for each of the identified main breathing cycles. This method is implemented in three steps: (1) The breathing signal is decomposed into individual breathing cycles, characterized by amplitude, and period; (2) individual breathing cycles are grouped based on amplitude and period to determine the main breathing cycles. If a group contains more than 10% of all breathing cycles in a breathing signal, it is determined as a main breathing pattern group and is represented by the average of individual breathing cycles in the group; (3) for each main breathing cycle, a set of 4D images is reconstructed using a result-driven sorting method adapted from our previous study. The probability-based sorting method was first tested on 26 patients' breathing signals to evaluate its feasibility of improving target motion PDF. The new method was subsequently tested for a sequential image acquisition scheme on the 4D digital extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom. Performance of the probability-based and conventional sorting methods was evaluated in terms of target volume precision and accuracy as measured

  12. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido


    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...

  13. Unsupervised neural spike sorting for high-density microelectrode arrays with convolutive independent component analysis. (United States)

    Leibig, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Zeck, Günther


    Unsupervised identification of action potentials in multi-channel extracellular recordings, in particular from high-density microelectrode arrays with thousands of sensors, is an unresolved problem. While independent component analysis (ICA) achieves rapid unsupervised sorting, it ignores the convolutive structure of extracellular data, thus limiting the unmixing to a subset of neurons. Here we present a spike sorting algorithm based on convolutive ICA (cICA) to retrieve a larger number of accurately sorted neurons than with instantaneous ICA while accounting for signal overlaps. Spike sorting was applied to datasets with varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: 3-12) and 27% spike overlaps, sampled at either 11.5 or 23kHz on 4365 electrodes. We demonstrate how the instantaneity assumption in ICA-based algorithms has to be relaxed in order to improve the spike sorting performance for high-density microelectrode array recordings. Reformulating the convolutive mixture as an instantaneous mixture by modeling several delayed samples jointly is necessary to increase signal-to-noise ratio. Our results emphasize that different cICA algorithms are not equivalent. Spike sorting performance was assessed with ground-truth data generated from experimentally derived templates. The presented spike sorter was able to extract ≈90% of the true spike trains with an error rate below 2%. It was superior to two alternative (c)ICA methods (≈80% accurately sorted neurons) and comparable to a supervised sorting. Our new algorithm represents a fast solution to overcome the current bottleneck in spike sorting of large datasets generated by simultaneous recording with thousands of electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  15. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan


    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  16. A novel automated spike sorting algorithm with adaptable feature extraction. (United States)

    Bestel, Robert; Daus, Andreas W; Thielemann, Christiane


    To study the electrophysiological properties of neuronal networks, in vitro studies based on microelectrode arrays have become a viable tool for analysis. Although in constant progress, a challenging task still remains in this area: the development of an efficient spike sorting algorithm that allows an accurate signal analysis at the single-cell level. Most sorting algorithms currently available only extract a specific feature type, such as the principal components or Wavelet coefficients of the measured spike signals in order to separate different spike shapes generated by different neurons. However, due to the great variety in the obtained spike shapes, the derivation of an optimal feature set is still a very complex issue that current algorithms struggle with. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm that (i) extracts a variety of geometric, Wavelet and principal component-based features and (ii) automatically derives a feature subset, most suitable for sorting an individual set of spike signals. Thus, there is a new approach that evaluates the probability distribution of the obtained spike features and consequently determines the candidates most suitable for the actual spike sorting. These candidates can be formed into an individually adjusted set of spike features, allowing a separation of the various shapes present in the obtained neuronal signal by a subsequent expectation maximisation clustering algorithm. Test results with simulated data files and data obtained from chick embryonic neurons cultured on microelectrode arrays showed an excellent classification result, indicating the superior performance of the described algorithm approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying


    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  18. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  19. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Naraoka, Kenitsu; Adachi, Masao; Takeda, Tatsuoki


    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  20. Noise-robust unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning with outlier handling (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi


    Objective. Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust and unsupervised spike sorting algorithm based on learning discriminative spike features for clustering. Approach. The proposed algorithm uses discriminative subspace learning to extract low dimensional and most discriminative features from the spike waveforms and perform clustering with automatic detection of the number of the clusters. The core part of the algorithm involves iterative subspace selection using linear discriminant analysis and clustering using Gaussian mixture model with outlier detection. A statistical test in the discriminative subspace is proposed to automatically detect the number of the clusters. Main results. Comparative results on publicly available simulated and real in vivo datasets demonstrate that our algorithm achieves substantially improved cluster distinction leading to higher sorting accuracy and more reliable detection of clusters which are highly overlapping and not detectable using conventional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis or wavelets. Significance. By providing more accurate information about the activity of more number of individual neurons with high robustness to neural noise and outliers, the proposed unsupervised spike sorting algorithm facilitates more detailed and accurate analysis of single- and multi-unit activities in neuroscience and brain machine interface studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.


    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. Natural calamities, technogenic catastrophes and failures, result in destruction of building objects. Under the obstructions of destructions there can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure are explosions of domestic gas. The structure of obstructions changes depending on parameters and direction of explosion, first of all size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is executed by machines and mechanisms which do not answer the requirements of these works, that predetermines falling short of logistical support to the requirements of rescue or restoration works, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development of technological decisions is therefore needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of building objects. Purpose. Development of methodology of determination of logistical support of processes of sorting out of destructions of building and building. Conclusion. Experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed building objects, that they are executed with the use of imperfect logistical support, which are not taken into account by character of destruction of objects and is based on the use of buildings machines which do not answer the requirements of these processes, that results in considerable resource losses. Building machines with a multipurpose equipment, which provide the increase of efficiency of implementation of rescue and restoration works, are worked out. Methodology of determination of number of technique is worked out for providing of material-supply of sorting out of destructions, in particular on the initial stage of rescue works for liberation of victims from under obstructions.

  2. Coupling amplified DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes to high-density SNP mapping in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry facilitates sorting of single chromosomes and chromosome arms which can be used for targeted genome analysis. However, the recovery of microgram amounts of DNA needed for some assays requires sorting of millions of chromosomes which is laborious and time consuming. Yet, many genomic applications such as development of genetic maps or physical mapping do not require large DNA fragments. In such cases time-consuming de novo sorting can be minimized by utilizing whole-genome amplification. Results Here we report a protocol optimized in barley including amplification of DNA from only ten thousand chromosomes, which can be isolated in less than one hour. Flow-sorted chromosomes were treated with proteinase K and amplified using Phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA. Overnight amplification in a 20-microlitre reaction produced 3.7 – 5.7 micrograms DNA with a majority of products between 5 and 30 kb. To determine the purity of sorted fractions and potential amplification bias we used quantitative PCR for specific genes on each chromosome. To extend the analysis to a whole genome level we performed an oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA for interrogation of 1524 loci, of which 1153 loci had known genetic map positions. Analysis of unamplified genomic DNA of barley cv. Akcent using this OPA resulted in 1426 markers with present calls. Comparison with three replicates of amplified genomic DNA revealed >99% concordance. DNA samples from amplified chromosome 1H and a fraction containing chromosomes 2H – 7H were examined. In addition to loci with known map positions, 349 loci with unknown map positions were included. Based on this analysis 40 new loci were mapped to 1H. Conclusion The results indicate a significant potential of using this approach for physical mapping. Moreover, the study showed that multiple displacement amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes is highly efficient and representative which

  3. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico


    Ebrima A Faal


    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  4. Automatic online spike sorting with singular value decomposition and fuzzy C-mean clustering. (United States)

    Oliynyk, Andriy; Bonifazzi, Claudio; Montani, Fernando; Fadiga, Luciano


    Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions. An important problem in computational neuroscience is thus to develop algorithms to automatically detect and sort the spiking activity of individual neurons from extracellular recordings. While many algorithms for spike sorting exist, the problem of accurate and fast online sorting still remains a challenging issue. Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS (Fuzzy SPike Sorting), which is designed to optimize: (i) fast and accurate detection, (ii) offline sorting and (iii) online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The method is based on a combination of Singular Value Decomposition for fast and highly accurate pre-processing of spike shapes, unsupervised Fuzzy C-mean, high-resolution alignment of extracted spike waveforms, optimal selection of the number of features to retain, automatic identification the number of clusters, and quantitative quality assessment of resulting clusters independent on their size. After being trained on a short testing data stream, the method can reliably perform supervised online classification and monitoring of single neuron activity. The generalized procedure has been implemented in our FSPS spike sorting software (available free for non-commercial academic applications at the address: using LabVIEW (National Instruments, USA). We evaluated the performance of our algorithm both on benchmark simulated datasets with different levels of background noise and on real extracellular recordings from premotor cortex of Macaque monkeys. The results of these tests showed an excellent accuracy in discriminating low-amplitude and overlapping spikes under strong background noise. The performance of our method is competitive with respect to other robust spike

  5. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry peak sorting algorithm. (United States)

    Oh, Cheolhwan; Huang, Xiaodong; Regnier, Fred E; Buck, Charles; Zhang, Xiang


    We report a novel peak sorting method for the two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) system. The objective of peak sorting is to recognize peaks from the same metabolite occurring in different samples from thousands of peaks detected in the analytical procedure. The developed algorithm is based on the fact that the chromatographic peaks for a given analyte have similar retention times in all of the chromatograms. Raw instrument data are first processed by ChromaTOF (Leco) software to provide the peak tables. Our algorithm achieves peak sorting by utilizing the first- and second-dimension retention times in the peak tables and the mass spectra generated during the process of electron impact ionization. The algorithm searches the peak tables for the peaks generated by the same type of metabolite using several search criteria. Our software also includes options to eliminate non-target peaks from the sorting results, e.g., peaks of contaminants. The developed software package has been tested using a mixture of standard metabolites and another mixture of standard metabolites spiked into human serum. Manual validation demonstrates high accuracy of peak sorting with this algorithm.

  6. A discrimination model in waste plastics sorting using NIR hyperspectral imaging system. (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Bai, Jiarui; Xu, Jingna; Li, Xiayang; Zhang, Yimin


    Classification of plastics is important in the recycling industry. A plastic identification model in the near infrared spectroscopy wavelength range 1000-2500 nm is proposed for the characterization and sorting of waste plastics using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The model is built by the feature wavelengths of standard samples applying the principle component analysis (PCA), and the accuracy, property and cross-validation of the model were analyzed. The model just contains a simple equation, center of mass coordinates, and radial distance, with which it is easy to develop classification and sorting software. A hyperspectral imaging system (HIS) with the identification model verified its practical application by using the unknown plastics. Results showed that the identification accuracy of unknown samples is 100%. All results suggested that the discrimination model was potential to an on-line characterization and sorting platform of waste plastics based on HIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BayesMotif: de novo protein sorting motif discovery from impure datasets. (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Fan


    Protein sorting is the process that newly synthesized proteins are transported to their target locations within or outside of the cell. This process is precisely regulated by protein sorting signals in different forms. A major category of sorting signals are amino acid sub-sequences usually located at the N-terminals or C-terminals of protein sequences. Genome-wide experimental identification of protein sorting signals is extremely time-consuming and costly. Effective computational algorithms for de novo discovery of protein sorting signals is needed to improve the understanding of protein sorting mechanisms. We formulated the protein sorting motif discovery problem as a classification problem and proposed a Bayesian classifier based algorithm (BayesMotif) for de novo identification of a common type of protein sorting motifs in which a highly conserved anchor is present along with a less conserved motif regions. A false positive removal procedure is developed to iteratively remove sequences that are unlikely to contain true motifs so that the algorithm can identify motifs from impure input sequences. Experiments on both implanted motif datasets and real-world datasets showed that the enhanced BayesMotif algorithm can identify anchored sorting motifs from pure or impure protein sequence dataset. It also shows that the false positive removal procedure can help to identify true motifs even when there is only 20% of the input sequences containing true motif instances. We proposed BayesMotif, a novel Bayesian classification based algorithm for de novo discovery of a special category of anchored protein sorting motifs from impure datasets. Compared to conventional motif discovery algorithms such as MEME, our algorithm can find less-conserved motifs with short highly conserved anchors. Our algorithm also has the advantage of easy incorporation of additional meta-sequence features such as hydrophobicity or charge of the motifs which may help to overcome the limitations of

  8. A Model Vision of Sorting System Application Using Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maralo Sinaga


    Full Text Available Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system in the Moduler Processing System (MPS laboratory which consists of four integrated stations of distribution, testing, processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Supported by OpenCV, image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in realtime by a webcam and then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator (Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-M1 that does pick-and-place mechanism. Extensive testing proves that this color based object sorting system works 100% accurate under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects’ shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are silver, red and black. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

  9. Kontribusi penerapan model pembelajaran card sort berbasis pendekatan contextual teaching and learning terhadap peningkatan hasil belajar siswa dalam mata pelajaran Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan di kelas VII-C SMPN 1 Cadasari Pandeglang Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mulyana


    Full Text Available This article is based on a report of classroom action research (CAR done among students of class VII C SMPN 1 Cadasari by implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL based Card Sort teaching model, and its contribution toward increase of students learning output in civic education Selecting class VII C as model class is based on consideration of low student learning outcomes of civic education. This note was taken from average of grades in report book and percentage of pass in test of last semester compared by other class. So that, Writer tries to conduct CAR by implementing CTL Card Sort teaching model to increase student learning outcomes of civic education. CAR is conducted by implementing action plan in the form of using some varied teaching model in class VII C. While in the other classes namely Class VIIA and Class VIIB as comparator classes, teaching model used is the conventional one although also based on CTL principles. Analysis process is done by analyzing daily test results to know progress of students learning outcomes and employ a Collaborator to observe and analyze excess and lack of researcher during teaching-learning process. The observation result from partner is used as reflection source and consideration to select following action. After four cycles of research and based on reflection with a Collaborator, it is resulted that using CTL based Card Sort teaching model can effectively increase students learning outcomes in subject matter of civic education. The result proves that CTL based Card Sort teaching model compared to other model has some advantages: a relevant for ages of junior high school, b simple and cheap, c prioritizing collaboration, d joyful and not boring, e requiring mutual support, and f encouraging student to be active.

  10. Design and analysis on sorting blade for automated size-based sorting device (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Samsudin, Yasser Suhaimi; Daud, Mohd Hisam


    Nowadays rubbish separating or recycling is a main problem of nation, where peoples dumped their rubbish into dumpsite without caring the value of the rubbish if it can be recycled and reused. Thus the author proposed an automated segregating device, purposely to teach people to separate their rubbish and value the rubbish that can be reused. The automated size-based mechanical segregating device provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in this segregating process. This device is designed to make recycling easier, user friendly, in the hope that more people will take responsibility if it is less of an expense of time and effort. This paper discussed about redesign a blade for the sorting device which is to develop an efficient automated mechanical sorting device for the similar material but in different size. The machine is able to identify the size of waste and it depends to the coil inside the container to separate it out. The detail design and methodology is described in detail in this paper.

  11. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility. (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L


    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  12. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  13. A 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions. (United States)

    Elias, Isaac; Hartman, Tzvika


    Sorting permutations by transpositions is an important problem in genome rearrangements. A transposition is a rearrangement operation in which a segment is cut out of the permutation and pasted in a different location. The complexity of this problem is still open and it has been a 10-year-old open problem to improve the best known 1.5-approximation algorithm. In this paper, we provide a 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions. The algorithm is based on a new upper bound on the diameter of 3-permutations. In addition, we present some new results regarding the transposition diameter: we improve the lower bound for the transposition diameter of the symmetric group and determine the exact transposition diameter of simple permutations.

  14. Card sorting to evaluate the robustness of the information architecture of a protocol website. (United States)

    Wentzel, J; Müller, F; Beerlage-de Jong, N; van Gemert-Pijnen, J


    A website on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA-net, was developed for Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the general public, in German and in Dutch. The website's content was based on existing protocols and its structure was based on a card sort study. A Human Centered Design approach was applied to ensure a match between user and technology. In the current study we assess whether the website's structure still matches user needs, again via a card sort study. An open card sort study was conducted. Randomly drawn samples of 100 on-site search queries as they were entered on the MRSA-net website (during one year of use) were used as card input. In individual sessions, the cards were sorted by each participant (18 German and 10 Dutch HCWs, and 10 German and 10 Dutch members of the general public) into piles that were meaningful to them. Each participant provided a label for every pile of cards they created. Cluster analysis was performed on the resulting sorts, creating an overview of clusters of items placed together in one pile most frequently. In addition, pile labels were qualitatively analyzed to identify the participants' mental models. Cluster analysis confirmed existing categories and revealed new themes emerging from the search query samples, such as financial issues and consequences for the patient. Even though MRSA-net addresses these topics, they are not prominently covered in the menu structure. The label analysis shows that 7 of a total of 44 MRSA-net categories were not reproduced by the participants. Additional themes such as information on other pathogens and categories such as legal issues emerged. This study shows that the card sort performed to create MRSA-net resulted in overall long-lasting structure and categories. New categories were identified, indicating that additional information needs emerged. Therefore, evaluating website structure should be a recurrent activity. Card sorting with ecological data as input for the cards is

  15. Influence of retrospective sorting on image quality in respiratory correlated computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Weininger, Markus; Wilbert, Juergen; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Krieger, Thomas; Polat, Buelent; Flentje, Michael


    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of retrospective sorting on image quality in four-dimensional respiratory correlated CT. Materials and methods: Twelve patients with intrapulmonary tumors were examined using a 24-slice CT-scanner in helical mode. Images were reconstructed after retrospective sorting based on five algorithms: amplitude-based sorting with definition of peak-exhalation and peak-inhalation separately/locally for all breathing cycles (LAS) and globally for the time of image acquisition (GAS). Drifts of the breathing signal were corrected in dc-GAS. In phase-based (PS) and cycle-based (CS) algorithm the projections were sorted relative to time. Motion artifacts were scored by a radiologist. The tumor volumes were measured using automatic image segmentation. Results: Averaged over all breathing phases, LAS and PS achieved significantly improved image quality and lowest tumor volume variability compared to GAS, dc-GAS and CS. Imaging redundancy of 5 s was not sufficient for GAS and dc-GAS: missing corresponding amplitude positions in one or several breathing cycles resulted in incomplete reconstruction of peak-ventilation images in 11/12 and 10/12 patients with GAS and dc-GAS, respectively. Limiting the analysis to mid-ventilation phases showed GAS and dc-GAS as the most reliable algorithms. Conclusions: LAS and PS are suggested as a compromise between image quality and radiation dose

  16. IB-LBM simulation on blood cell sorting with a micro-fence structure. (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Tian, Fang-bao; Gao, Tian-xin; Tang, Xiao-ying; Zu, Wen-Hong


    A size-based blood cell sorting model with a micro-fence structure is proposed in the frame of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The fluid dynamics is obtained by solving the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, and the cells motion and deformation are handled by the immersed boundary method. A micro-fence consists of two parallel slope post rows which are adopted to separate red blood cells (RBCs) from white blood cells (WBCs), in which the cells to be separated are transported one after another by the flow into the passageway between the two post rows. Effected by the cross flow, RBCs are schemed to get through the pores of the nether post row since they are smaller and more deformable compared with WBCs. WBCs are required to move along the nether post row till they get out the micro-fence. Simulation results indicate that for a fix width of pores, the slope angle of the post row plays an important role in cell sorting. The cells mixture can not be separated properly in a small slope angle, while obvious blockages by WBCs will take place to disturb the continuous cell sorting in a big slope angle. As an optimal result, an adaptive slope angle is found to sort RBCs form WBCs correctly and continuously.

  17. Sorting Real Numbers in $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ Time and Linear Space


    Han, Yijie


    We present an $O(n\\sqrt{\\log n})$ time and linear space algorithm for sorting real numbers. This breaks the long time illusion that real numbers have to be sorted by comparison sorting and take $\\Omega (n\\log n)$ time to be sorted.

  18. An extensible infrastructure for fully automated spike sorting during online experiments. (United States)

    Santhanam, Gopal; Sahani, Maneesh; Ryu, Stephen; Shenoy, Krishna


    When recording extracellular neural activity, it is often necessary to distinguish action potentials arising from distinct cells near the electrode tip, a process commonly referred to as "spike sorting." In a number of experiments, notably those that involve direct neuroprosthetic control of an effector, this cell-by-cell classification of the incoming signal must be achieved in real time. Several commercial offerings are available for this task, but all of these require some manual supervision per electrode, making each scheme cumbersome with large electrode counts. We present a new infrastructure that leverages existing unsupervised algorithms to sort and subsequently implement the resulting signal classification rules for each electrode using a commercially available Cerebus neural signal processor. We demonstrate an implementation of this infrastructure to classify signals from a cortical electrode array, using a probabilistic clustering algorithm (described elsewhere). The data were collected from a rhesus monkey performing a delayed center-out reach task. We used both sorted and unsorted (thresholded) action potentials from an array implanted in pre-motor cortex to "predict" the reach target, a common decoding operation in neuroprosthetic research. The use of sorted spikes led to an improvement in decoding accuracy of between 3.6 and 6.4%.

  19. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.


    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  20. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.


    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide...

  1. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting. (United States)

    Cram, L S


    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  2. Machine Vision System for Color Sorting Wood Edge-Glued Panel Parts (United States)

    Qiang Lu; S. Srikanteswara; W. King; T. Drayer; Richard Conners; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman


    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "better" color given specified color uniformity and priority defined by management. The real-time color sorting system software and hardware are briefly...

  3. System Architecture For High Speed Sorting Of Potatoes (United States)

    Marchant, J. A.; Onyango, C. M.; Street, M. J.


    This paper illustrates an industrial application of vision processing in which potatoes are sorted according to their size and shape at speeds of up to 40 objects per second. The result is a multi-processing approach built around the VME bus. A hardware unit has been designed and constructed to encode the boundary of the potatoes, to reducing the amount of data to be processed. A master 68000 processor is used to control this unit and to handle data transfers along the bus. Boundary data is passed to one of three 68010 slave processors each responsible for a line of potatoes across a conveyor belt. The slave processors calculate attributes such as shape, size and estimated weight of each potato and the master processor uses this data to operate the sorting mechanism. The system has been interfaced with a commercial grading machine and performance trials are now in progress.

  4. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach


    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and acceptable…

  5. Effect of Hydrograph Characteristics on Vertical Grain Sorting in Gravel Bed Rivers (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Parker, G.; Egozi, R.


