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Sample records for sorted cells vegf

  1. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche

  2. Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A

    2010-03-21

    We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.

  3. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice; Washko, Daniel; Takagawa, Junya; Ye, Jianqin; Grossman, William; Su Hua

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16 INK , p21 and p19 ARF . VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs or VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI

  4. Chronic inhibition of tumor cell-derived VEGF enhances the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Naoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kensei; Kuwano, Yuki; Dang, Duyen T; Dang, Long H; Nikawa, Takeshi; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-a (VEGF)-targeted therapies have become an important treatment for a number of human malignancies. The VEGF inhibitors are actually effective in several types of cancers, however, the benefits are transiently, and the vast majority of patients who initially respond to the therapies will develop resistance. One of possible mechanisms for the acquired resistance may be the direct effect(s) of VEGF inhibitors on tumor cells expressing VEGF receptors (VEGFR). Thus, we investigated here the direct effect of chronic VEGF inhibition on phenotype changes in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. To chronically inhibit cancer cell-derived VEGF, human CRC cell lines (HCT116 and RKO) were chronically exposed (2 months) to an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) or were disrupted the Vegf gene (VEGF-KO). Effects of VEGF family members were blocked by treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI). Hypoxia-induced apoptosis under VEGF inhibited conditions was measured by TUNEL assay. Spheroid formation ability was assessed using a 3-D spheroid cell culture system. Chronic inhibition of secreted/extracellular VEGF by an anti-VEGF mAb redundantly increased VEGF family member (PlGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), induced a resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and increased spheroid formation ability. This apoptotic resistance was partially abrogated by a VEGFR-TKI, which blocked the compensate pathway consisted of VEGF family members, or by knockdown of Vegf mRNA, which inhibited intracellular function(s) of all Vegf gene products. Interestingly, chronic and complete depletion of all Vegf gene products by Vegf gene knockout further augmented these phenotypes in the compensate pathway-independent manner. These accelerated phenotypes were significantly suppressed by knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α that was up-regulated in the VEGF-KO cell lines. Our findings suggest that chronic inhibition of tumor cell-derived VEGF

  5. AKT increases VEGF expression in tumor cells by transactivating the proximal VEGF promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pore, N.; Bernhard, E.J.; Shu, H.-K.; Li, B.; O'Rourke, D.M.; Maity, A.; Haas-Kogan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed in many cancers including glioblastomas and may contribute to their growth. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and loss of PTEN, commonly found in glioblastomas leading to increase phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity and VEGF expression. In the current study we show that AKT, which is downstream of PI3K, regulates VEGF expression. U87MG human glioblastoma cells lack wildtype PTEN and express high levels of phosphorylated AKT. Over expression of AKT either by stable expression in immortalized human astrocytes or by transduction with adenovirus containing activated myristoylated AKT in SF188 glioblastoma cells increases VEGF expression. Moreover the elevation of angiogenesis by constitutively expressed AKT is further confirmed by in vivo matrigel plug assay in nude mice. The upregulation of VEGF by AKT is mediated through a region in the proximal promoter located between -88 and -70 (+1 is transcription start site). In transient transfection activity of a luciferase reporter containing the -88/+54 region of the VEGF promoter is increased by cotransfection with myristoylated AKT and downregulated by a dominant negative AKT expression vector. Mutation of the putative Sp1 binding sites located in the -88/-70 region we show that AKT acts through Sp1 to transactivate the VEGF promoter. Cotransfection of the VEGF promoter reporter with both Sp1 and myristoylated AKT expression vectors increases promoter activity to a greater extent than either Sp1 or Akt by itself. In vivo phosphate labeling of proteins reveals that AKT leads to increased Sp1 phosphorylation. Gel shift assays using a radio labeled probe corresponding to nucleotides -88 through -66 in the promoter show increased binding with nuclear extracts from cells transduced with adenovirus expressing myristoylated AKT. In conclusion, our results suggest that loss of PTEN leads to increased VEGF expression by increasing AKT

  6. VEGF signaling inside vascular endothelial cells and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has long been recognized as the key regulator of vascular development and function in health and disease. VEGF is a secreted polypeptide that binds to transmembrane tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors on the plasma membrane, inducing their dimerization, activation and assembly of a membrane-proximal signaling complex. Recent studies have revealed that many key events of VEGFR signaling occur inside the endothelial cell and are regulated by endosomal receptor trafficking. Plasma membrane VEGFR interacting molecules, including vascular guidance receptors Neuropilins and Ephrins also regulate VEGFR endocytosis and trafficking. VEGF signaling is increasingly recognized for its roles outside of the vascular system, notably during neural development, and blood vessels regulate epithelial branching morphogenesis. We review here recent advances in our understanding of VEGF signaling and its biological roles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mural cell associated VEGF is required for organotypic vessel formation.

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    Lasse Evensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood vessels comprise endothelial cells, mural cells (pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells and basement membrane. During angiogenesis, mural cells are recruited to sprouting endothelial cells and define a stabilizing context, comprising cell-cell contacts, secreted growth factors and extracellular matrix components, that drives vessel maturation and resistance to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To better understand the basis for mural cell regulation of angiogenesis, we conducted high content imaging analysis on a microtiter plate format in vitro organotypic blood vessel system comprising primary human endothelial cells co-cultured with primary human mural cells. We show that endothelial cells co-cultured with mural cells undergo an extensive series of phenotypic changes reflective of several facets of blood vessel formation and maturation: Loss of cell proliferation, pathfinding-like cell migration, branching morphogenesis, basement membrane extracellular matrix protein deposition, lumen formation, anastamosis and development of a stabilized capillary-like network. This phenotypic sequence required endothelial-mural cell-cell contact, mural cell-derived VEGF and endothelial VEGFR2 signaling. Inhibiting formation of adherens junctions or basement membrane structures abrogated network formation. Notably, inhibition of mural cell VEGF expression could not be rescued by exogenous VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a unique role for mural cell-associated VEGF in driving vessel formation and maturation.

  8. Endogenous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Maintains Endothelial Cell Homeostasis by Regulating VEGF Receptor-2 Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangqi; Cao, Ying; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important factors controlling angiogenesis. Although the functions of exogenous VEGF-A have been widely studied, the roles of endogenous VEGF-A remain unclear. Here we focused on the mechanistic functions of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells. We found that it is complexed with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and maintains a basal expression level for VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling activation. Endogenous VEGF-A also controls expression of key endothelial specific genes including VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and vascular endothelial cadherin. Of importance, endogenous VEGF-A differs from exogenous VEGF-A by regulating VEGFR-2 transcription through mediation of FoxC2 binding to the FOX:ETS motif, and the complex formed by endogenous VEGF-A with VEGFR-2 is localized within the EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) endosomal compartment. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells by regulating key vascular proteins and maintaining the endothelial homeostasis. PMID:22167188

  9. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  10. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  11. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  12. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, Koka [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fukumoto, Shinya [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Koyama, Hidenori [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Emoto, Masanori [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Maemura, Koji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiki [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-03-31

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs.

  13. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maemura, Koji; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs

  14. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating...

  15. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  16. CXCL7-Mediated Stimulation of Lymphangiogenic Factors VEGF-C, VEGF-D in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghuan Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of lymphangiogenesis factors VEGF-C/D and heparanase has been correlated with the invasion of cancer. Furthermore, chemokines may modify matrix to facilitate metastasis, and they are associated with VEGF-C and heparanase. The chemokine CXCL7 binds heparin and the G-protein-linked receptor CXCR2. We investigated the effect of CXCR2 blockade on the expression of VEGF-C/D, heparanase, and on invasion. CXCL7 siRNA and a specific antagonist of CXCR2 (SB225002 were used to treat CXCL7 stably transfected MCF10AT cells. Matrigel invasion assays were performed. VEGF-C/D expression and secretion were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA assay, and heparanase activity was quantified by ELISA. SB225002 blocked VEGF-C/D expression and secretion (P<.01. CXCL7 siRNA knockdown decreased heparanase (P<.01. Both SB225002 and CXCL7 siRNA reduced the Matrigel invasion (P<.01. The MAP kinase signaling pathway was not involved. The CXCL7/CXCR2 axis is important for cell invasion and the expression of VEGF-C/D and heparanase, all linked to invasion.

  17. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 inhibits migration of human monocytic THP-1 cells in response to VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cansheng; Xiong, Zhaojun; Chen, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhengqi; Zhou, Guoyu; Wang, Dunjing; Bao, Jian; Hu, Xueqiang

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the regulation and contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and sFlt-1(1-3) to human monocytic THP-1 migration. Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG, a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human sFlt-1(1-3) (the first three extracellular domains of FLT-1, the hVEGF receptor-1) gene, was constructed. L929 cells were infected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG and the expression of sFlt-1 was detected by immunofluorescent assay and ELISA. Corning(®) Transwell(®) Filter Inserts containing polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes with pore sizes of 3 μm were used as an experimental model to simulate THP-1 migration. Five VEGF concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), four concentrations of sFlt-1(1-3)/FLAG expression supernatants (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 10 ng/ml) were used to test the ability of THP-1 cells to migrate through PET membranes. The sFlt-1(1-3) gene was successfully recombined into Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. sFlt-1(1-3) was expressed in L929 cells transfected with Ad-sFlt-1/FLAG. THP-1 cell migration increased with increasing concentrations of VEGF, while cell migration decreased with increasing concentrations of sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG. sFlt1(1-3)/FLAG had no effect on MCP-1-induced cell migration. This study demonstrated that VEGF is able to elicit a migratory response in THP-1 cells, and that sFlt-1(1-3) is an effective inhibitor of THP-1 migration towards VEGF.

  18. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of cells sorted by RNA abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Sandy; Semrau, Stefan; Wiebrands, Kay; Mooijman, Dylan; Faddah, Dina A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    We have developed a quantitative technique for sorting cells on the basis of endogenous RNA abundance, with a molecular resolution of 10-20 transcripts. We demonstrate efficient and unbiased RNA extraction from transcriptionally sorted cells and report a high-fidelity transcriptome measurement of

  20. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. → CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca 2+ -insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. → Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits FcεRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. → Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl 2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl 2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  1. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico); Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  2. Differential regulation of ANG2 and VEGF-A in human granulosa lutein cells by choriogonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Keck, C

    2004-04-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum after rupture of the follicle is a highly regulated process characterised by a rapid vascularization of the follicle surrounding granulosa cells. Vascularization is regulated by a large number of growth factors and cytokines whereas members of the angiopoietin family and VEGF-A are reported to play a principal role. The gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone and choriogonadotropin are reported to be essential for corpus luteum formation. In this study we investigated by RT PCR if the growth factors PGF, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, ANG1, ANG2, ANG3 and ANG4 are expressed in granulosa cells. We show the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, PDGF-A, ANG1 and ANG2 in granulosa cells. Using RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR we demonstrate that angiopoietin 2 is downregulated in human granulosa cells in vitro after choriogonadotropin treatment whereas the expression of angiopoietin 1 is not significantly altered. The expression of VEGF on the RNA- and on the protein level was determined. It was shown that in granulosa cells VEGF is upregulated after choriogonadotropin treatment on the RNA level and that increasing concentrations of choriogonadotropin from 0 to 10 U/ml leads to an increasing amount of VEGF in the cell culture supernatants. The amount of VEGF in the supernatants reaches a plateau at 0.5 U/ml and is increased only slightly and not significantly after treatment of the cells with 10 U/ml choriogonadotropin compared to 0.5 U/ml. In total these findings suggests that in granulosa cells the mRNA of various growth factors is detectable by RT-PCR and that VEGF-A and ANG2 is regulated by the gonadotropic hormone choriogonadotropin. These findings may add impact on the hypothesis of choriogonadotropin as a novel angiogenic factor.

  3. Evaluation of anticancer peptide VEGF111b secretion in HEK293 human cells

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    Morteza Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: VEGF111b is a new isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF recently considered as a new anticancer drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VEGF111b secretion from HEK293 cell wall in order to commercial production of this recombinant factor. Materials and Methods: After the design of VEGF111b sequence using OLIGO software and NCBI gene bank data, it was cloned into the pBUD.cE4.1 vector. The pBUD.VEGF111b recombinant vector was transfected into HEK293 cells using lipofectamine kit. Forty-eight hours after the transfection the production of VEGF111b was estimated by Western blotting and Human anti VEGF antibody. The VEGF111b secretion into cell culture and cell lysate extract was measured using ELISA. Results: The correct cloning of VEGF111b into pBUD.cE4.1vector was confirmed using enzymatic digestion and gel electrophoresis. The observed production of recombinant peptide in HEK293 was confirmed with 12KDa band in cell lysate extract of Western blotting. The ELISA results at 450 nanometer absorbance for cell culture media and cell lysate extract were 19.20±2.81 pg/ml and 32.87±7.42 pg/ml, respectively. However, no VEGF111b expression was observed in negative controls. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the powerful ability of transformation and secretion of VEGF111b from HEK293 cell wall to cell culture media with no breaking and proteolytic digestion. It seems that the commercial production and purification of this therapeutic peptide from HEK293 cell culture would be possible with high efficiency.

  4. Contraction induced secretion of VEGF from skeletal muscle cells is mediated by adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Olsen, Karina; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2010-01-01

    and that the contraction induced secretion of VEGF is partially mediated via adenosine acting on A(2B) adenosine receptors. Moreover, the contraction induced secretion of VEGF protein from muscle is dependent on both PKA and MAPK activation, but only the MAPK pathway appears to be adenosine dependent.......The role of adenosine and contraction for secretion of VEGF in skeletal muscle was investigated in human subjects and rat primary skeletal muscle cells. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the thigh muscle of seven male subjects and dialysate was collected at rest, during infusion of adenosine...... and contraction caused secretion of VEGF (pcontraction induced secretion of VEGF protein was abolished by the A(2B) antagonist enprofyllin and markedly reduced by inhibition of PKA or MAPK. The results demonstrate that adenosine causes secretion of VEGF from human skeletal muscle cells...

  5. Tumour cells expressing single VEGF isoforms display distinct growth, survival and migration characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryso Kanthou

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is produced by most cancer cells as multiple isoforms, which display distinct biological activities. VEGF plays an undisputed role in tumour growth, vascularisation and metastasis; nevertheless the functions of individual isoforms in these processes remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of three main murine isoforms (VEGF188, 164 and 120 on tumour cell behaviour, using a panel of fibrosarcoma cells we developed that express them individually under endogenous promoter control. Fibrosarcomas expressing only VEGF188 (fs188 or wild type controls (fswt were typically mesenchymal, formed ruffles and displayed strong matrix-binding activity. VEGF164- and VEGF120-producing cells (fs164 and fs120 respectively were less typically mesenchymal, lacked ruffles but formed abundant cell-cell contacts. On 3D collagen, fs188 cells remained mesenchymal while fs164 and fs120 cells adopted rounded/amoeboid and a mix of rounded and elongated morphologies respectively. Consistent with their mesenchymal characteristics, fs188 cells migrated significantly faster than fs164 or fs120 cells on 2D surfaces while contractility inhibitors accelerated fs164 and fs120 cell migration. VEGF164/VEGF120 expression correlated with faster proliferation rates and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than VEGF188 expression. Nevertheless, VEGF188 was associated with constitutively active/phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and Stat3 proteins. Differences in proliferation rates and apoptosis could be explained by defective signalling downstream of pAKT to FOXO and GSK3 in fs188 and fswt cells, which also correlated with p27/p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor over-expression. All cells expressed tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors, but these were not active/activatable suggesting that inherent differences between the cell lines are governed by endogenous VEGF isoform expression through complex interactions that are independent of tyrosine

  6. CellSort: a support vector machine tool for optimizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reducing experimental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica S; Pertusi, Dante A; Adeniran, Adebola V; Tyo, Keith E J

    2017-03-15

    High throughput screening by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a common task in protein engineering and directed evolution. It can also be a rate-limiting step if high false positive or negative rates necessitate multiple rounds of enrichment. Current FACS software requires the user to define sorting gates by intuition and is practically limited to two dimensions. In cases when multiple rounds of enrichment are required, the software cannot forecast the enrichment effort required. We have developed CellSort, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that identifies optimal sorting gates based on machine learning using positive and negative control populations. CellSort can take advantage of more than two dimensions to enhance the ability to distinguish between populations. We also present a Bayesian approach to predict the number of sorting rounds required to enrich a population from a given library size. This Bayesian approach allowed us to determine strategies for biasing the sorting gates in order to reduce the required number of enrichment rounds. This algorithm should be generally useful for improve sorting outcomes and reducing effort when using FACS. Source code available at http://tyolab.northwestern.edu/tools/ . k-tyo@northwestern.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier

    1999-08-01

    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n2p180.html

  8. Monitoring PAI-1 and VEGF Levels in 6 Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts During Fractionated Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Christine; Kielow, Achim; Schilling, Daniela; Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulated by hypoxia and irradiation and are involved in neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo whether changes in PAI-1 and VEGF during fractionated irradiation could predict for radiation resistance. Methods and Materials: Six xenografted tumor lines from human squamous cell carcinomas (HSCC) of the head and neck were irradiated with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy. The PAI-1 and VEGF antigen levels in tumor lysates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The amounts of PAI-1 and VEGF were compared with the dose to cure 50% of tumors (TCD 50 ). Colocalization of PAI-1, pimonidazole (hypoxia), CD31 (endothelium), and Hoechst 33342 (perfusion) was examined by immunofluorescence. Results: Human PAI-1 and VEGF (hVEGF) expression levels were induced by fractionated irradiation in UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, and UT-SCC-5 tumors, and mouse VEGF (msVEGF) was induced only in UT-SCC-5 tumors. High hVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation sensitivity after 5 fractions (P=.021), and high msVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation resistance after 10 fractions (P=.007). PAI-1 staining was observed in the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like stroma cells, and individual tumor cells at all doses of irradiation. Colocalization studies showed PAI-1 staining close to microvessels. Conclusions: These results indicate that the concentration of tumor-specific and host-specific VEGF during fractionated irradiation could provide considerably divergent information for the outcome of radiation therapy.

  9. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  10. Molecular characterization of EG-VEGF-mediated angiogenesis: differential effects on microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Benharouga, Mohamed; Salomon, Aude; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2010-08-15

    Endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) also called prokineticin (PK1), has been identified and linked to several biological processes including angiogenesis. EG-VEGF is abundantly expressed in the highest vascularized organ, the human placenta. Here we characterized its angiogenic effect using different experimental procedures. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize EG-VEGF receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) in placental and umbilical cord tissue. Primary microvascular placental endothelial cell (HPEC) and umbilical vein-derived macrovascular EC (HUVEC) were used to assess its effects on proliferation, migration, cell survival, pseudovascular organization, spheroid sprouting, permeability and paracellular transport. siRNA and neutralizing antibody strategies were used to differentiate PROKR1- from PROKR2-mediated effects. Our results show that 1) HPEC and HUVEC express both types of receptors 2) EG-VEGF stimulates HPEC's proliferation, migration and survival, but increases only survival in HUVECs. and 3) EG-VEGF was more potent than VEGF in stimulating HPEC sprout formation, pseudovascular organization, and it significantly increases HPEC permeability and paracellular transport. More importantly, we demonstrated that PROKR1 mediates EG-VEGF angiogenic effects, whereas PROKR2 mediates cellular permeability. Altogether, these data characterized angiogenic processes mediated by EG-VEGF, depicted a new angiogenic factor in the placenta, and suggest a novel view of the regulation of angiogenesis in placental pathologies.

  11. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  13. [Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Guang-rui; Liu, Fa-yu; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To observe arctigenin's inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (Parctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (Parctigenin group (PArctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.

  14. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinqiao; Sha, Bin; Zhou, Wenhao; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  15. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  16. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available and that the scattering force can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Following this, I report on transient photo-transfection of mammalian cells including neuroblastomas (rat/mouse and human...

  17. Radiation up-regulated the expression of VEGF in a canine oral melanoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, I.; Rütgen, B.C.; Gerner, W.; Tichy, A.; Saalmüller, A.; Kleiter, M.; Calice, I.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate radiosensitivity and the effects of radiation on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors in the canine oral melanoma cell line, TLM 1, cells were irradiated with doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gray (Gy). Survival rates were then determined by a MTT assay, while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and -2 expression was measured by flow cytometry and apoptotic cell death rates were investigated using an Annexin assay. Additionally, a commercially available canine VEGF ELISA kit was used to measure VEGF. Radiosensitivity was detected in TLM 1 cells, and mitotic and apoptotic cell death was found to occur in a radiation dose dependent manner. VEGF was secreted constitutively and significant up-regulation was observed in the 8 and 10 Gy irradiated cells. In addition, a minor portion of TLM 1 cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 intracellularly. VEGFR-2 was detected in the cytoplasm and was down-regulated following radiation with increasing dosages. In TLM 1 cells, apoptosis plays an important role in radiation induced cell death. It has also been suggested that the significantly higher VEGF production in the 8 and 10 Gy group could lead to tumour resistance. (author)

  18. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell

  19. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  20. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Wattananupong, Onusa; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Vinitketkumnuen, Usanee

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, and its expression has been correlated with increased tumour angiogenesis. Although numerous publications dealing with the measurement of circulating VEGF for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring have been published, the relationship between the production of tissue VEGF and its concentration in blood is still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) The expression pattern of VEGF isoforms at the protein level in colorectal and lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to the pattern in corresponding adjacent normal tissues 2) The relationship between the expression pattern of VEGF and total level of circulating VEGF in the blood to clarify whether the results of measuring circulating VEGF can be used to predict VEGF expression in tumour tissues. Ninety-four tissue samples were obtained from patients, 76 colorectal tumour tissues and 18 lung tumour tissues. VEGF protein expression pattern and total circulating VEGF were examined using western blot and capture ELISA, respectively. Three major protein bands were predominately detected in tumour samples with an apparent molecular mass under reducing conditions of 18, 23 and 26 kDa. The 18 kDa VEGF protein was expressed equally in both normal and colorectal tumour tissues and predominately expressed in normal tissues of lung, whereas the 23 and 26 kDa protein was only detected at higher levels in tumour tissues. The 18, 23 and 26 kDa proteins are believed to represent the VEGF 121 , the VEGF 165 and the VEGF 189 , respectively. There was a significant correlation of the expression of VEGF 165 with a smaller tumour size maximum diameter <5 cm (p < 0.05), and there was a significant correlation of VEGF 189 with advanced clinical stage of colorectal tumours. The measurement of total circulating VEGF in serum revealed that cancer patients significantly (p < 0.001) possessed a higher level of circulating VEGF (1081 ± 652 pg/ml in

  1. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  2. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2016-01-01

    distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading...... is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass beads commonly used in the optical manipulation literature, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient approaches in utilizing lasers...... and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam...

  3. Interleukin-6 secreted by oral cancer- associated fibroblast accelerated VEGF expression in tumor and stroma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkeshavarz, M; Ganjibakhsh, M; Aminishakib, P; Farzaneh, P; Mahdavi, N; Vakhshiteh, F; Karimi, A; Gohari, N S; Kamali, F; Kharazifard, M J; Shahzadeh Fazeli, S A; Nasimian, A

    2017-10-31

    Oral cancer represents the sixth most common cancer type worldwide. Patients with oral cancer express high levels of IL-6 which is associated with very poor prognosis. Previous studies illustrated that IL-6 cytokine induces angiogenesis. It has also been reported that the presence of Cancer- Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) is essential for angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the correlation between IL-6 and CAF and the role of this correlation on VEGF production. In this study, quantitative expression level of IL-6 and VEGF in CAF and Oral Cancer Cells (OCCs) examined through Real Time PCR and ELISA and western blot analysis. In addition, maintenance and retention of IL-6 and VEGF checked out in co-culture experiment of CAF and OCC cells. These experiments demonstrated that in oral cancer, CAF cell line secretes significantly more IL-6 than OCC. Also IL-6 is a factor that causes VEGF secretion in CAF cell line. CAF is the basic and the most essential source for producing IL-6 in patients with oral cancer. Secreted IL-6 is able to induce VEGF production in both CAF and OCCs. Correlation between CAF, IL-6 and VEGF could be considered as an approach for cancer therapy.

  4. Thymosin beta 10 Prompted the VEGF-C Expression in Lung Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan LI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Our previous study found that thymosin β10 overexpressed in lung cancer and positively correlated with differentiation, lymph node metastasis and stage of lung cancer. In this reasearch we aim to study the effects and mechanism of exogenous human recombinant Tβ10 on the expression of VEGF-C on non-small cell lung cancer. Methods After SPC, A549 and LK2 cells were treated with 100 ng/mL recombinant human Tβ10, the mRNA level of VEGF-C were detected by RT-PCR. The mean while the protein expression of VEGF-C, P-AKT and AKT were determined by Western blot assay. Results Exogenous recombinant human Tβ10 were significantly promote the expression levels of VEGF-C mRNA and protein while promoting the phosphorylation of AKT. Exogenous Tβ10 can promote the expression of VEGF-C mRNA and protein in lung cancer cell lines A549 and LK2 (P<0.05, and this effect can be inhibited by use AKT inhibitor LY294002 (P<0.05. Conclusion Tβ10 human recombinant proteins can promote the expression of VEGF-C by activating AKT phosphorylation in lung cancer cell lines.

  5. Up-regulation of VEGF and its receptor in refractory leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Wenjun; Ding, Yi; Xiu, Bing; Li, Ping; Dong, Yan; Zhu, Qi; Liang, Aibin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the causative mechanisms in refractory leukemia cells. Methods: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blood plasma concentrations in 35 de novo, 6 relapse, 20 remission leukemia patients and 10 healthy kids were determined via ELISA analyses. Transcription levels of the VEGF receptors (VEGFR) Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) and kinase-domain insert containing receptor (KDR) were determined in participants’ leucocytes with RT-PCR. Apoptosis rates as well as Cyt-C a...

  6. Numerical Model of Streaming DEP for Stem Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Natu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are of special interest due to their potential in neurogenesis to treat spinal cord injuries and other nervous disorders. Flow cytometry, a common technique used for cell sorting, is limited due to the lack of antigens and labels that are specific enough to stem cells of interest. Dielectrophoresis (DEP is a label-free separation technique that has been recently demonstrated for the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells. Here we use numerical simulation to investigate the use of streaming DEP for the continuous sorting of neural stem/progenitor cells. Streaming DEP refers to the focusing of cells into streams by equilibrating the dielectrophoresis and drag forces acting on them. The width of the stream should be maximized to increase throughput while the separation between streams must be widened to increase efficiency during retrieval. The aim is to understand how device geometry and experimental variables affect the throughput and efficiency of continuous sorting of SC27 stem cells, a neurogenic progenitor, from SC23 cells, an astrogenic progenitor. We define efficiency as the ratio between the number of SC27 cells over total number of cells retrieved in the streams, and throughput as the number of SC27 cells retrieved in the streams compared to their total number introduced to the device. The use of cylindrical electrodes as tall as the channel yields streams featuring >98% of SC27 cells and width up to 80 µm when using a flow rate of 10 µL/min and sample cell concentration up to 105 cells/mL.

  7. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jais, Alexander; Solas, Maite; Backes, Heiko; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Kleinridders, André; Theurich, Sebastian; Mauer, Jan; Steculorum, Sophie M; Hampel, Brigitte; Goldau, Julia; Alber, Jens; Förster, Carola Y; Eming, Sabine A; Schwaninger, Markus; Ferrara, Napoleone; Karsenty, Gerard; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-05-05

    High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGF(Δmyel) mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGF(Δmyel) mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer's disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ, bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  9. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression and endothelial cell proliferation in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Hsuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Pan, Shiow-Lin; Wang, Jing-Chi; Teng, Che-Ming [National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2014-12-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether radiation induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway,subsequently affecting endothelial cells. Radiotherapy-induced tumor micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) was determined in a lung cancer xenograft model established in SCID mice. The protein expression and phosphorylation of members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and VEGF-C secretion and mRNA expression in irradiated lung cancer cells were assessed by Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, specific chemical inhibitors were used to evaluate the role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated control-siRNA or VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells was used to evaluate the proliferation of endothelial cells by the MTT assay. Radiation increased VEGF-C expression in a dose-dependent manner over time at the protein but not at the mRNA level. Radiation also up-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP, and eIF4E, but not of p70S6K. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression was down-regulated by LY294002 and rapamycin (both p < 0.05). Furthermore, CM from irradiated A549 cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation, which was not observed with CM from irradiated VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells. Radiation-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway increases VEGF-C expression in lung cancer cells, thereby promoting endothelial cell proliferation. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob die Strahlung die Expression von VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C) mittels Aktivierung des PI3K/Akt/mTOR-Signalwegs induziert und anschliessend die endothelialen Zellen beeinflusst. Die durch Strahlentherapie induzierte Mikrolymphgefaessdichte (MLVD) im Tumor wurde in

  10. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  11. Albendazole inhibits HIF-1α-dependent glycolysis and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Du, Jin; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) has an anti-tumor ability and inhibits HIF-1α activity. HIF-1α is associated with glycolysis and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression, which plays an important role in cancer progression. These clues indicate that ABZ exerts an anti-cancer effect by regulating glycolysis and VEGF expression. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of ABZ on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF were detected using western blot analysis, and the effect of ABZ on glycolysis was evaluated by measuring the relative activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and detecting the production of lactate in A549 and H1299 cells. The results showed that ABZ decreased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF and suppressed glycolysis in under hypoxia, but not normoxic condition. Inhibiting HIF-1α also suppressed glycolysis and VEGF expression. Additionally, ABZ inhibited the volume and weight, decreased the relative activities of HK, PK, and LDH, and reduced the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF of A549 xenografts in mouse models. In conclusion, ABZ inhibited growth of NSCLC cells by suppressing HIF-1α-dependent glycolysis and VEGF expression.

  12. VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Man, Xiao-Yong; Li, Chun-Ming; Chen, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Jiong; Cai, Sui-Qing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF 165 stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF 165 -induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF 165 . Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling. -- Highlights: ► We examine the expression of VEGFR-2 on cultured human dermal papilla (DP) cells. ► VEGF 165 stimulated proliferation of human DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. ► This stimulation was through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.

  13. VEGF-A isoform-specific regulation of calcium ion flux, transcriptional activation and endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Bruns, Alexander F; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-04-24

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) regulates many aspects of vascular physiology such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis and cell-cell interactions. Numerous isoforms of VEGF-A exist but their physiological significance is unclear. Here we evaluated two different VEGF-A isoforms and discovered differential regulation of cytosolic calcium ion flux, transcription factor localisation and endothelial cell response. Analysis of VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VEGFR2-dependent signal transduction revealed differential capabilities for isoform activation of multiple signal transduction pathways. VEGF-A165 treatment promoted increased phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation, which was proportional to the subsequent rise in cytosolic calcium ions, in comparison to cells treated with VEGF-A121. A major consequence of this VEGF-A isoform-specific calcium ion flux in endothelial cells is differential dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFATc2. Using reverse genetics, we discovered that NFATc2 is functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration but not tubulogenesis. This work presents a new mechanism for understanding how VEGF-A isoforms program complex cellular outputs by converting signal transduction pathways into transcription factor redistribution to the nucleus, as well as defining a novel role for NFATc2 in regulating the endothelial cell response. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. VEGF-A isoform-specific regulation of calcium ion flux, transcriptional activation and endothelial cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A regulates many aspects of vascular physiology such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis and cell-cell interactions. Numerous isoforms of VEGF-A exist but their physiological significance is unclear. Here we evaluated two different VEGF-A isoforms and discovered differential regulation of cytosolic calcium ion flux, transcription factor localisation and endothelial cell response. Analysis of VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VEGFR2-dependent signal transduction revealed differential capabilities for isoform activation of multiple signal transduction pathways. VEGF-A165 treatment promoted increased phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation, which was proportional to the subsequent rise in cytosolic calcium ions, in comparison to cells treated with VEGF-A121. A major consequence of this VEGF-A isoform-specific calcium ion flux in endothelial cells is differential dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFATc2. Using reverse genetics, we discovered that NFATc2 is functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration but not tubulogenesis. This work presents a new mechanism for understanding how VEGF-A isoforms program complex cellular outputs by converting signal transduction pathways into transcription factor redistribution to the nucleus, as well as defining a novel role for NFATc2 in regulating the endothelial cell response.

  15. Aldefluor protocol to sort keratinocytes stem cells from skin

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro; Gragnani, Alfredo; Pereira, Thiago Antônio Calado; Correa, Silvana Aparecida Alves; Bonucci, Jessica; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the use Aldefluor® and N, N - Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to design a protocol to sort keratinocyte stem cells from cultured keratinocytes from burned patients. Methods: Activated Aldefluor® aliquots were prepared and maintained at temperature between 2 to 8°C, or stored at -20°C. Next, the cells were collected following the standard protocol of sample preparation. Results: Best results were obtained with Aldefluor® 1.5µl and DEAB 15 µl for 1 x 106 c...

  16. CCL5 promotes VEGF-C production and induces lymphangiogenesis by suppressing miR-507 in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hong; Lin, Chih-Yang; Liu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Yen-Ling; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chan, Chia-Han; Lin, Ting-Yi; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Xu, Guo-Hong; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2016-06-14

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy that is characterized by the distant metastasis propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the major lymphangiogenic factor, and makes crucial contributions to tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 has been reported to facilitate angiogenesis and metastasis in chondrosarcoma. However, the effect of chemokine CCL5 on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma has largely remained a mystery. In this study, we showed a clinical correlation between CCL5 and VEGF-C as well as tumor stage in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that CCL5 promoted VEGF-C expression and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium (CM) from CCL5-overexpressed cells significantly induced tube formation of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Mechanistic investigations showed that CCL5 activated VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by down-regulating miR-507. Moreover, inhibiting CCL5 dramatically reduced VEGF-C and lymphangiogenesis in the chondrosarcoma xenograft animal model. Collectively, we document for the first time that CCL5 induces tumor lymphangiogenesis by the induction of VEGF-C in human cancer cells. Our present study reveals miR-507/VEGF-C signaling as a novel mechanism in CCL5-mediated tumor lymphangiogenesis. Targeting both CCL5 and VEGF-C pathways might serve as the potential therapeutic strategy to block cancer progression and metastasis in chondrosarcoma.

  17. IL-6 Promotes FSH-Induced VEGF Expression Through JAK/STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of angiogenesis in ovarian follicular development, particularly during the preovulatory period. Although numerous studies have shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6 is one of the major inducing factors that regulate the expression of VEGF in non-ovarian cells, whether it involved in regulating the expression of VEGF in normal ovarian granulosa cells is still unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-6 on FSH-induced VEGF expression in bovine granulosa cells derived from large follicles. Methods: VEGF mRNA expression in granulosa cells after IL-6 with/without inhibitors treatment was analyzed by RT-qPCR. Phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and STAT3 proteins induced by IL-6 were analyzed by western blotting. The protein levels produced by granulosa cells were detected by ELISA. Results: High concentration of IL-6 (10ng/ml can significantly up-regulate FSH-induced VEGF gene and protein expression levels in granulosa cells, and also promote the VEGF upstream regulators HIF-1α and COX2 mRNA expression. VEGF expression levels were significantly decreased after specifically blocking HIF-1α and COX2 by using inhibitors. The up-regulation effect of IL-6 on FSH-induced VEGF expression in granulosa cells mainly through activating the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway, which can be impaired by JAK inhibitors. Conclusion: IL-6 can promote FSH-induced VEGF expression in granulosa cells, which is mainly achieved by increasing the expression of HIF-1α and COX2.This promoting effect is mediated by activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, there may be a synergistic relationship between FSH and IL-6 in the regulation of VEGF expression.

  18. CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis is promoted by mesenchymal stem cells through VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Dong, Ling; Yan, Kang; Long, Hua; Yang, Tong-Tao; Dong, Ming-Qing; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An

    2013-10-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) play an important role in metastasis. CXCR4 is also expressed in the human osteosarcoma cell line 9607-F5M2 (F5M2), which has a high tumorigenic ability and potential for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the formation of the tumor stroma and promote metastasis. However, mechanisms underlying the promotion of osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis by MSCs are still elusive. Our study co-injected the human MSCs and F5M2 cells into the caudal vein of nude mice. The total number of tumor nodules per lung was significantly increased in the F5M2+MSC group compared to the other groups (control, F5M2 cells alone and MSCs alone) at week six. Moreover, a high number of Dil-labeled MSCs was present also at the osteosarcoma metastasis sites in the lung. Using Transwell assays, we found that F5M2 cells migrate towards MSCs, while the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 decreased the migration potential of F5M2 cells towards MSCs. Furthermore, upon treatment with F5M2-conditioned medium, MSCs expressed and secreted higher levels of VEGF as determined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Importantly, co-cultured with F5M2 cells, MSCs expressed and secreted higher VEGF levels, while AMD3100 dramatically decreased the VEGF secretion by MSCs. However, CXCR4 expression on F5M2 cells was not significantly increased in the co-culture system. Additionally, VEGF increased the proliferation of both MSCs and F5M2 cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis are promoted by MSCs through VEGF.

  19. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ahn, Kihoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream.

  20. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  1. Semaphorin SEMA3F and VEGF Have Opposing Effects on Cell Attachment and Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Nasarre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available SEMA3F, isolated from a 3p21.3 deletion, has antitumor activity in transfected cells, and protein expression correlates with tumor stage and histology. In primary tumors, SEMA3F and VEGF surface staining is inversely correlated. Coupled with SEMA3F at the leading edge of motile cells, we previously suggested that both proteins competitively regulate cell motility and adhesion. We have investigated this using the breast cancer cell line, MCF7. SEMA3F inhibited cell attachment and spreading as evidenced by loss of lamellipodia extensions, membrane ruffling, and cell-cell contacts, with cells eventually rounding-up and detaching. In contrast, VEGF had opposite effects. Although SEMA3F binds NRP2 with 10-fold greater affinity than NRP1, the effects in MCF7 were mediated by NRP1. This was determined by receptor expression and blocking of anti-NRP1 antibodies. Similar effects, but through NRP2, were observed in the C100 breast cancer cell line. Although we were unable to demonstrate changes in total GTPbound Rac1 or RhoA, we did observe changes in the localization of Rac1-GFP using time lapse microscopy. Following SEMA3F, Rac1 moved to the base of lamellipodia and — with their collapse — to the membrane. These results support the concept that SEMA3F and VEGF have antagonistic actions affecting motility in primary tumor cell.

  2. Acrolein inhalation prevents VEGF-induced mobilization of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Laura A.; Haberzettl, Petra; Hellmann, Jason; Baba, Shahid P.; Bertke, Matthew; Lee, Jongmin; McCracken, James; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Acrolein is a toxic chemical present in tobacco, wood and coal smoke as well as automobile exhaust. Because exposure to these pollutants is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease risk, we studied the effects of acrolein on Flk-1+/Sca-1+ cells that are involved in vascular repair. Methods and Results In adult male C57BL/6 mice, inhalation of acrolein (1ppm, 6h/day, 4 days or 5ppm for 2 or 6h) led to the formation of protein-acrolein adducts in the bone marrow and diminished levels of plasma NOx and circulating Flk-1+/Sca-1+ but not Sca-1+ only cells. Acrolein exposure increased the number of apoptotic Flk-1+/Sca1+ cells in circulation, and increased bone marrow-derived cells with endothelial characteristics (Dil-acLDL/UE-lectin and Flk-1+/Sca-1+) in culture. Deficits in the circulating levels of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ cells were reversed after 7 days of recovery in acrolein-free air. Exposure to acrolein blocked VEGF/AMD3100-stimulated mobilization of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ but not Sca-1+ only cells and prevented VEGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in the aorta. Conclusions Inhalation of acrolein increases apoptosis and suppresses the circulating levels of Flk-1+/Sca-1+ cells, while increasing these cells in the bone marrow and preventing their mobilization by VEGF. Exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants could impair vascular repair capacity. PMID:21527748

  3. Safe sorting of GFP-transduced live cells for subsequent culture using a modified FACS vantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T U; Gram, G J; Nielsen, S D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells...... culture. CONCLUSIONS: Sorting of live infected cells can be performed safely and with no deleterious effects on vector expression using the modified FACS Vantage instrument....

  4. Canonical hedgehog signaling augments tumor angiogenesis by induction of VEGF-A in stromal perivascular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Tracy; Eastham-Anderson, Jeff; Dunlap, Debra; Alicke, Bruno; Nannini, Michelle; Gould, Stephen; Yauch, Robert; Modrusan, Zora; DuPree, Kelly J.; Darbonne, Walter C.; Plowman, Greg; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Callahan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical to the patterning and development of a variety of organ systems, and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hh pathway activation are known to promote tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that in tumors promoted by Hh ligands, activation occurs within the stromal microenvironment. Testing whether ligand-driven Hh signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis, we found that Hh antagonism reduced the vascular density of Hh-producing LS180 and SW480 xenografts. In addition, ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog in low-Hh–expressing DLD-1 xenografts increased tumor vascular density, augmented angiogenesis, and was associated with canonical Hh signaling within perivascular tumor stromal cells. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying Hh-mediated tumor angiogenesis, we established an Hh-sensitive angiogenesis coculture assay and found that fibroblast cell lines derived from a variety of human tissues were Hh responsive and promoted angiogenesis in vitro through a secreted paracrine signal(s). Affymetrix array analyses of cultured fibroblasts identified VEGF-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and PDGF-C as candidate secreted proangiogenic factors induced by Hh stimulation. Expression studies of xenografts and angiogenesis assays using combinations of Hh and VEGF-A inhibitors showed that it is primarily Hh-induced VEGF-A that promotes angiogenesis in vitro and augments tumor-derived VEGF to promote angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:21597001

  5. Cardiogenic induction of pluripotent stem cells streamlined through a conserved SDF-1/VEGF/BMP2 integrated network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells produce tissue-specific lineages through programmed acquisition of sequential gene expression patterns that function as a blueprint for organ formation. As embryonic stem cells respond concomitantly to diverse signaling pathways during differentiation, extraction of a pro-cardiogenic network would offer a roadmap to streamline cardiac progenitor output. METHODS AND RESULTS: To resolve gene ontology priorities within precursor transcriptomes, cardiogenic subpopulations were here generated according to either growth factor guidance or stage-specific biomarker sorting. Innate expression profiles were independently delineated through unbiased systems biology mapping, and cross-referenced to filter transcriptional noise unmasking a conserved progenitor motif (55 up- and 233 down-regulated genes. The streamlined pool of 288 genes organized into a core biological network that prioritized the "Cardiovascular Development" function. Recursive in silico deconvolution of the cardiogenic neighborhood and associated canonical signaling pathways identified a combination of integrated axes, CXCR4/SDF-1, Flk-1/VEGF and BMP2r/BMP2, predicted to synchronize cardiac specification. In vitro targeting of the resolved triad in embryoid bodies accelerated expression of Nkx2.5, Mef2C and cardiac-MHC, enhanced beating activity, and augmented cardiogenic yield. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome-wide dissection of a conserved progenitor profile thus revealed functional highways that coordinate cardiogenic maturation from a pluripotent ground state. Validating the bioinformatics algorithm established a strategy to rationally modulate cell fate, and optimize stem cell-derived cardiogenesis.