    This study focuses on the formation of armour layers over a range of hydrologic conditions that includes two limiting cases; a relatively flat hydrograph that represents conditions produced by continuous snowmelt and a sharply peaked hydrograph that represents conditions associated with flash floods. To achieve our objective we analyzed field evidence, conducted flume experiments and performed numerical simulations. Sediment supply appears to be a first-order control on bed surface armouring, while the shape of the hydrograph plays a secondary role. All constant hydrograph experiments developed a well-armored structured surface while short asymmetrical hydrographs did not show substantial vertical sorting. All symmetrical hydrographs show some degree of sorting, and the sorting tended to become more pronounced with longer duration. Using the numerical framework of Parker, modified Powell, et al. and Wilcock and Crowe, we were able to achieve similar results.

  6. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli


    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  7. Quartile and Outlier Detection on Heterogeneous Clusters Using Distributed Radix Sort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, Jeremy S.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.


    In the past few years, performance improvements in CPUs and memory technologies have outpaced those of storage systems. When extrapolated to the exascale, this trend places strict limits on the amount of data that can be written to disk for full analysis, resulting in an increased reliance on characterizing in-memory data. Many of these characterizations are simple, but require sorted data. This paper explores an example of this type of characterization - the identification of quartiles and statistical outliers - and presents a performance analysis of a distributed heterogeneous radix sort as well as an assessment of current architectural bottlenecks.

  8. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting


    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele


    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  9. Bicaudal-D1 regulates the intracellular sorting and signalling of neurotrophin receptors. (United States)

    Terenzio, Marco; Golding, Matthew; Russell, Matthew R G; Wicher, Krzysztof B; Rosewell, Ian; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Ish-Horowicz, David; Schiavo, Giampietro


    We have identified a new function for the dynein adaptor Bicaudal D homolog 1 (BICD1) by screening a siRNA library for genes affecting the dynamics of neurotrophin receptor-containing endosomes in motor neurons (MNs). Depleting BICD1 increased the intracellular accumulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-activated TrkB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) by disrupting the endosomal sorting, reducing lysosomal degradation and increasing the co-localisation of these neurotrophin receptors with retromer-associated sorting nexin 1. The resulting re-routing of active receptors increased their recycling to the plasma membrane and altered the repertoire of signalling-competent TrkB isoforms and p75(NTR) available for ligand binding on the neuronal surface. This resulted in attenuated, but more sustained, AKT activation in response to BDNF stimulation. These data, together with our observation that Bicd1 expression is restricted to the developing nervous system when neurotrophin receptor expression peaks, indicate that BICD1 regulates neurotrophin signalling by modulating the endosomal sorting of internalised ligand-activated receptors. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia


    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  11. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators. (United States)

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao


    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied.

  12. A Visual Guide to Sorting Electrophysiological Recordings Using 'SpikeSorter'. (United States)

    Swindale, Nicholas V; Mitelut, Catalin; Murphy, Timothy H; Spacek, Martin A


    Few stand-alone software applications are available for sorting spikes from recordings made with multi-electrode arrays. Ideally, an application should be user friendly with a graphical user interface, able to read data files in a variety of formats, and provide users with a flexible set of tools giving them the ability to detect and sort extracellular voltage waveforms from different units with some degree of reliability. Previously published spike sorting methods are now available in a software program, SpikeSorter, intended to provide electrophysiologists with a complete set of tools for sorting, starting from raw recorded data file and ending with the export of sorted spikes times. Procedures are automated to the extent this is currently possible. The article explains and illustrates the use of the program. A representative data file is opened, extracellular traces are filtered, events are detected and then clustered. A number of problems that commonly occur during sorting are illustrated, including the artefactual over-splitting of units due to the tendency of some units to fire spikes in pairs where the second spike is significantly smaller than the first, and over-splitting caused by slow variation in spike height over time encountered in some units. The accuracy of SpikeSorter's performance has been tested with surrogate ground truth data and found to be comparable to that of other algorithms in current development.

  13. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.


    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  14. Oscillating microbubbles for selective particle sorting in acoustic microfluidic devices (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Xu, Lin; Neild, Adrian


    In this study, acoustic waves were used to excite a microbubble for selective particle trapping and sorting. Excitation of the bubble at its volume resonance, as necessary to drive strong fluid microstreaming, resulted in the particles being either selectively attracted to the bubble or continuing to follow the local microstreamlines. The operating principle exploited two acoustic phenomena acting on the particle suspension: the drag force arising from the acoustic microstreaming and the secondary Bjerknes force, i.e. the attractive radiation force produced between an oscillating bubble and a non-buoyant particle. It was also found that standing wave fields within the fluid chamber could be used to globally align bubbles and particles for local particle sorting by the bubble.

  15. A New Algorithm Using the Non-Dominated Tree to Improve Non-Dominated Sorting. (United States)

    Gustavsson, Patrik; Syberfeldt, Anna


    Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This article presents a new, more efficient algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the article, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.


    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  17. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers : a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary


    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  18. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá


    Full Text Available Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Results: Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103–9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU/m3, while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103–2.9×105 CFU/m3. The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6–7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Conclusions: Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1:1–9

  19. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu


    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  20. Event-driven processing for hardware-efficient neural spike sorting (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pereira, João L.; Constandinou, Timothy G.


    Objective. The prospect of real-time and on-node spike sorting provides a genuine opportunity to push the envelope of large-scale integrated neural recording systems. In such systems the hardware resources, power requirements and data bandwidth increase linearly with channel count. Event-based (or data-driven) processing can provide here a new efficient means for hardware implementation that is completely activity dependant. In this work, we investigate using continuous-time level-crossing sampling for efficient data representation and subsequent spike processing. Approach. (1) We first compare signals (synthetic neural datasets) encoded with this technique against conventional sampling. (2) We then show how such a representation can be directly exploited by extracting simple time domain features from the bitstream to perform neural spike sorting. (3) The proposed method is implemented in a low power FPGA platform to demonstrate its hardware viability. Main results. It is observed that considerably lower data rates are achievable when using 7 bits or less to represent the signals, whilst maintaining the signal fidelity. Results obtained using both MATLAB and reconfigurable logic hardware (FPGA) indicate that feature extraction and spike sorting accuracies can be achieved with comparable or better accuracy than reference methods whilst also requiring relatively low hardware resources. Significance. By effectively exploiting continuous-time data representation, neural signal processing can be achieved in a completely event-driven manner, reducing both the required resources (memory, complexity) and computations (operations). This will see future large-scale neural systems integrating on-node processing in real-time hardware.

  1. Continuous sorting of Brownian particles using coupled photophoresis and asymmetric potential cycling. (United States)

    Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian; Heeraman, Pascal


    Feasible sorters need to function rapidly and permit the input and delivery of particles continuously. Here, we describe a scheme that incorporates (i) restricted spatial input location and (ii) orthogonal sort and movement direction features. Sorting is achieved using an asymmetric potential that is cycled on and off, whereas movement is accomplished using photophoresis. Simulations with 0.2 and 0.5 microm diameter spherical particles indicate that sorting can commence quickly from a continuous stream. Procedures to optimize the sorting scheme are also described.

  2. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  3. Effects of Added Enzymes on Sorted, Unsorted and Sorted-Out Barley: A Model Study on Realtime Viscosity and Process Potentials Using Rapid Visco Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Olsen, Rasmus Lyngsø


    Barley sorting is an important step for selecting grain of required quality for malting prior to brewing. However, brewing with unmalted barley with added enzymes has been thoroughly proven, raising the question of whether traditional sorting for high quality malting-barley is still necessary. To...

  4. Sampling solution traces for the problem of sorting permutations by signed reversals (United States)


    Background Traditional algorithms to solve the problem of sorting by signed reversals output just one optimal solution while the space of all optimal solutions can be huge. A so-called trace represents a group of solutions which share the same set of reversals that must be applied to sort the original permutation following a partial ordering. By using traces, we therefore can represent the set of optimal solutions in a more compact way. Algorithms for enumerating the complete set of traces of solutions were developed. However, due to their exponential complexity, their practical use is limited to small permutations. A partial enumeration of traces is a sampling of the complete set of traces and can be an alternative for the study of distinct evolutionary scenarios of big permutations. Ideally, the sampling should be done uniformly from the space of all optimal solutions. This is however conjectured to be ♯P-complete. Results We propose and evaluate three algorithms for producing a sampling of the complete set of traces that instead can be shown in practice to preserve some of the characteristics of the space of all solutions. The first algorithm (RA) performs the construction of traces through a random selection of reversals on the list of optimal 1-sequences. The second algorithm (DFALT) consists in a slight modification of an algorithm that performs the complete enumeration of traces. Finally, the third algorithm (SWA) is based on a sliding window strategy to improve the enumeration of traces. All proposed algorithms were able to enumerate traces for permutations with up to 200 elements. Conclusions We analysed the distribution of the enumerated traces with respect to their height and average reversal length. Various works indicate that the reversal length can be an important aspect in genome rearrangements. The algorithms RA and SWA show a tendency to lose traces with high average reversal length. Such traces are however rare, and qualitatively our results

  5. Noise-robust unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning with outlier handling. (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi


    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust and unsupervised spike sorting algorithm based on learning discriminative spike features for clustering. The proposed algorithm uses discriminative subspace learning to extract low dimensional and most discriminative features from the spike waveforms and perform clustering with automatic detection of the number of the clusters. The core part of the algorithm involves iterative subspace selection using linear discriminant analysis and clustering using Gaussian mixture model with outlier detection. A statistical test in the discriminative subspace is proposed to automatically detect the number of the clusters. Comparative results on publicly available simulated and real in vivo datasets demonstrate that our algorithm achieves substantially improved cluster distinction leading to higher sorting accuracy and more reliable detection of clusters which are highly overlapping and not detectable using conventional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis or wavelets. By providing more accurate information about the activity of more number of individual neurons with high robustness to neural noise and outliers, the proposed unsupervised spike sorting algorithm facilitates more detailed and accurate analysis of single- and multi-unit activities in neuroscience and brain machine interface studies.

  6. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J


    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of

  7. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes. (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A


    Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. The kSORT assay to detect renal transplant patients at high risk for acute rejection: results of the multicenter AART study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Roedder


    Full Text Available Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed. We sought to develop a test using a simple blood gene expression assay to detect patients at high risk for AR.We developed a novel correlation-based algorithm by step-wise analysis of gene expression data in 558 blood samples from 436 renal transplant patients collected across eight transplant centers in the US, Mexico, and Spain between 5 February 2005 and 15 December 2012 in the Assessment of Acute Rejection in Renal Transplantation (AART study. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR in one center. A 17-gene set--the Kidney Solid Organ Response Test (kSORT--was selected in 143 samples for AR classification using discriminant analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91-0.98, validated in 124 independent samples (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88-1.0 and evaluated for AR prediction in 191 serial samples, where it predicted AR up to 3 mo prior to detection by the current gold standard (biopsy. A novel reference-based algorithm (using 13 12-gene models was developed in 100 independent samples to provide a numerical AR risk score, to classify patients as high risk versus low risk for AR. kSORT was able to detect AR in blood independent of age, time post-transplantation, and sample source without additional data normalization; AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.99. Further validation of kSORT is planned in prospective clinical observational and interventional trials.The kSORT blood QPCR assay is a noninvasive tool to detect high risk of AR of renal transplants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail


    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees

  10. The role of waste sorting in the South African gold-mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer, J.S.; Boehme, R.C.


    The absolute potential for sorting waste from run-of-mine Witwatersrand gold ores normally lies between 60 and 90 per cent by mass. At present, the practical potential lies between 40 and 50 per cent. Yet few mines achieve a waste rejection of even 30 per cent. The average waste rejection for industry, including underground sorting, fell from 19,6 per cent in 1959 to 10,1 per cent in 1983, as industry moved from labour-intensive, multistage comminution, incorporating washing, screening, and sorting, to single-stage run-of-mine milling. Most of the sorting is still being done by hand; yet photometric and radiometric sorting machines of high capacity are available. More recently, a sorter based on neutron activation and the subsequent isomeric radioactive decay of gold itself was designed. This paper examines the case for an increased role for sorting in the South African gold-mining industry brought about by the increasing cost of power for milling and the possibility of extracting gold from low-grade reject fractions by heap leaching

  11. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.


    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  12. Learning banknote fitness for sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Markus, P.; Balke, P.


    In this work, a machine learning method is proposed for banknote soiling determination. We apply proven techniques from computer vision to come up with a robust and effective method for automatic sorting of banknotes. The proposed method is evaluated with respect to various invariance classes. The

  13. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  14. Volume reduction of dry active waste by use of a waste sorting table at the Brunswick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, P.B.


    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick nuclear power plant has been using a National Nuclear Corporation Model WST-18 Waste Sorting Table to monitor and sort dry active waste for segregating uncontaminated material as a means of low-level waste volume reduction. The WST-18 features 18 large-area, solid scintillation detectors arranged in a 3 x 6 array underneath a sorting/monitoring surface that is shielded from background radiation. An 11-week study at Brunswick showed that the use of the waste sorting table resulted in dramatic improvements in both productivity (man-hours expended per cubic foot of waste processed) and monitoring quality over the previous hand-probe frisking method. Use of the sorting table since the study has confirmed its effectiveness in volume reduction. The waste sorting table paid for its operation in volume reduction savings alone, without accounting for the additional savings from recovering reusable items

  15. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.


    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  16. Governmentally amplified output volatility (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito


    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  17. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G.; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.


    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed


    Krasichkov, A S; Grigoriev, E B; Nifontov, E M; Shapovalov, V V

    The paper presents an algorithm of cardio complex classification as part of processing the data of continuous cardiac monitoring. R-wave detection concurrently with cardio complex sorting is discussed. The core of this approach is the use of prior information about. cardio complex forms, segmental structure, and degree of kindness. Results of the sorting algorithm testing are provided.

  19. Short communication: Feed sorting of dairy heifers is influenced by method of dietary transition. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Vogel, J P; DeVries, T J


    This study investigated the effect of exposing heifers to individual feed components on the extent and pattern of feed sorting upon transition to a novel ration. Holstein heifers (394 ± 62 d old, weighing 409.8 ± 37.3 kg; mean ± SD), consuming a familiar mixed silage-based ration [55% corn silage and 45% haylage, dry matter (DM) basis], were transitioned to a novel total mixed ration [TMR; 41.6% haylage, 36.5% corn silage, 14.6% high-moisture corn, and 7.3% protein supplement, DM basis] by 1 of 2 treatments: direct transition to novel TMR (DIR; n = 5) or exposure to novel TMR components individually before receiving novel TMR (COM; n = 6). During the baseline period (d 1 to 4), all heifers were offered the familiar silage-based ration. During transition (d 5 to 12), DIR heifers received the novel TMR, whereas COM heifers received the novel TMR components offered separately, in amounts according to TMR composition (target 15% orts). After transition (d 13 to 20), all heifers received the novel TMR. Feed intake and feeding time were determined daily and fresh feed and individual orts were sampled every 2d for particle size analysis and neutral detergent fiber content. The particle size separator consisted of 3 screens (18, 9, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting activity for each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. We detected no effect of treatment on dry matter intake or feeding time. After transition to the novel TMR, COM heifers sorted to a greater extent than did DIR heifers, sorting against long particles (95.4 vs. 98.9%) and for short particles (101.7 vs. 100.6%). Differences in sorting patterns resulted in COM heifers tending to have lower neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of predicted intake (98.9 vs. 100.5%). The results of this study suggest that the degree of feed sorting may be influenced by method of transition to a novel

  20. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik


    and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.......Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  1. Bidirectional sorting of flocking particles in the presence of asymmetric barriers. (United States)

    Drocco, Jeffrey A; Olson Reichhardt, C J; Reichhardt, C


    We demonstrate numerically bidirectional sorting of flocking particles interacting with an array of V-shaped asymmetric barriers. Each particle aligns with the average swimming direction of its neighbors according to the Vicsek model and experiences additional steric interactions as well as repulsion from the fixed barriers. We show that particles preferentially localize to one side of the barrier array over time and that the direction of this rectification can be reversed by adjusting the particle-particle exclusion radius or the noise term in the equations of motion. These results provide a conceptual basis for isolation and sorting of single-cell and multicellular organisms that move collectively according to flocking-type interaction rules.

  2. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing. (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M


    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  3. Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting. (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Mutlu, Mehmet; Park, Joonsuk; Park, Woosung; Goodson, Kenneth E; Sinclair, Robert; Fan, Shanhui; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L


    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

  4. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha


    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  5. Efficient sorting using registers and caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickremesinghe, Rajiv; Arge, Lars Allan; Chase, Jeffrey S.


    . Inadequate models lead to poor algorithmic choices and an incomplete understanding of algorithm behavior on real machines.A key step toward developing better models is to quantify the performance effects of features not reflected in the models. This paper explores the effect of memory system features...... on sorting performance. We introduce a new cache-conscious sorting algorithm, R-MERGE, which achieves better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the theoretical models. R-MERGE is designed to minimize memory stall cycles rather than cache misses by considering features common to many......Modern computer systems have increasingly complex memory systems. Common machine models for algorithm analysis do not reflect many of the features of these systems, e.g., large register sets, lockup-free caches, cache hierarchies, associativity, cache line fetching, and streaming behavior...

  6. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip. (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing


    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A degradation-based sorting method for lithium-ion battery reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available In a world where millions of people are dependent on batteries to provide them with convenient and portable energy, battery recycling is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we developed a new method to sort 18650 Lithium-ion batteries in large quantities and in real time for harvesting used cells with enough capacity for battery reuse. Internal resistance and capacity tests were conducted as a basis for comparison with a novel degradation-based method based on X-ray radiographic scanning and digital image contrast computation. The test results indicate that the sorting accuracy of the test cells is about 79% and the execution time of our algorithm is at a level of 200 milliseconds, making our method a potential real-time solution for reusing the remaining capacity in good used cells.

  8. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: An evaluation of dry active waste sorting: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.


    The objective of this research was to determine the accuracy of manual inspection of Dry Active Waste (DAW). Three studies were conducted at two nuclear power plants in which unmodified DAW waste streams of roughly 10,000 items each were inspected by technicians using pancake probes. Sorting performance was measured unobtrusively by intercepting the ''outflow'' from inspection stations. Verification of sorting accuracy was performed with a prototype, semi-automated sorting table employing a matrix of fixed plastic scintillation detectors. More than 30,000 items of trash were examined, classified, counted, and verified, and the composition of the ''inflow'' to the inspection stations was determined by reconstructing the ''outflow'' components, as determined during verification procedures. The results showed that between 1 and 19% of all items in each of the three DAW waste streams were contaminated at levels ≥100 ccpm. Sixty-two percent of the ''contaminated'' items in Study I, 87% of the contaminated items in Study II, and 97% of the contaminated items in Study III were detected. One-half to one percent of all items classified as <100 ccpm by technicians were actually ≥100 ccpm. False positive rates were very high in all three studies. The production rates and accuracy obtained on the semi-automated plastic scintillation sorting table used during the verification stages of this project greatly exceeded the rates for manual sorting. 9 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro; Soba, Alejandro; Johansen, Tom H.; Sagués, Francesc


    We use a uniaxial garnet film with a magnetic bubble lattice to sort paramagnetic colloidal particles with different diameters, i.e., 1.0 and 2.8μm. We apply an external magnetic field which precesses around an axis normal to the film with a frequency Ω =62.8s-1 and intensity 3120A/m bubbles while the others are transported through the array. We complement the experimental measurements with numerical simulations to explore the sorting capability for particles with different magnetic moments.

  10. Pre-accretional sorting of grains in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Price, M. C.; Brownlee, D. E.


    Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are an important class of extraterrestrial material since their properties are consistent with a cometary origin and they show no evidence of significant post-accretional parent body alteration. Consequently, they can provide information about grain accretion in the comet-forming region of the outer solar nebula. We have previously reported our comparative study of the sizes and size distributions of crystalline silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs, in which we found these components exhibit a size-density relationship consistent with having been sorted together prior to accretion. Here we extend our data set and include GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), the most abundant amorphous silicate phase observed in CP IDPs. We find that while the silicate and sulfide sorting trend previously observed is maintained, the GEMS size data do not exhibit any clear relationship to these crystalline components. Therefore, GEMS do not appear to have been sorted with the silicate and sulfide crystals. The disparate sorting trends observed in GEMS and the crystalline grains in CP IDPs present an interesting challenge for modeling early transport and accretion processes. They may indicate that several sorting mechanisms operated on these CP IDP components, or alternatively, they may simply be a reflection of different source environments.

  11. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin


    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  12. An algorithm for 4D CT image sorting using spatial continuity. (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liu, Jie


    4D CT, which could locate the position of the movement of the tumor in the entire respiratory cycle and reduce image artifacts effectively, has been widely used in making radiation therapy of tumors. The current 4D CT methods required external surrogates of respiratory motion obtained from extra instruments. However, respiratory signals recorded by these external makers may not always accurately represent the internal tumor and organ movements, especially when irregular breathing patterns happened. In this paper we have proposed a novel automatic 4D CT sorting algorithm that performs without these external surrogates. The sorting algorithm requires collecting the image data with a cine scan protocol. Beginning with the first couch position, images from the adjacent couch position are selected out according to spatial continuity. The process is continued until images from all couch positions are sorted and the entire 3D volume is produced. The algorithm is verified by respiratory phantom image data and clinical image data. The primary test results show that the 4D CT images created by our algorithm have eliminated the motion artifacts effectively and clearly demonstrated the movement of tumor and organ in the breath period.

  13. How many neurons can we see with current spike sorting algorithms? (United States)

    Pedreira, Carlos; Martinez, Juan; Ison, Matias J; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo


    Recent studies highlighted the disagreement between the typical number of neurons observed with extracellular recordings and the ones to be expected based on anatomical and physiological considerations. This disagreement has been mainly attributed to the presence of sparsely firing neurons. However, it is also possible that this is due to limitations of the spike sorting algorithms used to process the data. To address this issue, we used realistic simulations of extracellular recordings and found a relatively poor spike sorting performance for simulations containing a large number of neurons. In fact, the number of correctly identified neurons for single-channel recordings showed an asymptotic behavior saturating at about 8-10 units, when up to 20 units were present in the data. This performance was significantly poorer for neurons with low firing rates, as these units were twice more likely to be missed than the ones with high firing rates in simulations containing many neurons. These results uncover one of the main reasons for the relatively low number of neurons found in extracellular recording and also stress the importance of further developments of spike sorting algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Automatic Color Sorting System for Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman


    The color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is becoming more important in the manufacture of hardwood products. Consumers, while admiring the natural appearance of hardwoods, do not like excessive color variation across product surfaces. Color uniformity is particularly important today because of the popularity of lightly stained products. Unfortunately, color sorting...