  6. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Min; Qian, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  7. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qing-Mei, E-mail: 34713316@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin (China); Jiang, Ping, E-mail: jiangping@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: YangMin@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Qian, Xue-Jiao, E-mail: qianxuejiao@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Liu, Jiang-Bo, E-mail: LJB1984@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Kim, Sung-Ho, E-mail: chenghao0726@hotmail.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  8. Heparanase-1-induced shedding of heparan sulfate from syndecan-1 in hepatocarcinoma cell facilitates lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation via VEGF-C/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shengjin; Lv, Huiming; Zhang, He; Jiang, Yu; Hong, Yu; Xia, Rongjun; Zhang, Qifang; Ju, Weiwei; Jiang, Lili; Ou, Geng; Zhang, Jinhui; Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Jianing

    2017-01-01

    Heparanase-1/syndecan-1 axis plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and development. The main mechanism includes heparanase-1 (HPA-1) degrades the heparan sulfate chain of syndecan-1 (SDC-1), and the following shedding of heparan sulfate from tumor cell releases and activates SDC-1 sequestered growth factors. However, the significance of Heparanase-1/syndecan-1 axis and its effects on the microenvironment of lymphatic metastasis in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC) procession have not been reported. Herein, we found that HPA-1 could degrade the heparan sulfate on hepatocarcinoma cell surface. Importantly, HPA-1-induced shedding of heparan sulfate chain from SDC-1 facilitated the release of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) from SDC-1/VEGF-C complex into the medium of hepatocarcinoma cell. Further studies indicated that VEGF-C secretion from hepatocarcinoma cell promoted lymphatic endothelial cell growth through activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Taken together, this study reveals a novel existence of Heparanase-1/syndecan-1 axis in hepatocarcinoma cell and its roles in the cross-talking with the microenvironment of lymphatic metastasis. - Highlights: • SDC-1 anchors VEGF-C via its HS chains. • Secreted HPA-1 from hepatocarcinoma cell cleaves HS chains of SDC-1. • The shedding of SDC-1 HS chains releases VEGF-C from SDC-1/VEGF-C complex. • LMWH inhibits VEGF-C secretion through stabilizing SDC-1/VEGF-C complex. • VEGF-C secretion from hepatocarcinoma cell facilitates LEC growth via ERK signaling.

  9. Cell flux through S phase in the mouse duodenal epithelium determined by cell sorting and radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, M.; Cheng, H.

    1982-01-01

    An accumulation of cells in early S phase was observed in normal mouse duodenal epithelium studied with flow cytometry. To determine if this accumulation of cells was the result of a lower rate of DNA synthesis, animals were given a single injection of 3 H-thymidine and the epithelium collected one hour later. The epithelium was processed for flow cytometry. Seven sort windows were established in different portions of the DNA histogram. Cells from each window were sorted onto glass slides that were then processed for radioautography. The number of silver grains over the nuclei of each sorted population was counted. It was found that cells in early S phase had significantly fewer grains over their nuclei than did mid- or late-S phase cells. We conclude that the accumulation of cells in early S phase is due, at least in part, to a lower rate of DNA synthesis in early than in mid or late S phase

  10. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun; Liu Guangpeng; Zhang Peng; Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting

    2011-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  11. Resistin facilitates VEGF-C-associated lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-186 in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen-Ming; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chi, Meng-Ju; Lin, Chih-Yang; Fong, Yi-Chin; Liu, Yueh-Ching; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2018-05-03

    Chondrosarcoma is a common primary malignant tumor of the bone that can metastasize through the vascular system to other organs. A key step in the metastatic process, lymphangiogenesis, involves vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). However, the effects of lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma metastasis remain to be clarified. Accumulating evidence shows that resistin, a cytokine secreted from adipocytes and monocytes, also promotes tumor pathogenesis. Notably, chondrosarcoma can easily metastasize. In this study, we demonstrate that resistin enhances VEGF-C expression and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs)-associated lymphangiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells. We also show that resistin triggers VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis via the c-Src signaling pathway and down-regulating micro RNA (miR)-186. Overexpression of resistin in chondrosarcoma cells significantly enhanced VEGF-C production and LECs-associated lymphangiogenesis in vitro and tumor-related lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Resistin levels were positively correlated with VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis via the down-regulation of miR-186 expression in clinical samples from chondrosarcoma tissue. This study is the first to evaluate the mechanism underlying resistin-induced promotion of LECs-associated lymphangiogenesis via the upregulation of VEGF-C expression in human chondrosarcomas. We suggest that resistin may represent a molecular target in VEGF-C-associated tumor lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sorting live stem cells based on Sox2 mRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans M Larsson

    Full Text Available While cell sorting usually relies on cell-surface protein markers, molecular beacons (MBs offer the potential to sort cells based on the presence of any expressed mRNA and in principle could be extremely useful to sort rare cell populations from primary isolates. We show here how stem cells can be purified from mixed cell populations by sorting based on MBs. Specifically, we designed molecular beacons targeting Sox2, a well-known stem cell marker for murine embryonic (mES and neural stem cells (NSC. One of our designed molecular beacons displayed an increase in fluorescence compared to a nonspecific molecular beacon both in vitro and in vivo when tested in mES and NSCs. We sorted Sox2-MB(+SSEA1(+ cells from a mixed population of 4-day retinoic acid-treated mES cells and effectively isolated live undifferentiated stem cells. Additionally, Sox2-MB(+ cells isolated from primary mouse brains were sorted and generated neurospheres with higher efficiency than Sox2-MB(- cells. These results demonstrate the utility of MBs for stem cell sorting in an mRNA-specific manner.

  13. VEGF 165 Gene Therapy for Patients with Refractory Angina: Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa G.; Plentz, Rodrigo D.M.; Dipp, Thiago; Salles, Felipe B.; Giusti, Imarilde I.; Sant'Anna, Roberto T.; Eibel, Bruna; Nesralla, Ivo A.; Markoski, Melissa; Beyer, Nance N.; Kalil, Renato A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with the capacity for proliferation and differentiation into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to the angiogenic process. We sought to assess the behavior of EPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease and refractory angina who received an intramyocardial injections of 2000 µg of VEGF 165 as the sole therapy. The study was a subanalysis of a clinical trial. Patients with advanced ischemic heart disease and refractory angina were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were as follows: signs and symptoms of angina and/or heart failure despite maximum medical treatment and a myocardial ischemic area of at least 5% as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exclusion criteria were as follows: age > 65 years, left ventricular ejection fraction < 25%, and a diagnosis of cancer. Patients whose EPC levels were assessed were included. The intervention was 2000 µg of VEGF 165 plasmid injected into the ischemic myocardium. The frequency of CD34+/KDR+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry before and 3, 9, and 27 days after the intervention. A total of 9 patients were included, 8 males, mean age 59.4 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.3% and predominant class III angina. The number of EPCs on day 3 was significantly higher than that at baseline (p = 0.03); however, that on days 9 th and 27 th was comparable to that at baseline. We identified a transient mobilization of EPCs, which peaked on the 3th day after VEGF 165 gene therapy in patients with refractory angina and returned to near baseline levels on 9 th and 27 th days

  14. VEGF 165 Gene Therapy for Patients with Refractory Angina: Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa G. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Plentz, Rodrigo D.M. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dipp, Thiago [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Salles, Felipe B. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giusti, Imarilde I.; Sant' Anna, Roberto T.; Eibel, Bruna; Nesralla, Ivo A.; Markoski, Melissa [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Beyer, Nance N. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kalil, Renato A. K., E-mail: kalil.pesquisa@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with the capacity for proliferation and differentiation into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to the angiogenic process. We sought to assess the behavior of EPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease and refractory angina who received an intramyocardial injections of 2000 µg of VEGF 165 as the sole therapy. The study was a subanalysis of a clinical trial. Patients with advanced ischemic heart disease and refractory angina were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were as follows: signs and symptoms of angina and/or heart failure despite maximum medical treatment and a myocardial ischemic area of at least 5% as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exclusion criteria were as follows: age > 65 years, left ventricular ejection fraction < 25%, and a diagnosis of cancer. Patients whose EPC levels were assessed were included. The intervention was 2000 µg of VEGF 165 plasmid injected into the ischemic myocardium. The frequency of CD34+/KDR+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry before and 3, 9, and 27 days after the intervention. A total of 9 patients were included, 8 males, mean age 59.4 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.3% and predominant class III angina. The number of EPCs on day 3 was significantly higher than that at baseline (p = 0.03); however, that on days 9{sup th} and 27{sup th} was comparable to that at baseline. We identified a transient mobilization of EPCs, which peaked on the 3th day after VEGF 165 gene therapy in patients with refractory angina and returned to near baseline levels on 9{sup th} and 27{sup th}days.

  15. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  16. Bone mesenchymal stem cells co-expressing VEGF and BMP-6 genes to combat avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongxing; Zhong, Zhixiong; Liu, Zhanliang; Li, Liangping; Ling, Zemin; Zou, Xuenong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV-green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP), AAV-BMP-6, AAV-VEGF or AAV-VEGF-BMP-6. The expression of VEGF and BMP-6 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA assays. The effects of VEGF and BMP-6 on BMSCs were evaluated by angiogenic and osteogenic assays. The transfected BMSCs were combined with a biomimetic synthetic scaffold poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and they were then subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. After four weeks, the implants were analyzed with histology and subsequent immunostaining to evaluate the effects of BMSCs on blood vessel and bone formation in vivo . In the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group, the expression levels of VEGF and BMP-6 were significantly increased and human umbilical vein endothelial cells tube formation was significantly enhanced compared with other groups. Capillaries and bone formation in the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group was significantly higher compared with the other groups. The results of the present study suggest that BMSCs expressing both VEGF and BMP-6 induce an increase in blood vessels and bone formation, which provides theoretical support for ANFH gene therapy.

  17. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C

    1990-01-01

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  18. [VEGF165 transfected endothelial progenitor cells mediated by lentivirus alleviated ALI in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohui; He, Huiwei; Lu, Yuanhua; Chen, Zhi; Xu, Fanghua; Wang, Rongsheng; Yang, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the protective effects of vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) transfected the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mediated by lentivirus on acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. The mononuclear cells from the male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were isolated and cultured to get the EPCs for study. The lentivirus vector carrying the human VEGF165 gene was constructed. According to the random number table method, 90 male SD rats were divided into ALI model group, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group, EPCs treatment group, none transfected EPCs treatment group and VEGF165 transfected EPCs treatment group, and the rats in each group were subdivided into 4, 12 and 48 hours subgroups, with 6 rats in each subgroup. The rat model of ALI was reproduced by intravenous injection of oleic acid (0.15 μL/g). Then each treatment group was given PBS, EPCs, none transfected EPCs and VEGF165 transfected EPCs respectively with the same volume of 0.2 mL. For the groups with cells, about 1×10 6 cells were contained. Abdominal aortic blood and lung tissue were harvested at 4, 12 and 48 hours. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed. The lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) was calculated. The expressions of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and VEGF165 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After dyed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), the lung tissue pathology was observed and the lung injury score was performed. Compared with the ALI model group, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) in EPCs, none transfected EPCs and VEGF165 transfected EPCs treatment groups was significantly increased from 4 hours, and lung W/D, expressions of iNOS and ET-1 were significantly decreased, and VEGF165 expression was significantly increased. Compared with the EPCs treatment group, the increase in PaO 2 , the decrease in lung W/D and expressions of iNOS and ET-1, and the increase in VEGF165 expression in VEGF165 transfected EPCs

  19. Targeting the VEGF pathway: antiangiogenic strategies in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Marianna; Fasola, Gianpiero; Defferrari, Carlotta; Brianti, Annalisa; Bello, Maria Giovanna Dal; Follador, Alessandro; Sinaccio, Graziella; Pronzato, Paolo; Grossi, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    The management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved considerably in recent years, due to a progressive understanding of tumour biology and the identification of promising molecular targets. Several agents have been developed so far inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - a key protein in tumour neoangiogenesis, growth and dissemination - or its receptor signalling system. The finding in study E4599 of a survival benefit for carboplatin-paclitaxel plus bevacizumab - a humanised anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody - over chemotherapy (CT) alone led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve the novel combination for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable, locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC. In a randomised phase III trial presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2007 Annual Meeting, patients receiving cisplatin-gemcitabine plus bevacizumab experienced a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) compared to the standard arm. Based on these data, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) has granted marketing authorisation for bevacizumab in addition to any platinum-based CT for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC other than predominantly squamous histology. Aim of this report is to provide an overview on bevacizumab in NSCLC, with special emphasis on clinical results presented at ASCO last meeting. Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), sharing a focus on both the angiogenesis process and additional cell-surface receptors, and VEGF Trap, a novel fusion protein with markedly higher affinity for VEGF than bevacizumab, will be briefly discussed as well.

  20. Pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) for high-throughput fluorescent mammalian cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chung, Aram; Kung, Yu-Chung; Teitell, Michael A.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2014-09-01

    We present a Pulsed Laser Activated Cell Sorter (PLACS) realized by exciting laser induced cavitation bubbles in a PDMS microfluidic channel to create high speed liquid jets to deflect detected fluorescent samples for high speed sorting. Pulse laser triggered cavitation bubbles can expand in few microseconds and provide a pressure higher than tens of MPa for fluid perturbation near the focused spot. This ultrafast switching mechanism has a complete on-off cycle less than 20 μsec. Two approaches have been utilized to achieve 3D sample focusing in PLACS. One is relying on multilayer PDMS channels to provide 3D hydrodynamic sheath flows. It offers accurate timing control of fast (2 m sec-1) passing particles so that synchronization with laser bubble excitation is possible, an critically important factor for high purity and high throughput sorting. PLACS with 3D hydrodynamic focusing is capable of sorting at 11,000 cells/sec with >95% purity, and 45,000 cells/sec with 45% purity using a single channel in a single step. We have also demonstrated 3D focusing using inertial flows in PLACS. This sheathless focusing approach requires 10 times lower initial cell concentration than that in sheath-based focusing and avoids severe sample dilution from high volume sheath flows. Inertia PLACS is capable of sorting at 10,000 particles sec-1 with >90% sort purity.

  1. Mast cells facilitate local VEGF release as an early event in the pathogenesis of postoperative peritoneal adhesions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Peritoneal injury sustained at laparotomy may evoke local inflammatory responses that result in adhesion formation. Peritoneal mast cells are likely to initiate this process, whereas vascular permeability\\/endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may facilitate the degree to which subsequent adhesion formation occurs. METHODS: Mast cell deficient mice (WBB6F1-\\/-), along with their mast cell sufficient counterparts (WBB6F1+\\/+), underwent a standardized adhesion-inducing operation (AIS) with subsequent sacrifice and adhesion assessment 14 days later in a blinded fashion. Additional CD-1 and WBB6F1+\\/+, and WBB6F1-\\/- mice were killed 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after operation for measurement of VEGF by ELISA in systemic serum and peritoneal lavage fluid. Two further groups of CD-1 mice underwent AIS and received either a single perioperative dose of anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (10 mug\\/mouse) or a similar volume of IgG isotypic antibody and adhesion formation 2 weeks later was evaluated. RESULTS: WBB6F1-\\/- mice had less adhesions then did their WBB6F1+\\/+ counterparts (median [interquartile range] adhesion score 3[3-3] vs 1.5[1-2] respectively; P < .003). Local VEGF release peaked 6 hours after AIS in both WBB6F1+\\/+ and CD-1 mice whereas levels remained at baseline in WBB6F1-\\/- mice. CD-1 mice treated with a single dose of anti-VEGF therapy during operation had less adhesions than controls (2[1.25-2] vs 3[2.25-3], P = .0002). CONCLUSIONS: Mast cells and VEGF are central to the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions with mast cells being responsible, either directly or indirectly, for VEGF release into the peritoneal cavity after operation. In tandem with the recent clinical success of anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies in oncologic practice, our observations suggest an intriguing avenue for research and development of anti-adhesion strategy.

  2. Modulation of VEGF-induced migration and network formation by lymphatic endothelial cells: Roles of platelets and podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Stacey A; Navarro-Núñez, Leyre; Watson, Steve P; Nash, Gerard B

    2017-07-20

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) express the transmembrane receptor podoplanin whose only known endogenous ligand CLEC-2 is found on platelets. Both podoplanin and CLEC-2 are required for normal lymphangiogenesis as mice lacking either protein develop a blood-lymphatic mixing phenotype. We investigated the roles of podoplanin and its interaction with platelets in migration and tube formation by LEC. Addition of platelets or antibody-mediated crosslinking of podoplanin inhibited LEC migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A or VEGF-C), but did not modify basal migration or the response to basic fibroblast growth factor or epidermal growth factor. In addition, platelets and podoplanin crosslinking disrupted networks of LEC formed in co-culture with fibroblasts. Depletion of podoplanin in LEC using siRNA negated the pro-migratory effect of VEGF-A and VEGF-C. Inhibition of RhoA or Rho-kinase reduced LEC migration induced by VEGF-C, but had no further effect after crosslinking of podoplanin, suggesting that podoplanin is required for signaling downstream of VEGF-receptors but upstream of RhoA. Together, these data reveal for the first time that podoplanin is an intrinsic specific regulator of VEGF-mediated migration and network formation in LEC and identify crosslinking of podoplanin by platelets or antibodies as mechanisms to modulate this pathway.

  3. Leptin promotes VEGF-C production and induces lymphangiogenesis by suppressing miR-27b in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Hung; Chang, An-Chen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Shoou-Jyi; Chang, Yung-Sen; Chang, Tzu-Ming; Hsu, Shao-Keh; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-06-27

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy that is characterized by the distant metastasis propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the chief lymphangiogenic mediator, and makes crucial contributions to tumor lymphangiogenesis. Leptin is an adipocytokine and has been indicated to facilitate tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the effect of leptin on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma has hugely remained a mystery. Our results showed a clinical correlation between leptin and VEGF-C as well as tumor stage in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that leptin promoted VEGF-C production and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium from leptin-treated chondrosarcoma cells induced lymphangiogenesis of human lymphatic endothelial cells. We also found that leptin-induced VEGF-C is mediated by the FAK, PI3K and Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of microRNA-27b was negatively regulated by leptin via the FAK, PI3K and Akt cascade. Our study is the first to describe the mechanism of leptin-promoted lymphangiogenesis by upregulating VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcomas. Thus, leptin could serve as a therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis and lymphangiogenesis.

  4. An anti-VEGF ribozyme embedded within the adenoviral VAI sequence inhibits glioblastoma cell angiogenic potential in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Wannenes, Francesca; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2004-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, where it functions as one of the major angiogenic factors sustaining growth and draining catabolites. In this study, we developed an anti-VEGF ribozyme targeted to the 5' part of human VEGF mRNA. We endowed this ribozyme with an additional feature expected to improve its activity in vivo, by cloning it into a VAI transcriptional cassette. VAI is originally part of the adenovirus genome, and is characterized by high transcription rates, good stability due to its strong secondary structure and cytoplasmic localization. Transfection of U87 human glioblastoma cells with plasmid vectors encoding for this ribozyme resulted in a strong (-56%) reduction of VEGF secreted in the extracellular medium, indicating a good biological activity of the ribozyme. Moreover, this reduction in VEGF secretion had the important functional consequence of drastically diminishing the formation of tube-like structures of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a Matrigel in vitro angiogenesis assay. In conclusion, our VAI-embedded anti-VEGF ribozyme is a good inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro, in a glioblastoma cell context. Thus, it may represent a useful tool for future applications in vivo, for antiangiogenic gene therapy of glioblastoma and of highly vascularized tumors. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Src Kinase becomes preferentially associated with the VEGFR, KDR/Flk-1, following VEGF stimulation of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Src, has been found to play a crucial role in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor – dependent vascular permeability involved in angiogenesis. The two main VEGFRs present on vascular endothelial cells are KDR/Flk-1 (kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fetal liver kinase-1 and Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. However, to date, it has not been determined which VEGF receptor (VEGFR is involved in binding to and activating Src kinase following VEGF stimulation of the receptors. Results In this report, we demonstrate that Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1 rather than Flt-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and that VEGF stimulation resulted in an increase of Src activity associated with activated KDR/Flk-1. These findings were determined through immunoprecipitation-kinase experiments and coimmunoprecipitation studies, and were further confirmed by GST-pull-down assays and Far Western studies. However, Fyn and Yes, unlike Src, were found to associate preferentially with Flt-1. Conclusions Thus, Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1, rather than with Flt-1, upon VEGF stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings further highlight the potential significance of upregulated KDR/Flk-1-associated Src activity in the process of angiogenesis, and help to elucidate more clearly the specific roles and mechanisms involving Src family tyrosine kinase in VEGF-stimulated signal transduction events.

  6. Topical Delivery of Anti-VEGF Drugs to the Ocular Posterior Segment Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cogan, Felicity; Hill, Lisa J; Lynch, Aisling; Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Lechner, Judith; Berwick, Matthew R; Peacock, Anna F A; Chen, Mei; Scott, Robert A H; Xu, Heping; Logan, Ann

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents for treating choroidal neovascularization (CNV) when delivered topically using novel cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) compared with delivery by intravitreal (ivit) injection. CPP toxicity was investigated in cell cultures. Ivit concentrations of ranibizumab and bevacizumab after topical administration were measured using ELISA. The biological efficacy of topical anti-VEGF + CPP complexes was compared with ivit anti-VEGF injections using an established model of CNV. CPPs were nontoxic in vitro. In vivo, after topical eye drop delivery, CPPs were present in the rat anterior chamber within 6 minutes. A single application of CPP + bevacizumab eye drop delivered clinically relevant concentrations of bevacizumab to the posterior chamber of the rat eye in vivo. Similarly, clinically relevant levels of CPP + ranibizumab and CPP + bevacizumab were detected in the porcine vitreous and retina ex vivo. In an established model of CNV, mice treated with either a single ivit injection of anti-VEGF, twice daily CPP + anti-VEGF eye drops or daily dexamethasone gavage for 10 days all had significantly reduced areas of CNV when compared with lasered eyes without treatment. CPPs are nontoxic to ocular cells and can be used to deliver therapeutically relevant doses of ranibizumab and bevacizumab by eye drop to the posterior segment of mouse, rat, and pig eyes. The CPP + anti-VEGF drug complexes were cleared from the retina within 24 hours, suggesting a daily eye drop dosing regimen. Daily, topically delivered anti-VEGF with CPP was as efficacious as a single ivit injection of anti-VEGF in reducing areas of CNV in vivo.

  7. Combined VEGF and LMP-1 delivery enhances osteoprogenitor cell differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Cui, Fuai; Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2011-02-01

    A novel strategy to enhance bone repair is to combine angiogenic factors and osteogenic factors. We combined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) by using an internal ribosome entry site to link the genes within a single plasmid. We then evaluated the effects on osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo with a subcutaneously placed PLAGA scaffold loaded with a cloned mouse osteoprogenitor cell line, D1, transfected with plasmids containing VEGF and LMP-1 genes. The cells expressing both genes elevated mRNA expression of RunX2 and β-catenin and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to cells from other groups. In vivo, X-ray and micro-CT analysis of the retrieved implants revealed more ectopic bone formation at 2 and 3 weeks but not at 4 weeks compared to other groups. The results indicate that the combination of the therapeutic growth factors potentiates cell differentiation and may promote osteogenesis.

  8. VEGF-A/NRP1 stimulates GIPC1 and Syx complex formation to promote RhoA activation and proliferation in skin cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Yoshida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (NRP1 has been identified as a VEGF-A receptor. DJM-1, a human skin cancer cell line, expresses endogenous VEGF-A and NRP1. In the present study, the RNA interference of VEGF-A or NRP1 suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overexpression of the NRP1 wild type restored shNRP1-treated DJM-1 cell proliferation, whereas NRP1 cytoplasmic deletion mutants did not. A co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that VEGF-A induced interactions between NRP1 and GIPC1, a scaffold protein, and complex formation between GIPC1 and Syx, a RhoGEF. The knockdown of GIPC1 or Syx reduced active RhoA and DJM-1 cell proliferation without affecting the MAPK or Akt pathway. C3 exoenzyme or Y27632 inhibited the VEGF-A-induced proliferation of DJM-1 cells. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active form of RhoA restored the proliferation of siVEGF-A-treated DJM-1 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of VEGF-A/NRP1 signaling upregulated p27, a CDK inhibitor. A cell-penetrating oligopeptide that targeted GIPC1/Syx complex formation inhibited the VEGF-A-induced activation of RhoA and suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. In conclusion, this new signaling pathway of VEGF-A/NRP1 induced cancer cell proliferation by forming a GIPC1/Syx complex that activated RhoA to degrade the p27 protein.

  9. Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossey, Stacey L; Bear, Misty D; Kisseberth, William C; Pennell, Michael; London, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that both canine and human OSA cell lines, as well as 8 fresh canine OSA tumor samples, exhibit constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, and that this correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). While multiple signal transduction pathways can result in phosphorylation of STAT3, stimulation of the cytokine receptor gp130 through either IL-6 or Oncostatin M (OSM) is the most common mechanism through which STAT3 is activated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 and OSM stimulation on both canine and human OSA cell lines to begin to determine the role of these cytokines in the biology of OSA. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to interrogate the consequences of OSM and IL-6 stimulation of OSA cell lines. OSA cells were stimulated with OSM and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the effects on MMP2 activity (gel zymography), proliferation (CyQUANT), invasion (Matrigel transwell assay), and VEGF production (Western blotting, ELISA) were assessed. The small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3 was used to investigate the impact of STAT3 inhibition following OSM stimulation of OSA cells. Our data demonstrate that the OSM receptor (OSMR), but not IL-6 or its receptor, is expressed by all human and canine OSA cell lines and canine OSA tumor samples; additionally, OSM expression was noted in all tumor samples. Treatment of OSA cell lines with OSM induced phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and JAK2. OSM stimulation also resulted in a dose dependent increase in MMP2 activity and VEGF expression that was markedly reduced following treatment with the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3. Lastly, OSM stimulation of OSA cell lines enhanced invasion through Matrigel, particularly in the presence of rhHGF. In contrast, both OSM and HGF stimulation of OSA cell lines did not alter their proliferative capacity. These data indicate OSM stimulation of human and canine OSA cells induces STAT3 activation, thereby

  10. Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisseberth William C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that both canine and human OSA cell lines, as well as 8 fresh canine OSA tumor samples, exhibit constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, and that this correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2. While multiple signal transduction pathways can result in phosphorylation of STAT3, stimulation of the cytokine receptor gp130 through either IL-6 or Oncostatin M (OSM is the most common mechanism through which STAT3 is activated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 and OSM stimulation on both canine and human OSA cell lines to begin to determine the role of these cytokines in the biology of OSA. Methods RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to interrogate the consequences of OSM and IL-6 stimulation of OSA cell lines. OSA cells were stimulated with OSM and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and the effects on MMP2 activity (gel zymography, proliferation (CyQUANT, invasion (Matrigel transwell assay, and VEGF production (Western blotting, ELISA were assessed. The small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3 was used to investigate the impact of STAT3 inhibition following OSM stimulation of OSA cells. Results Our data demonstrate that the OSM receptor (OSMR, but not IL-6 or its receptor, is expressed by all human and canine OSA cell lines and canine OSA tumor samples; additionally, OSM expression was noted in all tumor samples. Treatment of OSA cell lines with OSM induced phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and JAK2. OSM stimulation also resulted in a dose dependent increase in MMP2 activity and VEGF expression that was markedly reduced following treatment with the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3. Lastly, OSM stimulation of OSA cell lines enhanced invasion through Matrigel, particularly in the presence of rhHGF. In contrast, both OSM and HGF stimulation of OSA cell lines did not alter their proliferative capacity. Conclusions These data indicate OSM stimulation of

  11. Autocrine VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 signaling promotes glioma stem-like cell viability and tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Petra; Lathia, Justin D; Rasmussen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an endothelial cell protein, evidence suggests that VEGFRs may be expressed by cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer characterized by florid vascularization and aberrantly...... elevated VEGF. Antiangiogenic therapy with the humanized VEGF antibody bevacizumab reduces GBM tumor growth; however, the clinical benefits are transient and invariably followed by tumor recurrence. In this study, we show that VEGFR2 is preferentially expressed on the cell surface of the CD133(+) human......, which is associated with VEGFR2-NRP1 recycling and a pool of active VEGFR2 within a cytosolic compartment of a subset of human GBM cells. Whereas bevacizumab failed to inhibit prosurvival effects of VEGFR2-mediated signaling, GSC viability under unperturbed or radiation-evoked stress conditions...

  12. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  13. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifug...

  14. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Jiaojie, Zhou [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiaoyi, Yan, E-mail: xiaoyiyan163@163.com [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xiujun, Cai, E-mail: xiujuncaomaj@163.com [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  15. Accurately tracking single-cell movement trajectories in microfluidic cell sorting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jenny; Frohberg, Nicholas J; Zhou, Enlu; Sulchek, Todd; Qiu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidics are routinely used to study cellular properties, including the efficient quantification of single-cell biomechanics and label-free cell sorting based on the biomechanical properties, such as elasticity, viscosity, stiffness, and adhesion. Both quantification and sorting applications require optimal design of the microfluidic devices and mathematical modeling of the interactions between cells, fluid, and the channel of the device. As a first step toward building such a mathematical model, we collected video recordings of cells moving through a ridged microfluidic channel designed to compress and redirect cells according to cell biomechanics. We developed an efficient algorithm that automatically and accurately tracked the cell trajectories in the recordings. We tested the algorithm on recordings of cells with different stiffness, and showed the correlation between cell stiffness and the tracked trajectories. Moreover, the tracking algorithm successfully picked up subtle differences of cell motion when passing through consecutive ridges. The algorithm for accurately tracking cell trajectories paves the way for future efforts of modeling the flow, forces, and dynamics of cell properties in microfluidics applications.

  16. Accurately tracking single-cell movement trajectories in microfluidic cell sorting devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jeong

    Full Text Available Microfluidics are routinely used to study cellular properties, including the efficient quantification of single-cell biomechanics and label-free cell sorting based on the biomechanical properties, such as elasticity, viscosity, stiffness, and adhesion. Both quantification and sorting applications require optimal design of the microfluidic devices and mathematical modeling of the interactions between cells, fluid, and the channel of the device. As a first step toward building such a mathematical model, we collected video recordings of cells moving through a ridged microfluidic channel designed to compress and redirect cells according to cell biomechanics. We developed an efficient algorithm that automatically and accurately tracked the cell trajectories in the recordings. We tested the algorithm on recordings of cells with different stiffness, and showed the correlation between cell stiffness and the tracked trajectories. Moreover, the tracking algorithm successfully picked up subtle differences of cell motion when passing through consecutive ridges. The algorithm for accurately tracking cell trajectories paves the way for future efforts of modeling the flow, forces, and dynamics of cell properties in microfluidics applications.

  17. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Christoph; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Whyte, Graeme; Homewood, Philip; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Guck, Jochen

    2015-03-07

    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetrically etched glass plates, combines exact optical fiber alignment, low laser damage threshold and high imaging quality with the possibility of several microfluidic inlet and outlet channels. We show the utility of such a custom-built optical stretcher glass chip by measuring and sorting single cells in a heterogeneous population based on their different mechanical properties and verify sorting accuracy by simultaneous fluorescence detection. This offers new possibilities of exact characterization and sorting of small populations based on rheological properties for biological and biomedical applications.

  18. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehnen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP+ cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP+ mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies.

  19. IAP-Based Cell Sorting Results in Homogeneous Transplantable Dopaminergic Precursor Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Daniela; Barral, Serena; Cardoso, Tiago; Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Smiyakin, Andrej; Kirkeby, Agnete; Kollet, Jutta; Cremer, Harold; Parmar, Malin; Bosio, Andreas; Knöbel, Sebastian

    2017-10-10

    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons can relieve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical translation of differentiation protocols requires standardization of production procedures, and surface-marker-based cell sorting is considered instrumental for reproducible generation of defined cell products. Here, we demonstrate that integrin-associated protein (IAP) is a cell surface marker suitable for enrichment of hPSC-derived mesDA progenitor cells. Immunomagnetically sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors showed increased expression of ventral midbrain floor plate markers, lacked expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiated into mature dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro. Intrastriatal transplantation of IAP + cells sorted at day 16 of differentiation in a rat model of PD resulted in functional recovery. Grafts from sorted IAP + mesDA progenitors were more homogeneous in size and DA neuron density. Thus, we suggest IAP-based sorting for reproducible prospective enrichment of mesDA progenitor cells in clinical cell replacement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Miltenyi Biotec GmbH. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport and sorting of sphingolipids in polarized cells : the involvement of the sub-apical compartment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzendoorn, Sven Christian David van

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this thesis has provided a novel insight into the process of sphingolipid transport and sorting in polarized cells. We have used HepG2 cells as a model system to study polarized traffic in hepatic cells. Under specific culture conditions, HepG2 cells acquire a polarized

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Cross-Talk Between Endothelial and Tumor Cells Highlights Counterintuitive Effects of VEGF-Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Harsh; Jackson, Trachette

    2018-05-01

    Tumor growth and progression are critically dependent on the establishment of a vascular support system. This is often accomplished via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands. VEGF ligands are overexpressed in a wide variety of solid tumors and therefore have inspired optimism that inhibition of the different axes of the VEGF pathway-alone or in combination-would represent powerful anti-angiogenic therapies for most cancer types. When considering treatments that target VEGF and its receptors, it is difficult to tease out the differential anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of all combinations experimentally because tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells are engaged in a dynamic cross-talk that impacts key aspects of tumorigenesis, independent of angiogenesis. Here we develop a mathematical model that connects intracellular signaling responsible for both endothelial and tumor cell proliferation and death to population-level cancer growth and angiogenesis. We use this model to investigate the effect of bidirectional communication between endothelial cells and tumor cells on treatments targeting VEGF and its receptors both in vitro and in vivo. Our results underscore the fact that in vitro therapeutic outcomes do not always translate to the in vivo situation. For example, our model predicts that certain therapeutic combinations result in antagonism in vivo that is not observed in vitro. Mathematical modeling in this direction can shed light on the mechanisms behind experimental observations that manipulating VEGF and its receptors is successful in some cases but disappointing in others.

  2. Autocrine VEGF and IL-8 Promote Migration via Src/Vav2/Rac1/PAK1 Signaling in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Li; Zhou, Zhiwen; Jiang, Bo; Lou, Yue; Guo, Xirong

    2017-01-01

    Pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and IL-8 play a major role in modulating the migratory potential of endothelial cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of autocrine VEGF and IL-8 in the form of self-conditioned medium (CM) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) examined the automatic secretion of VEGF and IL-8 protein by HUVECs. Western blot, small interfering RNA (siRNA), pulldown and Transwell assays were used to explore the role and the mechanism of autocrine VEGF and IL-8 in migration of HUVECs. Neutralizing VEGF and IL-8 in CM significantly abrogated CM-induced migration of HUVECs. Autocrine VEGF and IL-8 increased Src phosphorylation, Rac1 activity and PAK1 phosphorylation in a time dependent manner. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity with Rac1 siRNA largely abolished autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced cell migration. Vav2 siRNA suppressed autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced Rac1 activation and cell migration. Furthermore, blocking Src signaling with PP2, a specific inhibitor for Src, markedly prevented autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced Vav2 and Rac1 activation as well as consequently cell migration. PAK1 siRNA also significantly abolished autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced cell migration. We demonstrated for the first time that autocrine VEGF and IL-8 promoted endothelial cell migration via the Src/Vav2/Rac1/PAK1 signaling pathway. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell migration induced by autocrine growth factors and cytokines, which is expected to provide a novel therapeutic target in vascular diseases. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: A negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkin, Claire E.; Garonna, Elena; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.D.

    2008-01-01

    In bone, angiogenesis must be initiated appropriately, but limited once remodelling or repair is complete. Our recent findings have supported a role for prostaglandins (PG), known modulators of osteoblast (OB) and endothelial cell (EC) behaviour, in facilitating VEGF-mediated paracrine communication from OBs to 'remotely located' ECs, but the mechanism(s) regulating OB:EC crosstalk when these cells are closely opposed are undefined. In this study we have examined: (i) the effects of exogenous PGE 2 on VEGF-driven events in ECs, and (ii) the role of endogenous COX-2-derived prostanoids in mediating communication between intimately opposed OBs and ECs in direct contact. Exposure of ECs to PGE 2 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, COX-2 induction, 6-keto-PGF 1α release and EC proliferation. In contrast, PGE 2 attenuated VEGF 165 -induced VEGFR2/Flk1 phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of ECs, suggesting that exogenous PGE 2 restricts the actions of VEGF. However, the COX-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, also attenuated VEGF-induced proliferation, implying a distinct role for endogenous COX-2 activity in regulating EC behaviour. To examine the effect of OB:EC proximity and the role of COX-2 products further, we used a confrontational co-culture model. These studies showed that COX-2 blockade with NS398 enhanced EC-dependent increases in OB differentiation, that this effect was reversed by exogenous PGH 2 (immediate COX-2 product), and that exogenous VEGF did not influence EC-dependent OB differentiation under these conditions. Our findings indicate that locally produced prostanoids may serve distinct roles depending on OB:EC proximity and negatively modulate VEGF-mediated changes in EC behaviour when these cells are closely opposed to control angiogenesis during bone (re)modelling

  4. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) elicits increased VEGF and decreased IL-6 production in type II lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; Nagel, Christian; Weiss, Christel

    2015-01-01

    between VEGF and IL-6 levels to DMBT1 expression in the lungs of preterm and term infants and in lung epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We examined by ELISA VEGF levels in 120 tracheal aspirates of 57 preterm and term infants and tested for correlation with different perinatal factors as well...... as with DMBT1 levels. To examine the effect of DMBT1 on VEGF and IL-6 expression we compared type II lung epithelial A549 cells stably transfected with a DMBT1 expression plasmid (DMBT1+ cells) to A549 cells stably transfected with an empty expression plasmid (DMBT1- cells). The concentrations of VEGF and IL-6...... that DMBT1 promotes VEGF and suppresses IL-6 production in alveolar tissues, which could point to DMBT1 having a possible role in the transition from inflammation to regeneration and being a potentially useful clinical marker....

  5. NLRC5 promotes cell proliferation via regulating the AKT/VEGF-A signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ying-hua; Li, Ming-fang; Zhang, Xing-yan; Meng, Xiao-ming; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    NLRC5, a newly found member of the NLR family and the largest member of nucleotide-binding, has been reported to regulate immune responses and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the mechanisms and signaling pathways of NLRC5 in HCC progression. Increased expression of NLRC5, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were found in human HCC tissue. There was a positive correlation between NLRC5 and VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation were enhanced in NLRC5-overexpressing HepG2 cells, but inhibited in cells with NLRC5 silencing treatment. Interestingly, we found that up-regulation of NLRC5 also coordinated the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. An AKT inhibitor LY294002 blocked VEGF-A expression and AKT phosphorylation in HepG2 cells and NLRC5-overexpressing HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that NLRC5 promotes HCC progression via the AKT/VEGF-A signaling pathway.

  6. Involvement of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuw Amerongen, G.P. van; Koolwijk, P.; Versteilen, A.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective - Growth factor-induced angiogenesis involves migration of endothelial cells (ECs) into perivascular areas and requires active remodeling of the endothelial F-actin cytoskeleton. The small GTPase RhoA previously has been implicated in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced

  7. Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aditi; Zhou, Cindy Q.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A., E-mail: mchellaiah@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties.

  8. Dll4 blockade potentiates the anti-tumor effects of VEGF inhibition in renal cell carcinoma patient-derived xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiersten Marie Miles

    Full Text Available The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4 is highly expressed in vascular endothelium and has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. Blockade of the Dll4-Notch pathway in preclinical cancer models has been associated with non-productive angiogenesis and reduced tumor growth. Given the cross-talk between the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Delta-Notch pathways in tumor angiogenesis, we examined the activity of a function-blocking Dll4 antibody, REGN1035, alone and in combination with anti-VEGF therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC.Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice bearing patient-derived clear cell RCC xenografts were treated with REGN1035 and in combination with the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib or the VEGF blocker ziv-aflibercept. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were carried out, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations pre and 24 hours and 2 weeks post treatment. Single agent treatment with REGN1035 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition (36-62% that was equivalent to or exceeded the single agent anti-tumor activity of the VEGF pathway inhibitors sunitinib (38-54% and ziv-aflibercept (46%. Importantly, combination treatments with REGN1035 plus VEGF inhibitors resulted in enhanced anti-tumor effects (72-80% growth inhibition, including some tumor regression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a marked decrease in tumor perfusion in all treatment groups. Interestingly, anti-tumor efficacy of the combination of REGN1035 and ziv-aflibercept was also observed in a sunitinib resistant ccRCC model.Overall, these findings demonstrate the potent anti-tumor activity of Dll4 blockade in RCC patient-derived tumors and a combination benefit for the simultaneous targeting of the Dll4 and VEGF signaling pathways, highlighting the therapeutic potential of this treatment modality in RCC.

  9. Self-Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert H.; Gabel, Christopher V.; Chan, Shirley S.; Austin, Robert H.; Brody, James P.; James, D. W. Winkelman M.

    1997-09-01

    When a drop of human blood containing red and white blood cells is forced to move via hydrodynamic forces in a lattice of channels designed to mimic the capillary channels, the white cells self-fractionate into the different types of white cells. The pattern of white cells that forms is due to a combination of stretch-activated adhesion of cells with the walls, stochastic sticking probabilities, and heteroavoidance between granulocytes and lymphocytes.

  10. Purification of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors using magnetic activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo M C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Diogo, Maria Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Neural precursor (NP) cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and their neuronal progeny, will play an important role in disease modeling, drug screening tests, central nervous system development studies, and may even become valuable for regenerative medicine treatments. Nonetheless, it is challenging to obtain homogeneous and synchronously differentiated NP populations from hiPSCs, and after neural commitment many pluripotent stem cells remain in the differentiated cultures. Here, we describe an efficient and simple protocol to differentiate hiPSC-derived NPs in 12 days, and we include a final purification stage where Tra-1-60+ pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are removed using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), leaving the NP population nearly free of PSCs.