  15. Comparative environmental evaluation of construction waste management through different waste sorting systems in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Wu, Zezhou; Poon, Chi Sun


    This study aimed to compare the environmental performance of building construction waste management (CWM) systems in Hong Kong. Life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied to evaluate the performance of CWM systems holistically based on primary data collected from two real building construction sites and secondary data obtained from the literature. Different waste recovery rates were applied based on compositions and material flow to assess the influence on the environmental performance of CWM systems. The system boundary includes all stages of the life cycle of building construction waste (including transportation, sorting, public fill or landfill disposal, recovery and reuse, and transformation and valorization into secondary products). A substitutional LCA approach was applied for capturing the environmental gains due to the utilizations of recovered materials. The results showed that the CWM system by using off-site sorting and direct landfilling resulted in significant environmental impacts. However, a considerable net environmental benefit was observed through an on-site sorting system. For example, about 18-30kg CO 2 eq. greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission were induced for managing 1 t of construction waste through off-site sorting and direct landfilling, whereas significant GHGs emission could be potentially avoided (considered as a credit -126 to -182kg CO 2 eq.) for an on-site sorting system due to the higher recycling potential. Although the environmental benefits mainly depend on the waste compositions and their sortability, the analysis conducted in this study can serve as guidelines to design an effective and resource-efficient building CWM system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Efficient Algorithm for the All Sorting Reversals Problem with No Bad Components. (United States)

    Wang, Biing-Feng


    The problem of finding all reversals that take a permutation one step closer to a target permutation is called the all sorting reversals problem (the ASR problem). For this problem, Siepel had an O(n (3))-time algorithm. Most complications of his algorithm stem from some peculiar structures called bad components. Since bad components are very rare in both real and simulated data, it is practical to study the ASR problem with no bad components. For the ASR problem with no bad components, Swenson et al. gave an O (n(2))-time algorithm. Very recently, Swenson found that their algorithm does not always work. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the ASR problem with no bad components. The time complexity is O(n(2)) in the worst case and is linear in the size of input and output in practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  18. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah


    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  19. Quantum lower bound for sorting


    Shi, Yaoyun


    We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).

  20. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting. (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A


    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  1. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubito Nakatsu


    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  2. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.


    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  3. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. Reda


    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  4. Low power and high accuracy spike sorting microprocessor with on-line interpolation and re-alignment in 90 nm CMOS process. (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Chien; Ma, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chen, Liang-Gee


    Accurate spike sorting is an important issue for neuroscientific and neuroprosthetic applications. The sorting of spikes depends on the features extracted from the neural waveforms, and a better sorting performance usually comes with a higher sampling rate (SR). However for the long duration experiments on free-moving subjects, the miniaturized and wireless neural recording ICs are the current trend, and the compromise on sorting accuracy is usually made by a lower SR for the lower power consumption. In this paper, we implement an on-chip spike sorting processor with integrated interpolation hardware in order to improve the performance in terms of power versus accuracy. According to the fabrication results in 90nm process, if the interpolation is appropriately performed during the spike sorting, the system operated at the SR of 12.5 k samples per second (sps) can outperform the one not having interpolation at 25 ksps on both accuracy and power.

  5. Efficient Out of Core Sorting Algorithms for the Parallel Disks Model. (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar


    In this paper we present efficient algorithms for sorting on the Parallel Disks Model (PDM). Numerous asymptotically optimal algorithms have been proposed in the literature. However many of these merge based algorithms have large underlying constants in the time bounds, because they suffer from the lack of read parallelism on PDM. The irregular consumption of the runs during the merge affects the read parallelism and contributes to the increased sorting time. In this paper we first introduce a novel idea called the dirty sequence accumulation that improves the read parallelism. Secondly, we show analytically that this idea can reduce the number of parallel I/O's required to sort the input close to the lower bound of [Formula: see text]. We experimentally verify our dirty sequence idea with the standard R-Way merge and show that our idea can reduce the number of parallel I/Os to sort on PDM significantly.

  6. Modeling the effect of dune sorting on the river long profile (United States)

    Blom, A.


    River dunes, which occur in low slope sand bed and sand-gravel bed rivers, generally show a downward coarsening pattern due to grain flows down their avalanche lee faces. These grain flows cause coarse particles to preferentially deposit at lower elevations of the lee face, while fines show a preference for its upper elevations. Before considering the effect of this dune sorting mechanism on the river long profile, let us first have a look at some general trends along the river profile. Tributaries increasing the river's water discharge in streamwise direction also cause a streamwise increase in flow depth. As under subcritical conditions mean dune height generally increases with increasing flow depth, the dune height shows a streamwise increase, as well. This means that also the standard deviation of bedform height increases in streamwise direction, as in earlier work it was found that the standard deviation of bedform height linearly increases with an increasing mean value of bedform height. As a result of this streamwise increase in standard deviation of dune height, the above-mentioned dune sorting then results in a loss of coarse particles to the lower elevations of the bed that are less and even rarely exposed to the flow. This loss of coarse particles to lower elevations thus increases the rate of fining in streamwise direction. As finer material is more easily transported downstream than coarser material, a smaller bed slope is required to transport the same amount of sediment downstream. This means that dune sorting adds to river profile concavity, compared to the combined effect of abrasion, selective transport and tributaries. A Hirano-type mass conservation model is presented that deals with dune sorting. The model includes two active layers: a bedform layer representing the sediment in the bedforms and a coarse layer representing the coarse and less mobile sediment underneath migrating bedforms. The exposure of the coarse layer is governed by the rate

  7. Multi-objective calibration of a reservoir model: aggregation and non-dominated sorting approaches (United States)

    Huang, Y.


    Numerical reservoir models can be helpful tools for water resource management. These models are generally calibrated against historical measurement data made in reservoirs. In this study, two methods are proposed for the multi-objective calibration of such models: aggregation and non-dominated sorting methods. Both methods use a hybrid genetic algorithm as an optimization engine and are different in fitness assignment. In the aggregation method, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e. parameter values). The contribution of this study to the aggregation method is the correlation analysis and its implication to the choice of weight factors. In the non-dominated sorting method, a novel method based on non-dominated sorting and the method of minimal distance is used to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. The proposed methods are illustrated using a water quality model that was set up to simulate the water quality of Pepacton Reservoir, which is located to the north of New York City and is used for water supply of city. The study also compares the aggregation and the non-dominated sorting methods. The purpose of this comparison is not to evaluate the pros and cons between the two methods but to determine whether the parameter values, objective function values (simulation errors) and simulated results obtained are significantly different with each other. The final results (objective function values) from the two methods are good compromise between all objective functions, and none of these results are the worst for any objective function. The calibrated model provides an overall good performance and the simulated results with the calibrated parameter values match the observed data better than the un-calibrated parameters, which supports and justifies the use of multi-objective calibration. The results achieved in this study can be very useful for the calibration of water

  8. Sorting processes with energy-constrained comparisons* (United States)

    Geissmann, Barbara; Penna, Paolo


    We study very simple sorting algorithms based on a probabilistic comparator model. In this model, errors in comparing two elements are due to (1) the energy or effort put in the comparison and (2) the difference between the compared elements. Such algorithms repeatedly compare and swap pairs of randomly chosen elements, and they correspond to natural Markovian processes. The study of these Markov chains reveals an interesting phenomenon. Namely, in several cases, the algorithm that repeatedly compares only adjacent elements is better than the one making arbitrary comparisons: in the long-run, the former algorithm produces sequences that are "better sorted". The analysis of the underlying Markov chain poses interesting questions as the latter algorithm yields a nonreversible chain, and therefore its stationary distribution seems difficult to calculate explicitly. We nevertheless provide bounds on the stationary distributions and on the mixing time of these processes in several restrictions.

  9. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino


    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  10. Constructing Efficient Dictionaries in Close to Sorting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan


    to be a particularly challenging task. We present solutions to the static dictionary problem that significantly improve the previously known upper bounds and bring them close to obvious lower bounds. Our dictionaries have a constant lookup cost and use linear space, which was known to be possible, but the worst......-case cost of construction of the structures is proportional to only loglogn times the cost of sorting the input. Our claimed performance bounds are obtained in the word RAM model and in the external memory models; only the involved sorting procedures in the algorithms need to be changed between the models....

  11. Aldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skin


    Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro; Gragnani, Alfredo; Pereira, Thiago Antônio Calado; Correa, Silvana Aparecida Alves; Bonucci, Jessica; Ferreira, Lydia Masako


    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the use Aldefluor® and N, N - Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. Methods: Activated Aldefluor® aliquots were prepared and maintained at temperature between 2 to 8°C, or stored at -20°C. Next, the cells were collected following the standard protocol of sample preparation. Results: Best results were obtained with Aldefluor® 1.5µl and DEAB 15 µl for 1 x 106 c...

  12. Co-assembly of viral envelope glycoproteins regulates their polarized sorting in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mattera


    Full Text Available Newly synthesized envelope glycoproteins of neuroinvasive viruses can be sorted in a polarized manner to the somatodendritic and/or axonal domains of neurons. Although critical for transneuronal spread of viruses, the molecular determinants and interregulation of this process are largely unknown. We studied the polarized sorting of the attachment (NiV-G and fusion (NiV-F glycoproteins of Nipah virus (NiV, a paramyxovirus that causes fatal human encephalitis, in rat hippocampal neurons. When expressed individually, NiV-G exhibited a non-polarized distribution, whereas NiV-F was specifically sorted to the somatodendritic domain. Polarized sorting of NiV-F was dependent on interaction of tyrosine-based signals in its cytosolic tail with the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1. Co-expression of NiV-G with NiV-F abolished somatodendritic sorting of NiV-F due to incorporation of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes into axonal transport carriers. We propose that faster biosynthetic transport of unassembled NiV-F allows for its proteolytic activation in the somatodendritic domain prior to association with NiV-G and axonal delivery of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes. Our study reveals how interactions of viral glycoproteins with the host's transport machinery and between themselves regulate their polarized sorting in neurons.

  13. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.


    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  14. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  15. Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Pendidikan Agama Islam Melalui Penerapan Card Sort Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fadilah


    Full Text Available Appropriate learning methods should be applied in order to maximize the students’ ability during learning activities. The purpose of this study is to determine the improvement of learning achievement of Islamic Religious Education (PAI through the application of card sort learning method. Action study conducted on PAI learning. The material of this learning is to  understand the provision of sholat of fourth graders of Gunungsari State Elementary School 2 Kaliori Sub district Rembang District Lesson Year 2015/2016. The indicator of successful learning in this research is 75%. The results showed that the percentage of learning mastery at the pre cycle stage was 10.7%, 67.9% in the first cycle, and in the second cycle reached 92.9%. The average score of students' test results also increased significantly, ie the pre cycle stage was 58.8, the first cycle was 72.4, and in the second cycle reached 78.9. This means, through the implementation of card sort learning methode can improve student learning achievement on PAI learning material understanding the provision of sholat.  lAbstrak Metode pembelajaran yang tepat harus diterapkan untuk memaksimalkan kemampuan siswa selama kegiatan pembelajaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan prestasi belajar Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI melalui penerapan metode card sort. Studi tindakan (action research dilakukan pada pembelajaran PAI materi mengenai rukun sholat siswa kelas IV Sekolah Dasar Negeri Gunungsari 2 Kecamatan Kaliori Kabupaten Rembang Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016. Indikator eHasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase ketuntasan belajar pada tahap pra siklus sebesar 10,7%, pada siklus I sebesar 67,9%, dan pada siklus II mencapai 92,9%. Nilai rata-rata hasil tes siswa juga mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan, yaitu para tahap pra siklus sebesar 58,8, siklus I sebesar 72,4, dan pada siklus II naik menjadi 78,9. Hal ini berarti, melalui penerapan card sort learning dapat

  16. An efficient non-dominated sorting method for evolutionary algorithms. (United States)

    Fang, Hongbing; Wang, Qian; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Horstemeyer, Mark F


    We present a new non-dominated sorting algorithm to generate the non-dominated fronts in multi-objective optimization with evolutionary algorithms, particularly the NSGA-II. The non-dominated sorting algorithm used by NSGA-II has a time complexity of O(MN(2)) in generating non-dominated fronts in one generation (iteration) for a population size N and M objective functions. Since generating non-dominated fronts takes the majority of total computational time (excluding the cost of fitness evaluations) of NSGA-II, making this algorithm faster will significantly improve the overall efficiency of NSGA-II and other genetic algorithms using non-dominated sorting. The new non-dominated sorting algorithm proposed in this study reduces the number of redundant comparisons existing in the algorithm of NSGA-II by recording the dominance information among solutions from their first comparisons. By utilizing a new data structure called the dominance tree and the divide-and-conquer mechanism, the new algorithm is faster than NSGA-II for different numbers of objective functions. Although the number of solution comparisons by the proposed algorithm is close to that of NSGA-II when the number of objectives becomes large, the total computational time shows that the proposed algorithm still has better efficiency because of the adoption of the dominance tree structure and the divide-and-conquer mechanism.

  17. 6. Algorithms for Sorting and Searching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Algorithms - Algorithms for Sorting and Searching. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  18. Impact of respiratory-correlated CT sorting algorithms on the choice of margin definition for free-breathing lung radiotherapy treatments. (United States)

    Thengumpallil, Sheeba; Germond, Jean-François; Bourhis, Jean; Bochud, François; Moeckli, Raphaël


    To investigate the impact of Toshiba phase- and amplitude-sorting algorithms on the margin strategies for free-breathing lung radiotherapy treatments in the presence of breathing variations. 4D CT of a sphere inside a dynamic thorax phantom was acquired. The 4D CT was reconstructed according to the phase- and amplitude-sorting algorithms. The phantom was moved by reproducing amplitude, frequency, and a mix of amplitude and frequency variations. Artefact analysis was performed for Mid-Ventilation and ITV-based strategies on the images reconstructed by phase- and amplitude-sorting algorithms. The target volume deviation was assessed by comparing the target volume acquired during irregular motion to the volume acquired during regular motion. The amplitude-sorting algorithm shows reduced artefacts for only amplitude variations while the phase-sorting algorithm for only frequency variations. For amplitude and frequency variations, both algorithms perform similarly. Most of the artefacts are blurring and incomplete structures. We found larger artefacts and volume differences for the Mid-Ventilation with respect to the ITV strategy, resulting in a higher relative difference of the surface distortion value which ranges between maximum 14.6% and minimum 4.1%. The amplitude- is superior to the phase-sorting algorithm in the reduction of motion artefacts for amplitude variations while phase-sorting for frequency variations. A proper choice of 4D CT sorting algorithm is important in order to reduce motion artefacts, especially if Mid-Ventilation strategy is used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grain-size sorting in grainflows at the lee side of deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    The sorting of sediment mixtures at the lee slope of deltas (at the angle of repose) is studied with experiments in a narrow, deep flume with subaqueous Gilbert-type deltas using varied flow conditions and different sediment mixtures. Sediment deposition and sorting on the lee slope of the delta

  20. Trapping, focusing, and sorting of microparticles through bubble streaming (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha


    Ultrasound-driven oscillating microbubbles can set up vigorous steady streaming flows around the bubbles. In contrast to previous work, we make use of the interaction between the bubble streaming and the streaming induced around mobile particles close to the bubble. Our experiment superimposes a unidirectional Poiseuille flow containing a well-mixed suspension of neutrally buoyant particles with the bubble streaming. The particle-size dependence of the particle-bubble interaction selects which particles are transported and which particles are trapped near the bubbles. The sizes selected for can be far smaller than any scale imposed by the device geometry, and the selection mechanism is purely passive. Changing the amplitude and frequency of ultrasound driving, we can further control focusing and sorting of the trapped particles, leading to the emergence of sharply defined monodisperse particle streams within a much wider channel. Optimizing parameters for focusing and sorting are presented. The technique is applicable in important fields like cell sorting and drug delivery.

  1. Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment


    Pfeifer, Christian


    This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...

  2. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine


    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  3. A Proposed Analytical Model for Integrated Pick-and-Sort Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study we present an analytical approach for integration of order picking and sortation operations which are the most important, labour intensive and costly activity for warehouses. Main aim is to investigate order picking and sorting efficiencies under different design issues as a function of order wave size. Integrated analytical model is proposed to estimate the optimum order picking and order sortation efficiency. The model, which has been tested by simulations with different illustrative examples, calculates the optimum wave size that solves the trade-off between picking and sorting operations and makes the order picking and sortations efficiency maximum. Our model also allow system designer to predict the order picking and sorting capacity for different system configurations. This study presents an innovative approach for integrated warehouse operations.

  4. Heavy mineral sorting and distributions within massive sandstone divisions (Bouma A divisions) of Brushy Canyon Formation turbidites (United States)

    Motanated, K.; Tice, M. M.


    KANNIPA MOTANATED and MICHAEL M. TICE Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115, USA Sediment sorting data are commonly used for interpreting depositional environments, analyzing mechanisms of deposition and transportation, and inferring relative transport distance of sediments. Typically, sorting in sandstones is estimated by point-counting thin sections which is a time consuming procedure and requires cutting sections of rock samples. We demonstrate a new technique for quantifying sediment sorting using element distribution maps obtained by x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We show that hydraulic sorting of Zr- and Ti- bearing grains (probably zircon and rutile, respectively) results in characteristic vertical profiles of Zr and Ti abundances within the Bouma A divisions of turbidites of the Brushy Canyon Formation, Delaware Basin, southern New Mexico. Zr- and Ti- bearing grains decrease in abundance and diameter from bases to tops of A divisions in every sample examined in this study. These results contrast with previous observations which suggest that grading in Brushy Canyon Formation structureless sandstones is absent or rare. The data support turbiditic interpretations of these rocks against traction current interpretations which rely on the lack of textural grading. Grading is reflected in vertical profiles of Ti/Al, Zr/Al and Zr/Ti ratios, which each decrease upward. These compositional variations could potentially be used as geochemical proxies for physical sorting, and might be useful for inferring depositional processes and relative transport distances.

  5. A Linear Criterion to sort Color Components in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barriga Rodriguez


    Full Text Available The color and its representation play a basic role in Image Analysis process. Several methods can be beneficial whenever they have a correct representation of wave-length variations used to represent scenes with a camera. A wide variety of spaces and color representations is founded in specialized literature. Each one is useful in concrete circumstances and others may offer redundant color information (for instance, all RGB components are high correlated. This work deals with the task of identifying and sorting which component from several color representations offers the majority of information about the scene. This approach is based on analyzing linear dependences among each color component, by the implementation of a new sorting algorithm based on entropy. The proposal is tested in several outdoor/indoor scenes with different light conditions. Repeatability and stability are tested in order to guarantee its use in several image analysis applications. Finally, the results of this work have been used to enhance an external algorithm to compensate the camera random vibrations.

  6. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities. (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk


    In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103-9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3), while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103-2.9×105 CFU/m3). The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6-7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-9. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. The development and implementation of a dry active waste (DAW) sorting program at Catawba Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, J.H.; McNamara, P.N.


    Duke Power Company, like other nuclear utilities, bears a burdensome radwaste disposal cost that has rapidly escalated during recent years. Dry active waste (DAW) represents approximately 85% of the total radioactive waste volume shipped to low-level disposal facilities. Sorting waste with less than detectable radioactivity from waste with detectable radioactivity provides a volume reduction (VR) technique that can save significant radwaste disposal costs and conserve dwindling burial space. This paper presents the development and results of a project that was conducted at Catawba Nuclear Station to determine the volume reduction potential from sorting DAW. Guidelines are given so that other utilities can perform a VR potential study on a low cost basis. Based on the results of the DAW VR study, an overall DAW volume radiation program was initiated at Duke Power Company. This program includes personnel training, drumming techniques, bag tracking and equipment purchases for sorting. This program has been fully implemented at Duke Power Company since January 1, 1988 and preliminary results and savings are given

  8. Development of mathematical models and optimization of the process parameters of laser surface hardened EN25 steel using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (United States)

    Vignesh, S.; Dinesh Babu, P.; Surya, G.; Dinesh, S.; Marimuthu, P.


    The ultimate goal of all production entities is to select the process parameters that would be of maximum strength, minimum wear and friction. The friction and wear are serious problems in most of the industries which are influenced by the working set of parameters, oxidation characteristics and mechanism involved in formation of wear. The experimental input parameters such as sliding distance, applied load, and temperature are utilized in finding out the optimized solution for achieving the desired output responses such as coefficient of friction, wear rate, and volume loss. The optimization is performed with the help of a novel method, Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) based on an evolutionary algorithm. The regression equations obtained using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) are used in determining the optimum process parameters. Further, the results achieved through desirability approach in RSM are compared with that of the optimized solution obtained through NSGA-II. The results conclude that proposed evolutionary technique is much effective and faster than the desirability approach.

  9. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube


    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-borne fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68% was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (p"less than"0.001 higher normal germination (82% and 77%, respectively than that from the mid-season planting date (58%. Irrespective of planting date, unsorted seed and discoloured seed had higher levels of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. than the non-discoloured seed. Removal of discoloured seed by hand sorting eliminated Rhizoctonia spp. from all seed lots. Farmers can eliminate this pathogen by simply removing discoloured seed. Non-discoloured seed from the early-planted crop had the lowest level of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. The results indicate that planting date is an important consideration in improving the quality of hand-sorted farm-retained bean seed.