  11. IB-LBM simulation on blood cell sorting with a micro-fence structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Tian, Fang-bao; Gao, Tian-xin; Tang, Xiao-ying; Zu, Wen-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A size-based blood cell sorting model with a micro-fence structure is proposed in the frame of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The fluid dynamics is obtained by solving the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, and the cells motion and deformation are handled by the immersed boundary method. A micro-fence consists of two parallel slope post rows which are adopted to separate red blood cells (RBCs) from white blood cells (WBCs), in which the cells to be separated are transported one after another by the flow into the passageway between the two post rows. Effected by the cross flow, RBCs are schemed to get through the pores of the nether post row since they are smaller and more deformable compared with WBCs. WBCs are required to move along the nether post row till they get out the micro-fence. Simulation results indicate that for a fix width of pores, the slope angle of the post row plays an important role in cell sorting. The cells mixture can not be separated properly in a small slope angle, while obvious blockages by WBCs will take place to disturb the continuous cell sorting in a big slope angle. As an optimal result, an adaptive slope angle is found to sort RBCs form WBCs correctly and continuously.

  12. Toward microfluidic sperm refinement: continuous flow label-free analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports upon the development of a microfluidic setup to detect and sort sperm cells from polystyrene beads label-free and non-invasively. Detection is performed by impedance analysis. When sperm cells passed the microelectrodes, the recorded impedance (19.6 ± 5.7 Ω) was higher

  13. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Stimulate Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation through the Paracrine Release of VEGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellini, Flaminia; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Nistri, Silvia; Nosi, Daniele; Saccardi, Riccardo; Quercioli, Franco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the leading cell candidates in the field of regenerative medicine. These cells have also been successfully used to improve skeletal muscle repair/regeneration; however, the mechanisms responsible for their beneficial effects remain to be clarified. On this basis, in the present study, we evaluated in a co-culture system, the ability of bone-marrow MSCs to influence C2C12 myoblast behavior and analyzed the cross-talk between the two cell types at the cellular and molecular level. We found that myoblast proliferation was greatly enhanced in the co-culture as judged by time lapse videomicroscopy, cyclin A expression and EdU incorporation. Moreover, myoblasts immunomagnetically separated from MSCs after co-culture expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of Notch-1, a key determinant of myoblast activation and proliferation, as compared with the single culture. Notch-1 intracellular domain and nuclear localization of Hes-1, a Notch-1 target gene, were also increased in the co-culture. Interestingly, the myoblastic response was mainly dependent on the paracrine release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by MSCs. Indeed, the addition of MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM) to C2C12 cells yielded similar results as those observed in the co-culture and increased the phosphorylation and expression levels of VEGFR. The treatment with the selective pharmacological VEGFR inhibitor, KRN633, resulted in a marked attenuation of the receptor activation and concomitantly inhibited the effects of MSC-CM on C2C12 cell growth and Notch-1 signaling. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence for a role of MSCs in stimulating myoblast cell proliferation and suggests that the functional interaction between the two cell types may be exploited for the development of new and more efficient cell-based skeletal muscle repair strategies. PMID:22815682

  14. WISP-3 inhibition of miR-452 promotes VEGF-A expression in chondrosarcoma cells and induces endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Tzeng, Huey-En; Li, Te-Mao; Chen, Hsien-Te; Lee, Yi; Yang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Yang, Wei-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-06-13

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most prevalent general primary tumor of bone following osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma development may be linked to angiogenesis, which is principally elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). VEGF-A level has been recognized as a prognostic marker in angiogenesis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-3 (WISP)-3/CCN6 belongs to the CCN family and is involved in regulating several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Nevertheless, the effect of WISP-3 on VEGF-A production and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma remains largely unknown. This current study shows that WISP-3 promoted VEGF-A production and induced angiogenesis of human endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, WISP-3-enhanced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis involved the c-Src and p38 signaling pathways, while miR-452 expression was negatively affected by WISP-3 via the c-Src and p38 pathways. Our results illustrate the clinical significance of WISP-3, VEGF-A and miR-452 in human chondrosarcoma patients. WISP-3 may illustrate a novel therapeutic target in the metastasis and angiogenesis of chondrosarcoma.

  15. VEGF121b and VEGF165b are weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Ruben

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different isoforms of VEGF-A (mainly VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189 have been shown to display particular angiogenic properties in the generation of a functional tumor vasculature. Recently, a novel class of VEGF-A isoforms, designated as VEGFxxxb, generated through alternative splicing, have been described. Previous studies have suggested that these isoforms may inhibit angiogenesis. In the present work we have produced recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris and constructed vectors to overexpress these isoforms and assess their angiogenic potential. Results Recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins generated either in yeasts or mammalian cells activated VEGFR2 and its downstream effector ERK1/2, although to a lesser extent than VEGF165. Furthermore, treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF121/165b increased cell proliferation compared to untreated cells, although such stimulation was lower than that induced by VEGF165. Moreover, in vivo angiogenesis assays confirmed angiogenesis stimulation by VEGF121/165b isoforms. A549 and PC-3 cells overexpressing VEGF121b or VEGF165b (or carrying the PCDNA3.1 empty vector, as control and xenotransplanted into nude mice showed increased tumor volume and angiogenesis compared to controls. To assess whether the VEGFxxxb isoforms are differentially expressed in tumors compared to healthy tissues, immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on a breast cancer tissue microarray. A significant increase (p xxxb and total VEGF-A protein expression in infiltrating ductal carcinomas compared to normal breasts was observed. A positive significant correlation (r = 0.404, p = 0.033 between VEGFxxxb and total VEGF-A was found. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that VEGF121/165b are not anti-angiogenic, but weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A. In addition, VEGFxxxb isoforms are up-regulated in breast cancer in comparison with non malignant breast tissues. These results are to be taken

  16. Postendocytic sorting of constitutively internalized dopamine transporter in cell lines and dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine. DAT undergoes marked constitutive endocytosis, but little is known about the fate and sorting of the endocytosed transporter. To study DAT sorting in cells...... lines, we fused the one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to DAT, thereby generating a transporter (TacDAT) with an extracellular antibody epitope suited for trafficking studies. TacDAT was functional and endocytosed constitutively in HEK293 cells. According to an ELISA-based assay, TacDAT intracellular...

  17. Fluid shear promotes chondrosarcoma cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase 12 via IGF-2 and VEGF signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Chen, S-H; Hung, W-C; Paul, C; Zhu, F; Guan, P-P; Huso, DL; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A; Konstantopoulos, K

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow in and around the tumor tissue is a physiologically relevant mechanical signal that regulates intracellular signaling pathways throughout the tumor. Yet, the effects of interstitial flow and associated fluid shear stress on the tumor cell function have been largely overlooked. Using in vitro bioengineering models in conjunction with molecular cell biology tools, we found that fluid shear (2 dyn/cm2) markedly upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) expression and its activity in human chondrosarcoma cells. MMP-12 expression is induced in human chondrocytes during malignant transformation. However, the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 expression and its potential role in human chondrosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. We discovered that fluid shear stress induces the synthesis of insulin growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B and D, which in turn transactivate MMP-12 via PI3-K, p38 and JNK signaling pathways. IGF-2-, VEGF-B- or VEGF-D-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells display markedly higher migratory and invasive potentials in vitro, which are blocked by inhibiting MMP-12, PI3-K, p38 or JNK activity. Moreover, recombinant human MMP-12 or MMP-12 overexpression can potentiate chondrosarcoma cell invasion in vitro and the lung colonization in vivo. By reconstructing and delineating the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 activation, potential therapeutic strategies that interfere with chondrosarcoma cell invasion may be identified. PMID:25435370

  18. Zeaxanthin Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced VEGF Secretion by RPE Cells through Decreased Protein Levels of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is the most important stimulus leading to upregulation of VEGF in the retina and this is caused by accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factors-1α (HIF-1α protein. The effects of zeaxanthin, a natural phytochemical, on the VEGF and HIF-1α expression in the primary culture of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells were studied. An in vitro RPE cell hypoxia model was established by placing cells under 1% oxygen pressure or by adding cobalt chloride (CoCl2 to the culture medium. RPE cells and conditioned media were collected from cultures treated with and without zeaxanthin under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. VEGF and HIF-1α protein and RNA levels were measured by ELISA kits and RT-PCR, respectively. Hypoxia caused a significant increase of VEGF expression and accumulation of HIF-1α in RPE cells. Zeaxanthin at 50–150 μM significantly inhibited the expression of VEGF and accumulation of HIF-1α protein caused by hypoxia but did not affect expression of VEGF and HIF-1α under normoxic conditions. This is the first report on the effect of zeaxanthin on VEGF and HIF-1α levels in cultured RPE cells and suggests that zeaxanthin may have potential value in the prevention and treatment of various retinal diseases associated with vascular leakage and neovascularization.

  19. Flow sorting in the study of teratocarcinoma cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. Schaap (Gerard Hendrik)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractFlow cytometry is a technique by which particles (cells, subcellular fragments, bacteria) in aqueous suspension are passed one by one through a sensing region where optical (or electrical) signals are generated. These signals for each individual cell are collected and processed, and may

  20. Proliferation of sorted human and rat beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnaud, G; Bosco, D; Berney, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors.......The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors....

  1. How to develop a Standard Operating Procedure for sorting unfixed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. PMID:22381383

  2. How to develop a standard operating procedure for sorting unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural killer (NK)-cell activity in sorted subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, R. J.; Schellekens, P. T.; Budding-Koppenol, A.; Dooren, L. J.; Vossen, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Natural killer-cell activity for K562 target cells was measured in 13 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency before bone marrow transplantation. Both unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sorted cell subsets (B73.1 positive, B73.1 negative, OKT3 positive, OKT3 negative) were

  4. Evaluation of angiogenesis with the expression of VEGF and CD34 in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; Andrini, L B; García, M N; García, A L; Fernández Blanco, A; Furnus, C C; Galletti, S M; Prat, G D; Errecalde, A L

    2007-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process in the progression of malignant tumors and the most potent angiogenic factor is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, the CD34 is an endothelial antigen that has been used to highlight the microvasculature vessel density (MVD) as a direct marker of the degree of neoangiogenesis. In the present study we report the VEGF expression and its relationship with MVD, measured by CD34, in two lineages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCL): low differentiated adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas, in order to consider the possibility of using the correlation between both antibodies as a prognostic factor. Tumor sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF. The results showed that the mean value of VEGF for adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than the one for epidermoid carcinoma (p < 0.001). However, the mean of MVD did not show significant differences between both types of tumors. The conventional factors taken into consideration (age over 60, sex, and presence of lymph nodes) was not significantly related to the angiogenic factors examined. In conclusion, we could affirm that CD34 is a better prognostic marker of neoangiogenesis in NSCLC, because both types of tumors have the same clinical prognosis, and so we expected the same behaviour from both markers.

  5. International Society for Analytical Cytology biosafety standard for sorting of unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid; Lambert, Claude; Ambrozak, David; Marti, Gerald E; Moss, Delynn M; Perfetto, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    Cell sorting of viable biological specimens has become very prevalent in laboratories involved in basic and clinical research. As these samples can contain infectious agents, precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from hazards arising from the use of sorters are paramount. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) took a lead in establishing biosafety guidelines for sorting of unfixed cells (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117). During the time period these recommendations have been available, they have become recognized worldwide as the standard practices and safety precautions for laboratories performing viable cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 1997, and the document requires an update. Initially, suggestions about the document format and content were discussed among members of the ISAC Biosafety Committee and were incorporated into a draft version that was sent to all committee members for review. Comments were collected, carefully considered, and incorporated as appropriate into a draft document that was posted on the ISAC web site to invite comments from the flow cytometry community at large. The revised document was then submitted to ISAC Council for review. Simultaneously, further comments were sought from newly-appointed ISAC Biosafety committee members. This safety standard for performing viable cell sorting experiments was recently generated. The document contains background information on the biohazard potential of sorting and the hazard classification of infectious agents as well as recommendations on (1) sample handling, (2) operator training and personal protection, (3) laboratory design, (4) cell sorter set-up, maintenance, and decontamination, and (5) testing the instrument for the efficiency of aerosol containment. This standard constitutes an updated and expanded revision of the 1997 biosafety guideline document. It is intended to provide

  6. Cytotoxicity of VEGF121/rGel on vascular endothelial cells resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis is mediated via VEGFR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hittelman Walter N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fusion protein VEGF121/rGel composed of the growth factor VEGF121 and the plant toxin gelonin targets the tumor neovasculature and exerts impressive anti-vascular effects. We have previously shown that VEGF121/rGel is cytotoxic to endothelial cells overexpressing VEGFR-2 but not to endothelial cells overexpressing VEGFR-1. In this study, we examined the basis for the specific toxicity of this construct and assessed its intracellular effects in vitro and in vivo. Methods We investigated the binding, cytotoxicity and internalization profile of VEGF121/rGel on endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2, identified its effects on angiogenesis models in vitro and ex vivo, and explored its intracellular effects on a number of molecular pathways using microarray analysis. Results Incubation of PAE/VEGFR-2 and PAE/VEGFR-1 cells with 125I-VEGF121/rGel demonstrated binding specificity that was competed with unlabeled VEGF121/rGel but not with unlabeled gelonin. Assessment of the effect of VEGF121/rGel on blocking tube formation in vitro revealed a 100-fold difference in IC50 levels between PAE/VEGFR-2 (1 nM and PAE/VEGFR-1 (100 nM cells. VEGF121/rGel entered PAE/VEGFR-2 cells within one hour of treatment but was not detected in PAE/VEGFR-1 cells up to 24 hours after treatment. In vascularization studies using chicken chorioallantoic membranes, 1 nM VEGF121/rGel completely inhibited bFGF-stimulated neovascular growth. The cytotoxic effects of VEGF121/rGel were not apoptotic since treated cells were TUNEL-negative with no evidence of PARP cleavage or alteration in the protein levels of select apoptotic markers. Microarray analysis of VEGF121/rGel-treated HUVECs revealed the upregulation of a unique "fingerprint" profile of 22 genes that control cell adhesion, apoptosis, transcription regulation, chemotaxis, and inflammatory response. Conclusions Taken together, these data confirm the selectivity of VEGF121/rGel for VEGFR-2

  7. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajioka Itsuki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  9. VEGF-induced Rac1 activation in endothelial cells is regulated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, Tiana A.; van Buul, Jaap D.; Burridge, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is critical for both normal and disease-associated vascular development. Dysregulated VEGF signaling has been implicated in ischemic stroke, tumor angiogenesis, and many other vascular diseases. VEGF signals through several effectors, including the

  10. Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert; Chan, Shirley; Gabel, Chris; Austin, Robert

    1997-03-01

    White blood cells represent a heterogenous population of differentially sticky and deformable objects. We examine here experiemnts where the hydrodynamic flow of such a population in a lattice of obstacles results in the fractionation of the objects, and will present modeling of the observed fractionation of the objects.

  11. High-throughput microfluidic mixing and multiparametric cell sorting for bioactive compound screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan M; Curry, Mark S; Ransom, John T; Ballesteros, Juan A; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2004-03-01

    HyperCyt, an automated sample handling system for flow cytometry that uses air bubbles to separate samples sequentially introduced from multiwell plates by an autosampler. In a previously documented HyperCyt configuration, air bubble separated compounds in one sample line and a continuous stream of cells in another are mixed in-line for serial flow cytometric cell response analysis. To expand capabilities for high-throughput bioactive compound screening, the authors investigated using this system configuration in combination with automated cell sorting. Peptide ligands were sampled from a 96-well plate, mixed in-line with fluo-4-loaded, formyl peptide receptor-transfected U937 cells, and screened at a rate of 3 peptide reactions per minute with approximately 10,000 cells analyzed per reaction. Cell Ca(2+) responses were detected to as little as 10(-11) M peptide with no detectable carryover between samples at up to 10(-7) M peptide. After expansion in culture, cells sort-purified from the 10% highest responders exhibited enhanced sensitivity and more sustained responses to peptide. Thus, a highly responsive cell subset was isolated under high-throughput mixing and sorting conditions in which response detection capability spanned a 1000-fold range of peptide concentration. With single-cell readout systems for protein expression libraries, this technology offers the promise of screening millions of discrete compound interactions per day.

  12. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Zdeněk.; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment, dedicated to identification and sorting of biological objects, such as living cells of various unicellular organisms. Our main goal was to create a robust and universal platform for non-destructive and non-contact sorting of micro-objects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect spectra containing information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of pigments, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, avoiding artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used a mixture of polystyrene micro-particles and algal cells to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  13. Microfluidic devices for analysis and active optical sorting of individual cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Kaňka, Jan; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 55-59 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : microfluidic * cell sorting * optical tweezers * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  14. Autocrine EGF receptor activation mediates endothelial cell migration and vascular morphogenesis induced by VEGF under interstitial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, Carlos E.; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    We show here that autocrine ligand activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in combination with interstitial flow is critically involved in the morphogenetic response of endothelial cells to VEGF stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a collagen gel and exposed to low interstitial flow in the absence of EGF and VEGF remained viable and mitotic but exhibited little evidence of vascular morphogenesis. Addition of VEGF produced a flow-dependent morphogenetic response within 48 to 72 h, characterized by branched capillary-like structures. The response was substantially abolished by inhibitors related to the autocrine EGF receptor pathway including Galardin, AG1478, PD98059, and an EGF receptor-blocking antibody, indicating that regulation of the morphogenetic process operates via autocrine EGF receptor activation. Moreover, we observed that in our system the EGF receptor was always activated independently of the interstitial flow, and, in addition, the EGF receptor inhibitors used above reduced the phosphorylation state of the receptor, correlating with inhibition of capillary morphogenesis. Finally, 5'bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling identified dividing cells at the monolayer but not in the extending capillary-like structures. EGF pathway inhibitors Galardin and AG1478 did not reduce BrdU incorporation in the monolayer, indicating that the EGF-receptor-mediated morphogenetic behavior is mainly due to cell migration rather than proliferation. Based on these results, we propose a two-step model for in vitro capillary morphogenesis in response to VEGF stimulation with interstitial fluid flow: monolayer maintenance by mitotic activity independent of EGF receptors and a migratory response mediated by autocrine EGF receptor activation wherein cells establish capillary-like structures

  15. Study on the correlation between SCT features and pathology, MVD, expressions of VEGF in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuejun; Gao Jianbo; Yang Xuehua; Zhou Zhigang; Guo Hua; Yue Songwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between spiral CT (SCT) features and pathology, MVD, and expressions of VEGF in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Thirty-four patients with RCC diagnosed by pathology underwent SCT examinations. MVD and expressions of VEGF were examined immunohistochemically using SABC techniques. Results: (1) The detection and characterization as well as accuracy of staging in 34 RCC on two-phase enhanced SCT scans were 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. (2) Tumors with low density ring on SCT scans mostly had pseudocapsules at pathological examination. The nuclear grade was higher in groups of tumor without low density ring, with central necrosis, and the diameter larger than 3.0 cm than in those of tumor with low density ring, without central necrosis, and the diameter less than 3.0 cm (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). (3) In 34 cases of RCC, the mean MVD was 89.5 ± 56.0. The positive expression of VEGF was 70.6% (24/34). (4) The MVD and positive expressions of VEGF in groups of tumor without a low density ring, with central necrosis on SCT scans were higher than in those tumor with a low density ring, without central necrosis (P<0.05 respectively in each of the groups). On early enhanced scans, MVD was closely correlated with tumor enhancement (P<0.05). MVD was higher in tumors with intravenous tumor emboli than in tumors without emboli (P<0.01). Conclusion: (1) Two-phase enhanced SCT scan was a reliable technique in the detection, characterization and staging of RCC. (2) Some SCT features were closely correlated with MVD and expressions of VEGF in RCC, which could be a noninvasive method in predicting aggressiveness and metastasis. (authors)

  16. Improved method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.T.

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  17. Characterization of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells Selected by Vario Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Enyi; Lian, Xiaohua; Chen, Wei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34 bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34 dim cells. CD34 bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34 dim cells. Furthermore, CD34 bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS

  18. Sorting cells of the microalga Chlorococcum littorale with increased triacylglycerol productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanelas, Iago Teles Dominguez; van der Zwart, Mathijs; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the last decades, microalgae are still only economically feasible for high valued markets. Strain improvement is a strategy to increase productivities, hence reducing costs. In this work, we focus on microalgae selection: taking advantage of the natural biological variability of species to select variations based on desired characteristics. We focused on triacylglycerol (TAG), which have applications ranging from biodiesel to high-value omega-3 fatty-acids. Hence, we demonstrated a strategy to sort microalgae cells with increased TAG productivity. 1. We successfully identified sub-populations of cells with increased TAG productivity using Fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). 2. We sequentially sorted cells after repeated cycles of N-starvation, resulting in five sorted populations (S1-S5). 3. The comparison between sorted and original populations showed that S5 had the highest TAG productivity [0.34 against 0.18 g l(-1) day(-1) (original), continuous light]. 4. Original and S5 were compared in lab-scale reactors under simulated summer conditions confirming the increased TAG productivity of S5 (0.4 against 0.2 g l(-1) day(-1)). Biomass composition analyses showed that S5 produced more biomass under N-starvation because of an increase only in TAG content and, flow cytometry showed that our selection removed cells with lower efficiency in producing TAGs. All combined, our results present a successful strategy to improve the TAG productivity of Chlorococcum littorale, without resourcing to genetic manipulation or random mutagenesis. Additionally, the improved TAG productivity of S5 was confirmed under simulated summer conditions, highlighting the industrial potential of S5 for microalgal TAG production.

  19. Proteomic analysis of barley cell nuclei purified by flow sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Jeřábková, Hana; Chamrád, I.; Vrána, Jan; Lenobel, R.; Uřinovská, J.; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2014), s. 78-86 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell cycle * Chromatin * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25059295

  20. Bubble Divergences: Sorting out Topology from Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    We conclude our analysis of bubble divergences in the flat spinfoam model. In [arXiv:1008.1476] we showed that the divergence degree of an arbitrary two-complex Gamma can be evaluated exactly by means of twisted cohomology. Here, we specialize this result to the case where Gamma is the two-skeleton of the cell decomposition of a pseudomanifold, and sharpen it with a careful analysis of the cellular and topological structures involved. Moreover, we explain in detail how this approach reproduces all the previous powercounting results for the Boulatov-Ooguri (colored) tensor models, and sheds light on algebraic-topological aspects of Gurau's 1/N expansion.

  1. Coffee induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human neuroblastama SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakio, Shota; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Kobata, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on neuronal and glial cells. On the other hand, recent epidemiological studies showed that daily coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of several neuronal disorders. Therefore, we investigated the effect of coffee on VEGF expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that even low concentration of coffee (coffee was attributed to the coffee-dependent inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF1α, which is essential for proteolytic degradation of HIF-1α. However, no inhibition was observed at the catalytic activity in vitro. Coffee component(s) responsible for the activation of HIF-1α was not major constituents such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline, but was found to emerge during roasting process. The active component(s) was extractable with ethyl acetate. Our results suggest that daily consumption of coffee may induce VEGF expression in neuronal cells. This might be related to protective effect of coffee on neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  2. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    .05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...

  3. Polylysine-modified polyethylenimine (PEI-PLL) mediated VEGF gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in cell culture and in rat models of Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad Abid; Malik, Yousra Saeed; Xing, Zhenkai; Guo, Zhaopei; Tian, Huayu; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits which result from the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Gene therapy using growth factors such as VEGF seems to be a viable approach for potential therapeutic treatment of PD. In this study, we utilized a novel non-viral gene carrier designated as PEI-PLL synthesized by our laboratory to deliver VEGF gene to study its effect by using both cell culture as well as animal models of PD. For cell culture experiments, we utilized 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mediated cell death model of MN9D cells following transfection with either a control plasmid or VEGF expressing plasmid. As compared to control transfected cells, PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery to MN9D cells resulted in increased cell viability, increase in the number of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and decreased apoptosis following 6-OHDA insult. Next, we studied the therapeutic potential of PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery in SNPc by using unilateral 6-OHDA Medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesion model of PD in rats. VEGF administration prevented the loss of motor functions induced by 6-OHDA as determined by behavior analysis. Similarly, VEGF inhibited the 6-OHDA mediated loss of DA neurons in Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta (SNPc) as well as DA nerve fibers in striatum as determined by TH immunostaining. In addition, PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery also prevented apoptosis and microglial activation in PD rat models. Together, these results clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of PEI-PLL mediated VEGF gene delivery on dopaminergic system in both cell culture and animal models of PD. In this report, we exploited the potential of PEI-PLL to deliver VEGF gene for the potential therapeutic treatment of PD by using both cell culture and animal models of PD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of novel polymeric gene carriers for the delivery of VEGF gene

  4. Isolating peripheral lymphocytes by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseron, Frederic; Marcus, Katrin; May, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Combining density gradient centrifugation with magnetic cell sorting provides a powerful tool to isolate blood cells with high reproducibility, yield, and purity. It also allows for subsequent separation of multiple cell types, resulting in the possibility to analyze different purified fractions from one donor's sample. The centrifugation step divides whole blood into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma. In the following, lymphocyte subtypes can be consecutively isolated from the PBMC fraction. This chapter describes enrichment of erythrocytes, CD14-positive monocytes and CD3-positive T lymphocytes. Alternatively, other cell types can be targeted by using magnetic beads specific for the desired subpopulation.

  5. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belakavadi, Madesh; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells

  6. CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Chen, Po-Chen; Yang, Wei-Hung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25301739

  7. Lipid phosphate phosphatase activity regulates dispersal and bilateral sorting of embryonic germ cells in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Andrew D.; Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, germ cell survival and directionality of migration are controlled by two lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP), wunen (wun) and wunen-2 (wun2). wun wun2 double mutant analysis reveals that the two genes, hereafter collectively called wunens, act redundantly in primordial germ cells. We find that wunens mediate germ cell-germ cell repulsion and that this repulsion is necessary for germ cell dispersal and proper transepithelial migration at the onset of migration and for the equal sorting of the germ cells between the two embryonic gonads during their migration. We propose that this dispersal function optimizes adult fecundity by assuring maximal germ cell occupancy of both gonads. Furthermore, we find that the requirement for wunens in germ cell survival can be eliminated by blocking germ cell migration. We suggest that this essential function of Wunen is needed to maintain cell integrity in actively migrating germ cells. PMID:20431117

  8. TNF-α and LPS activate angiogenesis via VEGF and SIRT1 signalling in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M R; Kang, S K; Kim, Y S; Lee, S Y; Hong, S C; Kim, E-C

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether SIRT1 and VEGF are responsible for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced angiogenesis and to examine the molecular mechanism(s) of action in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Immortalized HDPCs obtained from Prof. Takashi Takata (Hiroshima University, Japan) were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1) ) and TNF-α (10 ng mL(-1) ) for 24 h. mRNA and protein levels were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Migration and tube formation were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data were analysed by one-way anova. Statistical analysis was performed at α = 0.05. LPS and TNF-α upregulated VEGF and SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity by sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA or inhibition of the VEGF receptor by CBO-P11 significantly attenuated LPS + TNF-α-stimulated MMPs production in HDPCs, as well as migration and tube formation in HUVECs (P disease. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Using pico-LCoS SLMs for high speed cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of consumer pico projectors as cost effective spatial light modulators in cell sorting applications. The matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) beam shaping method is used to produce high intensity optical spots for trapping and catapulting cells. A pico projector......’s liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) chip was used as a binary phase spatial light modulator (SLM) wherein correlation target patterns are addressed. Experiments using the binary LCoS phase SLM with a fabricated Pyrex matched filter demonstrate the generation of intense optical spots that can potentially...... be used for cell sorting. Numerical studies also show mGPC’s robustness to phase aberrations in the LCoS device, and its ability to outperform a top hat beam with the same power....

  10. Radiation effects on the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of gamma-rays irradiation on the development and the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, were investigated. The interphase amoebae of the organism showed extremely resistant to 60 Co gamma-rays. The percentage of non-stained cells estimated by dye staining method was more than 90% at the dose of 270 kR. The amoebae irradiated at 270 kR performed the development similar in the most respects to that of the un-irradiated amoebae except that a little portion of the fruiting bodies were abnormal and that the appearance of aggregates and slugs delayed 3 hrs. The ability of the species-specific cell sorting-out was not affected by gamma-rays irradiation at 270 kR. (auth.)

  11. Clinical significance of estimation of changes in serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Peidong; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with chronic nephritis. Methods: Serum SF (with RIA) and serum VEGF, HGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 30 patients with chronic nephritis both before and after a course of transfusion of RBC and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion the serum SF levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels were clinically useful for the progress, prognosis and judgement of chronic nephritis. (authors)

  12. Sorting Out Sorts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  13. Anti-VEGF drugs: evidence for effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jennifer; Virgili, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF) are targeted biological drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies) that prevent the growth of new vessels by inhibiting VEGF. VEGF is a cytokine (cell-signalling protein) that promotes the growth of, and leakage from, new vessels. Currently there are three anti-VEGF drugs licensed for use in eye disease: pegaptanib, aflibercept, ranibizumab and one that is not licensed but is commonly used off-label (bevacizumab).

  14. Measuring and sorting cell populations expressing isospectral fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Sands

    Full Text Available Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, and the observable signal in these studies, is often small. An XFP's fluorescence lifetime contains additional information about the immediate environment of the fluorophore that can augment the information from its weak light signal. Here, we constructed and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants of Teal Fluorescent Protein (TFP and Citrine that were isospectral but had shorter fluorescence lifetimes, ∼ 1.5 ns vs ∼ 3 ns. We modified microscopic and flow cytometric instruments to measure fluorescence lifetimes in live cells. We developed digital hardware and a measure of lifetime called a "pseudophasor" that we could compute quickly enough to permit sorting by lifetime in flow. We used these abilities to sort mixtures of cells expressing TFP and the short-lifetime TFP variant into subpopulations that were respectively 97% and 94% pure. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using information about fluorescence lifetime to help quantify cell signaling in living cells at the high throughput provided by flow cytometry. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of isolating and recovering subpopulations of cells with different XFP lifetimes for subsequent experimentation.

  15. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Ocular Neovascularization and Vascular Permeability in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells via Suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis. EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs. EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2 by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs. Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31 on corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization.

  16. Cell cycle variation in x-ray survival for cells from spheroids measured by volume cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable work has been done studying the variation in cell survival as a function of cell cycle position for monolayers or single cells exposed to radiation. Little is known about the effects of multicellular growth on the relative radiation sensitivity of cells in different cell cycle stages. The authors have developed a new technique for measuring the response of cells, using volume cell sorting, which is rapid, non-toxic, and does not require cell synchronization. By combining this technique with selective spheroid dissociation,they have measured the age response of cells located at various depths in EMT6 and Colon 26 spheroids. Although cells in the inner region had mostly G1-phase DNA contents, 15-20% had S- and G2-phase DNA contents. Analysis of these cells using BrdU labeling and flow cytometric analysis with a monoclonal antibody to BrdU indicated that the inner region cells were not synthesizing DNA. Thus, the authors were able to measure the radiation response of cells arrested in G1, S and G2 cell cycle phases. Comparison of inner and outer spheroid regions, and monolayer cultures, indicates that it is improper to extrapolate age response data in standard culture conditions to the situation in spheroids

  17. EMMPRIN promotes melanoma cells malignant properties through a HIF-2alpha mediated up-regulation of VEGF-receptor-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Bougatef

    Full Text Available EMMPRIN's expression in melanoma tissue was reported to be predictive of poor prognosis. Here we demonstrate that EMMPRIN up-regulated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 in two different primary melanoma cell lines and consequently increased migration and proliferation of these cells while inhibiting their apoptosis. SiRNA inhibition of VEGFR-2 expression abrogated these EMMPRIN effects. EMMPRIN regulation of VEGFR-2 was mediated through the over-expression of HIF-2alpha and its translocation to the nucleus where it forms heterodimers with HIF-1beta. These results were supported by an in vivo correlation between the expression of EMMPRIN with that of VEGFR-2 in human melanoma tissues as well as with the extent of HIF-2alpha localization in the nucleus. They demonstrate a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor progression through HIF-2alpha/VEGFR-2 mediated mechanism, with an autocrine role in melanoma cell malignancy. The inhibition of EMMPRIN in cancer may thus simultaneously target both the VEGFR-2/VEGF system and the matrix degrading proteases to block tumor cell growth and invasion.

  18. Exploring viral reservoir: The combining approach of cell sorting and droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibellini, Lara; Pecorini, Simone; De Biasi, Sara; Pinti, Marcello; Bianchini, Elena; De Gaetano, Anna; Digaetano, Margherita; Pullano, Rosalberta; Lo Tartaro, Domenico; Iannone, Anna; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea; Nasi, Milena

    2018-02-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) blocks different steps of HIV replication and maintains plasma viral RNA at undetectable levels. The virus can remain in long-living cells and create a reservoir where HIV can restart replicating after cART discontinuation. A persistent viral production triggers and maintains a persistent immune activation, which is a well-known feature of chronic HIV infection, and contributes either to precocious aging, or to the increased incidence of morbidity and mortality of HIV positive patients. The new frontier of the treatment of HIV infection is nowadays eradication of the virus from all host cells and tissues. For this reason, it is crucial to have a clear and precise idea of where the virus hides, and which are the cells that keep it silent. Important efforts have been made to improve the detection of viral reservoirs, and new techniques are now giving the opportunity to characterize viral reservoirs. Among these techniques, a strategic approach based upon cell sorting and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is opening new horizons and opportunities of research. This review provides an overview of the methods that combine cell sorting and ddPCR for the quantification of HIV DNA in different cell types, and for the detection of its maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kaempferol inhibits angiogenic ability by targeting VEGF receptor-2 and downregulating the PI3K/AKT, MEK and ERK pathways in VEGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hsien-Kuo; Horng, Chi-Ting; Liu, Yi-Shan; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Su, Chen-Ying; Chen, Pei-Syuan; Chiu, Hong-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2018-05-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most general clinical obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Kaempferol is a flavonoid phytochemical found in many fruits and vegetables. Our previous study revealed that kaempferol triggered apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ROS‑mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. However, the anti‑angiogenic potential of kaempferol remains unclear and its underlying mechanism warranted further exploration in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. In the present study, kaempferol significantly reduced VEGF‑stimulated HUVEC viability. Kaempferol treatment also inhibited cell migration, invasion, and tube formation in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. VEGF receptor‑2 (VEGFR‑2), and its downstream signaling cascades (such as AKT, mTOR and MEK1/2‑ERK1/2) were reduced as determined by western blotting and kinase activity assay in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs after treatment with kaempferol. The present study revealed that kaempferol may possess angiogenic inhibition through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR‑2 and its downstream signaling cascades (PI3K/AKT, MEK and ERK) in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells.

  20. EMMPRIN regulates tumor growth and metastasis by recruiting bone marrow-derived cells through paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanke; Gou, Xingchun; Kong, Derek Kai; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Zeming; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2015-10-20

    EMMPRIN, a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in a variety of tumors, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Mechanistically, EMMPRIN has been characterized to contribute to tumor development and progression by controlling the expression of MMPs and VEGF. In the present study, by using fluorescently labeled bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), we found that the down-regulation of EMMPRIN expression in cancer cells reduces tumor growth and metastasis, and is associated with the reduced recruitment of BMDCs. Further protein profiling studies suggest that EMMPRIN controls BMDC recruitment through regulating the secretion of soluble factors, notably, VEGF and SDF-1. We demonstrate that the expression and secretion of SDF-1 in tumor cells are regulated by EMMPRIN. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor growth and metastasis by recruitment of BMDCs through controlling secretion and paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

  1. Targeted sorting of single virus-infected cells of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Martínez Martínez

    Full Text Available Discriminating infected from healthy cells is the first step to understanding the mechanisms and ecological implications of viral infection. We have developed a method for detecting, sorting, and performing molecular analysis of individual, infected cells of the important microalga Emiliania huxleyi, based on known physiological responses to viral infection. Of three fluorescent dyes tested, FM 1-43 (for detecting membrane blebbing gave the most unequivocal and earliest separation of cells. Furthermore, we were able to amplify the genomes of single infected cells using Multiple Displacement Amplification. This novel method to reliably discriminate infected from healthy cells in cultures will allow researchers to answer numerous questions regarding the mechanisms and implications of viral infection of E. huxleyi. The method may be transferable to other virus-host systems.

  2. Targeted sorting of single virus-infected cells of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Poulton, Nicole J; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Sieracki, Michael E; Wilson, William H

    2011-01-01

    Discriminating infected from healthy cells is the first step to understanding the mechanisms and ecological implications of viral infection. We have developed a method for detecting, sorting, and performing molecular analysis of individual, infected cells of the important microalga Emiliania huxleyi, based on known physiological responses to viral infection. Of three fluorescent dyes tested, FM 1-43 (for detecting membrane blebbing) gave the most unequivocal and earliest separation of cells. Furthermore, we were able to amplify the genomes of single infected cells using Multiple Displacement Amplification. This novel method to reliably discriminate infected from healthy cells in cultures will allow researchers to answer numerous questions regarding the mechanisms and implications of viral infection of E. huxleyi. The method may be transferable to other virus-host systems.

  3. Amphiregulin enhances VEGF-A production in human chondrosarcoma cells and promotes angiogenesis by inhibiting miR-206 via FAK/c-Src/PKCδ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Wang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Zhao, Yong-Ming; Huang, Bi-Fei; Xu, Guo-Hong; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-28

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy of bone after myeloma and osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma development may be linked to angiogenesis, which is principally elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). The expression of VEGF-A has been recognized as a prognostic marker in angiogenesis. Amphiregulin (AR), an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, promotes tumor proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the role of AR in VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma remains largely unknown. This current study shows that AR promoted VEGF-A production and induced angiogenesis of human endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, AR-enhanced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis involved the FAK, c-Src and PKCδ signaling pathways, while miR-206 expression was negatively mediated by AR via the FAK, c-Src and PKCδ pathways. Our results illustrate the clinical significance between AR, VEGF-A and miR-206, as well as tumor stage, in human chondrosarcoma. AR may represent a novel therapeutic target in the metastasis and angiogenesis of chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VEGF(121)b, a new member of the VEGF(xxx)b family of VEGF-A splice isoforms, inhibits neovascularisation and tumour growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennel, E S; Varey, A H R; Churchill, A J; Wheatley, E R; Stewart, L; Mather, S; Bates, D O; Harper, S J

    2009-10-06

    The key mediator of new vessel formation in cancer and other diseases is VEGF-A. VEGF-A exists as alternatively spliced isoforms - the pro-angiogenic VEGF(xxx) family generated by exon 8 proximal splicing, and a sister family, termed VEGF(xxx)b, exemplified by VEGF(165)b, generated by distal splicing of exon 8. However, it is unknown whether this anti-angiogenic property of VEGF(165)b is a general property of the VEGF(xxx)b family of isoforms. The mRNA and protein expression of VEGF(121)b was studied in human tissue. The effect of VEGF(121)b was analysed by saturation binding to VEGF receptors, endothelial migration, apoptosis, xenograft tumour growth, pre-retinal neovascularisation and imaging of biodistribution in tumour-bearing mice with radioactive VEGF(121)b. The existence of VEGF(121)b was confirmed in normal human tissues. VEGF(121)b binds both VEGF receptors with similar affinity as other VEGF isoforms, but inhibits endothelial cell migration and is cytoprotective to endothelial cells through VEGFR-2 activation. Administration of VEGF(121)b normalised retinal vasculature by reducing both angiogenesis and ischaemia. VEGF(121)b reduced the growth of xenografted human colon tumours in association with reduced microvascular density, and an intravenous bolus of VEGF(121)b is taken up into colon tumour xenografts. Here we identify a second member of the family, VEGF(121)b, with similar properties to those of VEGF(165)b, and underline the importance of the six amino acids of exon 8b in the anti-angiogenic activity of the VEGF(xxx)b isoforms.

  5. Sorting on the basis of deformability of single cells in a femtosecond laser fabricated optofluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragheri, F.; Paiè, P.; Yang, T.; Nava, G.; Martınez Vázquez, R.; Di Tano, M.; Veglione, M.; Minzioni, P.; Mondello, C.; Cristiani, I.; Osellame, R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical stretching is a powerful technique for the mechanical phenotyping of single suspended cells that exploits cell deformability as an inherent functional marker. Dual-beam optical trapping and stretching of cells is a recognized tool to investigate their viscoelastic properties. The optical stretcher has the ability to deform cells through optical forces without physical contact or bead attachment. In addition, it is the only method that can be combined with microfluidic delivery, allowing for the serial, high-throughput measurement of the optical deformability and the selective sorting of single specific cells. Femtosecond laser micromachining can fabricate in the same chip both the microfluidic channel and the optical waveguides, producing a monolithic device with a very precise alignment between the components and very low sensitivity to external perturbations. Femtosecond laser irradiation in a fused silica chip followed by chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid has been used to fabricate the microfluidic channels where the cells move by pressure-driven flow. With the same femtosecond laser source two optical waveguides, orthogonal to the microfluidic channel and opposing each other, have been written inside the chip. Here we present an optimized writing process that provides improved wall roughness of the micro-channels allowing high-quality imaging. In addition, we will show results on cell sorting on the basis of mechanical properties in the same device: the different deformability exhibited by metastatic and tumorigenic cells has been exploited to obtain a metastasis-cells enriched sample. The enrichment is verified by exploiting, after cells collection, fluorescence microscopy.

  6. Endosomal sorting complexes required for ESCRTing cells toward death during neurogenesis, neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Zenia; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2018-03-25

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins help in the recognition, sorting and degradation of ubiquitinated cargoes from the cell surface, long-lived proteins or aggregates, and aged organelles present in the cytosol. These proteins take part in the endo-lysosomal system of degradation. The ESCRT proteins also play an integral role in cytokinesis, viral budding and mRNA transport. Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by toxic accumulation of cargo in the cell, which causes stress and ultimately leads to neuronal death. This accumulation of cargo occurs because of defects in the endo-lysosomal degradative pathway-loss of function of ESCRTs has been implicated in this mechanism. ESCRTs also take part in many survival processes, lack of which can culminate in neuronal cell death. While the role played by the ESCRT proteins in maintaining healthy neurons is known, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is still poorly understood. In this review, we highlight the importance of ESCRTs in maintaining healthy neurons and then suggest how perturbations in many of the survival mechanisms governed by these proteins could eventually lead to cell death; quite often these correlations are not so obviously laid out. Extensive neuronal death eventually culminates in neurodegeneration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Raman-Activated Droplet Sorting (RADS) for Label-Free High-Throughput Screening of Microalgal Single-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixian; Ren, Lihui; Su, Yetian; Ji, Yuetong; Liu, Yaoping; Li, Chunyu; Li, Xunrong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2017-11-21

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) has attracted increasing interest, yet throughput remains one major factor limiting its broader application. Here we present an integrated Raman-activated droplet sorting (RADS) microfluidic system for functional screening of live cells in a label-free and high-throughput manner, by employing AXT-synthetic industrial microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis) as a model. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of individual cells is carried out prior to their microdroplet encapsulation, which is then directly coupled to DEP-based droplet sorting. To validate the system, H. pluvialis cells containing different levels of AXT were mixed and underwent RADS. Those AXT-hyperproducing cells were sorted with an accuracy of 98.3%, an enrichment ratio of eight folds, and a throughput of ∼260 cells/min. Of the RADS-sorted cells, 92.7% remained alive and able to proliferate, which is equivalent to the unsorted cells. Thus, the RADS achieves a much higher throughput than existing RACS systems, preserves the vitality of cells, and facilitates seamless coupling with downstream manipulations such as single-cell sequencing and cultivation.

  8. Isolation of intact RNA from murine CD4+ T cells after intracellular cytokine staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Porcelli, Steven A

    2018-05-01

    Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a powerful method for identifying functionally distinct lymphocyte subsets, and for isolating these by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Although transcriptomic analysis of cells sorted on the basis of ICS has many potential applications, this is rarely performed because of the difficulty in isolating intact RNA from cells processed using standard fixation and permeabilization buffers for ICS. To address this issue, we compared three buffers shown previously to preserve RNA in nonhematopoietic cells subjected to intracellular staining for their effects on RNA isolated from T lymphocytes processed for ICS. Our results showed that buffers containing the recombinant ribonuclease inhibitor RNasin or high molar concentrations of salt yielded intact RNA from fixed and permeabilized T cells. As proof of principle, we successfully used the buffer containing RNasin to isolate intact RNA from CD4 + T cells that were sorted by FACS on the basis of specific cytokine production, thus demonstrating the potential of this approach for coupling ICS with transcriptomic analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by suppressing miR-624-3p in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling; Chou, Wen-Yi; Lin, Ting-Yi; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Yang, Chen-Yu; Liu, Shih-Chia; Hsieh, Chia-Chu; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Po-Chuan; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-08-03

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignancy of bone, and one of the most difficult bone tumors to diagnose and treat. It is well known that increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) promote active tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote metastasis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Knowing more about the mechanism of BDNF in VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma would improve our understanding as how to prevent chondrosarcoma angiogenesis and metastasis, which currently lacks effective adjuvant treatment. Here, we found that BDNF expression was at least 2.5-fold higher in the highly migratory JJ012(S10) cell line as compared with the primordial cell line (JJ012). In addition, VEGF-C expression and secretion was markedly increased in JJ012(S10) cells. Conditioned medium from JJ012(S10) cells significantly promoted migration and tube formation of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), whereas knockdown of BDNF attenuated LEC migration and tube formation by suppressing VEGF-C production in JJ012(S10) cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that BDNF facilitated VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis through the MEK/ERK/mTOR signaling pathway. We also showed that microRNA (miR)-624-3p expression was negatively regulated by BDNF via the MEK/ERK/mTOR cascade. Importantly, BDNF knockdown profoundly inhibited tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Further analyses identified that BDNF promoted tumor lymphangiogenesis by downregulating miR-624-3p in human chondrosarcoma tissues. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal the mechanism underlying BDNF-induced lymphangiogenesis. We suggest that BDNF may serve as a promising therapeutic target for the restriction of VEGF-C-mediated tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV:EC 3.4.14.5) was localized in endocrine cells of pig pancreas by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. Immunolight microscopy with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies demonstrated DP IV immunoreactivity in cells located in the peripheral part...... of the islets of Langerhans. The antigen is enzymatically active, as shown by enzyme histochemical analysis with a synthetic DP IV substrate. By immunoelectron microscopy (immunogold labeling), the labeling of DP IV in the islets was associated with the secretory granules of the A-cells, as identified by double...... labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  12. Digital sorting of complex tissues for cell type-specific gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Pang, Kaifang; Chow, Lionel M L; Liu, Zhandong

    2013-03-07

    Cellular heterogeneity is present in almost all gene expression profiles. However, transcriptome analysis of tissue specimens often ignores the cellular heterogeneity present in these samples. Standard deconvolution algorithms require prior knowledge of the cell type frequencies within a tissue or their in vitro expression profiles. Furthermore, these algorithms tend to report biased estimations. Here, we describe a Digital Sorting Algorithm (DSA) for extracting cell-type specific gene expression profiles from mixed tissue samples that is unbiased and does not require prior knowledge of cell type frequencies. The results suggest that DSA is a specific and sensitivity algorithm in gene expression profile deconvolution and will be useful in studying individual cell types of complex tissues.

  13. Radiation Response of Cancer Stem-Like Cells From Established Human Cell Lines After Sorting for Surface Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assar, Osama; Muschel, Ruth J.; Mantoni, Tine S.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) is hypothesized to exist in different cancer cell lines and to mediate radioresistance in solid tumors. Methods and Materials: Cells were stained for CSLC markers and sorted (fluorescence-activated cell sorter/magnetic beads) to compare foci and radiosensitivity of phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser 139 (γ-H2AX) in sorted vs. unsorted populations in eight cell lines from different organs. CSLC properties were examined using anchorage-independent growth and levels of activated Notch1. Validation consisted of testing tumorigenicity and postirradiation enrichment of CSLC in xenograft tumors. Results: The quantity of CSLC was generally in good agreement with primary tumors. CSLC from MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Panc-1 and PSN-1 (both pancreatic) cells had fewer residual γ-H2AX foci than unsorted cells, pointing to radioresistance of CSLC. However, only MDA-MB-231 CSLC were more radioresistant than unsorted cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 CSLC showed enhanced anchorage-independent growth and overexpression of activated Notch1 protein. The expression of cancer stem cell surface markers in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was increased after exposure to fractionated radiation. In contrast to PSN-1 cells, a growth advantage for MDA-MB-231 CSLC xenograft tumors was found compared to tumors arising from unsorted cells. Conclusions: CSLC subpopulations showed no general radioresistant phenotype, despite the quantities of CSLC subpopulations shown to correspond relatively well in other reports. Likewise, CSLC characteristics were found in some but not all of the tested cell lines. The reported problems in testing for CSLC in cell lines may be overcome by additional techniques, beyond sorting for markers.

  14. Ablation of cholesterol biosynthesis in neural stem cells increases their VEGF expression and angiogenesis but causes neuron apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kanako; Dubreuil, Veronique; Arai, Yoko; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Schwudke, Dominik; Saher, Gesine; Miyata, Takaki; Breier, Georg; Thiele, Christoph; Shevchenko, Andrej; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Huttner, Wieland B

    2009-05-19

    Although sufficient cholesterol supply is known to be crucial for neurons in the developing mammalian brain, the cholesterol requirement of neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic central nervous system has not been addressed. Here we have conditionally ablated the activity of squalene synthase (SQS), a key enzyme for endogenous cholesterol production, in the neural stem and progenitor cells of the ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic mouse brain. Mutant embryos exhibited a reduced brain size due to the atrophy of the neuronal layers, and died at birth. Analyses of the E11.5-E15.5 dorsal telencephalon and diencephalon revealed that this atrophy was due to massive apoptosis of newborn neurons, implying that this progeny of the SQS-ablated neural stem and progenitor cells was dependent on endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis for survival. Interestingly, the neural stem and progenitor cells of the VZ, the primary target of SQS inactivation, did not undergo significant apoptosis. Instead, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in these cells was strongly upregulated via a hypoxia-inducible factor-1-independent pathway, and angiogenesis in the VZ was increased. Consistent with an increased supply of lipoproteins to these cells, the level of lipid droplets containing triacylglycerides with unsaturated fatty acyl chains was found to be elevated. Our study establishes a direct link between intracellular cholesterol levels, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data reveal a hitherto unknown compensatory process by which the neural stem and progenitor cells of the developing mammalian brain evade the detrimental consequences of impaired endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis.

  15. Celecoxib Down-Regulates the Hypoxia-Induced Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF Through the PI3K/AKT Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The goal of this study was to detect the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions and to explore the signaling mechanism involved in regulating the hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in RPE cells. Methods: D407 cells were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions, with or without celecoxib or a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib was assessed using the MTT assay. RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA were performed to detect the levels of PI3K, phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT, HIF-1α, VEGF and COX-2. Results: Celecoxib inhibited the proliferation of RPE cells in a dose-dependent manner. Celecoxib suppressed the expression of VEGF at both the mRNA and protein levels and decreased HIF-1α protein expression. HIF-1α activation was regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. The celecoxib-induced down-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF required the suppression of the hypoxia-induced PI3K/AKT pathway. However, the down-regulation of COX-2 did not occur in cells treated with celecoxib. Conclusions: The antiangiogenic effects of celecoxib in RPE cells under hypoxic conditions resulted from the inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF expression, which may be partly mediated by a COX-2-independent, PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway.

  16. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

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    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  17. Culture of somatic cells isolated from frozen-thawed equine semen using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom-de-Luna, Joao Gatto; Canesin, Heloísa Siqueira; Wright, Gus; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear transfer using somatic cells from frozen semen (FzSC) would allow cloning of animals for which no other genetic material is available. Horses are one of the few species for which cloning is commercially feasible; despite this, there is no information available on the culture of equine FzSC. After preliminary trials on equine FzSC, recovered by density-gradient centrifugation, resulted in no growth, we hypothesized that sperm in the culture system negatively affected cell proliferation. Therefore, we evaluated culture of FzSC isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. In Exp. 1, sperm were labeled using antibodies to a sperm-specific antigen, SP17, and unlabeled cells were collected. This resulted in high sperm contamination. In Exp. 2, FzSC were labeled using an anti-MHC class I antibody. This resulted in an essentially pure population of FzSC, 13-25% of which were nucleated. Culture yielded no proliferation in any of nine replicates. In Exp. 3, 5 × 10 3 viable fresh, cultured horse fibroblasts were added to the frozen-thawed, washed semen, then this suspension was labeled and sorted as for Exp. 2. The enriched population had a mean of five sperm per recovered somatic cell; culture yielded formation of monolayers. In conclusion, an essentially pure population of equine FzSC could be obtained using sorting for presence of MHC class I antigens. No equine FzSC grew in culture; however, the proliferation of fibroblasts subjected to the same processing demonstrated that the labeling and sorting methods, and the presence of few sperm in culture, were compatible with cell viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  19. VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate mesenchymal stem cell commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Sawada, Shunsuke; Kondo, Hisatomo; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The direction of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is regulated by stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines. We recently established MSC lines, [transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-responsive SG‑2 cells, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive SG‑3 cells, and TGF-β/BMP-non-responsive SG‑5 cells], derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice. In this study, to compare gene expression profiles in these MSC lines, we used DNA microarray analysis to characterize the specific gene expression profiles observed in the TGF-β-responsive SG‑2 cells. Among the genes that were highly expressed in the SG‑2 cells, we focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 3 (VEGFR3), the gene product of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt4). We found that VEGF-C, a specific ligand of VEGFR3, significantly induced the cell proliferative activity, migratory ability (as shown by Transwell migration assay), as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the SG‑2 cells. Additionally, VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), which are lymphatic endothelial cell markers, and decreased the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in these cells. By contrast, TGF-β significantly increased the expression of early-phase osteogenic differentiation marker genes in the SG‑2 cells and markedly decreased the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers. The findings of our study strongly suggest the following: i) that VEGF-C promotes the proliferative activity and migratory ability of MSCs; and ii) VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate MSC commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes, respectively. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative ability of MSCs.

  20. Flow cytometric sex sorting affects CD4 membrane distribution and binding of exogenous DNA on bovine sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, William Borges; da Silveira, Tony Leandro Rezende; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Remião, Mariana Härter; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Corcini, Carine Dahl; Varela Junior, Antônio Sergio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago; Campos, Vinicius Farias

    2017-08-01

    Bovine sex-sorted sperm have been commercialized and successfully used for the production of transgenic embryos of the desired sex through the sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) technique. However, sex-sorted sperm show a reduced ability to internalize exogenous DNA. The interaction between sperm cells and the exogenous DNA has been reported in other species to be a CD4-like molecule-dependent process. The flow cytometry-based sex-sorting process subjects the spermatozoa to different stresses causing changes in the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the redistribution of CD4-like molecules and binding of exogenous DNA to sex-sorted bovine sperm. In the first set of experiments, the membrane phospholipid disorder and the redistribution of the CD4 were evaluated. The second set of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of CD4 redistribution on the mechanism of binding of exogenous DNA to sperm cells and the efficiency of lipofection in sex-sorted bovine sperm. Sex-sorting procedure increased the membrane phospholipid disorder and induced the redistribution of CD4-like molecules. Both X-sorted and Y-sorted sperm had decreased DNA bound to membrane in comparison with the unsorted sperm; however, the binding of the exogenous DNA was significantly increased with the addition of liposomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that the number of sperm-bound exogenous DNA was decreased when these cells were preincubated with anti-bovine CD4 monoclonal antibody, supporting our hypothesis that CD4-like molecules indeed play a crucial role in the process of exogenous DNA/bovine sperm cells interaction.

  1. N-Glycosylation instead of cholesterol mediates oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjeti, Naga Salaija; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Paladino, Simona; de la Fuente, Erwin; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2011-12-01

    Sorting of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol--anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in polarized epithelial cells is not fully understood. Oligomerization in the Golgi complex has emerged as the crucial event driving apical segregation of GPI-APs in two different kind of epithelial cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells, but whether the mechanism is conserved is unknown. In MDCK cells cholesterol promotes GPI-AP oligomerization, as well as apical sorting of GPI-APs. Here we show that FRT cells lack this cholesterol-driven oligomerization as apical sorting mechanism. In these cells both apical and basolateral GPI-APs display restricted diffusion in the Golgi likely due to a cholesterol-enriched membrane environment. It is striking that N-glycosylation is the critical event for oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells but not in MDCK cells. Our data indicate that at least two mechanisms exist to determine oligomerization in the Golgi leading to apical sorting of GPI-APs. One depends on cholesterol, and the other depends on N-glycosylation and is insensitive to cholesterol addition or depletion.

  2. Myeloid cells expressing VEGF and arginase-1 following uptake of damaged retinal pigment epithelium suggests potential mechanism that drives the onset of choroidal angiogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available Whilst data recognise both myeloid cell accumulation during choroidal neovascularisation (CNV as well as complement activation, none of the data has presented a clear explanation for the angiogenic drive that promotes pathological angiogenesis. One possibility that is a pre-eminent drive is a specific and early conditioning and activation of the myeloid cell infiltrate. Using a laser-induced CNV murine model, we have identified that disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and Bruch's membrane resulted in an early recruitment of macrophages derived from monocytes and microglia, prior to angiogenesis and contemporaneous with lesional complement activation. Early recruited CD11b(+ cells expressed a definitive gene signature of selective inflammatory mediators particularly a pronounced Arg-1 expression. Accumulating macrophages from retina and peripheral blood were activated at the site of injury, displaying enhanced VEGF expression, and notably prior to exaggerated VEGF expression from RPE, or earliest stages of angiogenesis. All of these initial events, including distinct VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ myeloid cells, subsided when CNV was established and at the time RPE-VEGF expression was maximal. Depletion of inflammatory CCR2-positive monocytes confirmed origin of infiltrating monocyte Arg-1 expression, as following depletion Arg-1 signal was lost and CNV suppressed. Furthermore, our in vitro data supported a myeloid cell uptake of damaged RPE or its derivatives as a mechanism generating VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ phenotype in vivo. Our results reveal a potential early driver initiating angiogenesis via myeloid-derived VEGF drive following uptake of damaged RPE and deliver an explanation of why CNV develops during any of the stages of macular degeneration and can be explored further for therapeutic gain.

  3. Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digoxin, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, has been used in the treatment of heart-related diseases (such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmia for decades. Recently, it was reported that digoxin is also an effective HIF-1α inhibitor. We investigated whether digoxin could suppress tumor cell growth through HIF-1α in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α. HIF-1α nuclear translocation was then determined by EMSA. Digoxin was found to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia led to the upregulation of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α both at the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that the hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α was suppressed by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, our EMSA results demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions HIF-1α nuclear translocation was also markedly reduced by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that digoxin downregulated hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF and NDRG1 at the transcriptional level probably through the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis in A549 cells.

  4. Isolation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors by Cell Sorting for Successful Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN+ cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN+ cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN+ cells in a NURR1+ cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application.

  5. Albendazole inhibits endothelial cell migration, tube formation, vasopermeability, VEGF receptor-2 expression and suppresses retinal neovascularization in ROP model of angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourgholami, Mohammad H., E-mail: mh.pourgholami@unsw.edu.au [University of New South Wales, Department of Surgery, St George Hospital (SESIAHS), Sydney (Australia); Khachigian, Levon M.; Fahmy, Roger G. [Centre for Vascular Research, The University of New South Wales, Department of Haematology, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Badar, Samina; Wang, Lisa; Chu, Stephanie Wai Ling; Morris, David Lawson [University of New South Wales, Department of Surgery, St George Hospital (SESIAHS), Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-09

    The angiogenic process begins with the cell proliferation and migration into the primary vascular network, and leads to vascularization of previously avascular tissues and organs as well to growth and remodeling of the initially homogeneous capillary plexus to form a new microcirculation. Additionally, an increase in microvascular permeability is a crucial step in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. We have previously reported that albendazole suppresses VEGF levels and inhibits malignant ascites formation, suggesting a possible effect on angiogenesis. This study was therefore designed to investigate the antiangiogenic effect of albendazole in non-cancerous models of angiogenesis. In vitro, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with albendazole led to inhibition of tube formation, migration, permeability and down-regulation of the VEGF type 2 receptor (VEGFR-2). In vivo albendazole profoundly inhibited hyperoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis in mice. These results provide new insights into the antiangiogenic effects of albendazole.

  6. Albendazole inhibits endothelial cell migration, tube formation, vasopermeability, VEGF receptor-2 expression and suppresses retinal neovascularization in ROP model of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourgholami, Mohammad H.; Khachigian, Levon M.; Fahmy, Roger G.; Badar, Samina; Wang, Lisa; Chu, Stephanie Wai Ling; Morris, David Lawson

    2010-01-01

    The angiogenic process begins with the cell proliferation and migration into the primary vascular network, and leads to vascularization of previously avascular tissues and organs as well to growth and remodeling of the initially homogeneous capillary plexus to form a new microcirculation. Additionally, an increase in microvascular permeability is a crucial step in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. We have previously reported that albendazole suppresses VEGF levels and inhibits malignant ascites formation, suggesting a possible effect on angiogenesis. This study was therefore designed to investigate the antiangiogenic effect of albendazole in non-cancerous models of angiogenesis. In vitro, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with albendazole led to inhibition of tube formation, migration, permeability and down-regulation of the VEGF type 2 receptor (VEGFR-2). In vivo albendazole profoundly inhibited hyperoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis in mice. These results provide new insights into the antiangiogenic effects of albendazole.

  7. Approaches for cytogenetic and molecular analyses of small flow-sorted cell populations from childhood leukemia bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obro, Nina Friesgaard; Madsen, Hans O.; Ryder, Lars Peter

    2011-01-01

    defined cell populations with subsequent analyses of leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular marker. The approaches described here optimize the use of the same tube of unfixed, antibody-stained BM cells for flow-sorting of small cell populations and subsequent exploratory FISH and PCR-based analyses....

  8. Lack of Obvious Influence of PLLA Nanofibers on the Gene Expression of BMP-2 and VEGF during Growth and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Schofer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play an important role in bone remodeling and fracture repair. Therefore, with respect to tissue engineering, an artificial graft should have no negative impact on the expression of these factors. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA nanofibers on VEGF and BMP-2 gene expression during the time course of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC differentiation towards osteoblasts. PLLA matrices were seeded with hMSCs and cultivated over a period of 22 days under growth and osteoinductive conditions, and analyzed during the course of culture, with respect to gene expression of VEGF and BMP-2. Furthermore, BMP-2–enwoven PLLA nanofibers were used in order to elucidate whether initial down-regulation of growth factor expression could be compensated. Although there was a great interpatient variability with respect to the expression of VEGF and BMP-2, PLLA nanofibers tend to result in a down-regulation in BMP-2 expression during the early phase of cultivation. This effect was diminished in the case of VEGF gene expression. The initial down-regulation was overcome when BMP-2 was directly incorporated into the PLLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Furthermore, the incorporation of BMP-2 into the PLLA nanofibers resulted in an increase in VEGF gene expression. Summarized, the results indicate that the PLLA nanofibers have little effect on growth factor production. An enhancement in gene expression of BMP-2 and VEGF can be achieved by an incorporation of BMP-2 into the PLLA nanofibers.

  9. Lack of Obvious Influence of PLLA Nanofibers on the Gene Expression of BMP-2 and VEGF during Growth and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofer, Markus D.; Fuchs-Winkelmann, S.; Wack, C.; Rudisile, M.; Dersch, R.; Leifeld, I.; Wendorff, J.; Greiner, A.; Paletta, J. R. J.; Boudriot, U.

    2009-01-01

    Growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in bone remodeling and fracture repair. Therefore, with respect to tissue engineering, an artificial graft should have no negative impact on the expression of these factors. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers on VEGF and BMP-2 gene expression during the time course of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation towards osteoblasts. PLLA matrices were seeded with hMSCs and cultivated over a period of 22 days under growth and osteoinductive conditions, and analyzed during the course of culture, with respect to gene expression of VEGF and BMP-2. Furthermore, BMP-2–enwoven PLLA nanofibers were used in order to elucidate whether initial down-regulation of growth factor expression could be compensated. Although there was a great interpatient variability with respect to the expression of VEGF and BMP-2, PLLA nanofibers tend to result in a down-regulation in BMP-2 expression during the early phase of cultivation. This effect was diminished in the case of VEGF gene expression. The initial down-regulation was overcome when BMP-2 was directly incorporated into the PLLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Furthermore, the incorporation of BMP-2 into the PLLA nanofibers resulted in an increase in VEGF gene expression. Summarized, the results indicate that the PLLA nanofibers have little effect on growth factor production. An enhancement in gene expression of BMP-2 and VEGF can be achieved by an incorporation of BMP-2 into the PLLA nanofibers. PMID:19412560

  10. Rapid isolation of antibody from a synthetic human antibody library by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Sun Yim

    Full Text Available Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show K(D values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼ 10(6. These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required.

  11. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

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    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  12. Passive circulating cell sorting by deformability using a microfluidic gradual filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preira, P; Grandné, V; Forel, J-M; Gabriele, S; Camara, M; Theodoly, O

    2013-01-07

    The deformability of circulating leukocytes plays an important role in the physiopathology of several diseases like sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We present here a microfluidic method for the passive testing, sorting and separating of non-adherent cell populations by deformability. It consists of microfluidic sieves in series with pore sizes decreasing from the upstream to the downstream. The method capabilities are demonstrated with monocytic cell lines (THP-1) treated by Jasplakinolide (a stabilizer of polymerized actin), LatrunculinA (an inhibitor of actin polymerization), and with the plasma of patients suffering from ARDS. Simple sample injection with standard syringes and pumps makes the method readily adapted for experimentation in hospitals.

  13. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  14. Mitotic and antiapoptotic effects of nanoparticles coencapsulating human VEGF and human angiopoietin-1 on vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan AA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Afshan Afsar Khan, Arghya Paul, Sana Abbasi, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Medicine, McGill University Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Research towards the application of nanoparticles as carrier vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents is increasingly gaining importance. The angiogenic growth factors, human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and human angiopoietin-1 are known to prevent vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and in fact to stimulate human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC proliferation. This paper aims to study the combined effect of these bioactive proteins coencapsulated in human serum albumin nanoparticles on HUVECs and to evaluate the potential application of this delivery system towards therapeutic angiogenesis.Methods and results: The angiogenic proteins, human VEGF and human angiopoietin-1, were coencapsulated in albumin nanoparticles for better controlled delivery of the proteins. The application of a nanoparticle system enabled efficient and extended-release kinetics of the proteins. The size of the nanoparticles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde was 101.0 ± 0.9 nm and the zeta potential was found to be -18 ± 2.9 mV. An optimal concentration of glutaraldehyde for the nanoparticle coating process was determined, and this provided stable and less toxic nanoparticles as protein carriers. The results of the study indicate that nanoparticles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde produced nanoparticles with tolerable toxicity which provided efficient and controlled release of the coencapsulated proteins. The nanoparticles were incubated for two weeks to determine the release profiles of the proteins. At the end of the two-week incubation period, it was observed that 49% ± 1.3% of human angiopoietin-1 and 59% ± 2.1% of human VEGF had been released from the nanoparticles. The proliferation and percent apoptosis of the HUVECs in

  15. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-β1 from prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Gwenaelle; Harvey, Kevin; Slivova, Veronika; Jiang Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used as a home remedy for the general promotion of health and longevity in East Asia. The dried powder of G. lucidum, which was recommended as a cancer chemotherapy agent in traditional Chinese medicine, is currently popularly used worldwide in the form of dietary supplements. We have previously demonstrated that G. lucidum induces apoptosis, inhibits cell proliferation, and suppresses cell migration of highly invasive human prostate cancer cells PC-3. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on the prostate cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of G. lucidum on angiogenesis related to prostate cancer. We found that G. lucidum inhibits the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells. These effects are caused by the inhibition of constitutively active AP-1 in prostate cancer cells, resulting in the down-regulation of secretion of VEGF and TGF-β1 from PC-3 cells. Thus, G. lucidum modulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt kinases in PC-3 cells, which in turn inhibits the activity of AP-1. In summary, our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer

  16. Adiponectin promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-27b through a CaMKII/AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Chang, An-Chen; Chen, Hsien-Te; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yuan-Shun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-09-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy characterized by distant metastatic propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the major lymphangiogenic factor, and makes crucial contributions to tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes. In recent years, adiponectin has also been indicated as facilitating tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the effect of adiponectin on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma has remained largely a mystery. In the present study, we have shown a clinical correlation between adiponectin and VEGF-C, as well as tumour stage, in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that adiponectin promoted VEGF-C expression and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium from adiponectin-treated cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells. In addition, adiponectin knock down inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo We also found that adiponectin-induced VEGF-C is mediated by the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of miR-27b was negatively regulated by adiponectin via the CaMKII, AMPK and p38 cascade. The present study is the first to describe the mechanism of adiponectin-promoted lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcomas. Thus, adiponectin could serve as a therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis and lymphangiogenesis. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Pregnancy Augments VEGF-Stimulated In Vitro Angiogenesis and Vasodilator (NO and H2S) Production in Human Uterine Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Chen, Jennifer C; Sheibani, Lili; Lechuga, Thomas J; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2017-07-01

    Augmented uterine artery (UA) production of vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has been implicated in pregnancy-associated and agonist-stimulated rise in uterine blood flow that is rate-limiting to pregnancy health. Developing a human UA endothelial cell (hUAEC) culture model from main UAs of nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (P) women for testing a hypothesis that pregnancy augments endothelial NO and H2S production and endothelial reactivity to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Main UAs from NP and P women were used for developing hUAEC culture models. Comparisons were made between NP- and P-hUAECs in in vitro angiogenesis, activation of cell signaling, expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and NO/H2S production upon VEGF stimulation. NP- and P-hUAECs displayed a typical cobblestone-like shape in culture and acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake, stained positively for endothelial and negatively for smooth muscle markers, maintained key signaling proteins during passage, and had statistically significant greater eNOS and CBS proteins in P- vs NP-hUAECs. Treatment with VEGF stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and eNOS protein and NO production only in P-hUEACs and more robust cell signaling in P- vs NP-hUAECs. VEGF stimulated CBS protein expression, accounting for VEGF-stimulated H2S production in hUAECs. Comparisons between NP- and P-hUAECs reveal that pregnancy augments VEGF-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and NO/H2S production in hUAECs, showing that the newly established hUAEC model provides a critical in vitro tool for understanding human uterine hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Gremlin promotes retinal pigmentation epithelial (RPE) cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production via activating VEGFR2-Akt-mTORC2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Zhijun; Cheng, Haixia; Chen, Juan; Qian, Jing

    2017-01-03

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is characterized by late-phase pathologic retinal vasoproliferation. Gremlin is a novel vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) agonist and promotes angiogenic response. We demonstrated that gremlin expression was significantly increased in retinas of ROP model mice, which was correlated with VEGF upregulation. In retinal pigmentation epithelial (RPE) cells, gremlin activated VEGFR2-Akt-mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) signaling, and promoted cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production. VEGFR inhibition (by SU5416) or shRNA knockdown almost abolished gremlin-mediated pleiotropic functions in RPE cells. Further, pharmacological inhibition of Akt-mTOR, or shRNA knockdown of key mTORC2 component (Rictor or Sin1) also attenuated gremlin-exerted activities in RPE cells. We conclude that gremlin promotes RPE cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production possibly via activating VEGFR2-Akt-mTORC2 signaling. Gremlin could be a novel therapeutic target of ROP or other retinal vasoproliferation diseases.

  19. Polyetherimide-grafted Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles as theranostic agents for simultaneous VEGF siRNA delivery and magnetic resonance cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tingting Li,1 Xue Shen,1 Yin Chen,1 Chengchen Zhang,1 Jie Yan,1 Hong Yang,1 Chunhui Wu,1,2 Hongjun Zeng,1,2 Yiyao Liu1,21Department of Biophysics, School of Life Science and Technology, 2Center for Information in Biomedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Engineering a safe and high-efficiency delivery system for efficient RNA interference is critical for successful gene therapy. In this study, we designed a novel nanocarrier system of polyethyleneimine (PEI-modified Fe3O4@SiO2, which allows high efficient loading of VEGF small hairpin (shRNA to form Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites for VEGF gene silencing as well as magnetic resonance (MR imaging. The size, morphology, particle stability, magnetic properties, and gene-binding capacity and protection were determined. Low cytotoxicity and hemolyticity against human red blood cells showed the excellent biocompatibility of the multifunctional nanocomposites, and also no significant coagulation was observed. The nanocomposites maintain their superparamagnetic property at room temperature and no appreciable change in magnetism, even after PEI modification. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular internalization into MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by Prussian blue staining and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis, respectively, demonstrated that the Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites could be easily internalized by MCF-7 cells, and they exhibited significant inhibition of VEGF gene expression. Furthermore, the MR cellular images showed that the superparamagnetic iron oxide core of our Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites could also act as a T2-weighted contrast agent for cancer MR imaging. Our data highlight multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites as a potential platform for simultaneous gene delivery and MR cell imaging, which are promising

  20. Discontinuing VEGF-targeted Therapy for Progression Versus Toxicity Affects Outcomes of Second-line Therapies in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Velasco, Guillermo; Xie, Wanling; Donskov, Frede

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A significant subgroup of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients discontinue vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapies (VEGF-TT) because of toxicity. Whether clinical outcomes differ in patients who receive second-line (2L) targeted therapy on the basis of reason ...

  1. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis vacuolar sorting receptor 3 reveals a putative function in guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Emily L; Brown, Michelle; Pan, Songqin; Desikan, Radhika; Neill, Steven J; Girke, Thomas; Surpin, Marci; Raikhel, Natasha V

    2008-01-01

    Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) are responsible for the proper targeting of soluble cargo proteins to their destination compartments. The Arabidopsis genome encodes seven VSRs. In this work, the spatio-temporal expression of one of the members of this gene family, AtVSR3, was determined by RT-PCR and promoter::reporter gene fusions. AtVSR3 was expressed specifically in guard cells. Consequently, a reverse genetics approach was taken to determine the function of AtVSR3 by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Plants expressing little or no AtVSR3 transcript had a compressed life cycle, bolting approximately 1 week earlier and senescing up to 2 weeks earlier than the wild-type parent line. While the development and distribution of stomata in AtVSR3 RNAi plants appeared normal, stomatal function was altered. The guard cells of mutant plants did not close in response to abscisic acid treatment, and the mean leaf temperatures of the RNAi plants were on average 0.8 degrees C lower than both wild type and another vacuolar sorting receptor mutant, atvsr1-1. Furthermore, the loss of AtVSR3 protein caused the accumulation of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide, signalling molecules implicated in the regulation of stomatal opening and closing. Finally, proteomics and western blot analyses of cellular proteins isolated from wild-type and AtVSR3 RNAi leaves showed that phospholipase Dgamma, which may play a role in abscisic acid signalling, accumulated to higher levels in AtVSR3 RNAi guard cells. Thus, AtVSR3 may play an important role in responses to plant stress.

  2. Combining magnetic sorting of mother cells and fluctuation tests to analyze genome instability during mitotic cell aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Melissa N; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2014-10-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  3. Pristimerin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Targeting PC-3 Stem Cell Characteristics and VEGF-Induced Vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most common malignant cancers and a major leading cause of cancer deaths in men. Cancer stem-like cells are shown to be highly tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and can significantly contribute to tumor new vessel formation and bone marrow derived-EPCs (BM-EPCs are shown to recruit to the angiogenic switch in tumor growth and metastatic progression, suggesting the importance of targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs and EPCs for novel tumor therapies. Pristimerin, an active component isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects in some cell lines in previous studies. However, the effect and mechanism of Pristimerin on CSCs and EPCs in PCa bone metastasis are not well studied. Methods: The effect of Pristimerin on PC-3 stem cell characteristics and metastasis were detected by spheroid formation, CD133 and CD44 protein expression, matrix-gel invasive assay and colony-formation assay in vitro, VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression by ELISA assay, and tumor tumorigenicity by X-ray and MR in NOD-SCID mice model in vivo. In addition, we also detected the effect of Pristimerin on VEGF-induced vasculogenesis and protein expression of BM-EPCs. Results: Pristimerin could significantly inhibit spheroid formation and protein expression of CD133 and CD44, reduce VEGF and pro-inflammation cytokines expression of PC-3 cell, and prevent the xenografted PC-3 tumor growth in the bone of nude mice. The present data also showed that Pristimerin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs by suppressing the EPCs functions including proliferation, adhesion, migration, tube formation and inactivation the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, Akt and eNOS. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that Pristimerin has strong potential for development as a novel agent against prostate bone metastasis by suppressing PC-3 stem cell characteristics and VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs.

  4. Mean-cluster approach indicates cell sorting time scales are determined by collective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrici, Carine P.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-03-01

    Cell migration is essential to cell segregation, playing a central role in tissue formation, wound healing, and tumor evolution. Considering random mixtures of two cell types, it is still not clear which cell characteristics define clustering time scales. The mass of diffusing clusters merging with one another is expected to grow as td /d +2 when the diffusion constant scales with the inverse of the cluster mass. Cell segregation experiments deviate from that behavior. Explanations for that could arise from specific microscopic mechanisms or from collective effects, typical of active matter. Here we consider a power law connecting diffusion constant and cluster mass to propose an analytic approach to model cell segregation where we explicitly take into account finite-size corrections. The results are compared with active matter model simulations and experiments available in the literature. To investigate the role played by different mechanisms we considered different hypotheses describing cell-cell interaction: differential adhesion hypothesis and different velocities hypothesis. We find that the simulations yield normal diffusion for long time intervals. Analytic and simulation results show that (i) cluster evolution clearly tends to a scaling regime, disrupted only at finite-size limits; (ii) cluster diffusion is greatly enhanced by cell collective behavior, such that for high enough tendency to follow the neighbors, cluster diffusion may become independent of cluster size; (iii) the scaling exponent for cluster growth depends only on the mass-diffusion relation, not on the detailed local segregation mechanism. These results apply for active matter systems in general and, in particular, the mechanisms found underlying the increase in cell sorting speed certainly have deep implications in biological evolution as a selection mechanism.

  5. Comprehensive Study of Microgel Electrode for On-Chip Electrophoretic Cell Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    We have developed an on-chip cell sorting system and microgel electrode for applying electrostatic force in microfluidic pathways in the chip. The advantages of agarose electrodes are 1) current-driven electrostatic force generation, 2) stability against pH change and chemicals, and 3) no bubble formation caused by electrolysis. We examined the carrier ion type and concentration dependence of microgel electrode impedance, and found that CoCl2 has less than 1/10 of the impedance from NaCl, and the reduction of the impedance of NaCl gel electrode was plateaued at 0.5 M. The structure control of the microgel electrode exploiting the surface tension of sol-state agarose was also introduced. The addition of 1% (w/v) trehalose into the microgel electrode allowed the frozen storage of the microgel electrode chip. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of our system and microgel electrode for practical applications in microfluidic chips.

  6. Bone Marrow Regeneration Promoted by Biophysically Sorted Osteoprogenitors From Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Zhiyong; Lee, Wong Cheng; Guan, Guofeng; Nyan, Lin Myint; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue repair deficiencies can be supplemented through strategies to isolate, expand in vitro, and reimplant regenerative cells that supplant damaged cells or stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a subset of which is described as mesenchymal stem cells, are leading candidates for cell-mediated bone repair and wound healing, with hundreds of ongoing clinical trials worldwide. An outstanding key challenge for successful clinical translation of MSCs is the capacity to produce large quantities of cells in vitro with uniform and relevant therapeutic properties. By leveraging biophysical traits of MSC subpopulations and label-free microfluidic cell sorting, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that MSCs of large diameter within expanded MSC cultures were osteoprogenitors that exhibited significantly greater efficacy over other MSC subpopulations in bone marrow repair. Systemic administration of osteoprogenitor MSCs significantly improved survival rates (>80%) as compared with other MSC subpopulations (0%) for preclinical murine bone marrow injury models. Osteoprogenitor MSCs also exerted potent therapeutic effects as “cell factories” that secreted high levels of regenerative factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenetic protein 2, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, and angiopoietin-1; this resulted in increased cell proliferation, vessel formation, and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow. This MSC subpopulation mediated rescue of damaged marrow tissue via restoration of the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, as well as subsequent hematopoiesis. Together, the capabilities described herein for label-freeisolation of regenerative osteoprogenitor MSCs can markedly improve the efficacy of MSC-based therapies. PMID:25411477

  7. TNF-α decreases VEGF secretion in highly polarized RPE cells but increases it in non-polarized RPE cells related to crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Terasaki

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in situ is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of the retina and choroid. VEGF is also involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We studied the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α on the secretion of VEGF in polarized and non-polarized RPE cells (P-RPE cells and N-RPE cells, respectively in culture and in situ in rats. A subretinal injection of TNF-α caused a decrease in VEGF expression and choroidal atrophy. Porcine RPE cells were seeded on Transwell™ filters, and their maturation and polarization were confirmed by the asymmetrical VEGF secretion and trans electrical resistance. Exposure to TNF-α decreased the VEGF secretion in P-RPE cells but increased it in N-RPE cells in culture. TNF-α inactivated JNK in P-RPE cells but activated it in N-RPE cells, and TNF-α activated NF-κB in P-RPE cells but not in N-RPE cells. Inhibition of NF-κB activated JNK in both types of RPE cells indicating crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB. TNF-α induced the inhibitory effects of NF-κB on JNK in P-RPE cells because NF-κB is continuously inactivated. In N-RPE cells, however, it was not evident because NF-κB was already activated. The basic activation pattern of JNK and NF-κB and their crosstalk led to opposing responses of RPE cells to TNF-α. These results suggest that VEGF secretion under inflammatory conditions depends on cellular polarization, and the TNF-α-induced VEGF down-regulation may result in choroidal atrophy in polarized physiological RPE cells. TNF-α-induced VEGF up-regulation may cause neovascularization by non-polarized or non-physiological RPE cells.

  8. Evaluation of RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured on amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khalooghi, Keynoush; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Kanavi, Mojgan Rezaie; Samiei, Shahram; Pakravesh, Jalil

    2011-06-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the maintenance of the normal functions of the retina. Tissue engineering using amniotic membrane as a substrate to culture RPE cells may provide a promising new strategy to replace damaged RPE. We established a method of culturing RPE cells over the amniotic membrane as a support for their growth and transplantation. The transcription of specific genes involved in cellular function of native RPE, including RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase, were then measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed a considerable increase in transcription of RPE65, CD68, and VEGF in RPE cells cultured on amniotic membrane. The amounts of CRALBP and tyrosinase transcripts were not affected. This may simply indicate that amniotic membrane restricted dedifferentiation of RPE cells in culture. The results suggest that amniotic membrane may be considered as an elective biological substrate for RPE cell culture.

  9. Brivanib attenuates hepatic fibrosis in vivo and stellate cell activation in vitro by inhibition of FGF, VEGF and PDGF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Brivanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR tyrosine kinases, which are both involved in mechanisms of liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that inhibition of VEGFR and FGFR by brivanib would inhibit liver fibrosis. We therefore examined the effect of brivanib on liver fibrosis in three mouse models of fibrosis.In vivo, we induced liver fibrosis by bile duct ligation (BDL, chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, and chronic thioacetamide (TAA administration. Liver fibrosis was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. In vitro, we used LX-2 human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs to assess the effect of brivanib on stellate cell proliferation and activation.After in vivo induction with BDL, CCl4, and TAA, mice treated with brivanib showed reduced liver fibrosis and decreased expression of collagen Iα1 and α-smooth muscle actin in the liver. In vitro, brivanib decreased proliferation of HSCs induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, VEGF, and FGF. Brivanib also decreased stellate cell viability and inhibited PDGFBB-induced phosphorylation of its cognate receptor.Brivanib reduces liver fibrosis in three different animal models and decreases human hepatic stellate cell activation. Brivanib may represent a novel therapeutic approach to treatment of liver fibrosis and prevention of liver cancer.

  10. VEGF selectively induces Down syndrome critical region 1 gene expression in endothelial cells: a mechanism for feedback regulation of angiogenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.-G; Duh, Elia J.

    2004-01-01

    The Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) gene (also known as MCIP1, Adapt78) encodes a regulatory protein that binds to calcineurin catalytic A subunit and acts as a regulator of the calcineurin-mediated signaling pathway. We show in this study that DSCR1 is greatly induced in endothelial cells in response to VEGF, TNF-α, and A23187 treatment, and that this up-regulation is inhibited by inhibitors of the calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling pathway as well as by PKC inhibition and a Ca 2+ chelator. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of DSCR1 gene expression in endothelial cells could act as an endogenous feedback inhibitor for angiogenesis by regulating the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. Our transient transfection analyses confirm that the overexpression of DSCR1 abrogates the up-regulation of reporter gene expression driven by both the cyclooxygenase 2 and DSCR1 promoters in response to stimulators. Our results indicate that DSCR1 up-regulation may represent a potential molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of angiogenic genes activated by the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in endothelial cells

  11. Improved methods for reprogramming human dermal fibroblasts using fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kahler

    Full Text Available Current methods to derive induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from human dermal fibroblasts by viral infection rely on expensive and lengthy protocols. One major factor contributing to the time required to derive lines is the ability of researchers to identify fully reprogrammed unique candidate clones from a mixed cell population containing transformed or partially reprogrammed cells and fibroblasts at an early time point post infection. Failure to select high quality colonies early in the derivation process results in cell lines that require increased maintenance and unreliable experimental outcomes. Here, we describe an improved method for the derivation of iPSC lines using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS to isolate single cells expressing the cell surface marker signature CD13(NEGSSEA4(POSTra-1-60(POS on day 7-10 after infection. This technique prospectively isolates fully reprogrammed iPSCs, and depletes both parental and "contaminating" partially reprogrammed fibroblasts, thereby substantially reducing the time and reagents required to generate iPSC lines without the use of defined small molecule cocktails. FACS derived iPSC lines express common markers of pluripotency, and possess spontaneous differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the suitability of FACS for high-throughput iPSC generation, we derived 228 individual iPSC lines using either integrating (retroviral or non- integrating (Sendai virus reprogramming vectors and performed extensive characterization on a subset of those lines. The iPSC lines used in this study were derived from 76 unique samples from a variety of tissue sources, including fresh or frozen fibroblasts generated from biopsies harvested from healthy or disease patients.