  10. The role of color sorting machine in reducing food safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Kecskes-Nagy


    Full Text Available It is the very difficult problem how we can decrease food safety risks in the product, which was polluted in process of cropping. According to professional literature almost the prevention is considered as an exclusive method to keep below safe level the content of DON toxin. The source of food safety in food chain is that the primary products suit the food safety requirements. It is a very difficult or sometimes it is not possible to correct food safety risk factors - which got into the products during cultivation - in the course of processing. Such factor is fusariotoxin in fodder and bread wheat. DON toxin is the most frequent toxin in cereals. The objective of the searching was to investigate, if it is possible to decrease DON toxin content of durum wheat and to minimize the food safety risk by application milling technology with good production practice and technological conditions. The samples were taken in the first phase of milling technology just before and after color sorting. According to measuring results Sortex Z+ optical sorting decreased DON toxin content of wheat. This mean that the food safety risks can be reduced by Sortex Z+ optical sorting machine. Our experiments proved if there is color sorting in the cleaning process preceding the milling of wheat then a part of the grain of wheat infected by Fusarium sp. can be selected. This improves the food safety parameters of given lot of wheat and decrease the toxin content. The flour made from contaminated grains of wheat can be a serious food safety risk. We would like to support scientifically the technical development of milling technology with our experimental data. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. International Society for Analytical Cytology biosafety standard for sorting of unfixed cells. (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid; Lambert, Claude; Ambrozak, David; Marti, Gerald E; Moss, Delynn M; Perfetto, Stephen P


    Cell sorting of viable biological specimens has become very prevalent in laboratories involved in basic and clinical research. As these samples can contain infectious agents, precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from hazards arising from the use of sorters are paramount. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) took a lead in establishing biosafety guidelines for sorting of unfixed cells (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117). During the time period these recommendations have been available, they have become recognized worldwide as the standard practices and safety precautions for laboratories performing viable cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 1997, and the document requires an update. Initially, suggestions about the document format and content were discussed among members of the ISAC Biosafety Committee and were incorporated into a draft version that was sent to all committee members for review. Comments were collected, carefully considered, and incorporated as appropriate into a draft document that was posted on the ISAC web site to invite comments from the flow cytometry community at large. The revised document was then submitted to ISAC Council for review. Simultaneously, further comments were sought from newly-appointed ISAC Biosafety committee members. This safety standard for performing viable cell sorting experiments was recently generated. The document contains background information on the biohazard potential of sorting and the hazard classification of infectious agents as well as recommendations on (1) sample handling, (2) operator training and personal protection, (3) laboratory design, (4) cell sorter set-up, maintenance, and decontamination, and (5) testing the instrument for the efficiency of aerosol containment. This standard constitutes an updated and expanded revision of the 1997 biosafety guideline document. It is intended to provide

  12. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C


    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  13. A polynomial-time algorithm to design push plans for sensorless parts sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.; Goaoc, X.; van der Stappen, A.F.


    We consider the efficient computation of sequences of push actions that simultaneously orient two different polygons. Our motivation for studying this problem comes from the observation that appropriately oriented parts admit simple sensorless sorting. We study the sorting of two polygonal parts by

  14. Study on Impact Acoustic-Visual Sensor-Based Sorting of ELV Plastic Materials. (United States)

    Huang, Jiu; Tian, Chuyuan; Ren, Jingwei; Bian, Zhengfu


    This paper concentrates on a study of a novel multi-sensor aided method by using acoustic and visual sensors for detection, recognition and separation of End-of Life vehicles' (ELVs) plastic materials, in order to optimize the recycling rate of automotive shredder residues (ASRs). Sensor-based sorting technologies have been utilized for material recycling for the last two decades. One of the problems still remaining results from black and dark dyed plastics which are very difficult to recognize using visual sensors. In this paper a new multi-sensor technology for black plastic recognition and sorting by using impact resonant acoustic emissions (AEs) and laser triangulation scanning was introduced. A pilot sorting system which consists of a 3-dimensional visual sensor and an acoustic sensor was also established; two kinds commonly used vehicle plastics, polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and two kinds of modified vehicle plastics, polypropylene/ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (PP-EPDM) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate (ABS-PC) were tested. In this study the geometrical features of tested plastic scraps were measured by the visual sensor, and their corresponding impact acoustic emission (AE) signals were acquired by the acoustic sensor. The signal processing and feature extraction of visual data as well as acoustic signals were realized by virtual instruments. Impact acoustic features were recognized by using FFT based power spectral density analysis. The results shows that the characteristics of the tested PP and ABS plastics were totally different, but similar to their respective modified materials. The probability of scrap material recognition rate, i.e., the theoretical sorting efficiency between PP and PP-EPDM, could reach about 50%, and between ABS and ABS-PC it could reach about 75% with diameters ranging from 14 mm to 23 mm, and with exclusion of abnormal impacts, the actual separation rates were 39.2% for PP, 41

  15. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques


    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.


    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  16. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orrú, C.


    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic

  17. Self-sorting of guests and hard blocks in bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterhuis, N.E.; Karthikeyan, S.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Sijbesma, R.P.


    Self-sorting in thermoplastic elastomers was studied using bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) which are known to form hard blocks via hierarchical aggregation of bisurea segments into ribbons and of ribbons into fibers. Self-sorting of different bisurea hard blocks in mixtures of polymers

  18. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.


    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  19. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor


    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  20. Efficient Sorting on the Tilera Manycore Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Valero, Mateo


    e present an efficient implementation of the radix sort algo- rithm for the Tilera TILEPro64 processor. The TILEPro64 is one of the first successful commercial manycore processors. It is com- posed of 64 tiles interconnected through multiple fast Networks- on-chip and features a fully coherent, shared distributed cache. The architecture has a large degree of flexibility, and allows various optimization strategies. We describe how we mapped the algorithm to this architecture. We present an in-depth analysis of the optimizations for each phase of the algorithm with respect to the processor’s sustained performance. We discuss the overall throughput reached by our radix sort implementation (up to 132 MK/s) and show that it provides comparable or better performance-per-watt with respect to state-of-the art implemen- tations on x86 processors and graphic processing units.

  1. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation. (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R


    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date.

  2. Performance evaluation of PCA-based spike sorting algorithms. (United States)

    Adamos, Dimitrios A; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George


    Deciphering the electrical activity of individual neurons from multi-unit noisy recordings is critical for understanding complex neural systems. A widely used spike sorting algorithm is being evaluated for single-electrode nerve trunk recordings. The algorithm is based on principal component analysis (PCA) for spike feature extraction. In the neuroscience literature it is generally assumed that the use of the first two or most commonly three principal components is sufficient. We estimate the optimum PCA-based feature space by evaluating the algorithm's performance on simulated series of action potentials. A number of modifications are made to the open source nev2lkit software to enable systematic investigation of the parameter space. We introduce a new metric to define clustering error considering over-clustering more favorable than under-clustering as proposed by experimentalists for our data. Both the program patch and the metric are available online. Correlated and white Gaussian noise processes are superimposed to account for biological and artificial jitter in the recordings. We report that the employment of more than three principal components is in general beneficial for all noise cases considered. Finally, we apply our results to experimental data and verify that the sorting process with four principal components is in agreement with a panel of electrophysiology experts.

  3. The Methods and Goals of Teaching Sorting Algorithms in Public Education (United States)

    Bernát, Péter


    The topic of sorting algorithms is a pleasant subject of informatics education. Not only is it so because the notion of sorting is well known from our everyday life, but also because as an algorithm task, whether we expect naive or practical solutions, it is easy to define and demonstrate. In my paper I will present some of the possible methods…

  4. An Efficient Hardware Circuit for Spike Sorting Based on Competitive Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Yuan Chen


    Full Text Available This study aims to present an effective VLSI circuit for multi-channel spike sorting. The circuit supports the spike detection, feature extraction and classification operations. The detection circuit is implemented in accordance with the nonlinear energy operator algorithm. Both the peak detection and area computation operations are adopted for the realization of the hardware architecture for feature extraction. The resulting feature vectors are classified by a circuit for competitive learning (CL neural networks. The CL circuit supports both online training and classification. In the proposed architecture, all the channels share the same detection, feature extraction, learning and classification circuits for a low area cost hardware implementation. The clock-gating technique is also employed for reducing the power dissipation. To evaluate the performance of the architecture, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC implementation is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed circuit exhibits the advantages of a low chip area, a low power dissipation and a high classification success rate for spike sorting.

  5. An Efficient Hardware Circuit for Spike Sorting Based on Competitive Learning Networks (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Chang


    This study aims to present an effective VLSI circuit for multi-channel spike sorting. The circuit supports the spike detection, feature extraction and classification operations. The detection circuit is implemented in accordance with the nonlinear energy operator algorithm. Both the peak detection and area computation operations are adopted for the realization of the hardware architecture for feature extraction. The resulting feature vectors are classified by a circuit for competitive learning (CL) neural networks. The CL circuit supports both online training and classification. In the proposed architecture, all the channels share the same detection, feature extraction, learning and classification circuits for a low area cost hardware implementation. The clock-gating technique is also employed for reducing the power dissipation. To evaluate the performance of the architecture, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed circuit exhibits the advantages of a low chip area, a low power dissipation and a high classification success rate for spike sorting. PMID:28956859

  6. Unit 16 - Output


    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.


    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  7. Mimicking Faraday rotation to sort the orbital angular momentum of light. (United States)

    Zhang, Wuhong; Qi, Qianqian; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Lixiang


    The efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to both the classical and quantum applications with twisted photons. Here we devise and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method of mimicking the Faraday rotation to sort the OAM based on the OAM-to-polarization coupling effect induced by a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our device is capable of sorting the OAM of positive and negative numbers, as well as their mixtures. Furthermore, we report the first experimental demonstration to sort optical vortices of noninteger charges. The possibility of working at the photon-count level is also shown using an electron-multiplying CCD camera. Our scheme holds promise for quantum information applications with single-photon entanglement and for high-capacity communication systems with polarization and OAM multiplexing.

  8. Culture of somatic cells isolated from frozen-thawed equine semen using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. (United States)

    Brom-de-Luna, Joao Gatto; Canesin, Heloísa Siqueira; Wright, Gus; Hinrichs, Katrin


    Nuclear transfer using somatic cells from frozen semen (FzSC) would allow cloning of animals for which no other genetic material is available. Horses are one of the few species for which cloning is commercially feasible; despite this, there is no information available on the culture of equine FzSC. After preliminary trials on equine FzSC, recovered by density-gradient centrifugation, resulted in no growth, we hypothesized that sperm in the culture system negatively affected cell proliferation. Therefore, we evaluated culture of FzSC isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. In Exp. 1, sperm were labeled using antibodies to a sperm-specific antigen, SP17, and unlabeled cells were collected. This resulted in high sperm contamination. In Exp. 2, FzSC were labeled using an anti-MHC class I antibody. This resulted in an essentially pure population of FzSC, 13-25% of which were nucleated. Culture yielded no proliferation in any of nine replicates. In Exp. 3, 5 × 10 3 viable fresh, cultured horse fibroblasts were added to the frozen-thawed, washed semen, then this suspension was labeled and sorted as for Exp. 2. The enriched population had a mean of five sperm per recovered somatic cell; culture yielded formation of monolayers. In conclusion, an essentially pure population of equine FzSC could be obtained using sorting for presence of MHC class I antigens. No equine FzSC grew in culture; however, the proliferation of fibroblasts subjected to the same processing demonstrated that the labeling and sorting methods, and the presence of few sperm in culture, were compatible with cell viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.


    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  10. A note on sorting buffrs offline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, H.L.; Megow, N.; Sitters, R.A.; van Stee, R.


    We consider the offline sorting buffer problem. The input is a sequence of items of different types. All items must be processed one by one by a server. The server is equipped with a random-access buffer of limited capacity which can be used to rearrange items. The problem is to design a scheduling

  11. Relevance-aware filtering of tuples sorted by an attribute value via direct optimization of search quality metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spirin, N.V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kiseleva, Y.; Spirin, Y.V.; Izhutov, P.A.


    Sorting tuples by an attribute value is a common search scenario and many search engines support such capabilities, e.g. price-based sorting in e-commerce, time-based sorting on a job or social media website. However, sorting purely by the attribute value might lead to poor user experience because

  12. School accountability Incentives or sorting?


    Hege Marie Gjefsen; Trude Gunnes


    We exploit a nested school accountability reform to estimate the causal effect on teacher mobility, sorting, and student achievement. In 2003, lower-secondary schools in Oslo became accountable to the school district authority for student achievement. In 2005, information on school performance in lower secondary education also became public. Using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, we find a significant increase in teacher mobility and that almost all non-stayers leave the tea...

  13. The effect of signal variability on the histograms of anthropomorphic channel outputs: factors resulting in non-normally distributed data (United States)

    Elshahaby, Fatma E. A.; Ghaly, Michael; Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.


    Model Observers are widely used in medical imaging for the optimization and evaluation of instrumentation, acquisition parameters and image reconstruction and processing methods. The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) is a commonly used model observer in nuclear medicine and has seen increasing use in other modalities. An anthropmorphic CHO consists of a set of channels that model some aspects of the human visual system and the Hotelling Observer, which is the optimal linear discriminant. The optimality of the CHO is based on the assumption that the channel outputs for data with and without the signal present have a multivariate normal distribution with equal class covariance matrices. The channel outputs result from the dot product of channel templates with input images and are thus the sum of a large number of random variables. The central limit theorem is thus often used to justify the assumption that the channel outputs are normally distributed. In this work, we aim to examine this assumption for realistically simulated nuclear medicine images when various types of signal variability are present.

  14. Gypsum and organic matter distribution in a mixed construction and demolition waste sorting process and their possible removal from outputs. (United States)

    Montero, A; Tojo, Y; Matsuo, T; Matsuto, T; Yamada, M; Asakura, H; Ono, Y


    With insufficient source separation, construction and demolition (C&D) waste becomes a mixed material that is difficult to recycle. Treatment of mixed C&D waste generates residue that contains gypsum and organic matter and poses a risk of H(2)S formation in landfills. Therefore, removing gypsum and organic matter from the residue is vital. This study investigated the distribution of gypsum and organic matter in a sorting process. Heavy liquid separation was used to determine the density ranges in which gypsum and organic matter were most concentrated. The fine residue that was separated before shredding accounted for 27.9% of the waste mass and contained the greatest quantity of gypsum; therefore, most of the gypsum (52.4%) was distributed in this fraction. When this fine fraction was subjected to heavy liquid separation, 93% of the gypsum was concentrated in the density range of 1.59-2.28, which contained 24% of the total waste mass. Therefore, removing this density range after segregating fine particles should reduce the amount of gypsum sent to landfills. Organic matter tends to float as density increases; nevertheless, separation at 1.0 density could be more efficient. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.


    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  16. In-flight Sorting of BNNTs by Aspect Ratio (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key technical challenges are: (a) mechanical sorting is ineffective for nanoscale product, (b) BNNTs are non-conductive and the agglomeration tendency is strong,...

  17. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  18. Output controllability of nonlinear systems with bounded control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael; D'Attellis, Carlos


    The control problem treated in this paper is the output controllability of a nonlinear system in the form: x = f(x) + g(x)u(t); y = h(x), using bounded controls. The approach to the problem consists of a modification in the system using dynamic feedback in such a way that the input/output behaviour of the closed loop matches the input/output behaviour of a completely output-controllable system with bounded controls. Sufficient conditions are also put forward on the system so that a compact set in the output space may be reached in finite time using uniformally bounded controls, and a result on output regulation in finite time with asymptotic state stabilization is obtained. (Author)

  19. Size-based sorting of micro-particles using microbubble streaming (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha


    Oscillating microbubbles driven by ultrasound have shown great potential in microfluidic applications, such as transporting particles and promoting mixing [1-3]. The oscillations generate secondary steady streaming that can also trap particles. We use the streaming to develop a method of sorting particles of different sizes in an initially well-mixed solution. The solution is fed into a channel consisting of bubbles placed periodically along a side wall. When the bubbles are excited by an ultrasound piezo-electric transducer to produce steady streaming, the flow field is altered by the presence of the particles. This effect is dependent on particle size and results in size-based sorting of the particles. The effectiveness of the separation depends on the dimensions of the bubbles and particles as well as on the ultrasound frequency. Our experimental studies are aimed at a better understanding of the design and control of effective microfluidic separating devices. Ref: [1] P. Marmottant and S. Hilgenfeldt, Nature 423, 153 (2003). [2] P. Marmottant and S. Hilgenfeldt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Science USA, 101, 9523 (2004). [3] P. Marmottant, J.-P. Raven, H. Gardeniers, J. G. Bomer, and S. Hilgenfeldt, J. Fluid Mech., vol.568, 109 (2006).

  20. FISHIS: fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension and chromosome flow sorting made easy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Giorgi

    Full Text Available The large size and complex polyploid nature of many genomes has often hampered genomics development, as is the case for several plants of high agronomic value. Isolating single chromosomes or chromosome arms via flow sorting offers a clue to resolve such complexity by focusing sequencing to a discrete and self-consistent part of the whole genome. The occurrence of sufficient differences in the size and or base-pair composition of the individual chromosomes, which is uncommon in plants, is critical for the success of flow sorting. We overcome this limitation by developing a robust method for labeling isolated chromosomes, named Fluorescent In situ Hybridization In suspension (FISHIS. FISHIS employs fluorescently labeled synthetic repetitive DNA probes, which are hybridized, in a wash-less procedure, to chromosomes in suspension following DNA alkaline denaturation. All typical A, B and D genomes of wheat, as well as individual chromosomes from pasta (T. durum L. and bread (T. aestivum L. wheat, were flow-sorted, after FISHIS, at high purity. For the first time in eukaryotes, each individual chromosome of a diploid organism, Dasypyrum villosum (L. Candargy, was flow-sorted regardless of its size or base-pair related content. FISHIS-based chromosome sorting is a powerful and innovative flow cytogenetic tool which can develop new genomic resources from each plant species, where microsatellite DNA probes are available and high quality chromosome suspensions could be produced. The joining of FISHIS labeling and flow sorting with the Next Generation Sequencing methodology will enforce genomics for more species, and by this mightier chromosome approach it will be possible to increase our knowledge about structure, evolution and function of plant genome to be used for crop improvement. It is also anticipated that this technique could contribute to analyze and sort animal chromosomes with peculiar cytogenetic abnormalities, such as copy number variations

  1. FISHIS: fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension and chromosome flow sorting made easy. (United States)

    Giorgi, Debora; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Gennaro, Andrea; Ceoloni, Carla; Lucretti, Sergio


    The large size and complex polyploid nature of many genomes has often hampered genomics development, as is the case for several plants of high agronomic value. Isolating single chromosomes or chromosome arms via flow sorting offers a clue to resolve such complexity by focusing sequencing to a discrete and self-consistent part of the whole genome. The occurrence of sufficient differences in the size and or base-pair composition of the individual chromosomes, which is uncommon in plants, is critical for the success of flow sorting. We overcome this limitation by developing a robust method for labeling isolated chromosomes, named Fluorescent In situ Hybridization In suspension (FISHIS). FISHIS employs fluorescently labeled synthetic repetitive DNA probes, which are hybridized, in a wash-less procedure, to chromosomes in suspension following DNA alkaline denaturation. All typical A, B and D genomes of wheat, as well as individual chromosomes from pasta (T. durum L.) and bread (T. aestivum L.) wheat, were flow-sorted, after FISHIS, at high purity. For the first time in eukaryotes, each individual chromosome of a diploid organism, Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, was flow-sorted regardless of its size or base-pair related content. FISHIS-based chromosome sorting is a powerful and innovative flow cytogenetic tool which can develop new genomic resources from each plant species, where microsatellite DNA probes are available and high quality chromosome suspensions could be produced. The joining of FISHIS labeling and flow sorting with the Next Generation Sequencing methodology will enforce genomics for more species, and by this mightier chromosome approach it will be possible to increase our knowledge about structure, evolution and function of plant genome to be used for crop improvement. It is also anticipated that this technique could contribute to analyze and sort animal chromosomes with peculiar cytogenetic abnormalities, such as copy number variations or cytogenetic

  2. Size and density sorting of dust grains in SPH simulations of protoplanetary discs (United States)

    Pignatale, F. C.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Cuello, Nicolas; Bourdon, Bernard; Fitoussi, Caroline


    The size and density of dust grains determine their response to gas drag in protoplanetary discs. Aerodynamical (size × density) sorting is one of the proposed mechanisms to explain the grain properties and chemical fractionation of chondrites. However, the efficiency of aerodynamical sorting and the location in the disc in which it could occur are still unknown. Although the effects of grain sizes and growth in discs have been widely studied, a simultaneous analysis including dust composition is missing. In this work, we present the dynamical evolution and growth of multicomponent dust in a protoplanetary disc using a 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the dust vertical settling is characterized by two phases: a density-driven phase that leads to a vertical chemical sorting of dust and a size-driven phase that enhances the amount of lighter material in the mid-plane. We also see an efficient radial chemical sorting of the dust at large scales. We find that dust particles are aerodynamically sorted in the inner disc. The disc becomes sub-solar in its Fe/Si ratio on the surface since the early stage of evolution but sub-solar Fe/Si can be also found in the outer disc-mid-plane at late stages. Aggregates in the disc mimic the physical and chemical properties of chondrites, suggesting that aerodynamical sorting played an important role in determining their final structure.

  3. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar


    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  4. A new technology for automatic identification and sorting of plastics for recycling. (United States)

    Ahmad, S R


    A new technology for automatic sorting of plastics, based upon optical identification of fluorescence signatures of dyes, incorporated in such materials in trace concentrations prior to product manufacturing, is described. Three commercial tracers were selected primarily on the basis of their good absorbency in the 310-370 nm spectral band and their identifiable narrow-band fluorescence signatures in the visible band of the spectrum when present in binary combinations. This absorption band was selected because of the availability of strong emission lines in this band from a commercial Hg-arc lamp and high fluorescence quantum yields of the tracers at this excitation wavelength band. The plastics chosen for tracing and identification are HDPE, LDPE, PP, EVA, PVC and PET and the tracers were compatible and chemically non-reactive with the host matrices and did not affect the transparency of the plastics. The design of a monochromatic and collimated excitation source, the sensor system are described and their performances in identifying and sorting plastics doped with tracers at a few parts per million concentration levels are evaluated. In an industrial sorting system, the sensor was able to sort 300 mm long plastic bottles at a conveyor belt speed of 3.5 m.sec(-1) with a sorting purity of -95%. The limitation was imposed due to mechanical singulation irregularities at high speed and the limited processing speed of the computer used.

  5. Unified selective sorting approach to analyse multi-electrode extracellular data (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, R.; Lim, C. P.; Nguyen, T. T.; Berk, M.; Tye, S. J.; Monaghan, P.; Nahavandi, S.; Bhatti, A.


    Extracellular data analysis has become a quintessential method for understanding the neurophysiological responses to stimuli. This demands stringent techniques owing to the complicated nature of the recording environment. In this paper, we highlight the challenges in extracellular multi-electrode recording and data analysis as well as the limitations pertaining to some of the currently employed methodologies. To address some of the challenges, we present a unified algorithm in the form of selective sorting. Selective sorting is modelled around hypothesized generative model, which addresses the natural phenomena of spikes triggered by an intricate neuronal population. The algorithm incorporates Cepstrum of Bispectrum, ad hoc clustering algorithms, wavelet transforms, least square and correlation concepts which strategically tailors a sequence to characterize and form distinctive clusters. Additionally, we demonstrate the influence of noise modelled wavelets to sort overlapping spikes. The algorithm is evaluated using both raw and synthesized data sets with different levels of complexity and the performances are tabulated for comparison using widely accepted qualitative and quantitative indicators. PMID:27339770

  6. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov


    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and has been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large-scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...... sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...

  7. How to develop a Standard Operating Procedure for sorting unfixed cells (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid


    Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. PMID:22381383

  8. How to develop a standard operating procedure for sorting unfixed cells. (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid


    Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi


    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan


    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  11. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.


    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  12. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  13. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.


    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  14. Magnetic measurement, sorting optimization and adjustment of SDUV-FEL hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Jia Qika


    Construction of an undulator includes magnet block measurement, sorting, field measurement and adjustment. Optimizing SDUV-FEL undulator by simulated annealing algorithm using measurement results of the magnet blocks by Helmholtz coil before installing undulator magnets, the cost function can be reduced by three orders of magnitude. The practical parameters of one segment meet the design specifications after adjusting the magnetic field. (authors)

  15. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells (United States)

    Pilát, Zdeněk.; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel


    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment, dedicated to identification and sorting of biological objects, such as living cells of various unicellular organisms. Our main goal was to create a robust and universal platform for non-destructive and non-contact sorting of micro-objects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect spectra containing information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of pigments, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, avoiding artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used a mixture of polystyrene micro-particles and algal cells to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  16. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)


    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  17. Restricted DCJ-indel model: sorting linear genomes with DCJ and indels (United States)


    Background The double-cut-and-join (DCJ) is a model that is able to efficiently sort a genome into another, generalizing the typical mutations (inversions, fusions, fissions, translocations) to which genomes are subject, but allowing the existence of circular chromosomes at the intermediate steps. In the general model many circular chromosomes can coexist in some intermediate step. However, when the compared genomes are linear, it is more plausible to use the so-called restricted DCJ model, in which we proceed the reincorporation of a circular chromosome immediately after its creation. These two consecutive DCJ operations, which create and reincorporate a circular chromosome, mimic a transposition or a block-interchange. When the compared genomes have the same content, it is known that the genomic distance for the restricted DCJ model is the same as the distance for the general model. If the genomes have unequal contents, in addition to DCJ it is necessary to consider indels, which are insertions and deletions of DNA segments. Linear time algorithms were proposed to compute the distance and to find a sorting scenario in a general, unrestricted DCJ-indel model that considers DCJ and indels. Results In the present work we consider the restricted DCJ-indel model for sorting linear genomes with unequal contents. We allow DCJ operations and indels with the following constraint: if a circular chromosome is created by a DCJ, it has to be reincorporated in the next step (no other DCJ or indel can be applied between the creation and the reincorporation of a circular chromosome). We then develop a sorting algorithm and give a tight upper bound for the restricted DCJ-indel distance. Conclusions We have given a tight upper bound for the restricted DCJ-indel distance. The question whether this bound can be reduced so that both the general and the restricted DCJ-indel distances are equal remains open. PMID:23281630

  18. A Novel and Simple Spike Sorting Implementation. (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Poirazi, Panayiota


    Monitoring the activity of multiple, individual neurons that fire spikes in the vicinity of an electrode, namely perform a Spike Sorting (SS) procedure, comprises one of the most important tools for contemporary neuroscience in order to reverse-engineer the brain. As recording electrodes' technology rabidly evolves by integrating thousands of electrodes in a confined spatial setting, the algorithms that are used to monitor individual neurons from recorded signals have to become even more reliable and computationally efficient. In this work, we propose a novel framework of the SS approach in which a single-step processing of the raw (unfiltered) extracellular signal is sufficient for both the detection and sorting of the activity of individual neurons. Despite its simplicity, the proposed approach exhibits comparable performance with state-of-the-art approaches, especially for spike detection in noisy signals, and paves the way for a new family of SS algorithms with the potential for multi-recording, fast, on-chip implementations.

  19. The effect of transverse bed slope and sediment mobility on bend sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisscher, S.A.H.; Baar, A.W.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Kleinhans, MG


    Lateral sorting (= bend sorting) is observed in  natural meanders, where the inner and outer  bend are fairly fine and coarse, respectively  (e.g. Julien and Anthony, 2002; Clayton and  Pitlick, 2007). This is caused by the mass  differences between grains on a

  20. Robust spike sorting of retinal ganglion cells tuned to spot stimuli. (United States)

    Ghahari, Alireza; Badea, Tudor C


    We propose an automatic spike sorting approach for the data recorded from a microelectrode array during visual stimulation of wild type retinas with tiled spot stimuli. The approach first detects individual spikes per electrode by their signature local minima. With the mixture probability distribution of the local minima estimated afterwards, it applies a minimum-squared-error clustering algorithm to sort the spikes into different clusters. A template waveform for each cluster per electrode is defined, and a number of reliability tests are performed on it and its corresponding spikes. Finally, a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to deal with the correlated templates per cluster type across all the electrodes. According to the measures of performance of the spike sorting approach, it is robust even in the cases of recordings with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Past, present and future of spike sorting techniques. (United States)

    Rey, Hernan Gonzalo; Pedreira, Carlos; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo


    Spike sorting is a crucial step to extract information from extracellular recordings. With new recording opportunities provided by the development of new electrodes that allow monitoring hundreds of neurons simultaneously, the scenario for the new generation of algorithms is both exciting and challenging. However, this will require a new approach to the problem and the development of a common reference framework to quickly assess the performance of new algorithms. In this work, we review the basic concepts of spike sorting, including the requirements for different applications, together with the problems faced by presently available algorithms. We conclude by proposing a roadmap stressing the crucial points to be addressed to support the neuroscientific research of the near future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin


    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  3. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W


    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  4. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristovici, M.A.


    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content ( 2 (2 counts/in 2 ) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm 2 (5-6 counts/in 2 ) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  5. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa'ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon


    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t -test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  6. Synthesis of models for order-sorted first-order theories using linear algebra and constraint solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lucas


    Full Text Available Recent developments in termination analysis for declarative programs emphasize the use of appropriate models for the logical theory representing the program at stake as a generic approach to prove termination of declarative programs. In this setting, Order-Sorted First-Order Logic provides a powerful framework to represent declarative programs. It also provides a target logic to obtain models for other logics via transformations. We investigate the automatic generation of numerical models for order-sorted first-order logics and its use in program analysis, in particular in termination analysis of declarative programs. We use convex domains to give domains to the different sorts of an order-sorted signature; we interpret the ranked symbols of sorted signatures by means of appropriately adapted convex matrix interpretations. Such numerical interpretations permit the use of existing algorithms and tools from linear algebra and arithmetic constraint solving to synthesize the models.

  7. SU-E-J-26: A Novel Technique for Markerless Self-Sorted 4D-CBCT Using Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Harris, W; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Purpose: To develop an automatic markerless 4D-CBCT projection sorting technique by using a patient respiratory motion model extracted from the planning 4D-CT images. Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of one phase of the prior planning 4D-CT. The deformation field map (DFM) is represented as a linear combination of three major deformation patterns extracted from the planning 4D-CT using principle component analysis (PCA). The coefficients of the PCA deformation patterns are solved by matching the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the deformed volume to the onboard projection acquired. The PCA coefficients are solved for each single projection, and are used for phase sorting. Projections at the peaks of the Z direction coefficient are sorted as phase 1 and other projections are assigned into 10 phase bins by dividing phases equally between peaks. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the proposed technique. Three scenarios were simulated, with different tumor motion amplitude (3cm to 2cm), tumor spatial shift (8mm SI), and tumor body motion phase shift (2 phases) from prior to on-board images. Projections were simulated over 180 degree scan-angle for the 4D-XCAT. The percentage of accurately binned projections across entire dataset was calculated to represent the phase sorting accuracy. Results: With a changed tumor motion amplitude from 3cm to 2cm, markerless phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor phase shift of 2 phases w.r.t. body motion, the phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor spatial shift of 8mm in SI direction, phase sorting accuracy was 86.1%. Conclusion: The XCAT phantom simulation results demonstrated that it is feasible to use prior knowledge and motion modeling technique to achieve markerless 4D-CBCT phase sorting. National Institutes of Health Grant No. R01-CA184173 Varian Medical System.

  8. Prions amplify through degradation of the VPS10P sorting receptor sortilin. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Tomita, Mitsuru; Yano, Masashi; Chida, Junji; Hara, Hideyuki; Das, Nandita Rani; Nykjaer, Anders; Sakaguchi, Suehiro


    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions, which consist mainly of the abnormally folded isoform of prion protein, PrPSc. A pivotal pathogenic event in prion disease is progressive accumulation of prions, or PrPSc, in brains through constitutive conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, into PrPSc. However, the cellular mechanism by which PrPSc is progressively accumulated in prion-infected neurons remains unknown. Here, we show that PrPSc is progressively accumulated in prion-infected cells through degradation of the VPS10P sorting receptor sortilin. We first show that sortilin interacts with PrPC and PrPSc and sorts them to lysosomes for degradation. Consistently, sortilin-knockdown increased PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. In contrast, overexpression of sortilin reduced PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. These results indicate that sortilin negatively regulates PrPSc accumulation in prion-infected cells. The negative role of sortilin in PrPSc accumulation was further confirmed in sortilin-knockout mice infected with prions. The infected mice had accelerated prion disease with early accumulation of PrPSc in their brains. Interestingly, sortilin was reduced in prion-infected cells and mouse brains. Treatment of prion-infected cells with lysosomal inhibitors, but not proteasomal inhibitors, increased the levels of sortilin. Moreover, sortilin was reduced following PrPSc becoming detectable in cells after infection with prions. These results indicate that PrPSc accumulation stimulates sortilin degradation in lysosomes. Taken together, these results show that PrPSc accumulation of itself could impair the sortilin-mediated sorting of PrPC and PrPSc to lysosomes for degradation by stimulating lysosomal degradation of sortilin, eventually leading to progressive accumulation of PrPSc in prion-infected cells.

  9. Intracellular transport and sorting of mutant human proinsulins that fail to form hexamers. (United States)

    Quinn, D; Orci, L; Ravazzola, M; Moore, H P


    Human proinsulin and insulin oligomerize to form dimers and hexamers. It has been suggested that the ability of prohormones to self associate and form aggregates may be responsible for the sorting process at the trans-Golgi. To examine whether insulin oligomerization is required for proper sorting into regulated storage granules, we have constructed point mutations in human insulin B chain that have been previously shown to prevent formation of insulin hexamers (Brange, J., U. Ribel, J. F. Hansen, G. Dodson, M. T. Hansen, S. Havelund, S. G. Melberg, F. Norris, K. Norris, L. Snel, A. R. Sorensen, and H. O. Voight. 1988. Nature [Lond.]. 333:679-682). One mutant (B10His----Asp) allows formation of dimers but not hexamers and the other (B9Ser----Asp) prevents formation of both dimers and hexamers. The mutants were transfected into the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cells, and their ability to be sorted into regulated secretory granules was compared to wild-type insulin. We found that while B10His----Asp is sorted somewhat less efficiently than wild-type insulin as reported previously (Carroll, R. J., R. E. Hammer, S. J. Chan, H. H. Swift, A. H. Rubenstein, and D. F. Steiner. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:8943-8947; Gross, D. J., P. A. Halban, C. R. Kahn, G. C. Weir, and L. Villa-Kumaroff. 1989. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 86:4107-4111). B9Ser----Asp is targeted to granules as efficiently as wild-type insulin. These results indicate that self association of proinsulin into hexamers is not required for its targeting to the regulated secretory pathway.

  10. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil


    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011

  11. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo


    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  12. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping. (United States)

    Faigle, Christoph; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Whyte, Graeme; Homewood, Philip; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Guck, Jochen


    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetrically etched glass plates, combines exact optical fiber alignment, low laser damage threshold and high imaging quality with the possibility of several microfluidic inlet and outlet channels. We show the utility of such a custom-built optical stretcher glass chip by measuring and sorting single cells in a heterogeneous population based on their different mechanical properties and verify sorting accuracy by simultaneous fluorescence detection. This offers new possibilities of exact characterization and sorting of small populations based on rheological properties for biological and biomedical applications.

  13. Hrs and SNX3 functions in sorting and membrane invagination within multivesicular bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Pons


    Full Text Available After internalization, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are delivered to early endosomes. There, they are sorted and incorporated into the intralumenal invaginations of nascent multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. Receptor sorting is achieved by Hrs--an adaptor--like protein that binds membrane PtdIns3P via a FYVE motif-and then by ESCRT complexes, which presumably also mediate the invagination process. Eventually, intralumenal vesicles are delivered to lysosomes, leading to the notion that EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular bodies mediates lysosomal targeting. Here, we report that Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis and transport to late endosomes. By contrast, we find that the PtdIns3P-binding protein SNX3 is required for multivesicular body formation, but not for EGF receptor degradation. PtdIns3P thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in sorting and multivesicular body biogenesis.

  14. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.


    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  15. Rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sun Yim

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show K(D values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼ 10(6. These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required.

  16. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia


    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  17. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec


    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  18. Fast sorting measurement technique to determine decontamination priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Brosey, B.; Igarashi, H.


    The method used to select decontamination priorities for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building (RB) is systematic, but costs in personnel exposure and time must be borne. One way of minimizing exposure is to define and treat the one or two surface sources that are important contributors to the collective dose of the recovery personnel. Surface characteristics can then be determined and decontamination techniques developed to match the removal requirements. At TMI-2, a fast sorting technique was developed and used to prioritize surfaces for exposure reduction. A second quick sort can then be used to determine the next generation of surface characterization, decontamination method selection, and performance. The quick-sort method that was developed is based on the Eberline HP 220A probes directional survey system. The angular response of the HP 220A probes approaches 2 pi steradians and allows toward-away type measurements. Sources distributed over 4 pi steradians are hard to define with this system. Angular differentiation was improved to about pi/2 steradians by redesigning the probe shield. The change allows unambiguous six-direction measurements, such as up, down, front, rear, right, and left with practically no angular overlap or exclusion. A simple, light-weight stand was used to establish an angular reference for the rectangular packaged probe. The six surface planes of the rectangle work with the angular reference to establish the six viewing angles

  19. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert


    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  20. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik


    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of combustion, performance and emission parameters in a jatropha biodiesel engine using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (United States)

    Dhingra, Sunil; Bhushan, Gian; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar


    The present work studies and identifies the different variables that affect the output parameters involved in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition (CI) engine using jatropha biodiesel. Response surface methodology based on Central composite design (CCD) is used to design the experiments. Mathematical models are developed for combustion parameters (Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and peak cylinder pressure (Pmax)), performance parameter brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emission parameters (CO, NO x , unburnt HC and smoke) using regression techniques. These regression equations are further utilized for simultaneous optimization of combustion (BSFC, Pmax), performance (BTE) and emission (CO, NO x , HC, smoke) parameters. As the objective is to maximize BTE and minimize BSFC, Pmax, CO, NO x , HC, smoke, a multiobjective optimization problem is formulated. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is used in predicting the Pareto optimal sets of solution. Experiments are performed at suitable optimal solutions for predicting the combustion, performance and emission parameters to check the adequacy of the proposed model. The Pareto optimal sets of solution can be used as guidelines for the end users to select optimal combination of engine output and emission parameters depending upon their own requirements.

  2. Cell flux through S phase in the mouse duodenal epithelium determined by cell sorting and radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, M.; Cheng, H.


    An accumulation of cells in early S phase was observed in normal mouse duodenal epithelium studied with flow cytometry. To determine if this accumulation of cells was the result of a lower rate of DNA synthesis, animals were given a single injection of 3 H-thymidine and the epithelium collected one hour later. The epithelium was processed for flow cytometry. Seven sort windows were established in different portions of the DNA histogram. Cells from each window were sorted onto glass slides that were then processed for radioautography. The number of silver grains over the nuclei of each sorted population was counted. It was found that cells in early S phase had significantly fewer grains over their nuclei than did mid- or late-S phase cells. We conclude that the accumulation of cells in early S phase is due, at least in part, to a lower rate of DNA synthesis in early than in mid or late S phase

  3. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte


    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  4. Experience and problems of the automated measuring and sorting of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmidt, G.


    It has been shown that with the help of a serial device for samples changing and a mini-computer with a suitable software it is possible to organize the radioactivity measuring and sorting of sealed gamma-sources with activity in the microcuri region. Application of the computer permits to rise accuracy of the data on the radiation sources radioactivity, sorted according to the preset activity level groups and, in the casa of necessity, to perform the activity measurements with lower error. The method listed, gives the working-time economy of nearly 4 hours in measuring and sorting of some 500 sealed radiation sources [ru

  5. A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation (United States)

    Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.


    This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…

  6. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.


    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  7. Distinct forms of mitochondrial TOM-TIM supercomplexes define signal-dependent states of preprotein sorting. (United States)

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; van der Laan, Martin; Mehnert, Carola S; Guiard, Bernard; Mick, David U; Hutu, Dana P; Truscott, Kaye N; Wiedemann, Nils; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Rehling, Peter


    Mitochondrial import of cleavable preproteins occurs at translocation contact sites, where the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) associates with the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) in a supercomplex. Different views exist on the mechanism of how TIM23 mediates preprotein sorting to either the matrix or inner membrane. On the one hand, two TIM23 forms were proposed, a matrix transport form containing the presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM; TIM23-PAM) and a sorting form containing Tim21 (TIM23(SORT)). On the other hand, it was reported that TIM23 and PAM are permanently associated in a single-entity translocase. We have accumulated distinct transport intermediates of preproteins to analyze the translocases in their active, preprotein-carrying state. We identified two different forms of active TOM-TIM23 supercomplexes, TOM-TIM23(SORT) and TOM-TIM23-PAM. These two supercomplexes do not represent separate pathways but are in dynamic exchange during preprotein translocation and sorting. Depending on the signals of the preproteins, switches between the different forms of supercomplex and TIM23 are required for the completion of preprotein import.

  8. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar


    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  9. Pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) for high-throughput fluorescent mammalian cell sorting (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chung, Aram; Kung, Yu-Chung; Teitell, Michael A.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chiou, Pei-Yu


    We present a Pulsed Laser Activated Cell Sorter (PLACS) realized by exciting laser induced cavitation bubbles in a PDMS microfluidic channel to create high speed liquid jets to deflect detected fluorescent samples for high speed sorting. Pulse laser triggered cavitation bubbles can expand in few microseconds and provide a pressure higher than tens of MPa for fluid perturbation near the focused spot. This ultrafast switching mechanism has a complete on-off cycle less than 20 μsec. Two approaches have been utilized to achieve 3D sample focusing in PLACS. One is relying on multilayer PDMS channels to provide 3D hydrodynamic sheath flows. It offers accurate timing control of fast (2 m sec-1) passing particles so that synchronization with laser bubble excitation is possible, an critically important factor for high purity and high throughput sorting. PLACS with 3D hydrodynamic focusing is capable of sorting at 11,000 cells/sec with >95% purity, and 45,000 cells/sec with 45% purity using a single channel in a single step. We have also demonstrated 3D focusing using inertial flows in PLACS. This sheathless focusing approach requires 10 times lower initial cell concentration than that in sheath-based focusing and avoids severe sample dilution from high volume sheath flows. Inertia PLACS is capable of sorting at 10,000 particles sec-1 with >90% sort purity.

  10. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim


    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  11. Distinct pathways mediate the sorting of tail-anchored proteins to the plastid outer envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetinder K Dhanoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tail-anchored (TA proteins are a distinct class of membrane proteins that are sorted post-translationally to various organelles and function in a number of important cellular processes, including redox reactions, vesicular trafficking and protein translocation. While the molecular targeting signals and pathways responsible for sorting TA proteins to their correct intracellular destinations in yeasts and mammals have begun to be characterized, relatively little is known about TA protein biogenesis in plant cells, especially for those sorted to the plastid outer envelope. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the biogenesis of three plastid TA proteins, including the 33-kDa and 34-kDa GTPases of the translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (Toc33 and Toc34 and a novel 9-kDa protein of unknown function that we define here as an outer envelope TA protein (OEP9. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that OEP9 utilizes a different sorting pathway than that used by Toc33 and Toc34. For instance, while all three TA proteins interact with the cytosolic OEP chaperone/receptor, AKR2A, the plastid targeting information within OEP9 is distinct from that within Toc33 and Toc34. Toc33 and Toc34 also appear to differ from OEP9 in that their insertion is dependent on themselves and the unique lipid composition of the plastid outer envelope. By contrast, the insertion of OEP9 into the plastid outer envelope occurs in a proteinaceous-dependent, but Toc33/34-independent manner and membrane lipids appear to serve primarily to facilitate normal thermodynamic integration of this TA protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results provide evidence in support of at least two sorting pathways for plastid TA outer envelope proteins and shed light on not only the complex diversity of pathways involved in the targeting and insertion of proteins into plastids, but also the molecular mechanisms that underlie

  12. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.