  12. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Delay Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats Through Anti-Apoptotic and VEGF-Mediated Neuroprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhang, J; Tian, H; Shi, X; Lian, C; Sun, Y; Li, W; Xu, J-Y; Li, P; Zhang, J; Gao, Z; Xu, J; Wang, F; Lu, L; Xu, G-T

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration (RD). Our study investigated the effects of human adipose derived stem cell (hADSCs) on Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hADSCs were transplanted subretinally into RCS rats at postnatal (PN) 21 days to explore potential therapeutic effects, while adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and siVEGF-hADSCs were used to aid the mechanistic dissections. Visual function was evaluated by Electroretinogram (ERG) recording. Potential transdifferentiations were examined by Immunofluorescence (IF) and gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Apoptotic retinal cells were detected by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and the cytokines secreted by hADSCs were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The visual function of RCS rats began to decrease one week after their eyes opened at PN week 3 and almost lost in PN 5 weeks, accompanied by the loss of retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL). Subretinal transplantation of hADSCs significantly improved the visual function 2 weeks after the transplantation and such therapeutic effect persisted up to 8 weeks after the treatment (PN 11 weeks), with 3-4 rows of photoreceptors remained in the ONL and reduced apoptosis. Consistent with these phenotypic changes, the gene expression of rod photoreceptor markers Rhodopsin (Rho), Crx and Opsin (Opn1) in RCS rats showed obvious decreasing trends over time after PN 3 weeks, but were elevated with hADSC treatment. hADSC transplantation also repressed the expressions of Bax, Bak and Caspase 3, but not the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Finally, substantial VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) secretions from hADSCs were detected, while endogenous

  13. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, a Major Fatty Acid from Royal Jelly, Inhibits VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Hiroshi Izuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is reported to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor that plays a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Royal jelly (RJ is a honeybee product containing various proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and free amino acids. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10HDA, a major fatty acid component of RJ, is known to have various pharmacological effects; its antitumor activity being especially noteworthy. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. We examined the effect of 10HDA on VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Our findings showed that, 10HDA at 20 µM or more significantly inhibited such proliferation, migration and tube formation. Similarly, 10 µM GM6001, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, prevented VEGF-induced migration and tube formation. These findings indicate that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration. Further experiments will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism.

  14. Driving gradual endogenous c-myc overexpression by flow-sorting: intracellular signaling and tumor cell phenotype correlate with oncogene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kasper Jermiin; Holm, G.M.N.; Krabbe, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-exposed rat mammary cancer cells were flow sorted based on a c-myc reporter plasmid encoding a destabilized green fluorescent protein. Sorted cells exhibited gradual increases in c-myc levels. Cells overexpressing c-myc by only 10% exhibited phenotypic changes attributable to c-myc overex...

  15. Risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic events associated with anti-VEGF agents in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dianbao Zhang,1,* Xianfen Zhang,2,* Chunling Zhao1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aims: To assess the incidence and risk of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (ATEs and VTEs associated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, including VEGF receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and VEGF monoclonal antibodies, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods: We performed a broad search of PubMed for relevant trials. Prospective randomized trials evaluating therapy with or without anti-VEGF agents in patients with advanced NSCLC were included for analysis. Data on VTEs and ATEs were extracted. The overall incidence, Peto odds ratio (Peto OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled according to the heterogeneity of included trials. Results: A total of 13,436 patients from 23 trials were included for analysis. Our results showed that anti-VEGF agents significantly increased the risk of developing high-grade ATEs (Peto OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00–2.07, P=0.048, but not for all-grade ATEs (Peto OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.56–1.59, P=0.82 compared with controls. Additionally, no increased risk of all-grade and high-grade VTEs (Peto OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.67–1.31, P=0.71 and Peto OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73–1.22, P=0.67, respectively was observed in advanced NSCLC patients receiving anti-VEGF agents. Conclusion: The use of anti-VEGF agents in advanced NSCLC patients significantly increased the risk of high-grade ATEs, but not for VTEs. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of severe ATEs with administration of these drugs in advanced NSCLC patients. Keywords: anti-VEGF agents, toxicity, arterial thromboembolic events, venous thromboembolic events, meta-analysis

  16. Acidic pH reduces VEGF-mediated endothelial cell responses by downregulation of VEGFR-2; relevance for anti-angiogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Seraina; Uldry, Emilie; Planche, Anne; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-12-27

    Anti-angiogenic treatments targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor or its receptors have shown clinical benefits. However, impact on long-term survival remains limited. Solid tumors display an acidic microenvironment that profoundly influences their biology. Consequences of acidity on endothelial cells and anti-angiogenic therapies remain poorly characterized and hence are the focus of this study. We found that exposing endothelial cells to acidic extracellular pH resulted in reduced cell proliferation and migration. Also, whereas VEGF increased endothelial cell proliferation and survival at pH 7.4, it had no effect at pH 6.4. Furthermore, in acidic conditions, stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF did not result in activation of downstream signaling pathways such as AKT. At a molecular level, acidity significantly decreased the expression of VEGFR-2 by endothelial cells. Consequently, anti-angiogenic therapies that target VEGFR-2 such as sunitinib and sorafenib failed to block endothelial cell proliferation in acidic conditions. In vivo, neutralizing tumor acidity with sodium bicarbonate increased the percentage of endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-2 in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, combining sodium bicarbonate with sunitinib provided stronger anti-cancer activity than either treatment alone. Histological analysis showed that sunitinib had a stronger anti-angiogenic effect when combined with sodium bicarbonate. Overall, our results show that endothelial cells prosper independently of VEGF in acidic conditions partly as a consequence of decreased VEGFR-2 expression. They further suggest that strategies aiming to raise intratumoral pH can improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments.

  17. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France); Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes - CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bonfim, Marlio [Universidade Federal do Paraná, DELT, Curitiba (Brazil); Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  18. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  19. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of EGFP-Labeled Neural Crest Cells From Murine Embryonic Craniofacial Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the early stages of embryogenesis, pluripotent neural crest cells (NCC are known to migrate from the neural folds to populate multiple target sites in the embryo where they differentiate into various derivatives, including cartilage, bone, connective tissue, melanocytes, glia, and neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The ability to obtain pure NCC populations is essential to enable molecular analyses of neural crest induction, migration, and/or differentiation. Crossing Wnt1-Cre and Z/EG transgenic mouse lines resulted in offspring in which the Wnt1-Cre transgene activated permanent EGFP expression only in NCC. The present report demonstrates a flow cytometric method to sort and isolate populations of EGFP-labeled NCC. The identity of the sorted neural crest cells was confirmed by assaying expression of known marker genes by TaqMan Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR. The molecular strategy described in this report provides a means to extract intact RNA from a pure population of NCC thus enabling analysis of gene expression in a defined population of embryonic precursor cells critical to development.

  20. Silencing alpha-fetoprotein inhibits VEGF and MMP-2/9 production in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Li, Xun; Bai, Zhongtian; Li, Yan; Yuan, Jinqiu; Liu, Tao; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Wence; Zhu, Kexiang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein not only serves as a diagnostic marker for liver cancer, but also posses a variety of biological functions. However, the role of Alpha-fetoprotein on tumor angiogenesis and cell invasion remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if Alpha-fetoprotein can regulate the major angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinases in human liver cancer cells. Alpha-fetoprotein silencing was achieved by Stealth RNAi. Expression of Alpha-fetoprotein was examined by a full-automatic electrochemistry luminescence immunity analyzer. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9, and MMP-2 was examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Angiogenesis was detected by in vitro angiogenesis assay kit. Silencing of Alpha-fetoprotein led to an increased apoptosis, which was associated with a decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases-2/9. These results suggest that Alpha-fetoprotein may play a regulatory role on angiogenesis and cell invasion during liver cancer development.

  1. Magnetic cell sorting purification of differentiated embryonic stem cells stably expressing truncated human CD4 as surface marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Robert; Groebner, Michael; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Clinical applications are still hampered by the lack of protocols for gentle, high-yield isolation of specific cell types for transplantation expressing no immunogenic markers. We describe labeling of stably transfected ES cells expressing a human CD4 molecule lacking its intracellular domain (DeltaCD4) under control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for magnetic cell sorting (MACS). To track the labeled ES cells, we fused DeltaCD4 to an intracellular enhanced green fluorescent protein domain (DeltaCD4EGFP). We showed functionality of the membrane-bound fluorescent fusion protein and its suitability for MACS leading to purities greater than 97%. Likewise, expression of DeltaCD4 yielded up to 98.5% positive cells independently of their differentiation state. Purities were not limited by the initial percentage of DeltaCD4(+) cells, ranging from 0.6%-16%. The viability of MACS-selected cells was demonstrated by reaggregation and de novo formation of embryoid bodies developing all three germ layers. Thus, expression of DeltaCD4 in differentiated ES cells may enable rapid, high-yield purification of a desired cell type for tissue engineering and transplantation studies.

  2. Analytical Formulation of the Electric Field Induced by Electrode Arrays: Towards Automated Dielectrophoretic Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gauthier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis is defined as the motion of an electrically polarisable particle in a non-uniform electric field. Current dielectrophoretic devices enabling sorting of cells are mostly controlled in open-loop applying a predefined voltage on micro-electrodes. Closed-loop control of these devices would enable to get advanced functionalities and also more robust behavior. Currently, the numerical models of dielectrophoretic force are too complex to be used in real-time closed-loop control. The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of models usable in this framework. We propose an analytical model of the electric field based on Fourier series to compute the dielectrophoretic force produced by parallel electrode arrays. Indeed, this method provides an analytical expression of the electric potential which decouples the geometrical factors (parameter of our system, the voltages applied on electrodes (input of our system, and the position of the cells (output of our system. Considering the Newton laws on each cell, it enables to generate easily a dynamic model of the cell positions (output function of the voltages on electrodes (input. This dynamic model of our system is required to design the future closed-loop control law. The predicted dielectrophoretic forces are compared to a numerical simulation based on finite element model using COMSOL software. The model presented in this paper enables to compute the dielectrophoretic force applied to a cell by an electrode array in a few tenths of milliseconds. This model could be consequently used in future works for closed-loop control of dielectrophoretic devices.

  3. Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. In this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort ac...

  4. Artemisinic acid exhibits antitumor activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells through the inhibition of angiogenesis, VEGF, m-TOR and AKT signalling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects of artemisinic acid in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Various cell signalling pathways (VEGF, m-TOR and AKT signalling pathways and MTT assay were used. The in vivo antitumor activity of artemisinic acid was evaluated by means of tumor xenograft mouse model. Transwell cell migration assay was used to examine the chemotactic motility of the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, while as endothelial cell capillary-like tube formation assay was used to evaluate the effect of artemisinic acid on the tube formation in HUVECs. We found that artemisinic acid considerably reduced both the volume and weight of concrete tumors and reduced angiogenesis in a xenograft mouse tumor model in vivo. Further, artemisinic acid suppressed the VEGF-induced cell migration and capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Artemisinic acid was found to suppress the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and also the activity of AKT and m-TOR.

  5. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enhanced neuroprotective efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells co-overexpressing BDNF and VEGF in a rat model of cardiac arrest-induced global cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Lin, Qingming; Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Leong, Kahong; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Zitong

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac arrest-induced global cerebral ischemia injury (CA-GCII) usually leads to a poor neurological outcome without an effective treatment. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) may provide a potential cell-based therapy against neurologic disorders through induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To optimize the neuroprotective efficacy of BMMSCs further, in this study we have derived BMMSCs, which co-overexpress both BDNF and VEGF, and tested them for the treatment of CA-GCII in a rat model. Lentiviruses that express rat BDNF exon IV or VEGF-A were created using the bicistronic shuttle vectors of pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen1 and pLVX-IRES-tdTomato, respectively. BMMSCs that were co-transduced with the engineered lentiviruses with co-overexpression of both BDNF and VEGF along with corresponding fluorescent protein reporters were injected via jugular vein of rats that just recovered from a cardiac arrest. Animals were then scored for neurofunctional deficits and examined for brain pathology and gene expression relevant to the engraftment seven days after the treatments. We demonstrate that anchorage of lentiviral vector-transduced BMMSCs, which co-overexpressed both BDNF and VEGF in the hippocampus and temporal cortex along with significantly ameliorated brain pathology and improved neurofunctional performance in CA-GCII rats after transplantation. These findings provide a proof of concept for the further validation of engineered BMMSCs for the treatment of CA-GCII patients in clinical practice in the future. PMID:28492549

  7. Melittin suppresses HIF-1α/VEGF expression through inhibition of ERK and mTOR/p70S6K pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Moon Shin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Melittin (MEL, a major component of bee venom, has been associated with various diseases including arthritis, rheumatism and various cancers. In this study, the anti-angiogenic effects of MEL in CaSki cells that were responsive to the epidermal growth factor (EGF were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MEL decreased the EGF-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α protein and significantly regulated angiogenesis and tumor progression. We found that inhibition of the HIF-1α protein level is due to the shortened half-life by MEL. Mechanistically, MEL specifically inhibited the EGF-induced HIF-1α expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR and p70S6K. It also blocked the EGF-induced DNA binding activity of HIF-1α and the secretion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay revealed that MEL reduced the binding of HIF-1α to the VEGF promoter HRE region. The anti-angiogenesis effects of MEL were confirmed through a matrigel plus assay. CONCLUSIONS: MEL specifically suppressed EGF-induced VEGF secretion and new blood vessel formation by inhibiting HIF-1α. These results suggest that MEL may inhibit human cervical cancer progression and angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α and VEGF expression.

  8. Three-dimensional growth as multicellular spheroid activates the proangiogenic phenotype of colorectal carcinoma cells via LFA-1-dependent VEGF: implications on hepatic micrometastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruzabal Francisco J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recruitment of vascular stromal and endothelial cells is an early event occurring during cancer cell growth at premetastatic niches, but how the microenvironment created by the initial three-dimensional (3D growth of cancer cells affects their angiogenesis-stimulating potential is unclear. Methods The proangiogenic profile of CT26 murine colorectal carcinoma cells was studied in seven-day cultured 3D-spheroids of Results Spheroid-derived CT26 cells increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion by 70%, which in turn increased the in vitro migration of primary cultured hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE cells by 2-fold. More importantly, spheroid-derived CT26 cells increased lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA-1-expressing cell fraction by 3-fold; and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, given to spheroid-cultured CT26 cells, further increased VEGF secretion by 90%, via cyclooxygenase (COX-2-dependent mechanism. Consistent with these findings, CT26 cancer cells significantly increased LFA-1 expression in non-hypoxic avascular micrometastases at their earliest inception within hepatic lobules in vivo; and angiogenesis also markedly increased in both subcutaneous tumors and hepatic metastases produced by spheroid-derived CT26 cells. Conclusion 3D-growth per se enriched the proangiogenic phenotype of cancer cells growing as multicellular spheroids or as subclinical hepatic micrometastases. The contribution of integrin LFA-1 to VEGF secretion via COX-2 was a micro environmental-related mechanism leading to the pro-angiogenic activation of soluble ICAM-1-activated colorectal carcinoma cells. This mechanism may represent a new target for specific therapeutic strategies designed to block colorectal cancer cell growth at a subclinical micrometastatic stage within the liver.

  9. CD147 promotes liver fibrosis progression via VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoyong; Qu, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Qichao; Qu, Ping; Xu, Xinsen; Yuan, Peng; Huang, Xiaojun; Shao, Yongping; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2015-10-01

    Although previous evidence indicates close involvement of CD147 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its therapeutic value remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the biological roles of CD147 in liver fibrosis and assessed its therapeutic value as a target molecule in the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. We found that CD147 was highly expressed in both hepatocytes and SECs (sinusoidal endothelial cells) in fibrotic liver tissues. Additionally, it was significantly associated with the fibrosis stage. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor β1) was found to be mainly responsible for the up-regulation of CD147. Bioinformatic and experimental data suggest a functional link between CD147 expression and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A)/VEGR-2 (VEGF receptor 2) signalling-mediated angiogenesis in fibrotic liver tissues. Furthermore, we observed that the CD147-induced activation of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signalling pathway promotes the production of VEGF-A in hepatocytes and expression of VEGFR-2 in SECs, which was found to enhance the angiogenic capability of SECs. Finally, our data indicate that blocking of CD147 using an mAb (monoclonal antibody) attenuated liver fibrosis progression via inhibition of VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling and subsequent amelioration of microvascular abnormality in the CCl4-induced mouse model. Our findings suggest a novel functional mechanism that CD147 may promote liver fibrosis progression via inducing the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signalling pathway-mediated cross-talk between hepatocytes and SECs. New strategies based on the intervention of CD147 can be expected for prevention of liver fibrosis. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Perlecan Domain V induces VEGf secretion in brain endothelial cells through integrin α5β1 and ERK-dependent signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas N Clarke

    Full Text Available Perlecan Domain V (DV promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α(5β(1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV's angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α(5β(1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV's DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α(5β(1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV's induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV's mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy.

  11. Perlecan Domain V Induces VEGf Secretion in Brain Endothelial Cells through Integrin α5β1 and ERK-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Douglas N.; Al Ahmad, Abraham; Lee, Boyeon; Parham, Christi; Auckland, Lisa; Fertala, Andrezj; Kahle, Michael; Shaw, Courtney S.; Roberts, Jill; Bix, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Perlecan Domain V (DV) promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs) following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α5β1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV’s angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α5β1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV’s DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α5β1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV’s induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV’s mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy. PMID:23028886

  12. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hofmann, Matthias [Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Kusachi, Shozo [Department of Medical Technology, Okayama University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Ninomiya, Yoshifumi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hirohata, Satoshi, E-mail: hirohas@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); International Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC.

  13. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Hofmann, Matthias; Kusachi, Shozo; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Hirohata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC

  14. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Kay Kovach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80 for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA. The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTMNPO CRL-2836 at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF. Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum

  15. Ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.P.; Richards, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    In an ore sorting apparatus, ore particles are bombarded with neutrons in a chamber and sorted by detecting radiation emitted by isotopes of elements, such as gold, forming or contained in the particles, using detectors and selectively controlling fluid jets. The isotopes can be selectively recognised by their radiation characteristics. In an alternative embodiment, shorter life isotopes are formed by neutron bombardment and detection of radiation takes place immediately adjacent the region of bombardment

  16. Separation of active and inactive fractions from starved culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by density dependent cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kamiya, Eriko; Nishino, Tomohiko; Wada, Minoru; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The co-existence of physiologically different cells in bacterial cultures is a general phenomenon. We have examined the applicability of the density dependent cell sorting (DDCS) method to separate subpopulations from a long-term starvation culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The cells were subjected to Percoll density gradient and separated into 12 fractions of different buoyant densities, followed by measuring the cell numbers, culturability, respiratory activity and leucine incorporation activity. While more than 78% of cells were in lighter fractions, about 95% of culturable cells were present in heavier fractions. The high-density subpopulations also had high proportion of cells capable of forming formazan granules. Although this was accompanied by the cell specific INT-reduction rate, both leucine incorporation rates and INT-reduction rates per cell had a peak at mid-density fraction. The present results indicated that DDCS could be used to separate subpopulations of different physiological conditions.

  17. A multicenter study to standardize reporting and analyses of fluorescence-activated cell-sorted murine intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Scott T.; Puthoff, Brent J.; Crissey, Mary Ann; Dunn, James; Henning, Susan J.; Houchen, Courtney; Kaddis, John S.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Li, Linheng; Lynch, John; Martin, Martin G.; May, Randal; Niland, Joyce C.; Olack, Barbara; Qian, Dajun; Stelzner, Matthias; Swain, John R.; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Jiafang; Wang, Xinwei; Yan, Kelley; Yu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an essential tool for studies requiring isolation of distinct intestinal epithelial cell populations. Inconsistent or lack of reporting of the critical parameters associated with FACS methodologies has complicated interpretation, comparison, and reproduction of important findings. To address this problem a comprehensive multicenter study was designed to develop guidelines that limit experimental and data reporting variability and provide a foundation for accurate comparison of data between studies. Common methodologies and data reporting protocols for tissue dissociation, cell yield, cell viability, FACS, and postsort purity were established. Seven centers tested the standardized methods by FACS-isolating a specific crypt-based epithelial population (EpCAM+/CD44+) from murine small intestine. Genetic biomarkers for stem/progenitor (Lgr5 and Atoh 1) and differentiated cell lineages (lysozyme, mucin2, chromogranin A, and sucrase isomaltase) were interrogated in target and control populations to assess intra- and intercenter variability. Wilcoxon's rank sum test on gene expression levels showed limited intracenter variability between biological replicates. Principal component analysis demonstrated significant intercenter reproducibility among four centers. Analysis of data collected by standardized cell isolation methods and data reporting requirements readily identified methodological problems, indicating that standard reporting parameters facilitate post hoc error identification. These results indicate that the complexity of FACS isolation of target intestinal epithelial populations can be highly reproducible between biological replicates and different institutions by adherence to common cell isolation methods and FACS gating strategies. This study can be considered a foundation for continued method development and a starting point for investigators that are developing cell isolation expertise to study physiology and

  18. Robust spike sorting of retinal ganglion cells tuned to spot stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Alireza; Badea, Tudor C

    2016-08-01

    We propose an automatic spike sorting approach for the data recorded from a microelectrode array during visual stimulation of wild type retinas with tiled spot stimuli. The approach first detects individual spikes per electrode by their signature local minima. With the mixture probability distribution of the local minima estimated afterwards, it applies a minimum-squared-error clustering algorithm to sort the spikes into different clusters. A template waveform for each cluster per electrode is defined, and a number of reliability tests are performed on it and its corresponding spikes. Finally, a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to deal with the correlated templates per cluster type across all the electrodes. According to the measures of performance of the spike sorting approach, it is robust even in the cases of recordings with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Division of Nephrology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Obama, Fukui (Japan); Iwano, Masayuki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  20. CRH promotes human colon cancer cell proliferation via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianjun; Hong, Yali; Dai, Li; Qian, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Chao; Wu, Biao; Li, Shengnan

    2017-11-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been demonstrated to participate in various diseases. Our previous study showed that its receptor CRHR1 mediated the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the oncogenetic role of CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays revealed that CRH contributed to cell proliferation. Moreover, tube formation assay showed that CRH-treated colon cancer cell supernatant significantly promoted tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). And these effects could be reversed by the CRHR1 specific antagonist Antalarmin. Further investigation showed that CRH significantly upregulated the expressions of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). The CRH-induced IL-6 promoted phosphorylation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 inhibition by Stattic significantly inhibited the CRH-induced cell proliferation. In addition, silence of VEGF resulted in declined tube formation induced by CRH. Taken together, CRH/CRHR1 signaling promoted human colon cancer cell proliferation via NF-κB/IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and tumor angiogenesis via NF-κB/VEGF signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence to support a critical role for the CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer progression and suggest its potential utility as a new therapeutic target for colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25–35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein. PMID:25745458

  2. Effect of Pemetrexed combined with cis-platinum chemotherapy on matrix metalloproteinase VEGF, NK cells and immune function in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore effect of Pemetrexed combined with cis-platinum chemotherapy on matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs, vascular esandothelial growth factor (VEGF, NK cells and immune function in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Method: A total of 86 cases of non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients were divided into control group (n=44 and observation group (n=42, control group was given docetaxel combined cisplatinum chemotherapy, pemetrexed combined cis-platinum chemotherapy, was applied for observation group. Compared MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF, NK cells and immune function level before and after treatment in both groups. Results: MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF, NK cells, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ level in both groups before treatment was no significant difference. After treatment, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF, CD8+level in both groups was significant lower than before treatment intra-group, and observation was lower than control group, there was significant difference. After treatment, NK cells, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ level in both groups was increased dramatically than before treatment of intra-group, moreover, NK cells, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+level in observation group after treatment was obvious higher than in control group after treatment, there was significant difference. Conclusion: Pemetrexed combined with cis-platinum chemotherapy for non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer could effectively decrease serum MMPs, VEGF level and increase NK cell level, regulate immune function, with definite clinical significance.

  3. Sulodexide prevents activation of the PLA2/COX-2/VEGF inflammatory pathway in human retinal endothelial cells by blocking the effect of AGE/RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurdanella, Giovanni; Lazzara, Francesca; Caporarello, Nunzia; Lupo, Gabriella; Anfuso, Carmelina Daniela; Eandi, Chiara M; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio; Salomone, Salvatore

    2017-10-15

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the breakdown of endothelial blood-retinal barrier. We tested the hypothesis that sulodexide (SDX), a highly purified glycosaminoglycan composed of 80% iduronylglycosaminoglycan sulfate and 20% dermatan sulfate, protects human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) from high glucose (HG)-induced damage, through the suppression of inflammatory ERK/cPLA2/COX-2/PGE 2 pathway, by blocking the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). HREC were treated with HG (25mM) or AGEs (glycated-BSA, 2mg/ml) for 48h, with or without SDX (60μg/ml) or aflibercept (AFL, 40μg/ml), a VEGF-trap. SDX protected HREC from HG-induced damage (MTT and LDH release) and preserved their blood-retinal barrier-like properties (Trans Endothelial Electrical Resistance and junction proteins, claudin-5, VE-cadherin and occludin, immunofluorescence and immunoblot) as well as their angiogenic potential (Tube Formation Assay). Both HG and AGEs increased phosphoERK and phospho-cPLA 2 , an effect counteracted by SDX and, less efficiently, by AFL. Both HG and exogenous VEGF (80ng/ml) increased PGE 2 release, an effect partially reverted by SDX for HG and by AFL for VEGF. Analysis of NFκB activity revealed that HG increased the abundance of p65 in the nuclear fraction (nuclear translocation), an effect entirely reverted by SDX, but only partially by AFL. SDX, AFL and SDX+AFL protected HREC even when added 24h after HG. These data show that SDX protects HREC from HG damage and suggest that it counteracts the activation of ERK/cPLA2/COX-2/PGE 2 pathway by reducing AGE-related signaling and downstream NFκB activity. This mechanism, partially distinct from VEGF blockade, may contribute to the therapeutic effect of SDX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Li, Ruisheng [Institute of Infectious Diseases, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Dang, Ningning [Department of Dermatology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Wang, Yunshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2014-07-15

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  5. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan; Li, Ruisheng; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie; Dang, Ningning; Wang, Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  6. Effect of VEGF-C siRNA and endostatin on ring formation and proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lymphatic endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng YP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuping Zheng,1–3,* Miaomiao Sun,4,* Jinyan Chen,1,2 Lulu He,1,2 Na Zhao,1,2 Kuisheng Chen1,2 1Pathology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2Henan Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathology, 3Pathology Department, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 4Pathology Department, Henan Tumor Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To study the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor C small interfering RNA and endostatin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-related ring formation in vitro and proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells.Materials and methods: KYSE150 cells were subjected to analysis of cell transfection and endostatin operation. The groups were as follows: negative group, blank group, negative plus endostatin group, endostatin group, SG1 group, SG2 group, SG1 plus endostatin group, and SG2 plus endostatin group. The esophageal cancer-related microlymphatic endothelial cells were three-dimensionally cultured. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was employed to detect cell proliferation.Results: The negative group’s three-dimensional culture result was the highest, followed by the blank group, negative plus endostatin group, endostatin group, SG2 group, SG1 group, SG1 plus endostatin group, and SG2 plus endostatin group. The quantity of living cells in the blank group was the highest, followed by the negative control, endostatin, SG2, SG1, negative plus endostatin, SG1 plus endostatin, and SG2 plus endostatin groups. Conclusion: Both vascular endothelial growth factor C small interfering RNA and endostatin could inhibit ring formation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells. Keywords: esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, esophageal cancer-associated lymphatic endothelial cells, VEGF-C, ring formation, proliferation

  7. Encapsulation of VEGF165 into magnetic PLGA nanocapsules for potential local delivery and bioactivity in human brain endothelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carenza, E.; Jordan, O.; Martinez-San Segundo, P.; Jiřík, Radovan; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Borchard, G.; Rosell, A.; Roig, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 12 (2015), s. 2538-2544 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : superparamagnetic iron-oxide * human serum-albumin * VEGF Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 4.872, year: 2015

  8. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1α-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1α-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1α-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1α-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research highlights: → A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. → IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression

  9. Safety profiles of anti-VEGF drugs: bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on human retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Caceres del Carpio, Javier; Ramirez, Claudio; Boyer, David; Kenney, M Cristina; Kuppermann, Baruch D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the safety profiles of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture. Methods Human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were exposed for 24 h to four anti-VEGF drugs at 1/2×, 1×, 2× and 10× clinical concentrations. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential assay were performed to evaluate early apoptotic changes and rate of overall cell death. Results Cell viability decreased at 10× concentrations in bevacizumab (82.38%, p=0.0001), aflibercept (82.68%, p=0.0002) and ziv-aflibercept (77.25%, p<0.0001), but not at lower concentrations. However, no changes were seen in cell viability in ranibizumab-treated cells at all concentrations including 10×. Mitochondrial membrane potential was slightly decreased in 10× ranibizumab-treated cells (89.61%, p=0.0006) and 2× and 10× aflibercept-treated cells (88.76%, 81.46%; p<0.01, respectively). A larger reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was seen at 1×, 2× and 10× concentrations of bevacizumab (86.53%, 74.38%, 66.67%; p<0.01) and ziv-aflibercept (73.50%, 64.83% and 49.65% p<0.01) suggestive of early apoptosis at lower doses, including the clinical doses. Conclusions At clinical doses, neither ranibizumab nor aflibercept produced evidence of mitochondrial toxicity or cell death. However, bevacizumab and ziv-aflibercept showed mild mitochondrial toxicity at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24836865

  10. Dramatic repositioning of c-Myb to different promoters during the cell cycle observed by combining cell sorting with chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Quintana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The c-Myb transcription factor is a critical regulator of proliferation and stem cell differentiation, and mutated alleles of c-Myb are oncogenic, but little is known about changes in c-Myb activity during the cell cycle. To map the association of c-Myb with specific target genes during the cell cycle, we developed a novel Fix-Sort-ChIP approach, in which asynchronously growing cells were fixed with formaldehyde, stained with Hoechst 33342 and separated into different cell cycle fractions by flow sorting, then processed for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We found that c-Myb actively repositions, binding to some genes only in specific cell cycle phases. In addition, the specificity of c-Myb is dramatically different in small subpopulations of cells, for example cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, than in the bulk population. The repositioning of c-Myb during the cell cycle is not due to changes in its expression and also occurs with ectopically expressed, epitope-tagged versions of c-Myb. The repositioning occurs in established cell lines, in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and in primary human acute myeloid leukemia cells. The combination of fixation, sorting and ChIP analysis sheds new light on the dynamic nature of gene regulation during the cell cycle and provides a new type of tool for the analysis of gene regulation in small subsets of cells, such as cells in a specific phase of the cell cycle.

  11. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  12. Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate (99Tc-MDP) inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization in vivo and VEGF-induced cell migration and tube formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kunbei; Xu, Li; Jin, Chenjin; Wu, Kaili; Tian, Zhen; Huang, Chuangxin; Zhong, Xiaojing; Ye, Haiyun

    2011-07-29

    To investigate the effects of (99)Tc-MDP, a decay product of (99m)Tc-MDP, on the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), together with its underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were used to induce CNV by laser photocoagulation. (99)Tc-MDP at the doses of 0.5 × 10(-1), 1 × 10(-1), and 2 × 10(-1) μg/kg or the same volume of PBS was intraperitoneally injected daily after photocoagulation until the end of the experiment. Seven days after laser injury, mice were perfused with fluorescein-labeled dextran, and areas of CNV were measured. Numbers of infiltrating macrophages, protein levels of VEGF, and inflammation-related molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the RPE-choroid complex were detected 3 days after laser photocoagulation. Effects of (99)Tc-MDP on VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation were also studied. Toxicity of (99)Tc-MDP was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Areas of CNV were significantly suppressed by (99)Tc-MDP treatment without toxicity to the retina compared with PBS treatment in a dose-dependent manner: (99)Tc-MDP treatment of 0.5 × 10(-1) μg/kg (5698.60 ± 1037.70 μm(2)), 1 × 10(-1) μg/kg (3678.34 ± 1328.18 μm(2)), and 2 × 10(-1) μg/kg (2365.78 ± 923.80 μm(2)) suppressed the development of CNV by 36.12%, 58.76%, and 73.48%, respectively, compared with that in the PBS treatment group (8920.36 ± 1097.29 μm(2); P 99)Tc-MDP treatment led to significant inhibition of macrophages infiltrating to CNV together with downregulated protein expressions of VEGF, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and MMP-2. (99)Tc-MDP also showed an inhibitive effect on cell proliferation and VEGF-induced migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. Anti-inflammatory treatment with (99)Tc-MDP has therapeutic potential for CNV-related diseases.

  13. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  14. VEGF and IHH rescue definitive hematopoiesis in Gata-4 and Gata-6-deficient murine embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Monique; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Huang, Lan; Richardson, Matthew; Yoder, Mervin C

    2009-09-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs), which serve as an in vitro model recapitulating many aspects of embryonic yolk sac hematopoiesis. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells deficient in either Gata-4 or Gata-6 results in EBs with disrupted visceral endoderm (VE). While lack of VE has detrimental effects on hematopoiesis in vivo, it is unclear whether lack of VE affects hematopoiesis in EBs. Therefore, we compared Gata-4 null (G4N) and Gata-6 null (G6N) EBs with wild-type EBs to assess their ability to commit to hematopoietic cells. EB VE formation was examined using cell-sorting techniques and analysis visceral endoderm gene expression. Hematopoietic progenitor potential of EBs cultured under various conditions was assessed using colony-forming assays. Definitive erythroid, granulocyte-macrophage, and mixed colonies were significantly reduced in G4N and G6N EBs compared to wild-type EBs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion were also reduced in both G4N and G6N EBs, consistent with VE serving as a site of VEGF production. Addition of exogenous VEGF(165), to EB cultures completely rescued definitive colony-forming cells in G4N and G6N EBs. This rescue response could be blocked by addition of soluble Flk-1 Fc to EB cultures. Similarly, addition of exogenous Indian hedgehog to EB cultures also recovers the diminishment in definitive hematopoiesis in a reversible manner. These results suggest that the absence of VE in G4N and G6N EBs does not prevent emergence of definitive progenitors from EBs. However, the decreased level of VEGF and Indian hedgehog production in VE devoid G4N and G6N EBs attenuates definitive hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion.

  15. Biomarker-free dielectrophoretic sorting of differentiating myoblast multipotent progenitor cells and their membrane analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Downes, Andrew; Pethig, Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Myoblasts are muscle derived mesenchymal stem cell progenitors that have great potential for use in regenerative medicine, especially for cardiomyogenesis grafts and intracardiac cell transplantation. To utilise such cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications, and especially for personalized medicine, it is essential to generate a synchronised, homogenous, population of cells that display phenotypic and genotypic homogeneity within a population of cells. We demonstrate that the biomarker-free technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to discriminate cells between stages of differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast multipotent mouse model. Terminally differentiated myotubes were separated from C2C12 myoblasts to better than 96% purity, a result validated by flow cytometry and Western blotting. To determine the extent to which cell membrane capacitance, rather than cell size, determined the DEP response of a cell, C2C12 myoblasts were co-cultured with GFP-expressing MRC-5 fibroblasts of comparable size distributions (mean diameter ∼10 μm). A DEP sorting efficiency greater than 98% was achieved for these two cell types, a result concluded to arise from the fibroblasts possessing a larger membrane capacitance than the myoblasts. It is currently assumed that differences in membrane capacitance primarily reflect differences in the extent of folding or surface features of the membrane. However, our finding by Raman spectroscopy that the fibroblast membranes contained a smaller proportion of saturated lipids than those of the myoblasts suggests that the membrane chemistry should also be taken into account.

  16. Irradiation-induced regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in six human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck; Bestrahlungsinduzierte Regulation des Plasminogenaktivator-Inhibitor Typ 1 (PAI-1) und des vaskulaeren endothelialen Wachstumsfaktors (VEGF) in sechs Plattenepithelkarzinomzelllinien der Kopf-Hals-Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artman, Meri Tuuli

    2014-01-29

    Radiation therapy is frequently used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), although, it can be unsuccessful due to radiation resistance of the tumor. Currently, there are no established predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN. The aim of this work was to investigate PAI-1 and VEGF secretion as markers for radiation resistance in six human SCCHN cell lines. The cell lines differed in their basal secretion levels and in their in vitro radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF levels increased after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was detected between radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion, which suggests that irradiation-induced secretion of PAI-1 and VEGF are partially regulated by related mechanisms. However, neither basal levels nor radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion correlated with radiation resistance. Therefore, PAI-1 and VEGF are most likely not predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN.

  17. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  18. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  19. Binar Sort: A Linear Generalized Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilreath, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Sorting is a common and ubiquitous activity for computers. It is not surprising that there exist a plethora of sorting algorithms. For all the sorting algorithms, it is an accepted performance limit that sorting algorithms are linearithmic or O(N lg N). The linearithmic lower bound in performance stems from the fact that the sorting algorithms use the ordering property of the data. The sorting algorithm uses comparison by the ordering property to arrange the data elements from an initial perm...

  20. Cell-cycle synchronisation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using Vybrant DyeCycle Violet-based sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabani, Sarah; Waterfall, Martin; Matthews, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the cell-cycle of Trypanosoma brucei have revealed several unusual characteristics that differ from the model eukaryotic organisms. However, the inability to isolate homogenous populations of parasites in distinct cell-cycle stages has limited the analysis of trypanosome cell division and complicated the understanding of mutant phenotypes with possible impact on cell-cycle related events. Although hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle arrest in procyclic and bloodstream forms has been applied recently with success, such block-release protocols can complicate the analysis of cell-cycle regulated events and have the potential to disrupt important cell-cycle checkpoints. An alternative approach based on flow cytometry of parasites stained with Vybrant DyeCycle Orange circumvents this problem, but is restricted to procyclic form parasites. Here, we apply Vybrant Dyecycle Violet staining coupled with flow cytometry to effectively select different cell-cycle stages of bloodstream form trypanosomes. Moreover, the sorted parasites remain viable, although synchrony is rapidly lost. This method enables cell-cycle enrichment of populations of trypanosomes in their mammal infective stage, particularly at the G1 phase.

  1. Protein Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in Calpain-dependent Feedback Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR2) in Endothelial Cells: IMPLICATIONS IN VEGF-DEPENDENT ANGIOGENESIS AND DIABETIC WOUND HEALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixuan; Li, Qiang; Youn, Ji Youn; Cai, Hua

    2017-01-13

    The VEGF/VEGFR2/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway is essential to VEGF-induced angiogenesis. We have previously discovered a novel role of calpain in mediating VEGF-induced PI3K/AMPK/Akt/eNOS activation through Ezrin. Here, we sought to identify possible feedback regulation of VEGFR2 by calpain via its substrate protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and the relevance of this pathway to VEGF-induced angiogenesis, especially in diabetic wound healing. Overexpression of PTP1B inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 and Akt phosphorylation in bovine aortic endothelial cells, while PTP1B siRNA increased both, implicating negative regulation of VEGFR2 by PTP1B. Calpain inhibitor ALLN induced VEGFR2 activation, which can be completely blocked by PTP1B overexpression. Calpain activation induced by overexpression or Ca/A23187 resulted in PTP1B cleavage, which can be blocked by ALLN. Moreover, calpain activation inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation, which can be restored by PTP1B siRNA. These data implicate calpain/PTP1B negative feedback regulation of VEGFR2, in addition to the primary signaling pathway of VEGF/VEGFR2/calpain/PI3K/AMPK/Akt/eNOS. We next examined a potential role of PTP1B in VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Endothelial cells transfected with PTP1B siRNA showed faster wound closure in response to VEGF. Aortic discs isolated from PTP1B siRNA-transfected mice also had augmented endothelial outgrowth. Importantly, PTP1B inhibition and/or calpain overexpression significantly accelerated wound healing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In conclusion, our data for the first time demonstrate a calpain/PTP1B/VEGFR2 negative feedback loop in the regulation of VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Modulation of local PTP1B and/or calpain activities may prove beneficial in the treatment of impaired wound healing in diabetes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Cell cycle kinetics and in vivo micronuclei induction in rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors using a monoclonal antibody to BrdUrd and cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuesse, M.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Carr, B.C.; Kavanau, K.S.; Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the experiments reported here was to investigate the applicability of the BrdUrd/DNA technique to a rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system growing in vivo and to study radiation-induced changes in the progression of cells through the cell cycle. Details of this technique are described elsewhere. In addition, the induction of micronuclei in tumor cells irradiated in vivo with x-rays or peak neon ions was studied. Micronuclei found in interphase cells after irradiation represent genetic material that is lost from the genome of the cells during mitosis. The formation of micronuclei that can mainly be ascribed to acentric chromosome or chromatid fragments occurs only after cells go through one or more cell divisions. Cycling cells in the tumors were, therefore, continuously labeled with BrdUrd, and micronuclei induction was measured only in tetraploid cycling tumor cells using the flow cytometric cell sorting technique

  3. echinus, required for interommatidial cell sorting and cell death in the Drosophila pupal retina, encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski Sharon M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death is used to remove excess cells between ommatidia in the Drosophila pupal retina. This death is required to establish the crystalline, hexagonal packing of ommatidia that characterizes the adult fly eye. In previously described echinus mutants, interommatidial cell sorting, which precedes cell death, occurred relatively normally. Interommatidial cell death was partially suppressed, resulting in adult eyes that contained excess pigment cells, and in which ommatidia were mildly disordered. These results have suggested that echinus functions in the pupal retina primarily to promote interommatidial cell death. Results We generated a number of new echinus alleles, some likely null mutants. Analysis of these alleles provides evidence that echinus has roles in cell sorting as well as cell death. echinus encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases. These proteins cleave ubiquitin-conjugated proteins at the ubiquitin C-terminus. The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms, including two proteins that lack residues thought to be critical for deubiquitination activity. Surprisingly, ubiquitous expression in the eye of versions of Echinus that lack residues critical for ubiquitin specific protease activity, as well as a version predicted to be functional, rescue the echinus loss-of-function phenotype. Finally, genetic interactions were not detected between echinus loss and gain-of-function and a number of known apoptotic regulators. These include Notch, EGFR, the caspases Dronc, Drice, Dcp-1, Dream, the caspase activators, Rpr, Hid, and Grim, the caspase inhibitor DIAP1, and Lozenge or Klumpfuss. Conclusion The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms of a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases, but protease activity is unlikely to be required for echinus function, at least when echinus is overexpressed. Characterization of likely echinus null alleles and genetic interactions

  4. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Kong, Jian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Pan, Bing [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing (China); Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian (China); Zheng, Lemin, E-mail: zhengl@bjmu.edu.cn [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing (China); Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.