    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  13. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose–volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yihua; Li Cunhua; Ren Haozheng; Zhang Yong; Min Zhifang


    A new heuristic algorithm based on the so-called geometric distance sorting technique is proposed for solving the fluence map optimization with dose–volume constraints which is one of the most essential tasks for inverse planning in IMRT. The framework of the proposed method is basically an iterative process which begins with a simple linear constrained quadratic optimization model without considering any dose–volume constraints, and then the dose constraints for the voxels violating the dose–volume constraints are gradually added into the quadratic optimization model step by step until all the dose–volume constraints are satisfied. In each iteration step, an interior point method is adopted to solve each new linear constrained quadratic programming. For choosing the proper candidate voxels for the current dose constraint adding, a so-called geometric distance defined in the transformed standard quadratic form of the fluence map optimization model was used to guide the selection of the voxels. The new geometric distance sorting technique can mostly reduce the unexpected increase of the objective function value caused inevitably by the constraint adding. It can be regarded as an upgrading to the traditional dose sorting technique. The geometry explanation for the proposed method is also given and a proposition is proved to support our heuristic idea. In addition, a smart constraint adding/deleting strategy is designed to ensure a stable iteration convergence. The new algorithm is tested on four cases including head–neck, a prostate, a lung and an oropharyngeal, and compared with the algorithm based on the traditional dose sorting technique. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more suitable for guiding the selection of new constraints than the traditional dose sorting method, especially for the cases whose target regions are in non-convex shapes. It is a more efficient optimization technique to some extent for choosing constraints than

  14. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose-volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method. (United States)

    Lan, Yihua; Li, Cunhua; Ren, Haozheng; Zhang, Yong; Min, Zhifang


    A new heuristic algorithm based on the so-called geometric distance sorting technique is proposed for solving the fluence map optimization with dose-volume constraints which is one of the most essential tasks for inverse planning in IMRT. The framework of the proposed method is basically an iterative process which begins with a simple linear constrained quadratic optimization model without considering any dose-volume constraints, and then the dose constraints for the voxels violating the dose-volume constraints are gradually added into the quadratic optimization model step by step until all the dose-volume constraints are satisfied. In each iteration step, an interior point method is adopted to solve each new linear constrained quadratic programming. For choosing the proper candidate voxels for the current dose constraint adding, a so-called geometric distance defined in the transformed standard quadratic form of the fluence map optimization model was used to guide the selection of the voxels. The new geometric distance sorting technique can mostly reduce the unexpected increase of the objective function value caused inevitably by the constraint adding. It can be regarded as an upgrading to the traditional dose sorting technique. The geometry explanation for the proposed method is also given and a proposition is proved to support our heuristic idea. In addition, a smart constraint adding/deleting strategy is designed to ensure a stable iteration convergence. The new algorithm is tested on four cases including head-neck, a prostate, a lung and an oropharyngeal, and compared with the algorithm based on the traditional dose sorting technique. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more suitable for guiding the selection of new constraints than the traditional dose sorting method, especially for the cases whose target regions are in non-convex shapes. It is a more efficient optimization technique to some extent for choosing constraints than the dose

  15. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms. (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles


    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  16. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group


    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  17. Bacterial lipoproteins; biogenesis, sorting and quality control. (United States)

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime


    Bacterial lipoproteins are a subset of membrane proteins localized on either leaflet of the lipid bilayer. These proteins are anchored to membranes through their N-terminal lipid moiety attached to a conserved Cys. Since the protein moiety of most lipoproteins is hydrophilic, they are expected to play various roles in a hydrophilic environment outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli possess an outer membrane, to which most lipoproteins are sorted. The Lol pathway plays a central role in the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane after lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature forms in the cytoplasmic membrane. Most lipoproteins are anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane with their protein moiety in the periplasm. However, recent studies indicated that some lipoproteins further undergo topology change in the outer membrane, and play critical roles in the biogenesis and quality control of the outer membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa’ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon


    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass. PMID:27801799

  19. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05. The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  20. Track data sort program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, N.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Fedotov, O.P.


    The description is given of the MASKA program, based on the principle of sorting points array at surface due to their belonging to the topologically connected regions with boundaries of locked broken lines. The algorithm is realized on the ES-1010 computer for automatic image processing from the bubble chambers by scanning measuring projector. The methods are considered for constructing the above mentioned regions for all the images according to the base points measured on the semiautomatic measuring table. The MASKA program is written in the ASSEMBLER-2 language and equals 3.5K words of the main memory. The average processing time for 10000 points according to one mask is 1 sec

  1. Safe sorting of GFP-transduced live cells for subsequent culture using a modified FACS vantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T U; Gram, G J; Nielsen, S D


    BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells...... culture. CONCLUSIONS: Sorting of live infected cells can be performed safely and with no deleterious effects on vector expression using the modified FACS Vantage instrument....

  2. Comparison of spike-sorting algorithms for future hardware implementation. (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Markovic, Dejan


    Applications such as brain-machine interfaces require hardware spike sorting in order to (1) obtain single-unit activity and (2) perform data reduction for wireless transmission of data. Such systems must be low-power, low-area, high-accuracy, automatic, and able to operate in real time. Several detection and feature extraction algorithms for spike sorting are described briefly and evaluated in terms of accuracy versus computational complexity. The nonlinear energy operator method is chosen as the optimal spike detection algorithm, being most robust over noise and relatively simple. The discrete derivatives method [1] is chosen as the optimal feature extraction method, maintaining high accuracy across SNRs with a complexity orders of magnitude less than that of traditional methods such as PCA.

  3. Experimental characterization of variable output refractive beamshapers using freeform elements (United States)

    Shultz, Jason A.; Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.


    We present experimental results from variable output refractive beam shapers based on freeform optical surfaces. Two freeform elements in close proximity comprise a beam shaper that maps a circular Gaussian input to a circular `flat-top' output. Different lateral relative shifts between the elements result in a varying output diameter while maintaining the uniform irradiance distribution. We fabricated the beam shaping elements in PMMA using multi-axis milling on a Moore Nanotech 350FG diamond machining center and tested with a 632.8 nm Gaussian input. Initial optical testing confirmed both the predicted beam shaping and variable functionality, but with poor output uniformity. The effects of surface finish on optical performance were investigated using LightTrans VirtualLabTM to perform physical optics simulations of the milled freeform surfaces. These simulations provided an optimization path for determining machining parameters to improve the output uniformity of the beam shaping elements. A second variable beam shaper based on a super-Gaussian output was designed and fabricated using the newly determined machining parameters. Experimental test results from the second beam shaper showed outputs with significantly higher quality, but also suggest additional areas of study for further improvements in uniformity.

  4. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D


    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  5. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P


    Full Text Available and that the scattering force can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Following this, I report on transient photo-transfection of mammalian cells including neuroblastomas (rat/mouse and human...

  6. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.


    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be

  7. Analytical Formulation of the Electric Field Induced by Electrode Arrays: Towards Automated Dielectrophoretic Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gauthier


    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis is defined as the motion of an electrically polarisable particle in a non-uniform electric field. Current dielectrophoretic devices enabling sorting of cells are mostly controlled in open-loop applying a predefined voltage on micro-electrodes. Closed-loop control of these devices would enable to get advanced functionalities and also more robust behavior. Currently, the numerical models of dielectrophoretic force are too complex to be used in real-time closed-loop control. The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of models usable in this framework. We propose an analytical model of the electric field based on Fourier series to compute the dielectrophoretic force produced by parallel electrode arrays. Indeed, this method provides an analytical expression of the electric potential which decouples the geometrical factors (parameter of our system, the voltages applied on electrodes (input of our system, and the position of the cells (output of our system. Considering the Newton laws on each cell, it enables to generate easily a dynamic model of the cell positions (output function of the voltages on electrodes (input. This dynamic model of our system is required to design the future closed-loop control law. The predicted dielectrophoretic forces are compared to a numerical simulation based on finite element model using COMSOL software. The model presented in this paper enables to compute the dielectrophoretic force applied to a cell by an electrode array in a few tenths of milliseconds. This model could be consequently used in future works for closed-loop control of dielectrophoretic devices.

  8. Raman-Activated Droplet Sorting (RADS) for Label-Free High-Throughput Screening of Microalgal Single-Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Xixian; Ren, Lihui; Su, Yetian; Ji, Yuetong; Liu, Yaoping; Li, Chunyu; Li, Xunrong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo


    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) has attracted increasing interest, yet throughput remains one major factor limiting its broader application. Here we present an integrated Raman-activated droplet sorting (RADS) microfluidic system for functional screening of live cells in a label-free and high-throughput manner, by employing AXT-synthetic industrial microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis) as a model. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of individual cells is carried out prior to their microdroplet encapsulation, which is then directly coupled to DEP-based droplet sorting. To validate the system, H. pluvialis cells containing different levels of AXT were mixed and underwent RADS. Those AXT-hyperproducing cells were sorted with an accuracy of 98.3%, an enrichment ratio of eight folds, and a throughput of ∼260 cells/min. Of the RADS-sorted cells, 92.7% remained alive and able to proliferate, which is equivalent to the unsorted cells. Thus, the RADS achieves a much higher throughput than existing RACS systems, preserves the vitality of cells, and facilitates seamless coupling with downstream manipulations such as single-cell sequencing and cultivation.

  9. Axon-Axon Interactions Regulate Topographic Optic Tract Sorting via CYFIP2-Dependent WAVE Complex Function. (United States)

    Cioni, Jean-Michel; Wong, Hovy Ho-Wai; Bressan, Dario; Kodama, Lay; Harris, William A; Holt, Christine E


    The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between dorsal and ventral axons. CYFIP2 associates with transporting ribonucleoprotein particles in axons and regulates translation. Axon-axon contact stimulates CYFIP2 to move into growth cones where it joins the actin nucleating WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) in the periphery and regulates actin remodeling and filopodial dynamics. CYFIP2's function in axon sorting is mediated by its binding to the WRC but not its translational regulation. Together, these findings uncover CYFIP2 as a key regulatory link between axon-axon interactions, filopodial dynamics, and optic tract sorting. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Woody biomass comminution and sorting - a review of mechanical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Umeaa (Sweden)], e-mail:


    The increased demand for woody biomass for heat and electricity and biorefineries means that each bio component must be used efficiently. Any increase in raw material supply in the short term is likely to require the use of trees from early thinnings, logging residues and stumps, assortments of low value compared to stemwood. However, sorting of the novel materials into bio components may increase their value considerably. The challenge is to 1) maximise the overall values of the different raw material fractions for different users, 2) minimise costs for raw material extraction, processing, storage and transportation. Comminution of the raw material (e.g. to chips, chunks, flakes and powder) and sorting the bio components (e.g. separating bark from pulp chips and separating alkali-rich needles and shots for combustion and gasification applications) are crucial processes in this optimisation. The purpose of this study has been to make a literature review of principles for comminution and sorting, with an emphasis on mechanical methods suitable outside industries. More efficient comminution methods can be developed when the wood is to a larger extent cut along the fibre direction, and closer to the surface (with less pressure to the sides of the knife). By using coarse comminution (chunking) rather than fine comminution (chipping), productivity at landings can be increased and energy saved, the resulting product will have better storage and drying properties. At terminals, any further comminution (if necessary) could use larger-scale equipment of higher efficiency. Rolls and flails can be used to an increasing extent for removing foliage and twigs, possibly in the terrain (for instance fitted on grapples). Physical parameters used for sorting of the main components of trees include particle size, density and shape (aerodynamic drag and lift), optical and IR properties and X-ray fluorescence. Although methods developed for pulp chip production from whole trees may not

  11. Effect of magnet sorting using a simple resonance cancellation method on the RMS orbit distortion at the APS injector synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.; Koul, R.; Mills, F.E.


    The Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron is a 7-GeV positron machine with a standard alternating gradient lattice. The calculated effect of dipole magnet strength errors on the orbit distortion, simulated by Monte Carlo, was reduced by sorting pairs of magnets having the closest simulated measured strengths to reduce the driving the term of the integer resonance nearest the operating point. This method resulted in a factor of four average reduction in the rms orbit distortion when all 68 magnets were sorted at once. The simulated effect of magnet measurement experimental resolution was found to limit the actual improvement. The Β-beat factors were similarly reduced by sorting the quadrupole magnets according to their gradients

  12. Spike sorting using locality preserving projection with gap statistics and landmark-based spectral clustering. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh; Khosravi, Abbas; Creighton, Douglas; Nahavandi, Saeid


    Understanding neural functions requires knowledge from analysing electrophysiological data. The process of assigning spikes of a multichannel signal into clusters, called spike sorting, is one of the important problems in such analysis. There have been various automated spike sorting techniques with both advantages and disadvantages regarding accuracy and computational costs. Therefore, developing spike sorting methods that are highly accurate and computationally inexpensive is always a challenge in the biomedical engineering practice. An automatic unsupervised spike sorting method is proposed in this paper. The method uses features extracted by the locality preserving projection (LPP) algorithm. These features afterwards serve as inputs for the landmark-based spectral clustering (LSC) method. Gap statistics (GS) is employed to evaluate the number of clusters before the LSC can be performed. The proposed LPP-LSC is highly accurate and computationally inexpensive spike sorting approach. LPP spike features are very discriminative; thereby boost the performance of clustering methods. Furthermore, the LSC method exhibits its efficiency when integrated with the cluster evaluator GS. The proposed method's accuracy is approximately 13% superior to that of the benchmark combination between wavelet transformation and superparamagnetic clustering (WT-SPC). Additionally, LPP-LSC computing time is six times less than that of the WT-SPC. LPP-LSC obviously demonstrates a win-win spike sorting solution meeting both accuracy and computational cost criteria. LPP and LSC are linear algorithms that help reduce computational burden and thus their combination can be applied into real-time spike analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E; Seshadri, Vidya


    The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. (communication)

  14. A multi-centre analysis of radiotherapy beam output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt


    Conclusions: Machine beam output measurements were largely within ±2% of 1.00 cGy/MU. Clear trends in measured output over time were seen, with some machines having large drifts which would result in additional burden to maintain within acceptable tolerances. This work may act as a baseline for future comparison of beam output measurements.

  15. The structured-objective rorschach test (sort occupational profile for state accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gouws


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to provide an occupational profile of performance on the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT by state accountants for use in guidance, election and placement of personnel. The sample comprised accountants and auditors from the financial sections in various state institutions who were selected for the Senior Financial Management Course at the University of Stellenbosch. As all participants were considered successful in their occupation and no significant differences were found between the profiles of various age and year groups, the SORT profile obtained for the total group can be used as a predictor to determine and evaluate the personality traits that are important in the profession of state accountant. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was die daarstelling van 'n beroepsprofiel van staatsrekenmeesters se prestasie op die Gestruktureerd-Objektiewe Rorschachtoets (SORT wat vir voorligting/ keuring en plasing van personeel gebruik kan word. Die steekproef is saamgestel uit rekenmeesters en ouditeure van die finansiele afdelings in verskeie staatsinstansies wat geselekteer is vir die Senior Finansiele Bestuurskursus by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Aangesien alle deelnemers as suksesvol in hulle beroep beskou is en geen beduidende verskille in die profiele van verskillende ouderdomsgroepe en jaargroepe gevind is nie, kan die SORT profiel van die totale groep as 'n voorspeller gebruik word vir die bepaling en evaluering van die persoonlikheidseienskappe wat belangrik is in die beroep van staatsrekenmeester.

  16. Time-Efficiency of Sorting Chironomidae Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae Samples from Urban Trout Streams in Northeast Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Anderson


    Full Text Available Collections of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE provide an effective means of assessing water quality in streams. Although not widely used in the United States, the technique is not new and has been shown to be more cost-efficient than traditional dip-net sampling techniques in organically enriched stream in an urban landscape. The intent of this research was to document the efficiency of sorting SFPE samples relative to dip-net samples in trout streams with catchments varying in amount of urbanization and differences in impervious surface. Samples of both SFPE and dip-nets were collected from 17 sample sites located on 12 trout streams in Duluth, MN, USA. We quantified time needed to sort subsamples of 100 macroinvertebrates from dip-net samples, and less than or greater than 100 chironomid exuviae from SFPE samples. For larger samples of SFPE, the time required to subsample up to 300 exuviae was also recorded. The average time to sort subsamples of 100 specimens was 22.5 minutes for SFPE samples, compared to 32.7 minutes for 100 macroinvertebrates in dip-net samples. Average time to sort up to 300 exuviae was 37.7 minutes. These results indicate that sorting SFPE samples is more time-efficient than traditional dip-net techniques in trout streams with varying catchment characteristics.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1380.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  17. Global Sensitivity Analysis for multivariate output using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cabrejo, Oscar; Valocchi, Albert


    Many mathematical and computational models used in engineering produce multivariate output that shows some degree of correlation. However, conventional approaches to Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) assume that the output variable is scalar. These approaches are applied on each output variable leading to a large number of sensitivity indices that shows a high degree of redundancy making the interpretation of the results difficult. Two approaches have been proposed for GSA in the case of multivariate output: output decomposition approach [9] and covariance decomposition approach [14] but they are computationally intensive for most practical problems. In this paper, Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) is used for an efficient GSA with multivariate output. The results indicate that PCE allows efficient estimation of the covariance matrix and GSA on the coefficients in the approach defined by Campbell et al. [9], and the development of analytical expressions for the multivariate sensitivity indices defined by Gamboa et al. [14]. - Highlights: • PCE increases computational efficiency in 2 approaches of GSA of multivariate output. • Efficient estimation of covariance matrix of output from coefficients of PCE. • Efficient GSA on coefficients of orthogonal decomposition of the output using PCE. • Analytical expressions of multivariate sensitivity indices from coefficients of PCE

  18. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixon, Benoit; Thomassin, Paul J.; Hamaide, Bertrand


    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  19. Image analysis to measure sorting and stratification applied to sand-gravel experiments


    Orrú, C.


    The main objective of this project is to develop new measuring techniques for providing detailed data on sediment sorting suitable for sand-gravel laboratory experiments. Such data will be of aid in obtaining new insights on sorting mechanisms and improving prediction capabilities of morphodynamic models. Two measuring techniques have been developed. The first technique is aimed at measuring the size stratification of a sand-gravel deposit through combining image analysis and a sediment remov...

  20. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  1. Chromosome isolation by flow sorting in Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Molnár

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of flow cytometry for chromosome sorting in two wild diploid wheats Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. Flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of DAPI-stained chromosomes were characterized and content of chromosome peaks was determined. Peaks of chromosome 1U could be discriminated in flow karyotypes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. biuncialis and the chromosome could be sorted with purities exceeding 95%. The remaining chromosomes formed composite peaks and could be sorted in groups of two to four. Twenty four wheat SSR markers were tested for their position on chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. comosa using PCR on DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA of wheat-Ae. geniculata addition lines, respectively. Six SSR markers were located on particular Aegilops chromosomes using sorted chromosomes, thus confirming the usefulness of this approach for physical mapping. The SSR markers are suitable for marker assisted selection of wheat-Aegilops introgression lines. The results obtained in this work provide new opportunities for dissecting genomes of wild relatives of wheat with the aim to assist in alien gene transfer and discovery of novel genes for wheat improvement.

  2. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C


    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  3. Stability-based sorting: The forgotten process behind (not only) biological evolution. (United States)

    Toman, Jan; Flegr, Jaroslav


    Natural selection is considered to be the main process that drives biological evolution. It requires selected entities to originate dependent upon one another by the means of reproduction or copying, and for the progeny to inherit the qualities of their ancestors. However, natural selection is a manifestation of a more general persistence principle, whose temporal consequences we propose to name "stability-based sorting" (SBS). Sorting based on static stability, i.e., SBS in its strict sense and usual conception, favours characters that increase the persistence of their holders and act on all material and immaterial entities. Sorted entities could originate independently from each other, are not required to propagate and need not exhibit heredity. Natural selection is a specific form of SBS-sorting based on dynamic stability. It requires some form of heredity and is based on competition for the largest difference between the speed of generating its own copies and their expiration. SBS in its strict sense and selection thus have markedly different evolutionary consequences that are stressed in this paper. In contrast to selection, which is opportunistic, SBS is able to accumulate even momentarily detrimental characters that are advantageous for the long-term persistence of sorted entities. However, it lacks the amplification effect based on the preferential propagation of holders of advantageous characters. Thus, it works slower than selection and normally is unable to create complex adaptations. From a long-term perspective, SBS is a decisive force in evolution-especially macroevolution. SBS offers a new explanation for numerous evolutionary phenomena, including broad distribution and persistence of sexuality, altruistic behaviour, horizontal gene transfer, patterns of evolutionary stasis, planetary homeostasis, increasing ecosystem resistance to disturbances, and the universal decline of disparity in the evolution of metazoan lineages. SBS acts on all levels in

  4. Osteometric sorting of skeletal elements from a sample of modern Colombians: a pilot study. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Guerrero; Hackman, Lucina; Martínez, Wendy; Medina, César Sanabria


    The Colombian armed conflict has been catalogued not only as the longest civil war in the western hemisphere, but also as having one of the highest indexes of missing persons. Among the several challenges faced by forensic practitioners in Colombia, the commingling of human remains has been recognised as one of the most difficult to approach. The method of osteometric sorting described by Byrd and Adams and Byrd (2008) has proven relevant as a powerful tool to aid in the reassociation process of skeletal structures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the three osteometric sorting models developed by Byrd (2008) (paired elements, articulating bone portions and other bone portions) in a sample of modern Colombian individuals. A set of 39 linear measurements was recorded from a sample of 100 individuals (47 females and 53 males aged between 20 and 74 and 18 and 77 years, respectively), which was used to create a reference sample database. A different subset of eight individuals (five females aged between 23 and 48 years, and three males aged between 27 and 43 years) was employed to randomly create six small-scale commingled assemblages for the purposes of testing the osteometric sorting models. Results demonstrate that this method has significant potential for use in the Colombian forensic context.

  5. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M


    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  6. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation


    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire


    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  7. Does Black’s Hypothesis for Output Variability Hold for Mexico?


    Macri, Joseph; Sinha, Dipendra


    Using two data series, namely GDP and the index of industrial production, we study the relationship between output variability and the growth rate of output. Ng-Perron unit root test shows that the growth rate of GDP is non-stationary but the growth rate of industrial output is stationary. Thus, we use the ARCH-M model for the monthly data of industrial output. A number of specifications (with and without a dummy variable) are used. In all cases, the results show that output variability has a...

  8. Reducing variability in the output of pattern classifiers using histogram shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shalini; Kan, Chih-Wen; Markey, Mia K.