  5. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Sun, Min; Zheng, Lemin; Yao, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA 3.1 empty vector, pcDNA 3.1 -VEGF111b or pcDNA 3.1 -VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth

  6. Seamless Combination of Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Hanging-Drop Networks for Individual Handling and Culturing of Stem Cells and Microtissue Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, Axel; Berger, Mischa; Jäggin, Verena; Lopes, Telma; Etzrodt, Martin; Misun, Patrick Mark; Pena-Francesch, Maria; Schroeder, Timm; Hierlemann, Andreas; Frey, Olivier

    2016-01-19

    Open microfluidic cell culturing devices offer new possibilities to simplify loading, culturing, and harvesting of individual cells or microtissues due to the fact that liquids and cells/microtissues are directly accessible. We present a complete workflow for microfluidic handling and culturing of individual cells and microtissue spheroids, which is based on the hanging-drop network concept: The open microfluidic devices are seamlessly combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), so that individual cells, including stem cells, can be directly sorted into specified culturing compartments in a fully automated way and at high accuracy. Moreover, already assembled microtissue spheroids can be loaded into the microfluidic structures by using a conventional pipet. Cell and microtissue culturing is then performed in hanging drops under controlled perfusion. On-chip drop size control measures were applied to stabilize the system. Cells and microtissue spheroids can be retrieved from the chip by using a parallelized transfer method. The presented methodology holds great promise for combinatorial screening of stem-cell and multicellular-spheroid cultures.

  7. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  8. Apportioning bacterial carbon source utilization in soil using 14 C isotope analysis of FISH-targeted bacterial populations sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS): 14 C-FISH-FACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougoulias, Christos; Meade, Andrew; Shaw, Liz J

    2018-02-19

    An unresolved need in microbial ecology is methodology to enable quantitative analysis of in situ microbial substrate carbon use at the population level. Here, we evaluated if a novel combination of radiocarbon-labelled substrate tracing, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort the FISH-targeted population for quantification of incorporated radioactivity ( 14 C-FISH-FACS) can address this need. Our test scenario used FISH probe PSE1284 targeting Pseudomonas spp. (and some Burkholderia spp.) and salicylic acid added to rhizosphere soil. We examined salicylic acid- 14 C fate (mineralized, cell-incorporated, extractable and non-extractable) and mass balance (0-24 h) and show that the PSE1284 population captured ∼ 50% of the Nycodenz extracted biomass 14 C. Analysis of the taxonomic distribution of the salicylic acid biodegradation trait suggested that PSE1284 population success was not due to conservation of this trait but due to competitiveness for the added carbon. Adding 50KBq of 14 C sample -1 enabled detection of 14 C in the sorted population at ∼ 60-600 times background; a sensitivity which demonstrates potential extension to analysis of rarer/less active populations. Given its sensitivity and compatibility with obtaining a C mass balance, 14 C-FISH-FACS allows quantitative dissection of C flow within the microbial biomass that has hitherto not been achieved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Coregulation of glucose uptake and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in two small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) sublines in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M W; Holm, S; Lund, E L

    2001-01-01

    We examined the relationship between (18)F- labeled 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake, and expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in two human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines CPH 54A and CPH 54B. Changes in the expression of GLUTs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during 12......-, 18-, and 24 hours of severe hypoxia in vivo (xenografts) and in vitro (cell cultures) were recorded for both tumor lines. The two SCLC lines are subpopulations of the same patient tumor. In spite of their common genomic origin they represent consistently different metabolic and microenvironmental...... phenotypes as well as treatment sensitivities. There were higher levels of Glut-1 protein in 54B and a correspondingly higher FDG uptake in this tumor line (P

  10. Responses of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Simulated Food Processing Treatments, Determined Using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Plate Counting▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deirdre; Cronin, Ultan P.; Wilkinson, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Three common food pathogenic microorganisms were exposed to treatments simulating those used in food processing. Treated cell suspensions were then analyzed for reduction in growth by plate counting. Flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were carried out on treated cells stained for membrane integrity (Syto 9/propidium iodide) or the presence of membrane potential [DiOC2(3)]. For each microbial species, representative cells from various subpopulations detected by FCM were sorted onto selective and nonselective agar and evaluated for growth and recovery rates. In general, treatments giving rise to the highest reductions in counts also had the greatest effects on cell membrane integrity and membrane potential. Overall, treatments that impacted cell membrane permeability did not necessarily have a comparable effect on membrane potential. In addition, some bacterial species with extensively damaged membranes, as detected by FCM, appeared to be able to replicate and grow after sorting. Growth of sorted cells from various subpopulations was not always reflected in plate counts, and in some cases the staining protocol may have rendered cells unculturable. Optimized FCM protocols generated a greater insight into the extent of the heterogeneous bacterial population responses to food control measures than did plate counts. This study underlined the requirement to use FACS to relate various cytometric profiles generated by various staining protocols with the ability of cells to grow on microbial agar plates. Such information is a prerequisite for more-widespread adoption of FCM as a routine microbiological analytical technique. PMID:21602370

  11. Laser flow microphotometry for rapid analysis and sorting of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaney, P.F.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.; Cram, L.S.; Crowell, J.M.; Salzman, G.C.; Martin, J.C.; Price, B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative precision measurements can be made of the optical properties of individual mammalian cells using flow microphotometry. Suspended cells pass through a special flow chamber where they are lined up for exposure to blue light from an argon-ion laser. As each cell crosses the laser beam, it produces one or more optical pulses of a duration equal to cell transit time across the beam. These pulses are detected, amplified, and analyzed using the techniques of gamma ray spectroscopy. Quantitative DNA distributions made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells as well as to assay for radiation effects on tumor cells subjected to x and gamma radiation

  12. Laser flow microphotometry for rapid analysis and sorting of mammalian cells. [X and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullaney, P.F.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.; Cram, L.S.; Crowell, J.M.; Salzman, G.C.; Martin, J.C.; Price, B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative precision measurements can be made of the optical properties of individual mammalian cells using flow microphotometry. Suspended cells pass through a special flow chamber where they are lined up for exposure to blue light from an argon-ion laser. As each cell crosses the laser beam, it produces one or more optical pulses of a duration equal to cell transit time across the beam. These pulses are detected, amplified, and analyzed using the techniques of gamma ray spectroscopy. Quantitative DNA distributions made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells as well as to assay for radiation effects on tumor cells subjected to x and gamma radiation. (HLW)

  13. Role of Ceacam1 in VEGF induced vasculogenesis of murine embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies in 3D culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Angel [Department of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Tsark, Walter [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Holmes, Kathryn V. [Department of Microbiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Shively, John E., E-mail: jshively@coh.org [Department of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)

    2009-06-10

    CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell-cell adhesion has been shown to act as an angiogenic factor for mouse and human endothelial cells. Based on the ability of CEACAM1 to initiate lumen formation in human mammary epithelial cells grown in 3D culture (Matrigel), we hypothesized that murine CEACAM1 may play a similar role in vasculogenesis. In order to test this hypothesis, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells stimulated with VEGF were differentiated into embryoid bodies (EB) for 8 days (- 8-0 d) and transferred to Matrigel in the presence or absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody for an additional 12 days (0-12 d). In the absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody or in the presence of an isotype control antibody, the EB in Matrigel underwent extensive sprouting, generating lengthy vascular structures with well-defined lumina as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Both the length and architecture of the vascular tubes were inhibited by anti-CEACAM1 mAb CC1, a mAb that blocks the cell-cell adhesion functions of CEACAM1, thus demonstrating a critical role for this cell-cell adhesion molecule in generating and maintaining vasculogenesis. QRT-PCR analysis of the VEGF treated ES cells grown under conditions that convert them to EB revealed expression of Ceacam1 as early as - 5 to - 3 d reaching a maximum at day 0 at which time EBs were transferred to Matrigel, thereafter levels at first declined and then increased over time. Other markers of vasculogenesis including Pecam1, VE-Cad, and Tie-1 were not detected until day 0 when EBs were transferred to Matrigel followed by a steady increase in levels, indicating later roles in vasculogenesis. In contrast, Tie-2 and Flk-1 (VEGFR2) were detected on day five of EB formation reaching a maximum at day 0 on transfer to Matrigel, similar to Ceacam1, but after which Tie-2 declined over time, while Flk-1 increased

  14. Size and dielectric properties of skeletal stem cells change critically after enrichment and expansion from human bone marrow: consequences for microfluidic cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Miguel; de Andrés, María C; Spencer, Daniel; Oreffo, Richard O C; Morgan, Hywel

    2017-08-01

    The capacity of bone and cartilage to regenerate can be attributed to skeletal stem cells (SSCs) that reside within the bone marrow (BM). Given SSCs are rare and lack specific surface markers, antibody-based sorting has failed to deliver the cell purity required for clinical translation. Microfluidics offers new methods of isolating cells based on biophysical features including, but not limited to, size, electrical properties and stiffness. Here we report the characterization of the dielectric properties of unexpanded SSCs using single-cell microfluidic impedance cytometry (MIC). Unexpanded SSCs had a mean size of 9.0 µm; larger than the majority of BM cells. During expansion, often used to purify and increase the number of SSCs, cell size and membrane capacitance increased significantly, highlighting the importance of characterizing unaltered SSCs. In addition, MIC was used to track the osteogenic differentiation of SSCs and showed an increased membrane capacitance with differentiation. The electrical properties of primary SSCs were indistinct from other BM cells precluding its use as an isolation method. However, the current studies indicate that cell size in combination with another biophysical parameter, such as stiffness, could be used to design label-free devices for sorting SSCs with significant clinical impact. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. IB-LBM study on cell sorting by pinched flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingtao; Xu, Yuanqing; Tian, Fangbao; Tang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Separation of two categories of cells in pinched flow fractionation(PFF) device is simulated by employing IB-LBM. The separation performances at low Reynolds number (about 1) under different pinched segment widths, flow ratios, cell features, and distances between neighboring cells are studied and the results are compared with those predicted by the empirical formula. The simulation indicates that the diluent flow rate should approximate to or more than the flow rate of particle solution in order to get a relatively ideal separation performance. The discrepancy of outflow position between numerical simulation and the empirical prediction enlarges, when the cells become more flexible. Too short distance between two neighboring cells could lead to cell banding which would result in incomplete separation, and the relative position of two neighboring cells influences the banding of cells. The present study will probably provide some new applications of PFF, and make some suggestions on the design of PFF devices.

  16. Enhanced Anticancer Activity of PF-04691502, a Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor, in Combination With VEGF siRNA Against Non–small-cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Espana-Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States accounting for about 27% of all cancer deceases. In our effort to develop newer therapy for lung cancer, we evaluated the combinatory antitumor effect of siRNA targeting VEGF and the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor PF-04691502. We analyzed the anticancer effect of siRNA VEGF and PF-04691502 combination on proliferation, colony formation and migration of A549 and H460 lung cancer cells. Additionally, we assessed the combination treatment antiangiogenic effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Here, we show for the first time that the antiangiogenic siRNA VEGF potentiates the PF-04691502 anticancer activity against non–small-cell lung cancer. We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in cell viability, colony formation, and migration for the combination comparing with the single drug treatment. We also showed a significant (P < 0.05 enhanced effect of the combination treatment inhibiting angiogenesis progression and tube formation organization compared to the single drug treatment groups. Our findings demonstrated an enhanced synergistic anticancer effect of siRNA VEGF and PF-04691502 combination therapy by targeting two main pathways involved in lung cancer cell survival and angiogenesis which will be useful for future preclinical studies and potentially for lung cancer patient management.

  17. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor, Tissue Factor, and VEGF-R Bound VEGF in Human Breast Cancer In Loco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Sierko, Ewa; Skalij, Piotr; Kamińska, Magda; Zimnoch, Lech; Brekken, Ralf A; Thorpe, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin and docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens used in breast cancer patients are associated with high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) are recommended for both treating and preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Increased thrombosis incidence in G-CSF treated patients was reported; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The principal activator of blood coagulation in cancer is tissue factor (TF). It additionally contributes to cancer progression and stimulates angiogenesis. The main proangiogenic factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the study was to evaluate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), tissue factor (TF) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) bound VEGF in human breast cancer in loco. G-CSFR, TF and VEGFR bound VEGF (VEGF: VEGFR) were assessed in 28 breast cancer tissue samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methodologies according to ABC technique and double staining IHC procedure were employed utilizing antibodies against G-CSFR, TF and VEGF associated with VEGFR (VEGF: VEGFR). Expression of G-CSFR was demonstrated in 20 breast cancer tissue specimens (71%). In 6 cases (21%) the expression was strong (IRS 9-12). Strong expression of TF was observed in all investigated cases (100%). Moreover, expression of VEGF: VEGFR was visualized in cancer cells (IRS 5-8). No presence of G-CSFR, TF or VEGF: VEGFR was detected on healthy breast cells. Double staining IHC studies revealed co-localization of G-CSFR and TF, G-CSFR and VEGF: VEGFR, as well as TF and VEGF: VEGFR on breast cancer cells and ECs. The results of the study indicate that GCSFR, TF and VEGF: VEGFR expression as well as their co-expression might influence breast cancer biology, and may increase thromboembolic adverse events incidence.

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Enter Human Epithelial Cells via an Endocytic Pathway and Are Sorted to Lysosomal Compartments ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Nobumichi; Tsuda, Kayoko; Omori, Hiroko; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Amano, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including major fimbriae and proteases termed gingipains, although it is not confirmed whether MVs enter host cells. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in the interactions of P. gingivalis MVs with human epithelial cells. Our results showed that MVs swiftly adhered to HeLa and immortalized human gingival epithelial cells in a fimbria-dependent manner and then entered via a lipid raft-dependent endocytic pathway. The intracellular MVs were subsequently routed to early endosome antigen 1-associated compartments and then were sorted to lysosomal compartments within 90 min, suggesting that intracellular MVs were ultimately degraded by the cellular digestive machinery. However, P. gingivalis MVs remained there for over 24 h and significantly induced acidified compartment formation after being taken up by the cellular digestive machinery. In addition, MV entry was shown to be mediated by a novel pathway for transmission of bacterial products into host cells, a Rac1-regulated pinocytic pathway that is independent of caveolin, dynamin, and clathrin. Our findings indicate that P. gingivalis MVs efficiently enter host cells via an endocytic pathway and survive within the endocyte organelles for an extended period, which provides better understanding of the role of MVs in the etiology of periodontitis. PMID:19651865

  19. High purity microfluidic sorting and analysis of circulating tumor cells: towards routine mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autebert, Julien; Coudert, Benoit; Champ, Jérôme; Saias, Laure; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Lebofsky, Ronald; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Farace, Françoise; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2015-05-07

    A new generation of the Ephesia cell capture technology optimized for CTC capture and genetic analysis is presented, characterized in depth and compared with the CellSearch system as a reference. This technology uses magnetic particles bearing tumour-cell specific EpCAM antibodies, self-assembled in a regular array in a microfluidic flow cell. 48,000 high aspect-ratio columns are generated using a magnetic field in a high throughput (>3 ml h(-1)) device and act as sieves to specifically capture the cells of interest through antibody-antigen interactions. Using this device optimized for CTC capture and analysis, we demonstrated the capture of epithelial cells with capture efficiency above 90% for concentrations as low as a few cells per ml. We showed the high specificity of capture with only 0.26% of non-epithelial cells captured for concentrations above 10 million cells per ml. We investigated the capture behavior of cells in the device, and correlated the cell attachment rate with the EpCAM expression on the cell membranes for six different cell lines. We developed and characterized a two-step blood processing method to allow for rapid processing of 10 ml blood tubes in less than 4 hours, and showed a capture rate of 70% for as low as 25 cells spiked in 10 ml blood tubes, with less than 100 contaminating hematopoietic cells. Using this device and procedure, we validated our system on patient samples using an automated cell immunostaining procedure and a semi-automated cell counting method. Our device captured CTCs in 75% of metastatic prostate cancer patients and 80% of metastatic breast cancer patients, and showed similar or better results than the CellSearch device in 10 out of 13 samples. Finally, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting cancer-related PIK3CA gene mutation in 20 cells captured in the chip with a good correlation between the cell count and the quantitation value Cq of the post-capture qPCR.

  20. Flow sorting in aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Reckermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow sorting can be a very helpful tool in revealing phytoplankton and bacterial community structure and elaborating specific physiological parameters of isolated species. Droplet sorting has been the most common technique. Despite the high optical and hydro-dynamic stress for the cells to be sorted, many species grow in culture subsequent to sorting. To date, flow sorting has been applied to post-incubation separation in natural water samples to account for group-specific physiological parameters (radiotracer-uptake rates, to the production of clonal or non-clonal cultures from mixtures, to the isolaton of cell groups from natural assemblages for molecular analyses, and for taxonomic identification of sorted cells by microscopy. The application of cell sorting from natural water samples from the Wadden Sea, including different cryptophytes, cyanobacteria and diatoms, is shown, as well as the establishment of laboratory cultures from field samples. The optional use of a red laser to account for phycocyanine-rich cells is also discussed.

  1. VEGF immunoexpression in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the vessel endothelial growth factor (VEGF as a risk factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with penile carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age and standard deviation were 61.1±11.7 years. All of them were treated by penectomy and those with positive nodes underwent groin lymphadenectomy. Tumor grading was 35 G1 and 12 G2/3. Primary lesion stage was 24 pT1 and 23 pT2-4. Positive inguinal nodes were observed in 15 patients. Selected paraffin embedded sections were submitted to VEGF immunohistochemical analysis by the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method with antigen retrieval. All slides were examined using an automatic analyzer system and the proportion of labeled cells in 10 high magnification power fields (400X were recorded in a blind analysis. RESULTS: Median (% labeling index was 2.3 in G1 versus 2.2 in G2/3 tumors (p=0.60, and 4.0 in pT1 versus 1.8 pT2-4 tumors (p=0.10. The respective data for pN0 patients was 2.8 and for pN+ was 2.1 (p=0.20. Survival curves showed no association with patients survival. CONCLUSION: In squamous cell carcinoma of the penis the VEGF immunoexpression has no association with tumor grade or stage, as well as with patient survival.

  2. Suspension culture combined with chemotherapeutic agents for sorting of breast cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-zhi; Yi, Tong-bo; Wu, Zheng-yan

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has not been well demonstrated by the lack of the most convincing evidence concerning a single cell capable of giving rise to a tumor. The scarcity in quantity and improper approaches for isolation and purification of CSCs have become the major obstacles for great development in CSCs. Here we adopted suspension culture combined with anticancer regimens as a strategy for screening breast cancer stem cells (BrCSCs). BrCSCs could survive and be highly enriched in non-adherent suspension culture while chemotherapeutic agents could destroy most rapidly dividing cancer cells and spare relatively quiescent BrCSCs. TM40D murine breast cancer cells were cultured in serum-free medium. The expression of CD44 + CD24 - was measured by flow cytometry. Cells of passage 10 were treated in combination with anticancer agents pacilitaxel and epirubicin at different peak plasma concentrations for 24 hours, and then maintained under suspension culture. The rate of apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double staining method. Selected cells in different amounts were injected subcutaneously into BALB/C mice to observe tumor formation. Cells of passage 10 in suspension culture had the highest percentage of CD44 + CD24 - (about 77 percent). A single tumor cell in 0.35 PPC could generate tumors in 3 of 20 BALB/C mice. Suspension culture combined with anticancer regimens provides an effective means of isolating, culturing and purifying BrCSCs

  3. Disruption of sorting nexin 5 causes respiratory failure associated with undifferentiated alveolar epithelial type I cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyoung Im

    Full Text Available Sorting nexin 5 (Snx5 has been posited to regulate the degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor and the retrograde trafficking of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. Snx5 has also been suggested to interact with Mind bomb-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the activation of Notch signaling. However, the in vivo functions of Snx5 are largely unknown. Here, we report that disruption of the Snx5 gene in mice (Snx5(-/- mice resulted in partial perinatal lethality; 40% of Snx5(-/- mice died shortly after birth due to cyanosis, reduced air space in the lungs, and respiratory failure. Histological analysis revealed that Snx5(-/- mice exhibited thickened alveolar walls associated with undifferentiated alveolar epithelial type I cells. In contrast, alveolar epithelial type II cells were intact, exhibiting normal surfactant synthesis and secretion. Although the expression levels of surfactant proteins and saturated phosphatidylcholine in the lungs of Snx5(-/- mice were comparable to those of Snx5(+/+ mice, the expression levels of T1α, Aqp5, and Rage, markers for distal alveolar epithelial type I cells, were significantly decreased in Snx5 (-/- mice. These results demonstrate that Snx5 is necessary for the differentiation of alveolar epithelial type I cells, which may underlie the adaptation to air breathing at birth.

  4. The odontogenic potential of STRO-1 sorted rat dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Zhang, W.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of heterogeneous cell populations in dental pulp may count for the considerable variation in the outcome of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, we intended to determine whether a minor cell sub-population of high proliferation and odontogenic potential existed among a larger

  5. Molecular pathways of early CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with CD34-positive common precursor cells by flow cytometric cell-sorting and gene expression profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machherndl-Spandl, S; Suessner, S; Danzer, M; Proell, J; Gabriel, C; Lauf, J; Sylie, R; Klein, H-U; Béné, M C; Weltermann, A; Bettelheim, P

    2013-01-01

    Special attention has recently been drawn to the molecular network of different genes that are responsible for the development of erythroid cells. The aim of the present study was to establish in detail the immunophenotype of early erythroid cells and to compare the gene expression profile of freshly isolated early erythroid precursors with that of the CD34-positive (CD34 + ) compartment. Multiparameter flow cytometric analyses of human bone marrow mononuclear cell fractions (n=20) defined three distinct early erythroid stages. The gene expression profile of sorted early erythroid cells was analyzed by Affymetrix array technology. For 4524 genes, a differential regulation was found in CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with the CD34 + progenitor compartment (2362 upregulated genes). A highly significant difference was observed in the expression level of genes involved in transcription, heme synthesis, iron and mitochondrial metabolism and transforming growth factor-β signaling. A comparison with recently published data showed over 1000 genes that as yet have not been reported to be upregulated in the early erythroid lineage. The gene expression level within distinct pathways could be illustrated directly by applying the Ingenuity software program. The results of gene expression analyses can be seen at the Gene Expression Omnibus repository

  6. Replacement of the cytoplasmic domain alters sorting of a viral glycoprotein in polarized cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Puddington, L; Woodgett, C; Rose, J K

    1987-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is transported to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, whereas the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA protein) of influenza virus is transported to the apical plasma membrane. To determine if the cytoplasmic domain of VSV G protein might be important in directing G protein to the basolateral membrane, we derived polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing G protein or G protein with i...

  7. Elevated IGFIR expression regulating VEGF and VEGF-C predicts lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Hao, Li; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Yichuan; Ge, Hailiang; Zhu, Zhenya; Luo, Yunbao; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGFIR) has been shown to regulate the tumor development. The objective of the current study is to determine the association of IGFIR with lymph node metastasis and to explore the related mechanism in human colorectal cancer in clinic. In a random series of 98 colorectal cancer patients, the expressions of IGFIR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C were investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the association of these expressions with lymph node metastasis was statistically analyzed. The expressions of VEGF and VEGF-C in colorectal cancer cells stimulated with IGF-I were also examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher rates of IGFIR (46%), VEGF (53%), and VEGF-C (46%) expression were found in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal and colorectal adenoma tissues. These expressions were significantly associated with clinicopathologic factors and lymph node status. We also found the concomitant high expressions of IGFIR/VEGF (P < 0.001) and IGFIR/VEGF-C (P = 0.001) had a stronger correlation with lymph node metastasis than did each alone or both low expressions. In addition, IGF-I could effectively induce the VEGF and VEGF-C mRNA expression and protein secretion in colorectal cancer cells expressing IGFIR molecules. Moreover, Patients who had strong staining for IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C showed significantly less favorable survival rates compared with patients who had low staining for these molecules (P < 0.001). The survival rates of patients who were both high expression of IGFIR/VEGF and IGFIR/VEGF-C also were significantly lower compared with patients who were negative or one of high expression of these molecules (P < 0.001). Together the findings indicated for the first time that simultaneous examination of the expressions of IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C will benefit the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in order to assay the

  8. DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-C, and S-adenosylmethionine is effective for VEGF-C methylation and for inhibiting cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, M.X. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Y.B. [Department of Surgery, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Yao, J.B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Duan, Y.X. [Department of Surgery, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China)

    2014-09-30

    DNA hypomethylation may activate oncogene transcription, thus promoting carcinogenesis and tumor development. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions and acts as an inhibitor of intracellular demethylase activity, which results in hypermethylation of DNA. The main objectives of this study were to determine whether DNA hypomethylation correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression, and the effect of SAM on VEGF-C methylation and gastric cancer growth inhibition. VEGF-C expression was assayed by Western blotting and RT-qPCR in gastric cancer cells, and by immunohistochemistry in tumor xenografts. VEGF-C methylation was assayed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. The effect of SAM on cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry analyses and its effect on cancer growth was assessed in nude mice. The VEGF-C promoters of MGC-803, BGC-823, and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells, which normally express VEGF-C, were nearly unmethylated. After SAM treatment, the VEGF-C promoters in these cells were highly methylated and VEGF-C expression was downregulated. SAM also significantly inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-C. SAM can effectively induce VEGF-C methylation, reduce the expression of VEGF-C, and inhibit tumor growth. SAM has potential as a drug therapy to silence oncogenes and block the progression of gastric cancer.

  9. Silymarin Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Proangiogenic Response in Brain Endothelial Cells through a GSK-3β Inhibition-Induced Reduction of VEGF Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alhusban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the potential of silymarin to ameliorate diabetes-induced aberrant angiogenesis, human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i were treated with 50 μg/mL advanced glycation end (AGE products in the presence or absence of silymarin (50, 100 μM. The angiogenic potential of HBEC-5i was evaluated in terms of migration and in vitro tube formation capacities. The involvement of GSK-3β was also evaluated. AGE significantly increased the migration and tube formation rates of HBEC-5i by about onefold (p=0.0001. Silymarin reduced AGE-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner where 50 μM reduced migration by about 50%, whereas the 100 μM completely inhibited AGE-induced migration. Similarly, silymarin 50 μg/mL blunted AGE-induced tube formation (p=0.001. This effect was mediated through a GSK-3β-dependent inhibition of VEGF release. In conclusion, silymarin inhibits AGE-induced aberrant angiogenesis in a GSK-3β-mediated inhibition of VEGF release.

  10. Regulation of VEGF signaling by membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arie; Seerapu, Himabindu Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Recent findings have drawn attention to the role of membrane traffic in the signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The significance of this development stems from the pivotal function of VEGF in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The outline of the regulation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signaling by membrane traffic is similar to that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a prototype of the intertwining between membrane traffic and signaling. There are, however, unique features in VEGFR signaling that are conferred in part by the involvement of the co-receptor neuropilin (Nrp). Nrp1 and VEGFR2 are integrated into membrane traffic through the adaptor protein synectin, which recruits myosin VI, a molecular motor that drives inward trafficking [17,21,64]. The recent detection of only mild vascular defects in a knockin mouse model that expresses Nrp1 lacking a cytoplasmic domain [104], questions the co-receptor's role in VEGF signaling and membrane traffic. The regulation of endocytosis by ephrin-B2 is another feature unique to VEGR2/3 [18,19], but it awaits a mechanistic explanation. Current models do not fully explain how membrane traffic bridges between VEGFR and the downstream effectors that produce its functional outcome, such as cell migration. VEGF-A appears to accomplish this task in part by recruiting endocytic vesicles carrying RhoA to internalized active VEGFR2 [58]. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards microfluidic sperm refinement : impedance-based analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    The use of high quality semen for artificial insemination in the livestock industry is essential for successful outcome. Insemination using semen with a high number of sperm cells containing morphological defects has a negative impact on fertilization outcome. Therefore, semen with a high number of

  12. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  13. ProSAAS-derived peptides are differentially processed and sorted in mouse brain and AtT-20 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Wardman

    Full Text Available ProSAAS is the precursor for some of the most abundant peptides found in mouse brain and other tissues, including peptides named SAAS, PEN, and LEN. Both SAAS and LEN are found in big and little forms due to differential processing. Initial processing of proSAAS is mediated by furin (and/or furin-like enzymes and carboxypeptidase D, while the smaller forms are generated by secretory granule prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. In mouse hypothalamus, PEN and big LEN colocalize with neuropeptide Y. In the present study, little LEN and SAAS were detected in mouse hypothalamus but not in cell bodies of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons. PEN and big LEN show substantial colocalization in hypothalamus, but big LEN and little LEN do not. An antiserum to SAAS that detects both big and little forms of this peptide did not show substantial colocalization with PEN or big LEN. To further study this, the AtT-20 cells mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line was transfected with rat proSAAS and the distribution of peptides examined. As found in mouse hypothalamus, only some of the proSAAS-derived peptides colocalized with each other in AtT-20 cells. The two sites within proSAAS that are known to be efficiently cleaved by furin were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to convert the P4 Arg into Lys; this change converts the sequences from furin consensus sites into prohormone convertase consensus sites. Upon expression of the mutated form of proSAAS in AtT-20 cells, there was significantly more colocalization of proSAAS-derived peptides PEN and SAAS. Taken together, these results indicate that proSAAS is initially cleaved in the Golgi or trans-Golgi network by furin and/or furin-like enzymes and the resulting fragments are sorted into distinct vesicles and further processed by additional enzymes into the mature peptides.

  14. Verification of counting sort and radix sort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.C. Rot (Jurriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSorting is an important algorithmic task used in many applications. Two main aspects of sorting algorithms which have been studied extensively are complexity and correctness. [Foley and Hoare, 1971] published the first formal correctness proof of a sorting algorithm (Quicksort). While

  15. In vivo VEGF imaging with radiolabeled bevacizumab in a human ovarian tumor xenograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagengast, Wouter B.; Hospers, Geke A.; Mulder, Nanno H.; de Jong, Johan R.; Hollema, Harry; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; van Dongen, Guns A.; Perk, Lars R.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), released by tumor cells, is an important growth factor in tumor angiogenesis. The humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab blocks VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis by binding, thereby neutralizing VEGF. Our aim was to develop radiolabeled bevacizumab for

  16. Isolation of αL I domain mutants mediating firm cell adhesion using a novel flow-based sorting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Lauren R; Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Robbins, Gregory P; Dang, Nicholas N; Hammer, Daniel A; Boder, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    The inserted (I) domain of αLβ2 integrin (LFA-1) contains the entire binding site of the molecule. It mediates both rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes at sites of inflammation depending on the activation state of the integrin. The affinity change of the entire integrin can be mimicked by the I domain alone through mutations that affect the conformation of the molecule. High-affinity mutants of the I domain have been discovered previously using both rational design and directed evolution. We have found that binding affinity fails to dictate the behavior of I domain adhesion under shear flow. In order to better understand I domain adhesion, we have developed a novel panning method to separate yeast expressing a library of I domain variants on the surface by adhesion under flow. Using conditions analogous to those experienced by cells interacting with the post-capillary vascular endothelium, we have identified mutations supporting firm adhesion that are not found using typical directed evolution techniques that select for tight binding to soluble ligands. Mutants isolated using this method do not cluster with those found by sorting with soluble ligand. Furthermore, these mutants mediate shear-driven cell rolling dynamics decorrelated from binding affinity, as previously observed for I domains bearing engineered disulfide bridges to stabilize activated conformational states. Characterization of these mutants supports a greater understanding of the structure-function relationship of the αL I domain, and of the relationship between applied force and bioadhesion in a broader context.

  17. Combined VEGF and CXCR4 antagonism targets the GBM stem cell population and synergistically improves survival in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amy; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Warrington, Nicole M; Smith, Erin; Wen, Patrick Y; Brekken, Rolf A; Romagnoli, Barbara; Douglas, Garry; Chevalier, Eric; Bauer, Michael P; Dembowsky, Klaus; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B

    2014-10-30

    Glioblastoma recurrence involves the persistence of a subpopulation of cells with enhanced tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) that reside within the perivascular space, or niche (PVN). Anti-angiogenic therapies may prevent the formation of new PVN but have not prevented recurrence in clinical trials, suggesting they cannot abrogate TIC activity. We hypothesized that combining anti-angiogenic therapy with blockade of PVN function would have superior anti-tumor activity. We tested this hypothesis in an established intracranial xenograft model of GBM using a monoclonal antibody specific for murine and human VEGF (mcr84) and a Protein Epitope Mimetic (PEM) CXCR4 antagonist, POL5551. When doses of POL5551 were increased to overcome an mcr84-induced improvement in vascular barrier function, combinatorial therapy significantly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-tumor activity was associated with significant changes in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and a reduction in the numbers of perivascular cells expressing the TIC marker nestin. A direct effect on TICs was demonstrated for POL5551, but not mcr84, in three primary patient-derived GBM isolates. These findings indicate that targeting the structure and function of the PVN has superior anti-tumor effect and provide a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of POL5551 and Avastin in patients with GBM.

  18. Molecular Pharmacology of VEGF-A Isoforms: Binding and Signalling at VEGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chloe J; Mignone, Viviane W; Arruda, Maria Augusta; Alcobia, Diana C; Hill, Stephen J; Kilpatrick, Laura E; Woolard, Jeanette

    2018-04-23

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a key mediator of angiogenesis, signalling via the class IV tyrosine kinase receptor family of VEGF Receptors (VEGFRs). Although VEGF-A ligands bind to both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, they primarily signal via VEGFR2 leading to endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration and vascular permeability. Distinct VEGF-A isoforms result from alternative splicing of the Vegfa gene at exon 8, resulting in VEGF xxx a or VEGF xxx b isoforms. Alternative splicing events at exons 5⁻7, in addition to recently identified posttranslational read-through events, produce VEGF-A isoforms that differ in their bioavailability and interaction with the co-receptor Neuropilin-1. This review explores the molecular pharmacology of VEGF-A isoforms at VEGFR2 in respect to ligand binding and downstream signalling. To understand how VEGF-A isoforms have distinct signalling despite similar affinities for VEGFR2, this review re-evaluates the typical classification of these isoforms relative to the prototypical, “pro-angiogenic” VEGF 165 a. We also examine the molecular mechanisms underpinning the regulation of VEGF-A isoform signalling and the importance of interactions with other membrane and extracellular matrix proteins. As approved therapeutics targeting the VEGF-A/VEGFR signalling axis largely lack long-term efficacy, understanding these isoform-specific mechanisms could aid future drug discovery efforts targeting VEGF receptor pharmacology.

  19. Fine-tuning of T-cell development by the CD3γ di-leucine-based TCR-sorting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Boding, Lasse; Buus, Terkild B

    2015-01-01

    The CD3γ di-leucine-based (diL) receptor-sorting motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation and in clonal expansion of virus-specific T cells. However, the role of the CD3γ diL motif in T-cell development is not known. In this study, we show that protein kinase C-induced TCR down-regulatio......The CD3γ di-leucine-based (diL) receptor-sorting motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation and in clonal expansion of virus-specific T cells. However, the role of the CD3γ diL motif in T-cell development is not known. In this study, we show that protein kinase C-induced TCR down...

  20. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2015-05-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. VEGF-production by CCR2-dependent macrophages contributes to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten A Krause

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly, and its exsudative subtype critically depends on local production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF. Mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia cells, can produce VEGF. Their precursors, for example monocytes, can be recruited to sites of inflammation by the chemokine receptor CCR2, and this has been proposed to be important in AMD. To investigate the role of macrophages and CCR2 in AMD, we studied intracellular VEGF content in a laser-induced murine model of choroidal neovascularisation. To this end, we established a technique to quantify the VEGF content in cell subsets from the laser-treated retina and choroid separately. 3 days after laser, macrophage numbers and their VEGF content were substantially elevated in the choroid. Macrophage accumulation was CCR2-dependent, indicating recruitment from the circulation. In the retina, microglia cells were the main VEGF+ phagocyte type. A greater proportion of microglia cells contained VEGF after laser, and this was CCR2-independent. On day 6, VEGF-expressing macrophage numbers had already declined, whereas numbers of VEGF+ microglia cells remained increased. Other sources of VEGF detectable by flow cytometry included in dendritic cells and endothelial cells in both retina and choroid, and Müller cells/astrocytes in the retina. However, their VEGF content was not increased after laser. When we analyzed flatmounts of laser-treated eyes, CCR2-deficient mice showed reduced neovascular areas after 2 weeks, but this difference was not evident 3 weeks after laser. In summary, CCR2-dependent influx of macrophages causes a transient VEGF increase in the choroid. However, macrophages augmented choroidal neovascularization only initially, presumably because VEGF production by CCR2-independent eye cells prevailed at later time points. These findings identify macrophages as a relevant source

  2. Data on cell growth inhibition induced by anti-VEGF siRNA delivered by Stealth liposomes incorporating G2 PAMAM-cholesterol versus Metafectene® as a function of exposure time and siRNA concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Golkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, carboxyfluorescein-loaded liposomes were prepared and purified from free carboxyfluorescein using gel filtration chromatography in the first part. In the next part, following preparation of anti-VEGF siRNA loaded liposomes incorporating hydrophobically modified G2 PAMAM dendrimer (G2-Chol40% (Golkar et al., 2016 [1], the cell growth inhibition induced by the formulations (siRNA/Metafectene complexes and siRNA loaded liposomes incorporating hydrophobic G2 was evaluated at two exposure times through MTT assay in a breast cancer cell (SKBR-3 and compared by two-way ANOVA. Keywords: Anti-VEGF siRNA, Cell growth inhibition, Polyamidoaminedendrimer, Liposome

  3. Analysis of protein incorporation of radioactive isotopes in the Chinese hamster ovary cell cycle by electronic sorting and gel microelectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipkin, J.L.; Anson, J.F.; Hinson, W.G.; Schol, H.; Burns, E.R.; Casciano, D.A.

    1986-03-01

    The patterns of (3H)-leucine and (32P)-phosphate incorporation of proteins extracted with varying molarities of sodium chloride were analyzed from nuclei physically sorted from six fluorescence windows after propidium iodine staining of the G0 + G1 and G2 + M phases of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cycle. Eight hundred nanograms of protein were used in each electrophoretic analysis obtained from 200,000 nuclei, a portion of the sample, from each window. Autoradiography was performed in a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ultra-microelectrophoresis apparatus (UMEA) designed and fabricated in this laboratory. There was a net reduction and/or loss of (3H)-leucine- and (32P)-phosphate-labeled protein regions from the autoradiographs occurring primarily in the G2 + M phase. Two phosphorylated proteins that were stage specific were observed in partitions of the G2 + M phase. The use of isolated proteins and the coelectrophoresis of these markers demonstrated the similarity in mobility of a number of proteins seen in the autoradiographs of proteins extracted with high and low salt molarities and implied they are synonymous. Coelectrophoresis indicated that a substantial number of high molecular weight proteins that decreased or disappeared at late stages of G2 + M and early mitosis were composed, in part, of nucleolar proteins.

  4. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets: Linking light scatter-based cell typing and imaging of the sorted populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodó, Kornélia; Ernszt, Dávid; Somogyi, Ildikó; Steib, Anita; Orbán, József; Pollák, Edit; Nyitrai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Molnár, László

    2016-12-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cimetidine-induced Leydig cell apoptosis and reduced EG-VEGF (PK-1) immunoexpression in rats: Evidence for the testicular vasculature atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Flávia L; Cerri, Paulo S; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2015-11-01

    The antiulcer drug cimetidine has shown to cause changes in the testicular microvasculature of adult rats. Since Leydig cells (LCs) produce the pro-angiogenic factor, EG-VEGF (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor), also known as prokineticin 1 (PK-1), this study examined the effect that cimetidine might have on LCs in testes with damaged vasculature. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of 100mg/kg of cimetidine (cimetidine group) or saline vehicle (control group) for 50 days. Serum testosterone levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay and testicular sections were subjected to TUNEL and immunohistochemical reactions for caspase-3, 17β-HSD6, CD163 (ED2 macrophage), PK-1 and androgen receptor (AR). LCs in the cimetidine group showed TUNEL and caspase-3 positive labeling and apoptotic ultrastructural features. Moreover, the presence of 17β-HSD6-positive inclusions inside macrophages and the reduced number of LCs, AR immunoreactivity and serum testosterone levels correlated with a decrease in either the number of PK-1-immunostained LCs or PK-1 immunoreactivity. Although it is not clear which cell type is the primary target of cimetidine in the testicular interstitial compartment, these findings support a direct link between cimetidine-induced testicular vascular atrophy and LCs damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential expression of VEGF ligands and receptors in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, David J; Opeskin, Kenneth; Coso, Sanja; Wu, Di; Baldwin, Megan E; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer disseminates to regional lymph nodes, however the molecular mechanisms responsible for lymph node metastasis are poorly understood. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand and receptor family have been implicated in the growth and spread of prostate cancer via activation of the blood vasculature and lymphatic systems. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine the expression pattern of VEGF ligands and receptors in the glandular epithelium, stroma, lymphatic vasculature and blood vessels in prostate cancer. The localization of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 was examined in cancerous and adjacent benign prostate tissue from 52 subjects representing various grades of prostate cancer. Except for VEGFR-2, extensive staining was observed for all ligands and receptors in the prostate specimens. In epithelial cells, VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 expression was higher in tumor tissue compared to benign tissue. VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 expression was significantly higher in benign tissue compared to tumor in the stroma and the endothelium of lymphatic and blood vessels. In addition, the frequency of lymphatic vessels, but not blood vessels, was lower in tumor tissue compared with benign tissue. These results suggest that activation of VEGFR-1 by VEGF-A within the carcinoma, and activation of lymphatic endothelial cell VEGFR-3 by VEGF-D within the adjacent benign stroma may be important signaling mechanisms involved in the progression and subsequent metastatic spread of prostate cancer. Thus inhibition of these pathways may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway molecules β-catenin and GSK-3β and the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haitao; He, Songqi; Wen, Bin; Jia, Wenyan; Fan, Eryan; Zheng, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on the expressions of the signal molecules and target genes of Wnt signal pathway in HepG2 cells and explore the mechanisms by which Biejiajian pills suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of serum collected from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills. The expressions of β-catenin, GSK-3β and P-GSK-3β in the cultured cells were assessed by Western blotting and the expressions of CD44v6 and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry. HepG2 cells cultured with the serum of rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed lowered expressions of β-catenin protein both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei with also inhibition of phosphorylation of GSK-3β and reduced expression of CD44v6 and VEGF. Biejiajian Pills can significantly reduce the expression of β-catenin by decreasing the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to cause down-regulation of the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which Biejiajian Pills suppress the proliferation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. The immunohistochemical expression of endocrine gland-derived-VEGF (EG-VEGF) as a prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălu, Sevilla; Pirtea, L; Gaje, Puşa; Cîmpean, Anca Maria; Raica, M

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer-related angiogenesis is a complex process orchestrated by many positive and negative regulators. Many growth factors are involved in the development of the tumor-associated vasculature, and from these, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) seems to play a crucial role. EG-VEGF is the first organ-specific angiogenic factor and its effects are restricted to the endothelial cells of the endocrine glands. Although EG-VEGF was detected in both normal and neoplastic ovaries, its clinical significance remains controversial. In the present study, we analyzed 30 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, and the immunohistochemical expression of EG-VEGF was compared with the conventional clinico-pathological parameters of prognosis. Neoplastic cells of the ovarian carcinoma expressed EG-VEGF in 73.33% of the cases, as a cytoplasmic granular product of reaction. We found a strong correlation between the expression of EG-VEGF at protein level and tumor stage, grade, and microscopic type. The expression of EG-VEGF was found in patients with stage III and IV, but not in stage II. The majority of serous adenocarcinoma, half of the cases with clear cell carcinoma and two cases with endometrioid carcinoma showed definite expression in tumor cells. No positive reaction was found in the cases with mucinous carcinoma. Our results showed that EG-VEGF expression is an indicator not only of the advanced stage, but also of ovarian cancer progression. Based on these data, we concluded that EG-VEGF expression in tumor cells of the epithelial ovarian cancer is a good marker of unfavorable prognosis and could be an attractive therapeutic target in patients with advanced-stage tumors, refractory conventional chemotherapy.