    Purpose: The authors present a novel technique based on histogram shaping to reduce the variability in the output and (sensitivity, specificity) pairs of pattern classifiers with identical ROC curves, but differently distributed outputs. Methods: The authors identify different sources of variability in the output of linear pattern classifiers with identical ROC curves, which also result in classifiers with differently distributed outputs. They theoretically develop a novel technique based on the matching of the histograms of these differently distributed pattern classifier outputs to reduce the variability in their (sensitivity, specificity) pairs at fixed decision thresholds, and to reduce the variability in their actual output values. They empirically demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technique by means of analyses on the simulated data and real world mammography data. Results: For the simulated data, with three different known sources of variability, and for the real world mammography data with unknown sources of variability, the proposed classifier output calibration technique significantly reduced the variability in the classifiers' (sensitivity, specificity) pairs at fixed decision thresholds. Furthermore, for classifiers with monotonically or approximately monotonically related output variables, the histogram shaping technique also significantly reduced the variability in their actual output values. Conclusions: Classifier output calibration based on histogram shaping can be successfully employed to reduce the variability in the output values and (sensitivity, specificity) pairs of pattern classifiers with identical ROC curves, but differently distributed outputs.

  9. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.



    Linenko A. V.; Baynazarov V. G.; Kamalov T. I.


    In the article we have considered the self-balanced potato sorting machine differing from existing designs of self-balanced potato sorting machines with an oscillatory electric drive. That drive uses a linear induction motor. As the counterbalancing device, the method of the duplicating mechanism is applied. The duplicating mechanism is a specular reflection of the main working body, and also participates in technological process. Its application in the drive of machine allows not only to inc...

  11. European project BOOSTER: how to sort victims of a nuclear accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Gmar, M.; Schoepff, V.


    The purpose of the BOOSTER project is to develop tools allowing victims to be sorted quickly according to their level of irradiation. The fastness of the sorting is very important as a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack involving a dirty bomb is likely to cause numerous casualties. A preliminary sorting can be made with a portable walk-through gamma detector that allows the detection of contaminated victims. 4 technologies are proposed for assessing in less than 20 minutes the level of irradiation of a victim: the first method that is based on the analysis of the phosphorylation of the H2AX protein, allows the determination of the irradiation level from the analysis of a drop of blood. The second method allows the determination of the radionuclides present in a drop of blood or urine. The third method uses the thermo-luminescent properties of SMD resistances present in mobile phones to determine the level of irradiation. The fourth method is based on a portable low-background gamma spectrometer able to study environmental and biological samples on the spot. (A.C.)

  12. Research on the Possibility of Sorting Application for Separation of Shale and/or Gangue from the Feed of Rudna Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotowski Andrzej


    Full Text Available Shale, which occurs in the copper ore deposits belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A., is the reason for a number of difficulties, at the stage of not only processing but also smelting. Gangue, in turn, getting in a feed during mining is a useless load of a concentrator and also contributes to lowering concentrating indexes. Its content in a feed is being evaluated at 15-30%. The multiple attempts to solve those issues by the methods of conventional mineral processing or even selective mining failed. In the range of work, research on the lithological composition and Cu content in 300 individual particles (selected from Rudna feed have been carried out. Using those results, the simulation of gangue separation with an application of sorting have been done. The positive results have been received: introduction of a sorting operation causes, theoretically, removing of approximately 20-30% sorting feed mass as final tailings with Cu losses not bigger than 5-10%. It means that the capacity of Rudna concentrator can be increased proportionally. To confirm those results, industrial sorting trials are necessary, when appropriate sorters will become available. Additionally, one should take also into account that the finest classes of feed (-12.5 mm could not be concentrated in a sorter. In the range of work, the preliminary tests of the industrial sorter (PRO Secondary Color NIR for separation of the shale concentrate from Rudna concentrator feed have been carried out. The shale concentrates were received both from 12.5-20 mm class and +20 mm class. The concentrates produced from the coarse classes, for both technological sides had shale content at the level of 48-49%, with recovery of 52.9-60%. In the case of the finer class, shale content in the concentrates for both technological sides amounts to 30.9-35%, at the slightly lower recoveries than for coarse classes. Cu and Corg behavior in the sorting process were checked also, however, the results turned

  13. Evaluation of motility, membrane status and DNA integrity of frozen-thawed bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa after sex-sorting and recryopreservation. (United States)

    Montano, G A; Kraemer, D C; Love, C C; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K


    Artificial insemination (AI) with sex-sorted frozen-thawed spermatozoa has led to enhanced management of ex situ bottlenose dolphin populations. Extended distance of animals from the sorting facility can be overcome by the use of frozen-thawed, sorted and recryopreserved spermatozoa. Although one bottlenose dolphin calf had been born using sexed frozen-thawed spermatozoa derived from frozen semen, a critical evaluation of in vitro sperm quality is needed to justify the routine use of such samples in AI programs. Sperm motility parameters and plasma membrane integrity were influenced by stage of the sex-sorting process, sperm type (non-sorted and sorted) and freezing method (straw and directional) (P0.05) at 24 h. The viability of sorted spermatozoa was higher (Pdolphin spermatozoa undergoing cryopreservation, sorting and recryopreservation are of adequate quality for use in AI.

  14. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air (United States)

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.


    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  15. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer


    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output

  16. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lol system as a lipoprotein sorting mechanism. (United States)

    Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime


    Escherichia coli lipoproteins are localized to either the inner or the outer membrane depending on the residue that is present next to the N-terminal acylated Cys. Asp at position 2 causes the retention of lipoproteins in the inner membrane. In contrast, the accompanying study (9) revealed that the residues at positions 3 and 4 determine the membrane specificity of lipoproteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since the five Lol proteins involved in the sorting of E. coli lipoproteins are conserved in P. aeruginosa, we examined whether or not the Lol proteins of P. aeruginosa are also involved in lipoprotein sorting but utilize different signals. The genes encoding LolCDE, LolA, and LolB homologues were cloned and expressed. The LolCDE homologue thus purified was reconstituted into proteoliposomes with lipoproteins. When incubated in the presence of ATP and a LolA homologue, the reconstituted LolCDE homologue released lipoproteins, leading to the formation of a LolA-lipoprotein complex. Lipoproteins were then incorporated into the outer membrane depending on a LolB homologue. As revealed in vivo, lipoproteins with Lys and Ser at positions 3 and 4, respectively, remained in proteoliposomes. On the other hand, E. coli LolCDE released lipoproteins with this signal and transferred them to LolA of not only E. coli but also P. aeruginosa. These results indicate that Lol proteins are responsible for the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa, as in the case of E. coli, but respond differently to inner membrane retention signals.

  17. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.


    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques – check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) – using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references (‘poles’) before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward’s minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered ‘rapid,’ our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best

  18. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets


    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine


    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  19. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough


    . Finally, a total amount of the second moment (m2 and matrix vectors of image were selected as features. Features and rules produced from decision tree fed into an Adaptable Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. ANFIS provides a neural network based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS can produce appropriate output corresponding input patterns. Results and Discussion: The proposed model was trained and tested inside ANFIS Editor of the MATLAB software. 300 images, including closed shell, pithy and empty pistachio were selected for training and testing. This network uses 200 data related to these two features and were trained over 200 courses, the accuracy of the result was 95.8%. 100 image have been used to test network over 40 courses with accuracy 97%. The time for the training and testing steps are 0.73 and 0.31 seconds, respectively, and the time to choose the features and rules was 2.1 seconds. Conclusions: In this study, a model was introduced to sort non- split nuts, blank nuts and filled nuts pistachios. Evaluation of training and testing, shows that the model has the ability to classify different types of nuts with high precision. In the previously proposed methods, merely non-split and split pistachio nuts were sorted and being filled or blank nuts is unrecognizable. Nevertheless, accuracy of the mentioned method is 95.56 percent. As well as, other method sorted non-split and split pistachio nuts with an accuracy of 98% and 85% respectively for training and testing steps. The model proposed in this study is better than the other methods and it is encouraging for the improvement and development of the model.

  20. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc


    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  1. Mechanism for Particle Transport and Size Sorting via Low-Frequency Vibrations (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Scott, James S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi


    There is a need for effective sample handling tools to deliver and sort particles for analytical instruments that are planned for use in future NASA missions. Specifically, a need exists for a compact mechanism that allows transporting and sieving particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains that may be acquired by sampling tools such as a robotic scoop or drill. The required tool needs to be low mass and compact to operate from such platforms as a lander or rover. This technology also would be applicable to sample handling when transporting samples to analyzers and sorting particles by size.

  2. A fully automated non-external marker 4D-CT sorting algorithm using a serial cine scanning protocol. (United States)

    Carnes, Greg; Gaede, Stewart; Yu, Edward; Van Dyk, Jake; Battista, Jerry; Lee, Ting-Yim


    Current 4D-CT methods require external marker data to retrospectively sort image data and generate CT volumes. In this work we develop an automated 4D-CT sorting algorithm that performs without the aid of data collected from an external respiratory surrogate. The sorting algorithm requires an overlapping cine scan protocol. The overlapping protocol provides a spatial link between couch positions. Beginning with a starting scan position, images from the adjacent scan position (which spatial match the starting scan position) are selected by maximizing the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the images at the overlapping slice position. The process was continued by 'daisy chaining' all couch positions using the selected images until an entire 3D volume was produced. The algorithm produced 16 phase volumes to complete a 4D-CT dataset. Additional 4D-CT datasets were also produced using external marker amplitude and phase angle sorting methods. The image quality of the volumes produced by the different methods was quantified by calculating the mean difference of the sorted overlapping slices from adjacent couch positions. The NCC sorted images showed a significant decrease in the mean difference (p < 0.01) for the five patients.

  3. Feature extraction using extrema sampling of discrete derivatives for spike sorting in implantable upper-limb neural prostheses. (United States)

    Zamani, Majid; Demosthenous, Andreas


    Next generation neural interfaces for upper-limb (and other) prostheses aim to develop implantable interfaces for one or more nerves, each interface having many neural signal channels that work reliably in the stump without harming the nerves. To achieve real-time multi-channel processing it is important to integrate spike sorting on-chip to overcome limitations in transmission bandwidth. This requires computationally efficient algorithms for feature extraction and clustering suitable for low-power hardware implementation. This paper describes a new feature extraction method for real-time spike sorting based on extrema analysis (namely positive peaks and negative peaks) of spike shapes and their discrete derivatives at different frequency bands. Employing simulation across different datasets, the accuracy and computational complexity of the proposed method are assessed and compared with other methods. The average classification accuracy of the proposed method in conjunction with online sorting (O-Sort) is 91.6%, outperforming all the other methods tested with the O-Sort clustering algorithm. The proposed method offers a better tradeoff between classification error and computational complexity, making it a particularly strong choice for on-chip spike sorting.

  4. N-Glycosylation instead of cholesterol mediates oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells. (United States)

    Imjeti, Naga Salaija; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Paladino, Simona; de la Fuente, Erwin; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Zurzolo, Chiara


    Sorting of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol--anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in polarized epithelial cells is not fully understood. Oligomerization in the Golgi complex has emerged as the crucial event driving apical segregation of GPI-APs in two different kind of epithelial cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells, but whether the mechanism is conserved is unknown. In MDCK cells cholesterol promotes GPI-AP oligomerization, as well as apical sorting of GPI-APs. Here we show that FRT cells lack this cholesterol-driven oligomerization as apical sorting mechanism. In these cells both apical and basolateral GPI-APs display restricted diffusion in the Golgi likely due to a cholesterol-enriched membrane environment. It is striking that N-glycosylation is the critical event for oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells but not in MDCK cells. Our data indicate that at least two mechanisms exist to determine oligomerization in the Golgi leading to apical sorting of GPI-APs. One depends on cholesterol, and the other depends on N-glycosylation and is insensitive to cholesterol addition or depletion.

  5. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.


    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  6. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output. (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice


    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  7. System for sorting microscopic objects using electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    There is presented a system 10,100 for sorting microscopic objects 76, 78, 80, where the system comprises a fluid channel 66 with an inlet 68 and an outlet 70, where the fluid channel is arranged for allowing the fluid flow to be laminar. The system furthermore comprises a detection system 52 whi...

  8. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin


    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  9. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.


    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  10. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei


    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  11. Development of nondestructive sorting method for brown bloody eggs using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Seock; Kim, Dae Yong; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Lee, Sang Dae; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun; Hong, Soon Jung [Rural Development Administration, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was the non-destructive evaluation of bloody eggs using VIS/NIR spectroscopy. The bloody egg samples used to develop the sorting mode were produced by injecting chicken blood into the edges of egg yolks. Blood amounts of 0.1, 0.7, 0.04, and 0.01 mL were used for the bloody egg samples. The wavelength range for the VIS/NIR spectroscopy was 471 to 1154 nm, and the spectral resolution was 1.5nm. For the measurement system, the position of the light source was set to, and the distance between the light source and samples was set to 100 mm. The minimum exposure time of the light source was set to 30 ms to ensure the fast sorting of bloody eggs and prevent heating damage of the egg samples. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for the spectral data obtained from VIS/NIR spectroscopy. The classification accuracies of the sorting models developed with blood samples of 0.1, 0.07, 0.04, and 0.01 mL were 97.9%, 98.9%, 94.8%, and 86.45%, respectively. In this study, a novel nondestructive sorting technique was developed to detect bloody brown eggs using spectral data obtained from VIS/NIR spectroscopy.

  12. Development of Sorting System for Fishes by Feed-forward Neural Networks Using Rotation Invariant Features (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yuhki; Takeda, Fumiaki

    In this research, we have developed a sorting system for fishes, which is comprised of a conveyance part, a capturing image part, and a sorting part. In the conveyance part, we have developed an independent conveyance system in order to separate one fish from an intertwined group of fishes. After the image of the separated fish is captured in the capturing part, a rotation invariant feature is extracted using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform, which is the mean value of the power spectrum with the same distance from the origin in the spectrum field. After that, the fishes are classified by three-layered feed-forward neural networks. The experimental results show that the developed system classifies three kinds of fishes captured in various angles with the classification ratio of 98.95% for 1044 captured images of five fishes. The other experimental results show the classification ratio of 90.7% for 300 fishes by 10-fold cross validation method.

  13. Dynamic memory searches: Selective output interference for the memory of facts. (United States)

    Aue, William R; Criss, Amy H; Prince, Melissa A


    The benefits of testing on later memory performance are well documented; however, the manner in which testing harms memory performance is less well understood. This research is concerned with the finding that accuracy decreases over the course of testing, a phenomena termed "output interference" (OI). OI has primarily been investigated with episodic memory, but there is limited research investigating OI in measures of semantic memory (i.e., knowledge). In the current study, participants were twice tested for their knowledge of factual questions; they received corrective feedback during the first test. No OI was observed during the first test, when participants presumably searched semantic memory to answer the general-knowledge questions. During the second test, OI was observed. Conditional analyses of Test 2 performance revealed that OI was largely isolated to questions answered incorrectly during Test 1. These were questions for which participants needed to rely on recent experience (i.e., the feedback in episodic memory) to respond correctly. One possible explanation is that episodic memory is more susceptible to the sort of interference generated during testing (e.g., gradual changes in context, encoding/updating of items) relative to semantic memory. Alternative explanations are considered.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby; Starke, Jens; Hummel, N.


    We consider a model class of interacting many-particle systems consisting of different types of particles defined by a gradient flow. The corresponding potential expresses attractive and repulsive interactions between particles of the same type and different types, respectively. The introduced...... system converges by self-organized pattern formation to a sorted state where particles of the same type share a common position and those of different types are separated from each other. This is proved in the sense that we show that the property of being sorted is asymptotically stable and all other...... states are unstable. The models are motivated from physics, chemistry, and biology, and the principal investigations can be useful for many systems with interacting particles or agents. The models match particularly well a system in neuroscience, namely the axonal pathfinding and sorting in the olfactory...

  15. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodar; Zhang, Qin


    We study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint, providing a generalization of the previous algorithmic models for MapReduce. We present optimal solutions for the fundamental problems of all-prefix-sums, sorting and multi-searching. Additionally, we design optimal simulations...

  16. Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method and kano model to redesign fresh fruit bunches sorting tool (United States)

    Anizar; Siregar, I.; Yahya, I.; Yesika, N.


    The activity of lowering fresh fruit bunches (FFB) from truck to sorting floor is performed manually by workers using a sorting tool. Previously, the sorting tool used is a pointed iron bar with a T-shaped handle. Changes made to the sorting tool causes several complaints on worker and affect the time to lower the fruit. The purpose of this article is to obtain the design of an FFB sorting tool that suits the needs of these workers by applying the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano Model methods. Both of the two methods will be integrated to find the design that matches workers’ image and psychological feeling. The main parameters are to obtain the customer requirements of the palm fruit loading workers, to find the most important technical characteristics and critical part affecting the quality of the FFB sorting tool. The customer requirements of the palm loading workers are the following : the color of the coating paint is gray, the bar material is made of stainless pipe, the main grip coating material is made of grip, the tip material is made of the spring steel, the additional grip is made of rubber and the handle is of triangular shape.

  17. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, I B; Dejus, Roger J; Moog, E; Trakhtenberg, E; Vinokurov, N A


    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators.

  18. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA). (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F


    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at

  19. Molecular determinants of the interaction between Doa1 and Hse1 involved in endosomal sorting. (United States)

    Han, Seungsu; Shin, Donghyuk; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Sangho


    Yeast Doa1/Ufd3 is an adaptor protein for Cdc48 (p97 in mammal), an AAA type ATPase associated with endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and endosomal sorting into multivesicular bodies. Doa1 functions in the endosomal sorting by its association with Hse1, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. The association of Doa1 with Hse1 was previously reported to be mediated between PFU domain of Doa1 and SH3 of Hse1. However, it remains unclear which residues are specifically involved in the interaction. Here we report that Doa1/PFU interacts with Hse1/SH3 with a moderate affinity of 5 μM. Asn-438 of Doa1/PFU and Trp-254 of Hse1/SH3 are found to be critical in the interaction while Phe-434, implicated in ubiquitin binding via a hydrophobic interaction, is not. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements combined with molecular docking and biochemical analysis yield the solution structure of the Doa1/PFU:Hse1/SH3 complex. Taken together, our results suggest that hydrogen bonding is a major determinant in the interaction of Doa1/PFU with Hse1/SH3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.


    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tank expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994

  1. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean? (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.


    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Antoniu


    Full Text Available Dynamics of fiscal policy, more specific rise in fiscal pressure, increase which can be obtained either through enforcing one or more taxes, or by augmenting at least a tax, has a powerful impact on output management – visible, in the first place, in the realm of output size. But, not only output size will vary, after an increase in fiscal pressure, at least because output management is dealing with more than issue of producing a certain quantity of products, material or not, goods and/or services. Products are made for selling, but selling is impossible but through price and with a price; price is an essential economic variable, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic spheres. Thus, on one side rise in fiscal pressure determines, at least in short term, and, of course, if producers pay, or even support, a tax, be it newly enforced or (newly augmented, a rise of prices for sold products, and, on the other side, this results in a variation in output size, e.g. a reduced output volume, but, though, not in a linear trend. The dynamics, in this case of economic mechanism whose yield is a reduced volume of goods and/or services, in not linear, because essential are, too, the characteristics of products, from which effects of demand price elasticity and offer price elasticity influence significantly, in this framework, output management.

  3. Using net energy output as the base to develop renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Daigee; Hung Mingfeng; Lin Yihao


    In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.

  4. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu


    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  5. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A


    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  6. Ore sorting using natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Dickson, B.L.; Gray, F.E.


    A method of sorting an ore which emits natural gamma radiation is described, comprising the steps of: (a) mining the ore, (b) placing, substantially at the mining location, the sampled or mined ore on to a moving conveyor belt, (c) measuring the natural gamma emission, water content and mass of the ore while the ore is on the conveyor belt, (d) using the gamma, water content and mass measurements to determine the ore grade, and (e) directing the ore to a location characteristic of its grade when it leaves the conveyor belt

  7. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDevanter, D. R.; Choongkittaworn, N. M.; Dyer, K. A.; Aten, J. A.; Otto, P.; Behler, C.; Bryant, E. M.; Rabinovitch, P. S.


    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted

  8. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  9. Flow cytometric sex sorting affects CD4 membrane distribution and binding of exogenous DNA on bovine sperm cells. (United States)

    Domingues, William Borges; da Silveira, Tony Leandro Rezende; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Remião, Mariana Härter; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Corcini, Carine Dahl; Varela Junior, Antônio Sergio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago; Campos, Vinicius Farias


    Bovine sex-sorted sperm have been commercialized and successfully used for the production of transgenic embryos of the desired sex through the sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) technique. However, sex-sorted sperm show a reduced ability to internalize exogenous DNA. The interaction between sperm cells and the exogenous DNA has been reported in other species to be a CD4-like molecule-dependent process. The flow cytometry-based sex-sorting process subjects the spermatozoa to different stresses causing changes in the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the redistribution of CD4-like molecules and binding of exogenous DNA to sex-sorted bovine sperm. In the first set of experiments, the membrane phospholipid disorder and the redistribution of the CD4 were evaluated. The second set of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of CD4 redistribution on the mechanism of binding of exogenous DNA to sperm cells and the efficiency of lipofection in sex-sorted bovine sperm. Sex-sorting procedure increased the membrane phospholipid disorder and induced the redistribution of CD4-like molecules. Both X-sorted and Y-sorted sperm had decreased DNA bound to membrane in comparison with the unsorted sperm; however, the binding of the exogenous DNA was significantly increased with the addition of liposomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that the number of sperm-bound exogenous DNA was decreased when these cells were preincubated with anti-bovine CD4 monoclonal antibody, supporting our hypothesis that CD4-like molecules indeed play a crucial role in the process of exogenous DNA/bovine sperm cells interaction.

  10. Design and control of multifunctional sorting and training platform based on PLC control (United States)

    Wan, Hongqiang; Ge, Shuai; Han, Peiying; Li, Fancong; Zhang, Simiao


    Electromechanical integration, as a multi-disciplinary subject, has been paid much attention by universities and is widely used in the automation production of enterprises. Aiming at the problem of the lack of control among enterprises and the lack of training among colleges and universities, this paper presents a design of multifunctional sorting training platform based on PLC control. Firstly, the structure of the platform is determined and three-dimensional modeling is done. Then design the platform's aerodynamic control and electrical control. Finally, realize the platform sorting function through PLC programming and configuration software development. The training platform can be used to design the practical training experiment, which has a strong advance and pertinence in the electromechanical integration teaching. At the same time, the platform makes full use of modular thinking to make the sorting modules more flexible. Compared with the traditional training platform, its teaching effect is more significant.