  9. Comparative analysis of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in age-related macular degeneration patients using automated rare cell analysis (ARCA and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Anthony T Say

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD begin with non-neovascular (NNV phenotypes usually associated with good vision. Approximately 20% of NNV-ARMD patients will convert to vision debilitating neovascular (NV ARMD, but precise timing of this event is unknown. Developing a clinical test predicting impending conversion to NV-ARMD is necessary to prevent vision loss. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as CD34(+VEGR2(+ using traditional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, are rare cell populations known to be elevated in patients with NV-ARMD compared to NNV-ARMD. FACS has high inter-observer variability and subjectivity when measuring rare cell populations precluding development into a diagnostic test. We hypothesized that automated rare cell analysis (ARCA, a validated and FDA-approved technology for reproducible rare cell identification, can enumerate EPCs in ARMD patients more reliably. This pilot study serves as the first step in developing methods for reproducibly predicting ARMD phenotype conversion. METHODS: We obtained peripheral venous blood samples in 23 subjects with NNV-ARMD or treatment naïve NV-ARMD. Strict criteria were used to exclude subjects with known angiogenic diseases to minimize confounding results. Blood samples were analyzed in masked fashion in two separate laboratories. EPCs were independently enumerated using ARCA and FACS within 24 hours of blood sample collection, and p<0.2 was considered indicative of a trend for this proof of concept study, while statistical significance was established at 0.05. RESULTS: We measured levels of CD34(+VEGFR2(+ EPCs suggestive of a trend with higher values in patients with NV compared to NNV-ARMD (p = 0.17 using ARCA. Interestingly, CD34(+VEGR2(+ EPC analysis using FACS did not produce similar results (p = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: CD34(+VEGR2(+ may have predictive value for EPC enumeration in future ARCA studies. EPC measurements in a small sample

  10. Comparative analysis of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in age-related macular degeneration patients using automated rare cell analysis (ARCA) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Emil Anthony T; Melamud, Alex; Esserman, Denise Ann; Povsic, Thomas J; Chavala, Sai H

    2013-01-01

    Patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) begin with non-neovascular (NNV) phenotypes usually associated with good vision. Approximately 20% of NNV-ARMD patients will convert to vision debilitating neovascular (NV) ARMD, but precise timing of this event is unknown. Developing a clinical test predicting impending conversion to NV-ARMD is necessary to prevent vision loss. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), defined as CD34(+)VEGR2(+) using traditional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), are rare cell populations known to be elevated in patients with NV-ARMD compared to NNV-ARMD. FACS has high inter-observer variability and subjectivity when measuring rare cell populations precluding development into a diagnostic test. We hypothesized that automated rare cell analysis (ARCA), a validated and FDA-approved technology for reproducible rare cell identification, can enumerate EPCs in ARMD patients more reliably. This pilot study serves as the first step in developing methods for reproducibly predicting ARMD phenotype conversion. We obtained peripheral venous blood samples in 23 subjects with NNV-ARMD or treatment naïve NV-ARMD. Strict criteria were used to exclude subjects with known angiogenic diseases to minimize confounding results. Blood samples were analyzed in masked fashion in two separate laboratories. EPCs were independently enumerated using ARCA and FACS within 24 hours of blood sample collection, and ptrend for this proof of concept study, while statistical significance was established at 0.05. We measured levels of CD34(+)VEGFR2(+) EPCs suggestive of a trend with higher values in patients with NV compared to NNV-ARMD (p = 0.17) using ARCA. Interestingly, CD34(+)VEGR2(+) EPC analysis using FACS did not produce similar results (p = 0.94). CD34(+)VEGR2(+) may have predictive value for EPC enumeration in future ARCA studies. EPC measurements in a small sample size were suggestive of a trend in ARMD using ARCA but not FACS. ARCA could be a

  11. Major proteins in normal human lymphocyte subpopulations separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P S; Hokland, M; Ellegaard, J

    1988-01-01

    markers were observed in all cell types. All the putative protein markers have been identified in the protein database of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (see accompanying article by Celis et al.). Comparison of the overall patterns of protein synthesis of the unsorted PBMCs with those...... of the four subpopulations showed that the synthesis of some major PBMC proteins decreased substantially in the sorted subsets. These proteins are most likely not of monocyte origin, as these cells constituted only about 15% of the total PBMCs. Also, the inhibition does not seem to be due to the addition...

  12. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  13. Cell type-specific sorting of neuropeptides : a mechanism to modulate peptide composition of large dense core vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Spijker, S.; Minnen, J. van; Sharp-Baker, H.; Smit, A.B.; Geraerts, W.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis contains two populations of egg-laying hormone (ELH)-producing neurons that differ in size and topology. In type I neurons, all peptides located C-terminally from the cleavage site Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg180-183 are sorted into secretory large dense-core vesicles (LDCV), whereas

  14. Enrichment of putative pancreatic progenitor cells from mice by sorting for prominin1 (CD133) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Miki; Kuroda, Yoshikazu

    2008-11-01

    Success in islet transplantation-based therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus and an extreme shortage of pancreatic islets have motivated recent efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Although pancreatic progenitor cells hold a promising potential, only a few attempts have been made at the prospective isolation of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, because of the lack of specific markers and the development of effective cell culture methods. We found that prominin1 (also known as CD133) recognized the undifferentiated epithelial cells, whereas platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) was expressed on the mesenchymal cells in the mouse embryonic pancreas. We then developed an isolation method for putative stem/progenitor cells by flow cytometric cell sorting and characterized their potential for differentiation to pancreatic tissue using both in vitro and in vivo protocols. Flow cytometry and the subsequent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analysis revealed pancreatic epithelial progenitor cells to be highly enriched in the prominin1(high)PDGFRbeta(-) cell population. During in vivo differentiation, these cell populations were able to differentiate into endocrine, exocrine, and ductal tissues, including the formation of an insulin-producing cell cluster. We established the prospective isolation of putative pancreatic epithelial progenitor cells by sorting for prominin1 and PDGFRbeta. Since this strategy is based on the cell surface markers common to human and rodents, these findings may lead to the development of new strategies to derive transplantable islet-replacement tissues from human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  15. Generation of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies from Immunised Mice and Rabbits via Flow Cytometry and Sorting of Antigen-Specific IgG+ Memory B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale O Starkie

    Full Text Available Single B cell screening strategies, which avoid both hybridoma fusion and combinatorial display, have emerged as important technologies for efficiently sampling the natural antibody repertoire of immunized animals and humans. Having access to a range of methods to interrogate different B cell subsets provides an attractive option to ensure large and diverse panels of high quality antibody are produced. The generation of multiple antibodies and having the ability to find rare B cell clones producing IgG with unique and desirable characteristics facilitates the identification of fit-for-purpose molecules that can be developed into therapeutic agents or research reagents. Here, we describe a multi-parameter flow cytometry single-cell sorting technique for the generation of antigen-specific recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single IgG+ memory B cells. Both mouse splenocytes and rabbit PBMC from immunised animals were used as a source of B cells. Reagents staining both B cells and other unwanted cell types enabled efficient identification of class-switched IgG+ memory B cells. Concurrent staining with antigen labelled separately with two spectrally-distinct fluorophores enabled antigen-specific B cells to be identified, i.e. those which bind to both antigen conjugates (double-positive. These cells were then typically sorted at one cell per well using FACS directly into a 96-well plate containing reverse transcriptase reaction mix. Following production of cDNA, PCR was performed to amplify cognate heavy and light chain variable region genes and generate transcriptionally-active PCR (TAP fragments. These linear expression cassettes were then used directly in a mammalian cell transfection to generate recombinant antibody for further testing. We were able to successfully generate antigen-specific recombinant antibodies from both the rabbit and mouse IgG+ memory B cell subset within one week. This included the generation of an anti-TNFR2 blocking

  16. Radioiodinated VEGF to image tumor angiogenesis in a LS180 tumor xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kawai, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis. A method involving noninvasive detection of angiogenic activity in vivo would provide diagnostic information regarding antiangiogenic therapy targeting vascular endothelial cells as well as important insight into the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (flt-1 and KDR) system in tumor biology. We evaluated radioiodinated VEGF 121 , which displays high binding affinity for KDR, and VEGF 165 , which possesses high binding affinity for flt-1 and low affinity for KDR, as angiogenesis imaging agents using the LS180 tumor xenograft model. Methods: VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 were labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. Biodistribution was observed in an LS180 human colon cancer xenograft model. Additionally, autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical staining of tumors were performed with 125 I-VEGF 121 . Results: 125 I-VEGF 121 and 125 I-VEGF 165 exhibited strong, continuous uptake by tumors and the uterus, an organ characterized by angiogenesis. 125 I-VEGF 121 uptake in tumors was twofold higher than that of 125 I-VEGF 165 (9.12±98 and 4.79±1.08 %ID/g at 2 h, respectively). 125 I-VEGF 121 displayed higher tumor to nontumor (T/N) ratios in most normal organs in comparison with 125 I-VEGF 165 . 125 I-VEGF 121 accumulation in tumors decreased with increasing tumor volume. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that the difference in 125 I-VEGF 121 tumor accumulation correlated with degree of tumor vascularity. Conclusion: Radioiodinated VEGF 121 is a promising tracer for noninvasive delineation of angiogenesis in vivo

  17. Crosstalk between VEGF-A/VEGFR2 and GDNF/RET signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufro, Alda; Teichman, Jason; Banu, Nazifa; Villegas, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) plays multiple roles in kidney development: stimulates cell proliferation, survival, tubulogenesis, and branching morphogenesis. However, the mechanism that mediates VEGF-A induced ureteric bud branching is unclear. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase c-RET is the major regulator of ureteric bud branching. Here we examined whether VEGF-A regulates RET signaling. We determined that ureteric bud-derived cells express the main VEGF-A signaling receptor, VEGFR2 and RET, by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. We show that the VEGF-A isoform VEGF 165 induces RET-tyr 1062 phosphorylation in addition to VEGFR2 autophosphorylation, that VEGF 165 and GDNF have additive effects on RET-tyr 1062 phosphorylation, and that VEGFR2 and RET co-immunoprecipitate. Functionally, VEGF 165 induces ureteric bud cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis. Similarly, in embryonic kidney explants VEGF 165 induces RET-tyr 1062 phosphorylation and upregulates GDNF. These findings provide evidence for a novel cooperative interaction between VEGFR2 and RET that mediates VEGF-A functions in ureteric bud cells

  18. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  19. Detecting drug-target binding in cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting coupled with mass spectrometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kris; Webster, Scott P.; Iredale, John P.; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Homer, Natalie Z.; Pham, Nhan T.; Auer, Manfred; Mole, Damian J.

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of drug-target engagement for determining the efficacy of a compound inside cells remains challenging, particularly for difficult target proteins. Existing techniques are more suited to soluble protein targets. Difficult target proteins include those with challenging in vitro solubility, stability or purification properties that preclude target isolation. Here, we report a novel technique that measures intracellular compound-target complex formation, as well as cellular permeability, specificity and cytotoxicity-the toxicity-affinity-permeability-selectivity (TAPS) technique. The TAPS assay is exemplified here using human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a challenging intracellular membrane protein target of significant current interest. TAPS confirmed target binding of known KMO inhibitors inside cells. We conclude that the TAPS assay can be used to facilitate intracellular hit validation on most, if not all intracellular drug targets.

  20. hERG1 channels are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme and modulate VEGF secretion in glioblastoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A; Becchetti, A; Restano-Cassulini, R; Polvani, S; Hofmann, G; Buccoliero, A M; Paglierani, M; Pollo, B; Taddei, G L; Gallina, P; Di Lorenzo, N; Franceschetti, S; Wanke, E; Arcangeli, A

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have led to considerable advancement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the relentless cell growth and invasiveness of human gliomas. Partial understanding of these mechanisms has (1) improved the classification for gliomas, by identifying prognostic subgroups, and (2) pointed to novel potential therapeutic targets. Some classes of ion channels have turned out to be involved in the pathogenesis and malignancy of gliomas. We studied the expression and properties of K+ channels in primary cultures obtained from surgical specimens: human ether a gò-gò related (hERG)1 voltage-dependent K+ channels, which have been found to be overexpressed in various human cancers, and human ether a gò-gò-like 2 channels, that share many of hERG1's biophysical features. The expression pattern of these two channels was compared to that of the classical inward rectifying K+ channels, IRK, that are widely expressed in astrocytic cells and classically considered a marker of astrocytic differentiation. In our study, hERG1 was found to be specifically overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas, that is, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In addition, we present evidence that, in GBM cell lines, hERG1 channel activity actively contributes to malignancy by promoting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, thus stimulating the neoangiogenesis typical of high-grade gliomas. Our data provide important confirmation for studies proposing the hERG1 channel as a molecular marker of tumour progression and a possible target for novel anticancer therapies. PMID:16175187

  1. Hypoxia-induced aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer cells is due to increased expression of VEGF, IL-6 and miR-21, which can be attenuated by CDF treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bao

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is known to play critical roles in cell survival, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Hypoxia mediated over-expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF has been shown to be associated with therapeutic resistance, and contributes to poor prognosis of cancer patients. Emerging evidence suggest that hypoxia and HIF pathways contributes to the acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, maintenance of cancer stem cell (CSC functions, and also maintains the vicious cycle of inflammation-all which lead to therapeutic resistance. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s by which hypoxia/HIF drives these events are not fully understood. Here, we show, for the first time, that hypoxia leads to increased expression of VEGF, IL-6, and CSC signature genes Nanog, Oct4 and EZH2 consistent with increased cell migration/invasion and angiogenesis, and the formation of pancreatospheres, concomitant with increased expression of miR-21 and miR-210 in human pancreatic cancer (PC cells. The treatment of PC cells with CDF, a novel synthetic compound inhibited the production of VEGF and IL-6, and down-regulated the expression of Nanog, Oct4, EZH2 mRNAs, as well as miR-21 and miR-210 under hypoxia. CDF also led to decreased cell migration/invasion, angiogenesis, and formation of pancreatospheres under hypoxia. Moreover, CDF decreased gene expression of miR-21, miR-210, IL-6, HIF-1α, VEGF, and CSC signatures in vivo in a mouse orthotopic model of human PC. Collectively, these results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of CDF is in part mediated through deregulation of tumor hypoxic pathways, and thus CDF could become a novel, and effective anti-tumor agent for PC therapy.

  2. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145 promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes.

  3. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T; Zachary, Ian C; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-05-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A-VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G

    1985-01-01

    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  5. Acute Podocyte Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-A) Knockdown Disrupts alphaVbeta3 Integrin Signaling in the Glomerulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, Delma; Villegas, Guillermo; Aggarwal, Pardeep Kumar; Bertuccio, Claudia; Jimenez, Juan; Velazquez, Heino; Reidy, Kimberly; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Moeckel, Gilbert; Kashgarian, Michael; Tufro, Alda

    2012-01-01

    Podocyte or endothelial cell VEGF-A knockout causes thrombotic microangiopathy in adult mice. To study the mechanism involved in acute and local injury caused by low podocyte VEGF-A we developed an inducible, podocyte-specific VEGF-A knockdown mouse, and we generated an immortalized podocyte cell line (VEGFKD) that downregulates VEGF-A upon doxycycline exposure. Tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice express VEGF shRNA in podocytes in a doxycycline-regulated manner, decreasing VEGF-A mRNA and VEGF-A protein levels in isolated glomeruli to ∼20% of non-induced controls and urine VEGF-A to ∼30% of control values a week after doxycycline induction. Induced tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice developed acute renal failure and proteinuria, associated with mesangiolysis and microaneurisms. Glomerular ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell swelling, GBM lamination and podocyte effacement. VEGF knockdown decreased podocyte fibronectin and glomerular endothelial alphaVbeta3 integrin in vivo. VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) interacts with beta3 integrin and neuropilin-1 in the kidney in vivo and in VEGFKD podocytes. Podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activation in glomeruli, detected by WOW1-Fab. VEGF silencing in cultured VEGFKD podocytes downregulates fibronectin and disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activation cell-autonomously. Collectively, these studies indicate that podocyte VEGF-A regulates alphaVbeta3 integrin signaling in the glomerulus, and that podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activity via decreased VEGFR2 signaling, thereby damaging the three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier, causing proteinuria and acute renal failure. PMID:22808199

  6. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  7. Radiolabeling of VEGF165 with 99mTc to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool to noninvasively image tumor lesions and evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs that block the VEGFR pathway. Aim of the present study was to radiolabel the human VEGF165 analogue with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) and to evaluate the expression of VEGFR in both cancer and endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment. 99mTc-VEGF showed in vitro binding to HUVEC cells and in vivo to xenograft tumors in mice (ARO, K1 and HT29). By comparing in vivo data with immunohistochemical analysis of excised tumors we found an inverse correlation between 99mTc-VEGF165 uptake and VEGF histologically detected, but a positive correlation with VEGF receptor expression (VEGFR1). Results of our studies indicate that endogenous VEGF production by cancer cells and other cells of tumor microenvironment should be taken in consideration when performing scintigraphy with radiolabeled VEGF, because of possible false negative results due to saturation of VEGFRs.

  8. VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth but critical for their survival, and VEGF-B targeting inhibits pathological angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Zhongshu; Hou, Xu; Lennartsson, Johan; Li, Yang; Koch, Alexander W.; Scotney, Pierre; Lee, Chunsik; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Dong, Lijin; Kumar, Anil; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Wang, Bin; Nagai, Nobuo; Fons, Pierre; Fariss, Robert; Zhang, Yongqing; Wawrousek, Eric; Tansey, Ginger; Raber, James; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Greenberg, David A.; Becker, Kevin G.; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Nash, Andrew; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Cao, Yihai; Watts, Ryan J.; Li, Xuri

    2009-01-01

    VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for their survival. Importantly, the survival effect of VEGF-B is not only on vascular endothelial cells, but also on pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular stem/progenitor cells. In vivo, VEGF-B targeting inhibited both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Mechanistically, we found that the vascular survival effect of VEGF-B is achieved by regulating the expression of many vascular prosurvival genes via both NP-1 and VEGFR-1. Our work thus indicates that the function of VEGF-B in the vascular system is to act as a “survival,” rather than an “angiogenic” factor and that VEGF-B inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases. PMID:19369214

  9. Identification of residual leukemic cells by flow cytometry in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: verification of leukemic state by flow-sorting and molecular/cytogenetic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obro, Nina F; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in minimal residual disease, measured by real-time quantitative PCR or flow cytometry, predicts prognosis in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We explored whether cells reported as minimal residual disease by flow cytometry represent the malignant clone harboring...... clone-specific genomic markers (53 follow-up bone marrow samples from 28 children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Cell populations (presumed leukemic and non-leukemic) were flow-sorted during standard flow cytometry-based minimal residual disease monitoring and explored by PCR and....../or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found good concordance between flow cytometry and genomic analyses in the individual flow-sorted leukemic (93% true positive) and normal (93% true negative) cell populations. Four cases with discrepant results had plausible explanations (e.g. partly informative...

  10. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  11. Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Induces VEGF Independently of HIF-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.G.; Riis, Simone Elkjær; Frøbert, O.

    2012-01-01

    Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) can promote angiogenesis through secretion of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In other cell types, it has been shown that induction of VEGF is mediated by both protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and hypoxia inducible fact...

  12. Thrombospondin-1 and VEGF in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Alkim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is an important process in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. We aimed to study the angiogeneic balance in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD by evaluating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 on colonic epithelial cells, together with the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS.Twenty-one ulcerative colitis (UC, 14 Crohn's disease (CD, 11 colorectal cancer patients, and 11 healthy controls colonic biopsy samples were evaluated immunohistochemically.The expressions of TSP-1, VEGF, and iNOS in UC and CD groups were higher than expression in healthy control group, all with statistical significance. However, in colorectal cancer group, VEGF and iNOS expressions were increased importantly, but TSP-1 expression was not statistically different from healthy control group's expression. Both TSP-1 and VEGF expressions were correlated with iNOS expression distinctly but did not correlate with each other.Both pro-angiogeneic VEGF and antiangiogeneic TSP-1 expressions were found increased in our IBD groups, but in colorectal cancer group, only VEGF expression was increased. TSP-1 increases in IBD patients as a response to inflammatory condition, but this increase was not enough to suppress pathologic angiogenesis and inflammation in IBD.

  13. The significance of VEGF expression in stage II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated with definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won; Choi, Yoon La; Huh, Seung Jae; Yoon, Sang Min; Park, Young Je; Nam, Hee Rim; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hee Chul

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to determine the clinical characteristics and prognosis according to the VEGF expression in stage II cervical carcinoma patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. We enrolled 31 patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer from 1995 to 2003 at Samsumg Medical Center and their paraffin block tissue samples were available for study. The median age of the patients was 65 years. The mean tumor size was 4.1 cm (range: 1.2 ∼8.2 cm). Seven patients (22.6%) were suspected of having pelvic lymph node metastasis. An external beam irradiation dose of 45-56.4 Gy was administered to the whole pelvis with a 15 MV linear accelerator, and an additional 24 Gy was given to point A by HDR intracavitary brachytherapy. VEGF staining was defined as positive when more than 10% of the tumor cells were stained. The median follow-up duration was 58 months. A positive VEGF expression was observed in 21 patients (67.7%). There was no significant correlation between the VEGF expression and pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor size and the response of radiotherapy. During follow-up, 7 patients had recurrence. The complete response rate was not significant between the VEGF (-) and VEGF(+) tumors. However, the VEGF(+) tumors showed a significantly higher recurrence rate in comparison with the VEGF(-) tumors (ρ = 0.040). The three year disease-free survival rates were 100% and 66.7%, respectively, for patients with VEGF(-) or VEGF(+) tumor (ρ = 0.047). The VEGF expression was a significant factor for recurrence and disease-free survival. However, the significance of the VEGF expression is still controversial because of the various definitions of VEGF expression and the mismatches of the clinical data in the previous studies

  14. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  15. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...

  16. Perbandingan Kecepatan Gabungan Algoritma Quick Sort dan Merge Sort dengan Insertion Sort, Bubble Sort dan Selection Sort

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rivan, Muhammad Ezar

    2017-01-01

    Ordering is one of the process done before doing data processing. The sorting algorithm has its own strengths and weaknesses. By taking strengths of each algorithm then combined can be a better algorithm. Quick Sort and Merge Sort are algorithms that divide the data into parts and each part divide again into sub-section until one element. Usually one element join with others and then sorted by. In this experiment data divide into parts that have size not more than threshold. This part then so...

  17. Vascular defects in gain-of-function fps/fes transgenic mice correlate with PDGF- and VEGF-induced activation of mutant Fps/Fes kinase in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, W; Mewburn, J D; Vincent, S G; Fisher, J T; Greer, P A

    2004-05-01

    Fps/Fes is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is abundantly expressed in the myeloid, endothelial, epithelial, neuronal and platelet lineages. Genetic manipulation in mice has uncovered potential roles for this kinase in hematopoiesis, innate immunity, inflammation and angiogenesis. We have utilized a genetic approach to explore the role of Fps/Fes in angiogenesis. A hypervascular line of mice generated by expression of a 'gain-of-function' human fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) encoding a myristoylated variant of Fps (MFps) was used in these studies. The hypervascular phenotype of this line was extensively characterized by intravital microscopy and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) mice exhibited 1.6-1.7-fold increases in vascularity which was attributable to increases in the number of secondary vessels. Vessels were larger, exhibited varicosities and disorganized patterning, and were found to have defects in histamine-induced permeability. Biochemical characterization of endothelial cell (EC) lines derived from fps(MF) mice revealed that MFps was hypersensitive to activation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). MFps mediates enhanced sensitization to VEGF and PDGF signaling in ECs. We propose that this hypersensitization contributes to excessive angiogenic signaling and that this underlies the observed hypervascular phenotype of fps(MF) mice. These phenotypes recapitulate important aspects of the vascular defects observed in both VEGF and angiopoietin-1 transgenic mice. The fps/fes proto-oncogene product therefore represents a novel player in the regulation of angiogenesis, and the fps(MF) line of mice constitutes a unique new murine model for the study of this process.

  18. A two-compartment model of VEGF distribution in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Yen

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of angiogenesis--the growth of new microvessels from existing microvasculature. Angiogenesis is a complex process involving numerous molecular species, and to better understand it, a systems biology approach is necessary. In vivo preclinical experiments in the area of angiogenesis are typically performed in mouse models; this includes drug development targeting VEGF. Thus, to quantitatively interpret such experimental results, a computational model of VEGF distribution in the mouse can be beneficial. In this paper, we present an in silico model of VEGF distribution in mice, determine model parameters from existing experimental data, conduct sensitivity analysis, and test the validity of the model. The multiscale model is comprised of two compartments: blood and tissue. The model accounts for interactions between two major VEGF isoforms (VEGF(120 and VEGF(164 and their endothelial cell receptors VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and co-receptor neuropilin-1. Neuropilin-1 is also expressed on the surface of parenchymal cells. The model includes transcapillary macromolecular permeability, lymphatic transport, and macromolecular plasma clearance. Simulations predict that the concentration of unbound VEGF in the tissue is approximately 50-fold greater than in the blood. These concentrations are highly dependent on the VEGF secretion rate. Parameter estimation was performed to fit the simulation results to available experimental data, and permitted the estimation of VEGF secretion rate in healthy tissue, which is difficult to measure experimentally. The model can provide quantitative interpretation of preclinical animal data and may be used in conjunction with experimental studies in the development of pro- and anti-angiogenic agents. The model approximates the normal tissue as skeletal muscle and includes endothelial cells to represent the vasculature. As the VEGF system becomes better characterized in

  19. Improvement in autologous human fat transplant survival with SVF plus VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Pan, Shengsheng; Ni, Binting; Lin, Yuanshao

    2014-08-01

    Early neovascularization is important for autologous fat transplant survival. SVF cells are ideal seed cells. Both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SVF cells can promote neovascularization. However, the half-life (about 50 min) of VEGF is too short to sustain an adequate local concentration. We have investigated whether VEGF-polylactic acid (PLA) nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells can improve neovascularization and survival of transplanted fat tissues. SVF cells were harvested and constructed VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres in vitro. Human fat tissues was mixed with SVF cells plus VEGF-PLA, SVF cells alone or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium as the control. These three mixtures were injected into random sites in 18 nude mice. Two months later, the transplants were weighed and examined histologically; and capillaries were counted to quantify neovascularization. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and anti-VEGF stains were applied to reveal cell infiltration. The mean wet weight of fat in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA, SVF alone, and control transplants were 0.18 ± 0.013 g, 0.16 ± 0.015 g, and 0.071 ± 0.12 g, respectively; the differences between groups were statistically significant. More vessels were present in the SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants than in the other two types. Transplants mixed with SVF cells also had an acceptable density of capillaries. Histological analysis revealed that both the SVF plus VEGF-PLA and SVF alone transplants, but not the control transplants, were composed of adipose tissue, and had less fat necrosis and less fibrosis than control specimens. SVF plus VEGF-PLA transplants had significantly greater capillary density and VEGF expression than the other two transplant groups. Thus transplanted fat tissue survival and quality can be enhanced by the addition of VEGF-PLA nano-sustained release microspheres plus SVF cells. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. Radiolabeling of VEGF(165) with Tc-99m to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool

  1. Synthesis of the human VEGF165 gene based on overlap PCR and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165) protein in CHO cells. ... The PCR program consisted of a denaturation step at 95°C for 3 min, then 25 cycles at ... PCR product for template and two oligos introduced at one end for.

  2. The assessment of CD146-based cell sorting and telomere length analysis for establishing the identity of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/48d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kouroupis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are characterised by longer telomeres compared to mature cells from the same tissue. In this study, candidate CD146+ umbilical cord (UC mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were purified by cell sorting from UC tissue digests and their telomere lengths were measured in comparison to donor-matched CD146-negative fraction.   UC tissue fragments were enzymatically treated with collagenase and the cells were used for cell sorting, colony-forming fibroblast (CFU-F assay or for long-term MSC cultivation. Telomere lengths were measured by qPCR in both culture-expanded MSCs and candidate native UC MSCs. Immunohistochemistry was undertaken to study the topography of CD146+ cells.   Culture-expanded UC MSCs had a stable expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, whereas CD146 declined in later passages which correlated with the shortening of telomeres in the same cultures. In five out of seven donors, telomeres in candidate native UC MSCs (CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146+ were longer compared to donor-matched CD146- population (CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146-. The frequency of CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146+ cells measured by flow cytometry was ~1000-fold above that of CFU-Fs (means 10.4% and 0.01%, respectively. CD146+ cells were also abundant in situ having a broad topography including high levels of positivity in muscle areas in addition to vessels.   Although qPCR-based telomere length analysis in sorted populations could be limited in its sensitivity, very high frequency of CD146+ cells in UC tissue suggests that CD146 expression alone is unlikely to be sufficient to identify and purify native MSCs from the UC tissue.

  3. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  4. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  5. Development of a fluorescence-activated cell sorting method coupled with whole genome amplification to analyze minority and trace Dehalococcoides genomes in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick K H; Men, Yujie; Wang, Shanquan; He, Jianzhong; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-02-03

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi are functionally important bacteria that catalyze the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. However, these anaerobic bacteria are fastidious to isolate, making downstream genomic characterization challenging. In order to facilitate genomic analysis, a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) method was developed in this study to separate D. mccartyi cells from a microbial community, and the DNA of the isolated cells was processed by whole genome amplification (WGA) and hybridized onto a D. mccartyi microarray for comparative genomics against four sequenced strains. First, FACS was successfully applied to a D. mccartyi isolate as positive control, and then microarray results verified that WGA from 10(6) cells or ∼1 ng of genomic DNA yielded high-quality coverage detecting nearly all genes across the genome. As expected, some inter- and intrasample variability in WGA was observed, but these biases were minimized by performing multiple parallel amplifications. Subsequent application of the FACS and WGA protocols to two enrichment cultures containing ∼10% and ∼1% D. mccartyi cells successfully enabled genomic analysis. As proof of concept, this study demonstrates that coupling FACS with WGA and microarrays is a promising tool to expedite genomic characterization of target strains in environmental communities where the relative concentrations are low.

  6. A Non-Destructive Culturing and Cell Sorting Method for Cardiomyocytes and Neurons Using a Double Alginate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Hayashi, Masahito; Hattori, Akihiro; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture. PMID:22870332

  7. A non-destructive culturing and cell sorting method for cardiomyocytes and neurons using a double alginate layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Terazono

    Full Text Available A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture.

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avidin-biotin complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. Results: VEGF immuno-expression was positive in 51.9% of CRC, while it was 18.2% in the normal colonic tissue (p<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade of colonic malignancy (p<0.05). Conclusion: ...

  9. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L S

    1990-06-01

    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  10. Primary Cilium-Regulated EG-VEGF Signaling Facilitates Trophoblast Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Syu, Jhih-Siang; Chen, Ting-Yu; Su, Mei-Tsz

    2017-06-01

    Trophoblast invasion is an important event in embryo implantation and placental development. During these processes, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is the key regulator mediating the crosstalk at the feto-maternal interface. The primary cilium is a cellular antenna receiving environmental signals and is crucial for proper development. However, little is known regarding the role of the primary cilium in early human pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate that EG-VEGF regulates trophoblast cell invasion via primary cilia. We found that EG-VEGF activated ERK1/2 signaling and subsequent upregulation of MMP2 and MMP9, thereby facilitating cell invasion in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 alleviated the expression of MMPs and trophoblast cell invasion after EG-VEGF treatment. In addition, primary cilia were observed in all the trophoblast cell lines tested and, more importantly, in human first-trimester placental tissue. The receptor of EG-VEGF, PROKR1, was detected in primary cilia. Depletion of IFT88, the intraflagellar transporter required for ciliogenesis, inhibited primary cilium growth, thereby ameliorating ERK1/2 activation, MMP upregulation, and trophoblast cell invasion promoted by EG-VEGF. These findings demonstrate a novel function of primary cilia in controlling EG-VEGF-regulated trophoblast invasion and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1467-1477, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...... are derivable without compromising data abstraction. Finally we point out that stable sorting functions as default representations of ordering relations have the advantage of permitting linear-time sorting algorithms; inequality tests forfeit this possibility....... function if and only it is an intrinsically parametric permutation function. It is a stable sorting function if and only if it is an intrinsically stable permutation function. We show that ordering relations can be represented isomorphically as inequality tests, comparators and stable sorting functions...

  12. Optically induced dielectropheresis sorting with automated medium exchange in an integrated optofluidic device resulting in higher cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Huan-Chun; Yang, Po-Fu; Mai, John D

    2014-08-07

    We demonstrated the integration of a microfluidic device with an optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) device such that the critical medium replacement process was performed automatically and the cells could be subsequently manipulated by using digitally projected optical images. ODEP has been demonstrated to generate sufficient forces for manipulating particles/cells by projecting a light pattern onto photoconductive materials which creates virtual electrodes. The production of the ODEP force usually requires a medium that has a suitable electrical conductivity and an appropriate dielectric constant. Therefore, a 0.2 M sucrose solution is commonly used. However, this requires a complicated medium replacement process before one is able to manipulate cells. Furthermore, the 0.2 M sucrose solution is not suitable for the long-term viability of cells. In comparison to conventional manual processes, our automated medium replacement process only took 25 minutes. Experimental data showed that there was up to a 96.2% recovery rate for the manipulated cells. More importantly, the survival rate of the cells was greatly enhanced due to this faster automated process. This newly developed microfluidic chip provided a promising platform for the rapid replacement of the cell medium and this was also the first time that an ODEP device was integrated with other active flow control components in a microfluidic device. By improving cell viability after cell manipulation, this design may contribute to the practical integration of ODEP modules into other lab-on-a-chip devices and biomedical applications in the future.

  13. Effects of antibodies to EG-VEGF on angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feflea, Stefana; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ceausu, Raluca Amalia; Gaje, Pusa; Raica, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine gland-related vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), is an angiogenic factor specifically targeting endothelial cells derived from endocrine tissues. The inhibition of the EG-VEGF/prokineticin receptor pathway could represent a selective antiangiogenic and anticancer strategy. to evaluate the impact of an antibody to EG-VEGF on the rapidly growing capillary plexus of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The in ovo CAM assay was performed for the humanized EG-VEGF antibody. Hemorrhagic damage was induced in the capillaries, which led to early death of the embryos. Upon morphological staining, there was evidence of vascular disruption and extravasation of red blood cells in the chorion. Signs of vacuolization of the covering epithelium were also observed. Blocking endogenous EG-VEGF might represent a valuable approach of impairing or inhibiting angiogenesis in steroidogenic-derived embryonic tissues.

  14. VEGF-independent angiogenic pathways induced by PDGF-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Zhang, Fan; Lee, Chunsik; Li, Yang; Tang, Zhongshu; Arjunan, Pachiappan

    2010-01-01

    VEGF is believed to be a master regulator in both developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The role of PDGF-C in angiogenesis, however, is only at the beginning of being revealed. We and others have shown that PDGF-C is a critical player in pathological angiogenesis because of its pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular targets. The angiogenic pathways induced by PDGF-C are, to a large extent, VEGF-independent. These pathways may include, but not limited to, the direct effect of PDGF-C on vascular cells, the effect of PDGF-C on tissue stroma fibroblasts, and its effect on macrophages. Taken together, the pleiotropic, versatile and VEGF-independent angiogenic nature of PDGF-C has placed it among the most important target genes for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:20871734

  15. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  16. LazySorted: A Lazily, Partially Sorted Python List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LazySorted is a Python C extension implementing a partially and lazily sorted list data structure. It solves a common problem faced by programmers, in which they need just part of a sorted list, like its middle element (the median, but sort the entire list to get it. LazySorted presents them with the abstraction that they are working with a fully sorted list, while actually only sorting the list partially with quicksort partitions to return the requested sub-elements. This enables programmers to use naive "sort first" algorithms but nonetheless attain linear run-times when possible. LazySorted may serve as a drop-in replacement for the built-in sorted function in most cases, and can sometimes achieve run-times more than 7 times faster.

  17. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROANGIOGENIC ROLE OF EG-VEGF, CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SURVIVAL IN TUMORAL OVARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozneanu, Ludmila; Avădănei, Roxana; Cîmpean, Anca Maria; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza; Amălinei, Cornelia; Căruntu, Irina-Draga

    2015-01-01

    To prove the presence of EG-VEGF in tumor ovary and to analyze its involvement in the ovarian carcinogenesis, as promoter of angiogenesis, in relationship with the clinicopathological prognostic factors and survival. The study group comprises tumor tissue specimens from 50 cases of surgically treated ovarian cancer that were immunohistochemically investigated. A scoring system based on the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of staining was applied for the semiquantitative assessment of EG-VEGF, as negative or positive. Statistics involved χ2 test, and Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. EG-VEGF was positive in 35 cases (70%) and negative in 15 cases (30%). Our data confirmed the predominance of EG-VEGF positivity in the serous subiype as compared to endometrioid and clear cell subtypes, and its absence in mucinous subtype. Moreover, we demonstrated that EG-VEGF is overexpressed mainly in high-grade ovarian carcinomas (type II) than in low-grade ones. Significant differences were registered between the EG-VEGF positive or negative expression and tumor stage and histological subtypes, respectively. Survival analysis showed no differences in patient's survival and EG-VEGF positive and negative cases. The analysis of EG-VEGF expression in ovarian tumors points out the relationship between the enhanced potential for tumor angiogenesis and the tumor aggressivity.

  19. T cell receptor zeta allows stable expression of receptors containing the CD3gamma leucine-based receptor-sorting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Geisler, C

    1998-01-01

    The leucine-based motif in the T cell receptor (TCR) subunit CD3gamma constitutes a strong internalization signal. In fully assembled TCR this motif is inactive unless phosphorylated. In contrast, the motif is constitutively active in CD4/CD3gamma and Tac/CD3gamma chimeras independently of phosph......The leucine-based motif in the T cell receptor (TCR) subunit CD3gamma constitutes a strong internalization signal. In fully assembled TCR this motif is inactive unless phosphorylated. In contrast, the motif is constitutively active in CD4/CD3gamma and Tac/CD3gamma chimeras independently...... of phosphorylation and leads to rapid internalization and sorting of these chimeras to lysosomal degradation. Because the TCRzeta chain rescues incomplete TCR complexes from lysosomal degradation and allows stable surface expression of fully assembled TCR, we addressed the question whether TCRzeta has the potential...... to mask the CD3gamma leucine-based motif. By studying CD4/CD3gamma and CD16/CD3gamma chimeras, we found that CD16/CD3gamma chimeras associated with TCRzeta. The CD16/CD3gamma-TCRzeta complexes were stably expressed at the cell surface and had a low spontaneous internalization rate, indicating...

  20. Detection of VEGF-A(xxx)b isoforms in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David O; Mavrou, Athina; Qiu, Yan; Carter, James G; Hamdollah-Zadeh, Maryam; Barratt, Shaney; Gammons, Melissa V; Millar, Ann B; Salmon, Andrew H J; Oltean, Sebastian; Harper, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) can be generated as multiple isoforms by alternative splicing. Two families of isoforms have been described in humans, pro-angiogenic isoforms typified by VEGF-A165a, and anti-angiogenic isoforms typified by VEGF-A165b. The practical determination of expression levels of alternative isoforms of the same gene may be complicated by experimental protocols that favour one isoform over another, and the use of specific positive and negative controls is essential for the interpretation of findings on expression of the isoforms. Here we address some of the difficulties in experimental design when investigating alternative splicing of VEGF isoforms, and discuss the use of appropriate control paradigms. We demonstrate why use of specific control experiments can prevent assumptions that VEGF-A165b is not present, when in fact it is. We reiterate, and confirm previously published experimental design protocols that demonstrate the importance of using positive controls. These include using known target sequences to show that the experimental conditions are suitable for PCR amplification of VEGF-A165b mRNA for both q-PCR and RT-PCR and to ensure that mispriming does not occur. We also provide evidence that demonstrates that detection of VEGF-A165b protein in mice needs to be tightly controlled to prevent detection of mouse IgG by a secondary antibody. We also show that human VEGF165b protein can be immunoprecipitated from cultured human cells and that immunoprecipitating VEGF-A results in protein that is detected by VEGF-A165b antibody. These findings support the conclusion that more information on the biology of VEGF-A165b isoforms is required, and confirm the importance of the experimental design in such investigations, including the use of specific positive and negative controls.

  1. Metallic gold treatment reduces proliferation of inflammatory cells, increases expression of VEGF and FGF, and stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone following experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury represents a leading cause of morbidity in young individuals and there is an imperative need for neuroprotective treatments limiting the neurologic impairment following such injury. It has recently been demonstrated that bio-liberated gold ions liberated from small metallic...... gold implants reduce inflammation and neuronal apoptosis, while generating an increased neuronal stem cell response following focal brain damage. In this study mice were subjected to a unilateral traumatic cryo-lesion with concomitant injection of 25-45 microm gold particles near the lesion. Placebo...... increase in cell proliferation in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral subventricular zone was found in response to gold-treatment. In conclusion: we confirmed the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect of bio-liberated gold ions, and further show that metallic gold increases growth factor...