  11. Teleoperated robotic sorting system (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.


    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  12. Are Korean Industry-Sorted Portfolios Mean Reverting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongman Moon


    Full Text Available This paper tests the weak-form efficient market hypothesis for Korean industry-sorted portfolios. Based on a panel variance ratio approach, we find significant mean reversion of stock returns over long horizons in the pre Asian currency crisis period but little evidence in the post-crisis period. Our empirical findings are consistent with the fact that Korea accelerated its integration with international financial market by implementing extensive capital liberalization since the crisis.

  13. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping


    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  14. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★ (United States)

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping


    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25–35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein. PMID:25745458

  15. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao


    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  16. Using pico-LCoS SLMs for high speed cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin


    We propose the use of consumer pico projectors as cost effective spatial light modulators in cell sorting applications. The matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) beam shaping method is used to produce high intensity optical spots for trapping and catapulting cells. A pico projector......’s liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) chip was used as a binary phase spatial light modulator (SLM) wherein correlation target patterns are addressed. Experiments using the binary LCoS phase SLM with a fabricated Pyrex matched filter demonstrate the generation of intense optical spots that can potentially...... be used for cell sorting. Numerical studies also show mGPC’s robustness to phase aberrations in the LCoS device, and its ability to outperform a top hat beam with the same power....

  17. Output ordering and prioritisation system (OOPS): ranking biosynthetic gene clusters to enhance bioactive metabolite discovery. (United States)

    Peña, Alejandro; Del Carratore, Francesco; Cummings, Matthew; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer


    The rapid increase of publicly available microbial genome sequences has highlighted the presence of hundreds of thousands of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding valuable secondary metabolites. The experimental characterization of new BGCs is extremely laborious and struggles to keep pace with the in silico identification of potential BGCs. Therefore, the prioritisation of promising candidates among computationally predicted BGCs represents a pressing need. Here, we propose an output ordering and prioritisation system (OOPS) which helps sorting identified BGCs by a wide variety of custom-weighted biological and biochemical criteria in a flexible and user-friendly interface. OOPS facilitates a judicious prioritisation of BGCs using G+C content, coding sequence length, gene number, cluster self-similarity and codon bias parameters, as well as enabling the user to rank BGCs based upon BGC type, novelty, and taxonomic distribution. Effective prioritisation of BGCs will help to reduce experimental attrition rates and improve the breadth of bioactive metabolites characterized.

  18. Knee point search using cascading top-k sorting with minimized time complexity. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Tseng, Shian-Shyong


    Anomaly detection systems and many other applications are frequently confronted with the problem of finding the largest knee point in the sorted curve for a set of unsorted points. This paper proposes an efficient knee point search algorithm with minimized time complexity using the cascading top-k sorting when a priori probability distribution of the knee point is known. First, a top-k sort algorithm is proposed based on a quicksort variation. We divide the knee point search problem into multiple steps. And in each step an optimization problem of the selection number k is solved, where the objective function is defined as the expected time cost. Because the expected time cost in one step is dependent on that of the afterwards steps, we simplify the optimization problem by minimizing the maximum expected time cost. The posterior probability of the largest knee point distribution and the other parameters are updated before solving the optimization problem in each step. An example of source detection of DNS DoS flooding attacks is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur


    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  20. Sorting method to extend the dynamic range of the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junwon; Shack, Roland V.; Descour, Michael R.


    We propose a simple and powerful algorithm to extend the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. In a conventional Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor the dynamic range is limited by the f-number of a lenslet, because the focal spot is required to remain in the area confined by the single lenslet. The sorting method proposed here eliminates such a limitation and extends the dynamic range by tagging each spot in a special sequence. Since the sorting method is a simple algorithm that does not change the measurement configuration, there is no requirement for extra hardware, multiple measurements, or complicated algorithms. We not only present the theory and a calculation example of the sorting method but also actually implement measurement of a highly aberrated wave front from nonrotational symmetric optics

  1. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression (United States)

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho


    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  2. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay


    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  3. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan


    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....

  4. EGFRvIII escapes down-regulation due to impaired internalization and sorting to lysosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandal, Michael V; Zandi, Roza; Pedersen, Mikkel W


    . Moreover, internalized EGFRvIII is recycled rather than delivered to lysosomes. EGFRvIII binds the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl via Grb2, whereas binding via phosphorylated tyrosine residue 1045 seems to be limited. Despite c-Cbl binding, the receptor fails to become effectively ubiquitinylated. Thus, our...... results suggest that the long lifetime of EGFRvIII is caused by inefficient internalization and impaired sorting to lysosomes due to lack of effective ubiquitinylation....

  5. General Output Feedback Stabilization for Fractional Order Systems: An LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiheng Wei


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of general output feedback stabilization for fractional order linear time-invariant (FO-LTI systems with the fractional commensurate order 0<α<2. The objective is to design suitable output feedback controllers that guarantee the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems. Based on the slack variable method and our previous stability criteria, some new results in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI are developed to the static and dynamic output feedback controllers synthesis for the FO-LTI system with 0<α<1. Furthermore, the results are extended to stabilize the FO-LTI systems with 1≤α<2. Finally, robust output feedback control is discussed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  6. High Efficiency Single Output ZVS-ZCS Voltage Doubled Flyback Converter (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepa; Saju, Hridya Merin; Kumar, M. Vijaya


    A switch operating at high switching frequency increases the switching losses of the converter resulting in lesser efficiency. Hence this paper proposes a new topology which has resonant switches [zero voltage switching (ZVS)] in the primary circuit to eliminate the above said disadvantages, and voltage doubler zero current switching (ZCS) circuit in the secondary to double the output voltage, and hence the output power, power density and efficiency. The design aspects of the proposed topology for a single output of 5 V at 50 kHz, its simulation and hardware results are discussed in detail. The analysis of the results obtained from a 2.5 W converter reveals the superiority of the proposed converter.

  7. Soil sorting, new approach to site remediation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Woods, J.A.; Dillon, M.J.


    Soil sorting is the technology which conveys soil beneath contaminant detectors and, based on contaminant signal, automatically toggles a gate at the conveyor end to send soil with contamination above a guideline to a separate location from soil which meets the guideline. The technology was perfected for remediation of sites having soils with radioactive contamination, but it is applicable to other contaminants when instrumental methods exist for rapid contaminant detection at levels of concern. This paper examines the three methods for quantifying contamination in soil in support of site remediation management. Examples are discussed where the primary contaminant is plutonium, a radioactive substance and source of nuclear energy which can be hazardous to health when in the environment without controls. Field survey instruments are very sensitive to plutonium and can detect it in soil at levels below a part per billion, and there are a variety of soils which have been contaminated by plutonium and thoroughly investigated. The lessons learned with plutonium are applicable to other types of contaminants and site remediations. The paper concludes that soil sorting can be the most cost effective approach to site remediation, and it leads to the best overall cleanup

  8. Sorting mutual funds with respect to process-oriented social responsibility: A FLOWSORT application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verheyden


    Full Text Available We establish a robust FLOWSORT-based tool to sort mutual funds with respect to process-oriented social responsibility and recommend the use of limiting profiles with open classes. The tool provides an alternative for the limited dichotomous classification of funds, i.e. socially responsible investing (SRI versus conventional funds. By allowing for more heterogeneity in social responsibility the sorting tool is promising for scholars to improve fund performance measurements, and useful for governments to better regulate the supply of SRI products.

  9. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting. (United States)

    Mickaël, Dupré


    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry


    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  11. Algorithms for the Automatic Classification and Sorting of Conifers in the Garden Nursery Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Stig

    with the classification and sorting of plants using machine vision have been discussed as an introduction to the work reported here. The use of Nordmann firs as a basis for evaluating the developed algorithms naturally introduces a bias towards this species in the algorithms, but steps have been taken throughout...... was used as the basis for evaluating the constructed feature extraction algorithms. Through an analysis of the construction of a machine vision system suitable for classifying and sorting plants, the needs with regard to physical frame, lighting system, camera and software algorithms have been uncovered......The ultimate purpose of this work is the development of general feature extraction algorithms useful for the classification and sorting of plants in the garden nursery industry. Narrowing the area of focus to bare-root plants, more specifically Nordmann firs, the scientific literature dealing...

  12. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum (United States)

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.


    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  13. Study on the output factors of asymmetrical rectangular electron beam field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinghai; Yang Yueqin; Ma Yuhong; Zheng Jin; Zou Lijuan


    Objective: To evaluate the variant regularity of the output factors of asymmetrical rectangular electron beam field. Methods: The output factors of three special fields with different applicators and energies were measured by ionization chamber method at different off-axis distances. Then deviations of the output factors between asymmetrical and symmetric rectangular fields were calculated. Results: The changes of output factor with different off-axis distances in asymmetrical rectangular fields were basically consistent with those in standard square fields with the same applicator. It revealed that the output factor of asymmetrical rectangular field was related with the off-axis ratio of standard square field. Applicator and field size did not show obvious influence on the output factor. Conclusions: The output factor changes of asymmetrical rectangular field are mainly correlated with the off-axis ratio of standard square field. The correction of the output factor is determined by the off-axis ratio changes in standard square field. (authors)

  14. Species sorting during biofilm assembly by artificial substrates deployed in a cold seep system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei Peng


    Studies focusing on biofilm assembly in deep-sea environments are rarely conducted. To examine the effects of substrate type on microbial community assembly, biofilms were developed on different substrates for different durations at two locations in the Red Sea: in a brine pool and in nearby bottom water (NBW) adjacent to the Thuwal cold seep II. The composition of the microbial communities in 51 biofilms and water samples were revealed by classification of pyrosequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Together with the microscopic characteristics of the biofilms, the results indicate a stronger selection effect by the substrates on the microbial assembly in the brine pool compared with the NBW. Moreover, the selection effect by substrate type was stronger in the early stages compared with the later stages of the biofilm development. These results are consistent with the hypotheses proposed in the framework of species sorting theory, which states that the power of species sorting during microbial community assembly is dictated by habitat conditions, duration and the structure of the source community. Therefore, the results of this study shed light on the control strategy underlying biofilm-associated marine fouling and provide supporting evidence for ecological theories important for understanding the formation of deep-sea biofilms.

  15. Species sorting during biofilm assembly by artificial substrates deployed in a cold seep system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei Peng; Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren Mao; Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, Bo; Cao, Hui Luo; Zhang, Gen; Wong, Yue Him; Xu, Wei; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Zhang, Xixiang; Qian, Pei-Yuan


    Studies focusing on biofilm assembly in deep-sea environments are rarely conducted. To examine the effects of substrate type on microbial community assembly, biofilms were developed on different substrates for different durations at two locations in the Red Sea: in a brine pool and in nearby bottom water (NBW) adjacent to the Thuwal cold seep II. The composition of the microbial communities in 51 biofilms and water samples were revealed by classification of pyrosequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Together with the microscopic characteristics of the biofilms, the results indicate a stronger selection effect by the substrates on the microbial assembly in the brine pool compared with the NBW. Moreover, the selection effect by substrate type was stronger in the early stages compared with the later stages of the biofilm development. These results are consistent with the hypotheses proposed in the framework of species sorting theory, which states that the power of species sorting during microbial community assembly is dictated by habitat conditions, duration and the structure of the source community. Therefore, the results of this study shed light on the control strategy underlying biofilm-associated marine fouling and provide supporting evidence for ecological theories important for understanding the formation of deep-sea biofilms.

  16. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, B.A.


    Gamma radiation effects on different sorts of onions were studied to improve ways of obtaining agricultural vegetation mutations and to find out the genotype role in induced mutagenesis. It is established that rhizome onion seeds are more radiosensitive than bulbous ones, ephemeroide form seeds are most stable among bulbous plants. Table data on dependence of seed germination and plant survival on radiation dose are presented

  18. Using Card-Sorting to Arrange Menu Items on an Academic Library Homepage


    Goodson, Kymberly Anne


    Card sorting is one method for obtaining direct user feedback. It consists ofusers imposing their own organization on a set of ideas, andworks well for developing or evaluating website and menu structure. Participants are asked togroup terms or concepts in a way meaningful to them, and may also be asked to name resulting groups. Participants not only provide insight on how to arrange various items, but can also highlight terms that are confusing or ambiguous. In early 2011, the Unive...

  19. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto


    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  20. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.


    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  1. Aircraft noise, health, and residential sorting: evidence from two quasi-experiments. (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Nüesch, Stephan; Stillman, Steven


    We explore two unexpected changes in flight regulations to estimate the causal effect of aircraft noise on health. Detailed measures of noise are linked with longitudinal data on individual health outcomes based on the exact address information. Controlling for individual heterogeneity and spatial sorting into different neighborhoods, we find that aircraft noise significantly increases sleeping problems and headaches. Models that do not control for such heterogeneity and sorting substantially underestimate the negative health effects, which suggests that individuals self-select into residence based on their unobserved sensitivity to noise. Our study demonstrates that the combination of quasi-experimental variation and panel data is very powerful for identifying causal effects in epidemiological field studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Environmental species sorting dominates forest-bird community assembly across scales. (United States)

    Özkan, Korhan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Jeppesen, Erik


    -related assembly mechanisms appear to act consistently across the WP region. Overall, our results suggest that the structure of the Istranca Forest' bird metacommunity was predominantly controlled by environmental species sorting in a manner consistent with the broader WP region. However, variability in local community structure was also linked to purely spatial factors, albeit more weakly. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  3. Technical note: Impact of a molasses-based liquid feed supplement on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves. (United States)

    Gordon, L J; DeVries, T J


    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a high-grain mixed ration on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves. Twenty-four Holstein bull veal calves (90.2 ± 2.6 d of age, weighing 137.5 ± 16.9 kg) were split into groups of 4 and exposed, in a crossover design with 35-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control diet (76.0% high-moisture corn, 19.0% protein supplement, and 5.0% alfalfa/grass haylage) and 2) LF diet (68.4% corn, 17.1% protein supplement, 9.0% molasses-based LF, and 4.5% alfalfa/grass haylage). Diets were designed to support 1.5 kg/d of growth. Data were collected for the final 3 wk of each treatment period. Feed intakes were recorded daily and calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed samples of fresh feed and refusals were collected 3 times/wk for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percent of its predicted intake. Calves tended ( = 0.08) to sort for long particles on the control diet (110.5%) and did not sort these particles on the LF diet (96.8%). Sorting for medium particles (102.6%) was similar ( = 0.9) across diets. Calves sorted against short particles on the LF diet (97.5%; = 0.04) but did not sort this fraction on the control diet (99.4%). Calves sorted against fine particles (79.3%) to a similar extent ( = 0.2) on both diets. Dry matter intake was similar across diets (6.1 kg/d; = 0.9), but day-to-day variability in DMI was greater (0.5 vs. 0.4 kg/d; = 0.04) when calves were fed the control compared with the LF diet. Calves on both diets had similar ADG (1.6 kg/d; = 0.8) as well as within-pen variability in ADG (0.4 kg/d; = 0.7). The feed-to-gain ratio was also similar between control and LF diets (4.3 vs. 3.9 kg DM/kg gain; = 0.4). The results suggest

  4. A Fully Automated Approach to Spike Sorting. (United States)

    Chung, Jason E; Magland, Jeremy F; Barnett, Alex H; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Lee, Kye Y; Shah, Kedar G; Felix, Sarah H; Frank, Loren M; Greengard, Leslie F


    Understanding the detailed dynamics of neuronal networks will require the simultaneous measurement of spike trains from hundreds of neurons (or more). Currently, approaches to extracting spike times and labels from raw data are time consuming, lack standardization, and involve manual intervention, making it difficult to maintain data provenance and assess the quality of scientific results. Here, we describe an automated clustering approach and associated software package that addresses these problems and provides novel cluster quality metrics. We show that our approach has accuracy comparable to or exceeding that achieved using manual or semi-manual techniques with desktop central processing unit (CPU) runtimes faster than acquisition time for up to hundreds of electrodes. Moreover, a single choice of parameters in the algorithm is effective for a variety of electrode geometries and across multiple brain regions. This algorithm has the potential to enable reproducible and automated spike sorting of larger scale recordings than is currently possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo


    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  6. Postendocytic sorting of constitutively internalized dopamine transporter in cell lines and dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard


    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine. DAT undergoes marked constitutive endocytosis, but little is known about the fate and sorting of the endocytosed transporter. To study DAT sorting in cells...... lines, we fused the one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to DAT, thereby generating a transporter (TacDAT) with an extracellular antibody epitope suited for trafficking studies. TacDAT was functional and endocytosed constitutively in HEK293 cells. According to an ELISA-based assay, TacDAT intracellular...

  7. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen


    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  8. Interannual variability of sorted bedforms in the coastal German Bight (SE North Sea) (United States)

    Mielck, F.; Holler, P.; Bürk, D.; Hass, H. C.


    Sorted bedforms are ubiquitous on the inner continental shelves worldwide. They are described as spatially-grain-size-sorted features consisting of small rippled medium-to-coarse sand and can remain stable for decades. However, the knowledge about their genesis and development is still fragmentary. For this study, a representative investigation area (water depthwinnowing and focusing processes take place during periodically recurring storm surges, which change the shapes of the features. Moreover, variations in alignments and sizes of the small ripple formations were detected. They seem to indicate the directions and intensities of previous storm events.

  9. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun


    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  10. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajioka Itsuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  11. Simulating Sediment Sorting of Streambed Surfaces - It's the Supply, Stupid (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.


    The grain size of the streambed surface is an integral part of the transport system because it represents the grains immediately available for transport. If the rate and size of grains entrained from the bed surface differ from that delivered to the bed surface, the bed surface grain size will change. Although this balance is intuitively clear, its implications can surprise. The relative mobility of different sizes in a mixture change as transport rates increase. At small transport rates, smaller sizes are more mobile. As transport rate increases, the transport grain size approaches that of the bed. This presents a dilemma when using flumes to simulate surface sorting and transport. When sediment is fed into a flume, the same sediment is typically used regardless of feed rate. The transport grain size remains constant at all rates, which does not match the pattern observed in the field. This operational constraint means that sediment supply is coarser than transport capacity in feed flumes, increasingly so as transport rates diminish. This imbalance drives a coarsening of the stream bed as less mobile coarse grains concentrate on the surface as the system approaches steady-state. If sediment is recirculated in a flume, sediment supply and entrainment are perfectly matched. Surface coarsening is not imposed, but does occur via kinematic sieving. The coarsening of the transport (and supply) accommodates the rate-dependent change in mobility such that the bed surface grain size does not change with transport rate. Streambed armoring depends on both the rate and grain size of sediment supply - their implications do not seem to be fully appreciated. A coarsened bed surface does not indicate sorting of the bed surface during waning flows - it can persist with active sediment supply and transport. Neither sediment feed nor sediment recirculating flumes accurately mimic natural conditions but instead represent end members that bracket the dynamics of natural streams

  12. Market power and output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn


    Output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues combines a tax on emissions with a production subsidy, typically in a revenue-neutral fashion. With imperfect competition, subsidies can alleviate output underprovision. However, when market shares are significant, endogenous refunding reduces abatement incentives and the marginal net tax or subsidy. If market shares differ, marginal abatement costs will not be equalized, and production is shifted among participants. In an asymmetric Cournot duopoly, endogenous refunding leads to higher output, emissions, and overall costs compared with a fixed rebate program targeting the same emissions intensity. These results hold whether emissions rates are determined simultaneously with output or strategically in a two-stage model. (author)

  13. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 9, 2013 ... in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and ... result in gradual reduction in the energy output of ..... of LED lights are compared with QTH lights could ... influence on the SMH of dark shades.

  14. High resolution FISH on super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valárik, M.; Bartos, J.; Kovarova, P.; Kubalakova, M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Dolezel, J.


    A novel high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) strategy, using super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes as targets, is described. The technique that allows longitudinal extension of chromosomes of more than 100 times their original metaphase size is especially attractive for

  15. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  16. Particle shape-controlled sorting and transport behaviour of mixed siliciclastic/bioclastic sediments in a mesotidal lagoon, South Africa (United States)

    Flemming, Burghard W.


    This study investigates the effect of particle shape on the transport and deposition of mixed siliciclastic-bioclastic sediments in the lower mesotidal Langebaan Lagoon along the South Atlantic coast of South Africa. As the two sediment components have undergone mutual sorting for the last 7 ka, they can be expected to have reached a highest possible degree of hydraulic equivalence. A comparison of sieve and settling tube data shows that, with progressive coarsening of the size fractions, the mean diameters of individual sediment components increasingly depart from the spherical quartz standard, the experimental data demonstrating the hydraulic incompatibility of the sieve data. Overall, the spatial distribution patterns of textural parameters (mean settling diameter, sorting and skewness) of the siliciclastic and bioclastic sediment components are very similar. Bivariate plots between them reveal linear trends when averaged over small intervals. A systematic deviation is observed in sorting, the trend ranging from uniformity at poorer sorting levels to a progressively increasing lag of the bioclastic component relative to the siliciclastic one as overall sorting improves. The deviation amounts to 0.8 relative sorting units at the optimal sorting level. The small textural differences between the two components are considered to reflect the influence of particle shape, which prevents the bioclastic fraction from achieving complete textural equivalence with the siliciclastic one. This is also reflected in the inferred transport behaviour of the two shape components, the bioclastic fraction moving closer to the bed than the siliciclastic one because of the higher drag experienced by low shape factor particles. As a consequence, the bed-phase development of bioclastic sediments departs significantly from that of siliciclastic sediments. Systematic flume experiments, however, are currently still lacking.

  17. Hyperexpansion of wheat chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Takashi R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav


    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 181-185 ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : flow cytometry * flow sorting * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2014

  18. Markerless four-dimensional-cone beam computed tomography projection-phase sorting using prior knowledge and patient motion modeling: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang


    Conclusion: The study demonstrated the feasibility of using PCA coefficients for 4D-CBCT projection-phase sorting. High sorting accuracy in both digital phantoms and patient cases was achieved. This method provides an accurate and robust tool for automatic 4D-CBCT projection sorting using 3D motion modeling without the need of external surrogate or internal markers.

  19. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.


    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  20. Inverter communications using output signal (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.


    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.