  2. Identification of residual leukemic cells by flow cytometry in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: verification of leukemic state by flow-sorting and molecular/cytogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øbro, Nina F; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O; Andersen, Mette K; Lausen, Birgitte; Hasle, Henrik; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Marquart, Hanne V

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in minimal residual disease, measured by real-time quantitative PCR or flow cytometry, predicts prognosis in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We explored whether cells reported as minimal residual disease by flow cytometry represent the malignant clone harboring clone-specific genomic markers (53 follow-up bone marrow samples from 28 children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Cell populations (presumed leukemic and non-leukemic) were flow-sorted during standard flow cytometry-based minimal residual disease monitoring and explored by PCR and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found good concordance between flow cytometry and genomic analyses in the individual flow-sorted leukemic (93% true positive) and normal (93% true negative) cell populations. Four cases with discrepant results had plausible explanations (e.g. partly informative immunophenotype and antigen modulation) that highlight important methodological pitfalls. These findings demonstrate that with sufficient experience, flow cytometry is reliable for minimal residual disease monitoring in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although rare cases require supplementary PCR-based monitoring.

  3. Magnet sorting algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1996-01-01

    Several new algorithms for sorting of dipole and/or quadrupole magnets in synchrotrons and storage rings are described. The algorithms make use of a combinatorial approach to the problem and belong to the class of random search algorithms. They use an appropriate metrization of the state space. The phase-space distortion (smear) is used as a goal function. Computational experiments for the case of the JINR-Dubna superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON have shown a significant reduction of the phase-space distortion after the magnet sorting. (orig.)

  4. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  5. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  6. VEGF as a Survival Factor in Ex Vivo Models of Early Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Rosario; Biagioni, Martina; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Dal Monte, Massimo; Casini, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates neuroprotection as a therapeutic target in diabetic retinopathy (DR). We tested the hypothesis that VEGF is released and acts as a survival factor in the retina in early DR. Ex vivo mouse retinal explants were exposed to stressors similar to those characterizing DR, that is, high glucose (HG), oxidative stress (OS), or advanced glycation end-products (AGE). Neuroprotection was provided using octreotide (OCT), a somatostatin analog, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), two well-documented neuroprotectants. Data were obtained with real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was induced in the retinal explants by HG, OS, or AGE treatments. At the same time, explants also showed increased VEGF expression and release. The data revealed that VEGF is released shortly after exposure of the explants to stressors and before the level of cell death reaches its maximum. Retinal cell apoptosis was inhibited by OCT and PACAP. At the same time, OCT and PACAP also reduced VEGF expression and release. Vascular endothelial growth factor turned out to be a protective factor for the stressed retinal explants, because inhibiting VEGF with a VEGF trap further increased cell death. These data show that protecting retinal neurons from diabetic stress also reduces VEGF expression and release, while inhibiting VEGF leads to exacerbation of apoptosis. These observations suggest that the retina in early DR releases VEGF as a prosurvival factor. Neuroprotective agents may decrease the need of VEGF production by the retina, therefore limiting the risk, in the long term, of pathologic angiogenesis.

  7. The effect of mechanical extension stimulation combined with epithelial cell sorting on outcomes of implanted tissue-engineered muscular urethras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Deng, Chen-Liang; Zhao, Ren-Yan; Wang, Ying; Cao, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Urethral defects are common and frequent disorders and are difficult to treat. Simple natural or synthetic materials do not provide a satisfactory curative solution for long urethral defects, and urethroplasty with large areas of autologous tissues is limited and might interfere with wound healing. In this study, adipose-derived stem cells were used. These cells can be derived from a wide range of sources, have extensive expansion capability, and were combined with oral mucosal epithelial cells to solve the problem of finding seeding cell sources for producing the tissue-engineered urethras. We also used the synthetic biodegradable polymer poly-glycolic acid (PGA) as a scaffold material to overcome issues such as potential pathogen infections derived from natural materials (such as de-vascular stents or animal-derived collagen) and differing diameters. Furthermore, we used a bioreactor to construct a tissue-engineered epithelial-muscular lumen with a double-layer structure (the epithelial lining and the muscle layer). Through these steps, we used an epithelial-muscular lumen built in vitro to repair defects in a canine urethral defect model (1 cm). Canine urethral reconstruction was successfully achieved based on image analysis and histological techniques at different time points. This study provides a basis for the clinical application of tissue engineering of an epithelial-muscular lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A nanobody directed to a functional epitope on VEGF, as a novel strategy for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajpour, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Bahram; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2014-03-28

    Compelling evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to its essential role in angiogenesis, is a critical target for cancer treatment. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against VEGF are important class of drugs used in cancer therapy. However, the cost of production, large size, and immunogenicity are main drawbacks of conventional monoclonal therapy. Nanobodies are the smallest antigen-binding antibody fragments, which occur naturally in camelidae. Because of their remarkable features, we decided to use an immune library of nanobody to direct phage display to recognition of novel functional epitopes on VEGF. Four rounds of selection were performed and six phage-displayed nanobodies were obtained from an immune phage library. The most reactive clone in whole-cell ELISA experiments, was purified and assessed in proliferation inhibition assay. Purified ZFR-5 not only blocked interaction of VEGF with its receptor in cell ELISA experiments, but also was able to significantly inhibit proliferation response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to VEGF in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our study demonstrates that by using whole-cell ELISA experiments, nanobodies against antigenic regions included in interaction of VEGF with its receptors can be directed. Because of unique and intrinsic properties of a nanobody and the ability of selected nanobody for blocking the epitope that is important for biological function of VEGF, it represents novel potential drug candidate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interplay between VEGF and Nrf2 regulates angiogenesis due to intracranial venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Pan, Hao; Wang, Handong; Li, Xiang; Bu, Xiaomin; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Yongyue; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yali; Cong, Zixiang; Yang, Youqing; Tang, Chao; Liu, Zhengwei

    2016-11-21

    Venous hypertension(VH) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and is closely associated with the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) significantly influences angiogenesis; however, the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF under VH in brain AVMs remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF due to VH in brain AVMs. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Nrf2 and VEGF were highly expressed in human brain AVM tissues. In vivo, we established a VH model in both wild-type (WT) and siRNA-mediated Nrf2 knockdown rats. VH significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and VEGF. Loss of Nrf2 markedly inhibited the upregulation of VEGF, as determined by Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR. In vitro, primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were isolated from WT and Nrf2 -/- mice, and a VEGF-Nrf2 positive feed-back loop was observed in BMECs. By trans well assay and angiogenesis assay, Nrf2 knockout significantly inhibited the migration and vascular tube formation of BMECs. These findings suggest that the interplay between Nrf2 and VEGF can contribute to VH-induced angiogenesis in brain AVMs pathogenesis.

  10. Assessment of small RNA sorting into different extracellular fractions revealed by high-throughput sequencing of breast cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosar, Juan Pablo; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Sanguinetti, Julia; Bonilla, Braulio; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Cayota, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication can be mediated by extracellular small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Circulating sRNAs are being intensively studied for their promising use as minimally invasive disease biomarkers. To date, most attention is centered on exosomes and microRNAs as the vectors and the secreted species, respectively. However, this field would benefit from an increased understanding of the plethora of sRNAs secreted by different cell types in different extracellular fractions. It is still not clear if specific sRNAs are selected for secretion, or if sRNA secretion is mostly passive. We sequenced the intracellular sRNA content (19–60 nt) of breast epithelial cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) and compared it with extracellular fractions enriched in microvesicles, exosomes and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Our results are consistent with a non-selective secretion model for most microRNAs, although a few showed secretion patterns consistent with preferential secretion. On the contrary, 5′ tRNA halves and 5′ RNA Y4-derived fragments of 31–33 were greatly and significantly enriched in the extracellular space (even in non-mammary cell lines), where tRNA halves were detected as part of ∼45 kDa ribonucleoprotein complexes. Overall, we show that different sRNA families have characteristic secretion patterns and open the question of the role of these sRNAs in the extracellular space. PMID:25940616

  11. VEGF system expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR study on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana C.; Oliveira, Moacir F.; Papa, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to induce endothelial cell proliferation, to promote cell migration, and to inhibit apoptosis, thus playing a central role in angiogenesis and in the regulation of vasculogenesis. The expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was studied in t...

  12. Neutralizing VEGF bioactivity with a soluble chimeric VEGF receptor protein flt (1-3) IGG inhibits testosterone stimulated prostate growth in castrated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarsten, P.; Lissbrant, E.; Lissbrant, I.-F.; Haeggstroem-Rudolfsson, S.; Bergh, A.; Ferrara, N.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies show that testosterone stimulated growth of the glandular tissue in the ventral prostate in adult castrated rats is preceded by increased epithelial VEGF synthesis, endothelial cell proliferation, vascular growth, and increased blood flow. These observations suggest that testosterone stimulated prostate growth could be angiogenesis dependent, and that VEGF could play a central role in this. To test this hypothesis adult male mice were castrated and after one week treated with testosterone and vehicle, or with testosterone and a soluble chimeric VEGF-receptor flt(1-3)IgG protein. Treatment with testosterone markedly increased endothelial cell proliferation, vascular volume and organ weight in the ventral prostate lobe in the vehicle groups, but these responses were inhibited but not fully prevented by anti-VEGF treatment. The testosterone stimulated increase in epithelial cell proliferation was unaffected by flt(1-3)IgG, but endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis were increased in the anti-VEGF compared to the vehicle treated group. This study, together with our previous observations, suggest that testosterone stimulates vascular growth in the ventral prostate lobe indirectly by increasing epithelial VEGF synthesis and that this is a necessary component in testosterone stimulated prostate growth

  13. High-purity flow sorting of early meiocytes based on DNA analysis of guinea pig spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Geisinger, Adriana; Santiñaque, Federico F; López-Carro, Beatriz; Folle, Gustavo A

    2011-08-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is still nowadays poorly understood at the molecular level. Testis cellular heterogeneity is a major drawback for spermatogenic gene expression studies, especially when research is focused on stages that are usually very short and poorly represented at the cellular level such as initial meiotic prophase I (i.e., leptotene [L] and zygotene [Z]). Presumably, genes whose products are involved in critical meiotic events such as alignment, pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are expressed during the short stages of early meiotic prophase. Aiming to characterize mammalian early meiotic gene expression, we have found the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as an especially attractive model. A detailed analysis of its first spermatogenic wave by flow cytometry (FCM) and optical microscopy showed that guinea pig testes exhibit a higher representation of early meiotic stages compared to other studied rodents, partly because of their longer span, and also as a result of the increased number of cells entering meiosis. Moreover, we have found that adult guinea pig testes exhibit a peculiar 4C DNA content profile, with a bimodal peak for L/Z and P spermatocytes that is absent in other rodents. Besides, we show that this unusual 4C peak allows the separation by FCM of highly pure L/Z spermatocyte populations aside from pachytene ones, even from adult individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an accurate and suitable method for highly pure early meiotic prophase cell isolation from adult mammals, and thus sets an interesting approach for gene expression studies aiming at a deeper understanding of the molecular groundwork underlying male gamete production. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. A nanobody directed to a functional epitope on VEGF, as a novel strategy for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajpour, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Bahram; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel nanobody directed to antigenic regions on VEGF was identified. • Our nanobody was successfully purified. • Our nanobody significantly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in a dose dependent manner. - Abstract: Compelling evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to its essential role in angiogenesis, is a critical target for cancer treatment. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against VEGF are important class of drugs used in cancer therapy. However, the cost of production, large size, and immunogenicity are main drawbacks of conventional monoclonal therapy. Nanobodies are the smallest antigen-binding antibody fragments, which occur naturally in camelidae. Because of their remarkable features, we decided to use an immune library of nanobody to direct phage display to recognition of novel functional epitopes on VEGF. Four rounds of selection were performed and six phage-displayed nanobodies were obtained from an immune phage library. The most reactive clone in whole-cell ELISA experiments, was purified and assessed in proliferation inhibition assay. Purified ZFR-5 not only blocked interaction of VEGF with its receptor in cell ELISA experiments, but also was able to significantly inhibit proliferation response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to VEGF in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our study demonstrates that by using whole-cell ELISA experiments, nanobodies against antigenic regions included in interaction of VEGF with its receptors can be directed. Because of unique and intrinsic properties of a nanobody and the ability of selected nanobody for blocking the epitope that is important for biological function of VEGF, it represents novel potential drug candidate

  15. Hypoxia induced VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose depots of obese diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaru, Ana Marina; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; Bold, Adriana; Taisescu, C; Stănescu, R; Hîncu, Mihaela; Crăiţoiu, Stefania; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2012-01-01

    VEGF is one the pro-inflammatory adipokines synthesized by the "adipose secretoma" of obese subjects as a response to hypoxic conditions; but the main function of VEGF is angiogenesis, being recognized as the most important factor increasing blood capillaries in the adipose tissue by stimulating endothelial cell growth. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of the vascular response to VEGF synthesis in the subcutaneous and central-peritoneal adipose depots in lean, obese and obese diabetic patients. We used CD31 to label the endothelial cells in order to evaluate the response of the vascular network to VEGF synthesis. Our results showed an increase of VEGF protein synthesis in obese and obese-diabetic patients compared to lean subjects where the protein was absent. The positivity for VEGF in obese diabetic samples was observed in numerous structures from the adipose depots, both in the stromal vascular fraction--blood vessels and stromal cells--as well as in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Positivity in the vascular wall was observed more frequently in areas of perivascular and intralobular fibrosis. Obese and diabetic patients showed similar incidence of CD31 immunoreactivity with lean subjects in both subcutaneous and peritoneal depots. In conclusion, human adipose depots show a different incidence of VEGF positive cells in relation with their disposal and the metabolic status. VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose tissue is inefficient being not followed by angiogenesis to counterbalance tissue hypoxia. We suggest that may be a pathogenic link between the degrees of intralobular fibrosis in adipose depots and VEGF expression.

  16. A nanobody directed to a functional epitope on VEGF, as a novel strategy for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajpour, Zahra [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: rahbarif@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Bahram [Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadvand, Davoud [School of Allied Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • A novel nanobody directed to antigenic regions on VEGF was identified. • Our nanobody was successfully purified. • Our nanobody significantly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation of HUVECs in a dose dependent manner. - Abstract: Compelling evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to its essential role in angiogenesis, is a critical target for cancer treatment. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against VEGF are important class of drugs used in cancer therapy. However, the cost of production, large size, and immunogenicity are main drawbacks of conventional monoclonal therapy. Nanobodies are the smallest antigen-binding antibody fragments, which occur naturally in camelidae. Because of their remarkable features, we decided to use an immune library of nanobody to direct phage display to recognition of novel functional epitopes on VEGF. Four rounds of selection were performed and six phage-displayed nanobodies were obtained from an immune phage library. The most reactive clone in whole-cell ELISA experiments, was purified and assessed in proliferation inhibition assay. Purified ZFR-5 not only blocked interaction of VEGF with its receptor in cell ELISA experiments, but also was able to significantly inhibit proliferation response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to VEGF in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our study demonstrates that by using whole-cell ELISA experiments, nanobodies against antigenic regions included in interaction of VEGF with its receptors can be directed. Because of unique and intrinsic properties of a nanobody and the ability of selected nanobody for blocking the epitope that is important for biological function of VEGF, it represents novel potential drug candidate.

  17. Prokaryotic Soluble Overexpression and Purification of Human VEGF165 by Fusion to a Maltose Binding Protein Tag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Tan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of angiogenesis and plays a central role in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Escherichia coli is one of the most common expression systems used for the production of recombinant proteins; however, expression of human VEGF in E. coli has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed VEGF tends to be misfolded and forms inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, we successfully produced semi-preparative amounts of soluble bioactive human VEGF165 (hVEGF. We created seven N-terminal fusion tag constructs with hexahistidine (His6, thioredoxin (Trx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, N-utilization substance protein A (NusA, human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a', and tested each construct for soluble overexpression in E. coli. We found that at 18°C, 92.8% of the MBP-tagged hVEGF to be soluble and that this tag significantly increased the protein's solubility. We successfully purified 0.8 mg of pure hVEGF per 500 mL cell culture. The purified hVEGF is stable after tag cleavage, contains very low levels of endotoxin, and is 97.6% pure. Using an Flk1+ mesodermal precursor cell (MPC differentiation assay, we show that the purified hVEGF is not only bioactive but has similar bioactivity to hVEGF produced in mammalian cells. Previous reports on producing hVEGF in E. coli have all been based on refolding of the protein from inclusion bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successfully expressing and purifying soluble hVEGF in E. coli.

  18. Transcription regulation of the vegf gene by the BMP/Smad pathway in the angioblast of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chen; Chen Xiaozhuo

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that is critically involved in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. However, what and how transcription factors participate in the regulation of vegf gene expression are not fully understood. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the zebrafish vegf promoter which revealed that the promoter contains a number of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-activated Smad binding elements (SBE), implicating Smad1 and Smad5 in the regulation of BMP-induced expression of vegf. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of adding recombinant Smad proteins to the SBE-containing DNA oligonucleotides that represent portions of zebrafish vegf promoter resulted in mobility shift of the oligonucleotides. These changes demonstrate potential interactions between Smad1/5 and the vegf promoter. Reporter activity assays using the wild-type or SBE-deleted vegf promoters to drive the luciferase reporter gene expression revealed that Smad1 stimulated while Smad5 repressed the vegf promoter activity in zebrafish embryos. These data indicate that the BMP/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of zebrafish vegf transcription. In addition, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of human BMP4 in zebrafish embryos induced an expansion of the posterior intermediate cell mass (ICM, also commonly called blood island), a population of cells containing endothelial and hematopoietic precursors. In the expanded ICM, vegf and VEGF receptor 2 (flk-1) were ectopically co-expressed, suggesting that an autocrine/paracrine regulation of vegf expression may exist and contribute to the BMP-induced hemangiogenic cell proliferation

  19. Collaborative interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C promotes lymphangiogenesis and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Ji, Hong; Feng, Ninghan

    2012-01-01

    Interplay between various lymphangiogenic factors in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and VEGF-C, two lymphangiogenic factors, collaboratively promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, leading...... endothelial cell tip cell formation is a prerequisite for FGF-2-stimulated lymphangiogenesis. In the tumor microenvironment, the reciprocal interplay between FGF-2 and VEGF-C collaboratively stimulated tumor growth, angiogenesis, intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, intervention and targeting...

  20. Gene expression profiles of Bapx1 expressing FACS sorted cells from wildtype and Bapx1-EGFP null mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantra Chatterjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article refers to Chatterjee et al. (2015 “In vivo genome-wide analysis of multiple tissues identifies gene regulatory networks, novel functions and downstream regulatory genes for Bapx1 and its co-regulation with Sox9 in the mammalian vertebral column” (GEO GSE35649 [1]. Transcriptional profiling combined with genome wide binding data is a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind vertebrate organogenesis. It also helps to uncover multiple roles of a single gene in different organs. In the above mentioned report we reveal the function of the homeobox gene Bapx1 during the embryogenesis of five distinct organs (vertebral column, spleen, gut, forelimb and hindlimb at a relevant developmental stage (E12.5, microarray analysis of isolated wildtype and mutant cells in is compared in conjunction with ChIP-Seq analysis. We also analyzed the development of the vertebral column by comparing microarray and ChIP-Seq data for Bapx1 with similarly generated data sets for Sox9 to generate a gene regulatory network controlling various facets of the organogenesis.

  1. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is required for the sensitivity of yeast cells to nickel ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Cao, Chunlei; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Nickel is one of the toxic environment metal pollutants and is linked to various human diseases. In this study, through a functional genomics approach we have identified 16 nickel-sensitive and 22 nickel-tolerant diploid deletion mutants of budding yeast genes, many of which are novel players in the regulation of nickel homeostasis. The 16 nickel-sensitive mutants are of genes mainly involved in the protein folding, modification and destination and the cellular transport processes, while the 22 nickel-tolerant mutants are of genes encoding components of ESCRT complexes as well as protein factors involved in both the cell wall integrity maintenance and the vacuolar protein sorting process. In consistence with their phenotypes, most of these nickel-sensitive mutants show reduced intracellular nickel contents, while the majority of these nickel-tolerant mutants show elevated intracellular nickel contents, as compared to the wild type in response to nickel stress. Our data provides a basis for our understanding the regulation of nickel homeostasis and molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced human pathogenesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Role of EG-VEGF in human placentation: Physiological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Pascale; Saoudi, Yasmina; Benharouga, Mohamed; Graham, Charles H; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Mazouni, Chafika; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2009-08-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, is thought to be caused by shallow invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). Data suggest that a fine balance between the expressions of pro- and anti-invasive factors might regulate EVT invasiveness. Recently, we showed that the expression of the new growth factor endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is high in early pregnancy but falls after 11 weeks, suggesting an essential role for this factor in early pregnancy. Using human villous explants and HTR-8/SVneo, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, we showed differential expression of EG-VEGF receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, in the placenta and demonstrated that EG-VEGF inhibits EVT migration, invasion and tube-like organisation. EG-VEGF inhibitory effect on invasion was supported by a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 production. Interference with PKR2 expression, using specific siRNAs, reversed the EG-VEGF-induced inhibitory effects. Furthermore, we determined EG-VEGF circulating levels in normal and PE patients. Our results showed that EG-VEGF levels were highest during the first trimester of pregnancy and decreased thereafter to non-pregnant levels. More important, EG-VEGF levels were significantly elevated in PE patients compared with age-matched controls. These findings identify EG-VEGF as a novel paracrine regulator of trophoblast invasion. We speculate that a failure to correctly down-regulate placental expression of EG-VEGF at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy might lead to PE.

  3. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  4. Lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic activated cell sorting (LIMACS): a novel method to analyze protein-lipid interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2011-04-26

    The analysis of lipid protein interaction is difficult because lipids are embedded in cell membranes and therefore, inaccessible to most purification procedures. As an alternative, lipids can be coated on flat surfaces as used for lipid ELISA and Plasmon resonance spectroscopy. However, surface coating lipids do not form microdomain structures, which may be important for the lipid binding properties. Further, these methods do not allow for the purification of larger amounts of proteins binding to their target lipids. To overcome these limitations of testing lipid protein interaction and to purify lipid binding proteins we developed a novel method termed lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic-activated cell sorting (LIMACS). In this method, lipid vesicles are prepared with the target lipid and phosphatidylserine as the anchor lipid for Annexin V MACS. Phosphatidylserine is a ubiquitous cell membrane phospholipid that shows high affinity to the protein Annexin V. Using magnetic beads conjugated to Annexin V the phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles will bind to the magnetic beads. When the lipid vesicles are incubated with a cell lysate the protein binding to the target lipid will also be bound to the beads and can be co-purified using MACS. This method can also be used to test if recombinant proteins reconstitute a protein complex binding to the target lipid. We have used this method to show the interaction of atypical PKC (aPKC) with the sphingolipid ceramide and to co-purify prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a protein binding to ceramide-associated aPKC. We have also used this method for the reconstitution of a ceramide-associated complex of recombinant aPKC with the cell polarity-related proteins Par6 and Cdc42. Since lipid vesicles can be prepared with a variety of sphingo- or phospholipids, LIMACS offers a versatile test for lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles closely that of the cell membrane

  5. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  6. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  7. Signal transduction by VEGF receptors in regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masabumi; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The VEGF/VPF (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor) ligands and receptors are crucial regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and vascular permeability in vertebrates. VEGF-A, the prototype VEGF ligand, binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors: VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1). VEGFR1, which occurs in transmembrane and soluble forms, negatively regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during early embryogenesis, but it also acts as a positive regulator of angiogenesis and inflammatory responses, playing a role in several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The soluble VEGFR1 is overexpressed in placenta in preeclampsia patients. VEGFR2 has critical functions in physiological and pathological angiogenesis through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. VEGFR3, a receptor for the lymphatic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D, but not for VEGF-A, regulates vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell function during embryogenesis. Loss-of-function variants of VEGFR3 have been identified in lymphedema. Formation of tumor lymphatics may be stimulated by tumor-produced VEGF-C, allowing increased spread of tumor metastases through the lymphatics. Mapping the signaling system of these important receptors may provide the knowledge necessary to suppress specific signaling pathways in major human diseases

  8. Exposure of chick embryos to cadmium changes the extra-embryonic vascular branching pattern and alters expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-R2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghescu, Anna Kaskova [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Tywoniuk, Bartlomiej [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Duess, Johannes [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); National Children' s Research Centre, Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12 (Ireland); Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel, E-mail: buchete@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Thompson, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.thompson@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) has several industrial applications, and is found in tobacco products, a notable source of human exposure. Vascular endothelial cells are key targets of Cd toxicity. Here, we aim to quantify the alteration to vascular branching pattern following Cd exposure in the chick extra-embryonic membrane (EEM) using fractal analysis, and explore molecular cues to angiogenesis such as VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 expression following Cd treatment. Chicken embryos were incubated for 60 h to Hamburger–Hamilton developmental stage 16–17, then explanted and treated with 50 μL of 50 μmol cadmium acetate (CdAc) or an equivalent volume of equimolar sodium acetate (NaAc). Images of embryos and their area vasculosa (AV) were captured and analyzed at 4 different time points (4, 8, 24 and 48 h) following treatment. Vascular branching in the AV was quantified using its fractal dimension (D{sub f}), estimated using a box counting method. Gallinaceous VEGF ELISA was used to measure the VEGF-A concentration in the EEM following treatment, with determination of the relative expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Vascular branching increased monotonically in the control group at all time points. The anti-angiogenic effect of Cd exposure on the AV was reflected by a significant reduction in D{sub f} when compared with controls. D{sub f} was more markedly reduced in cultures with abnormal embryos. The expression of VEGF-A protein, and VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 mRNA were reduced in Cd-exposed EEMs. Both molecules contribute to growth, vessel sprouting and branching processes, which supports our findings using fractal analysis. - Highlights: • The chick area vasculosa was undersized in embryos exposed to 50 μM cadmium acetate. • Fractal dimension was reduced in the AV after Cd exposure, indicating decreased branching. • VEGF-A protein was decreased in Cd-treated extraembryonic membranes. • VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 mRNA was decreased in Cd-treated extraembryonic

  9. The growth and aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma is regulated by a CaMKII-controlled autocrine VEGF signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Paul G; Yang, Yang; Napierala, Dobrawa; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a hyperproliferative malignant tumor that requires a high vascular density to maintain its large volume. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and acts as a paracrine and autocrine agent affecting both endothelial and tumor cells. The alpha-Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase two (α-CaMKII) protein is an important regulator of OS growth. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII-induced VEGF in the growth and tumorigenicity of OS. We show that the pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of α-CaMKII results in decreases in VEGF gene expression (50%) and protein secretion (55%), while α- CaMKII overexpression increases VEGF gene expression (250%) and protein secretion (1,200%). We show that aggressive OS cells (143B) express high levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and respond to exogenous VEGF (100nm) by increasing intracellular calcium (30%). This response is ameliorated by the VEGFR inhibitor CBO-P11, suggesting that secreted VEGF results in autocrine stimulated α-CaMKII activation. Furthermore, we show that VEGF and α-CaMKII inhibition decreases the transactivation of the HIF-1α and AP-1 reporter constructs. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows significantly decreased binding of HIF-1α and AP-1 to their responsive elements in the VEGF promoter. These data suggest that α-CaMKII regulates VEGF transcription by controlling HIF-1α and AP-1 transcriptional activities. Finally, CBO-P11, KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and combination therapy significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo. Our results suggest that VEGF-induced OS tumor growth is controlled by CaMKII and dual therapy by CaMKII and VEGF inhibitors could be a promising therapy against this devastating adolescent disease.

  10. The growth and aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma is regulated by a CaMKII-controlled autocrine VEGF signaling mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Daft

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a hyperproliferative malignant tumor that requires a high vascular density to maintain its large volume. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and acts as a paracrine and autocrine agent affecting both endothelial and tumor cells. The alpha-Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase two (α-CaMKII protein is an important regulator of OS growth. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII-induced VEGF in the growth and tumorigenicity of OS. We show that the pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of α-CaMKII results in decreases in VEGF gene expression (50% and protein secretion (55%, while α- CaMKII overexpression increases VEGF gene expression (250% and protein secretion (1,200%. We show that aggressive OS cells (143B express high levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2 and respond to exogenous VEGF (100nm by increasing intracellular calcium (30%. This response is ameliorated by the VEGFR inhibitor CBO-P11, suggesting that secreted VEGF results in autocrine stimulated α-CaMKII activation. Furthermore, we show that VEGF and α-CaMKII inhibition decreases the transactivation of the HIF-1α and AP-1 reporter constructs. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows significantly decreased binding of HIF-1α and AP-1 to their responsive elements in the VEGF promoter. These data suggest that α-CaMKII regulates VEGF transcription by controlling HIF-1α and AP-1 transcriptional activities. Finally, CBO-P11, KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor and combination therapy significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo. Our results suggest that VEGF-induced OS tumor growth is controlled by CaMKII and dual therapy by CaMKII and VEGF inhibitors could be a promising therapy against this devastating adolescent disease.

  11. Direct evidence that the VEGF-specific antibody bevacizumab has antivascular effects in human rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Christopher G; Boucher, Yves; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Duda, Dan G; Munn, Lance L; Tong, Ricky T; Chung, Daniel C; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Kozin, Sergey V; Mino, Mari; Cohen, Kenneth S; Scadden, David T; Hartford, Alan C; Fischman, Alan J; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ryan, David P; Zhu, Andrew X; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Chen, Helen X; Shellito, Paul C; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Jain, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    The effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade on the vascular biology of human tumors are not known. Here we show here that a single infusion of the VEGF-specific antibody bevacizumab decreases tumor perfusion, vascular volume, microvascular density, interstitial fluid pressure and the number of viable, circulating endothelial and progenitor cells, and increases the fraction of vessels with pericyte coverage in rectal carcinoma patients. These data indicate that VEGF blockade has a direct and rapid antivascular effect in human tumors. PMID:14745444

  12. VEGFR1-mediated pericyte ablation links VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Xue, Yuan; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, blockade of VEGFR1 but not VEGFR2 significantly restores pericyte saturation in mature retinal vessels. Our findings link VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy, reveal the molecular mechanisms of VEGFR1 ligand-mediated retinopathy, and define VEGFR1 as an important target......, and adenoviral vectors ablates pericytes from the mature retinal vasculature through the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-mediated signaling pathway, leading to increased vascular leakage. In contrast, we demonstrate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is primarily expressed in nonvascular photoreceptors and ganglion cells...

  13. Potent neutralization of VEGF biological activities with a fully human antibody Fab fragment directed against VEGF receptor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, H.-Q.; Hu, Kun; Jimenez, Xenia; Navarro, Elizabeth; Zhang, Haifan; Lu Dan; Ludwig, Dale L.; Balderes, Paul; Zhu Zhenping

    2006-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, especially receptor 2 (VEGFR2, or kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR), play a critical role in angiogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer and angiogenic retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To this end, inhibition of angiogenesis with antagonists to either VEGF or KDR has yielded significant therapeutic efficacy both in preclinical studies in animal models and in clinical trials in patients with cancer and AMD. We previously reported the identification of a high affinity, fully human anti-KDR antibody fragment, 1121B Fab, through a highly stringent affinity maturation process with a Fab originally isolated from a naive human antibody phage display library. In this study, we demonstrate that 1121B Fab is able to strongly block KDR/VEGF interaction, resulting in potent inhibition of an array of biological activities of VEGF, including activation of the receptor and its signaling pathway, intracellular calcium mobilization, and migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Taken together, our data lend strong support to the further development of 1121B Fab fragment as an anti-angiogenesis agent in both cancer and angiogenic retinopathies

  14. VEGF regulates TRPC6 channels in podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Loddenkemper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    increased TRPC6 mRNA expression and TRPC6 protein levels. The effects of VEGF165 were dose dependent and could be blocked by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors. In the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis, we did not observe an effect of VEGF on TRPC6 protein levels, indicating...

  15. VEGF and VEGFR-2 (KDR) internalization is required for endothelial recovery during wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantino Rosa Santos, Susana; Miguel, Claudia; Domingues, Ines; Calado, Angelo; Zhu Zhenping; Wu Yan; Dias, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor activation regulates endothelial cell (EC) survival, migration and proliferation. Recently, it was suggested the cross-talk between the VEGF receptors-1 (FLT-1) and -2 (KDR) modulated several of these functions, but the detailed molecular basis for such interactions remained unexplained. Here we demonstrate for the first time that VEGF stimulation of EC monolayers induced a rapid FLT-1-mediated internalization of KDR to the nucleus, via microtubules and the endocytic pathway, internalization which required the activation of PI 3-kinase/AKT. KDR deletion mutants were generated in several tyrosine residues; in these, VEGF-induced KDR internalization was impaired, demonstrating this process required activation (phosphorylation) of the receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vitro wounding of EC monolayers leads to a rapid and transient internalization of VEGF + KDR to the nucleus, which is essential for monolayer recovery. Notably, FLT-1 blockade impedes VEGF and KDR activation and internalization, blocking endothelial monolayer recovery. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism induced by VEGF on EC, which regulates EC recovery following wounding, and as such indicate novel targets for therapeutic intervention

  16. Increased expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF in the rat brain after gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Li, Hong; Huang, Huiling; Xu, Desheng; Zhi, Dashi; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yipei

    2012-03-01

    The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been known to play a key regulatory role in pathological angiogenesis. A elevated activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following radiation injury has been shown to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. However, the roles of EMMPRIN and VEGF in radiation-induced brain injury after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated EMMPRIN changes in a rat model of radiation injury following GKS and examined potential associations between EMMPRIN and VEGF expression. Adult male rats were subjected to cerebral radiation injury by GKS under anesthesia. We found that EMMPRIN and VEGF expression were markedly upregulated in the target area at 8-12 weeks after GKS compared with the control group by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that EMMPRIN signals colocalized with caspase-3 and VEGF-positive cells. Our data also demonstrated that increased EMMPRIN expression was correlated with increased VEGF levels in a temporal manner. This is the first study to show that EMMPRIN and VEGF may play a role in radiation injuries of the central nervous system after GKS.

  17. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.......Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  18. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  19. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  20. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  1. A compartment model of VEGF distribution in humans in the presence of soluble VEGF receptor-1 acting as a ligand trap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T H Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, through its activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, is a vital regulator of stimulatory and inhibitory processes that keep angiogenesis--new capillary growth from existing microvasculature--at a dynamic balance in normal physiology. Soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1--a naturally-occurring truncated version of VEGFR1 lacking the transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains--has been postulated to exert inhibitory effects on angiogenic signaling via two mechanisms: direct sequestration of angiogenic ligands such as VEGF; or dominant-negative heterodimerization with surface VEGFRs. In pre-clinical studies, sVEGFR1 gene and protein therapy have demonstrated efficacy in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis; while in clinical studies, sVEGFR1 has shown utility as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in a widening array of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here we developed a novel computational multi-tissue model for recapitulating the dynamic systemic distributions of VEGF and sVEGFR1. Model features included: physiologically-based multi-scale compartmentalization of the human body; inter-compartmental macromolecular biotransport processes (vascular permeability, lymphatic drainage; and molecularly-detailed binding interactions between the ligand isoforms VEGF(121 and VEGF(165, signaling receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1, as well as sVEGFR1. The model was parameterized to represent a healthy human subject, whereupon we investigated the effects of sVEGFR1 on the distribution and activation of VEGF ligands and receptors. We assessed the healthy baseline stability of circulating VEGF and sVEGFR1 levels in plasma, as well as their reliability in indicating tissue-level angiogenic signaling potential. Unexpectedly, simulated results showed that sVEGFR1 - acting as a diffusible VEGF sink alone, i.e., without sVEGFR1-VEGFR heterodimerization

  2. Alternative splicing of TIA-1 in human colon cancer regulates VEGF isoform expression, angiogenesis, tumour growth and bevacizumab resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdollah Zadeh, Maryam A; Amin, Elianna M; Hoareau-Aveilla, Coralie; Domingo, Enric; Symonds, Kirsty E; Ye, Xi; Heesom, Katherine J; Salmon, Andrew; D'Silva, Olivia; Betteridge, Kai B; Williams, Ann C; Kerr, David J; Salmon, Andrew H J; Oltean, Sebastian; Midgley, Rachel S; Ladomery, Michael R; Harper, Steven J; Varey, Alexander H R; Bates, David O

    2015-01-01

    The angiogenic capability of colorectal carcinomas (CRC), and their susceptibility to anti-angiogenic therapy, is determined by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms. The intracellular protein T-cell Intracellular Antigen (TIA-1) alters post-transcriptional RNA processing and binds VEGF-A mRNA. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TIA-1 could regulate VEGF-A isoform expression in colorectal cancers. TIA-1 and VEGF-A isoform expression was measured in colorectal cancers and cell lines. We discovered that an endogenous splice variant of TIA-1 encoding a truncated protein, short TIA-1 (sTIA-1) was expressed in CRC tissues and invasive K-Ras mutant colon cancer cells and tissues but not in adenoma cell lines. sTIA-1 was more highly expressed in CRC than in normal tissues and increased with tumour stage. Knockdown of sTIA-1 or over-expression of full length TIA-1 (flTIA-1) induced expression of the anti-angiogenic VEGF isoform VEGF-A165b. Whereas flTIA-1 selectively bound VEGF-A165 mRNA and increased translation of VEGF-A165b, sTIA-1 prevented this binding. In nude mice, xenografted colon cancer cells over-expressing flTIA-1 formed smaller, less vascular tumours than those expressing sTIA-1, but flTIA-1 expression inhibited the effect of anti-VEGF antibodies. These results indicate that alternative splicing of an RNA binding protein can regulate isoform specific expression of VEGF providing an added layer of complexity to the angiogenic profile of colorectal cancer and their resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetics of VEGF serum variation in human isolated populations of cilento: importance of VEGF polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruggiero

    Full Text Available Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF is the main player in angiogenesis. Because of its crucial role in this process, the study of the genetic factors controlling VEGF variability may be of particular interest for many angiogenesis-associated diseases. Although some polymorphisms in the VEGF gene have been associated with a susceptibility to several disorders, no genome-wide search on VEGF serum levels has been reported so far. We carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis in three isolated populations and we detected a strong linkage between VEGF serum levels and the 6p21.1 VEGF region in all samples. A new locus on chromosome 3p26.3 significantly linked to VEGF serum levels was also detected in a combined population sample. A sequencing of the gene followed by an association study identified three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population (Campora, two already reported in the literature (rs3025039, rs25648 and one new signal (rs3025020. A fourth SNP (rs41282644 was found to affect VEGF serum levels in another population (Cardile. All the identified SNPs contribute to the related population linkages (35% of the linkage explained in Campora and 15% in Cardile. Interestingly, none of the SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population was found to be associated in the two other populations. These results allow us to exclude the hypothesis that the common variants located in the exons, intron-exon junctions, promoter and regulative regions of the VEGF gene may have a causal effect on the VEGF variation. The data support the alternative hypothesis of a multiple rare variant model, possibly consisting in distinct variants in different populations, influencing VEGF serum levels.

  4. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  5. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  6. Track data sort program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, N.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of the MASKA program, based on the principle of sorting points array at surface due to their belonging to the topologically connected regions with boundaries of locked broken lines. The algorithm is realized on the ES-1010 computer for automatic image processing from the bubble chambers by scanning measuring projector. The methods are considered for constructing the above mentioned regions for all the images according to the base points measured on the semiautomatic measuring table. The MASKA program is written in the ASSEMBLER-2 language and equals 3.5K words of the main memory. The average processing time for 10000 points according to one mask is 1 sec

  7. Comparative analysis of metastasis variants derived from human prostate carcinoma cells: roles in intravasation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and uPA-mediated invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Erin M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their int...

  8. Ligand-receptor assay for evaluation of functional activity of human recombinant VEGF and VEGFR-1 extracellular fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopol'd, A V; Baklaushev, V P; Korchagina, A A; Shein, S A; Grinenko, N F; Pavlov, K A; Ryabukhin, I A; Chekhonin, V P

    2012-04-01

    cDNA encoding VEGF and Ig-like extracellular domains 2-4 of VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1(2-4)) were cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET32a and pQE60. Recombinant proteins were purified (metal affinity chromatography) and renatured. Chemiluminescent study for the interaction of recombinant VEGF and sFlt-1(2-4) showed that biotinylated VEGF specifically binds to the polystyrene-immobilized receptor extracellular fragment. Biotinylated recombinant sFlt-1 interacts with immobilized VEGF. Analysis of the interaction of immobilized recombinant VEGFR-1 and VEGF with C6 glioma cells labeled with CFDA-SE (vital fluorescent dye) showed that recombinant VEGFR-1 also binds to native membrane-associated VEGF. Recombinant VEGF was shown to bind to specific receptors expressed on the surface of C6 glioma cells. Functional activity of these proteins was confirmed by ligand-receptor assay for VEGF and VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1) and quantitative chemiluminescent detection.

  9. Algorithm Sorts Groups Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    For efficient sorting, algorithm finds set containing minimum or maximum most significant data. Sets of data sorted as desired. Sorting process simplified by reduction of each multielement set of data to single representative number. First, each set of data expressed as polynomial with suitably chosen base, using elements of set as coefficients. Most significant element placed in term containing largest exponent. Base selected by examining range in value of data elements. Resulting series summed to yield single representative number. Numbers easily sorted, and each such number converted back to original set of data by successive division. Program written in BASIC.

  10. Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, Marius; Coculescu, Mihail; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic molecule restricted to endocrine glands and, particularly, to steroid-secreting cells. The expression of EG-VEGF and its significance in human adenohypophysis in physiological and pathological conditions is still unknown. In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the expression of EG-VEGF in 2 samples of normal adenohypophysis and 43 bioptic samples of pituitary adenoma. Moreover, the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticoprophic hormone (ACTH) were also estimated. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate a down-regulation of EG-VEGF expression in human pituitary adenoma as compared to normal adenohypophysis, suggesting an impaired function of the neoplastic cells in terms of hormone release in the blood stream, as a consequence of impaired tumor angiogenesis in the tumor. On the basis of our data showing a marked decrease in the expression of EG-VEGF in pituitary adenoma, with the exception of LH-secreting adenomas, we suggest that LH might be involved in the induction of EG-VEGF secretion.

  11. M-CSF signals through the MAPK/ERK pathway via Sp1 to induce VEGF production and induces angiogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Curry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M-CSF recruits mononuclear phagocytes which regulate processes such as angiogenesis and metastases in tumors. VEGF is a potent activator of angiogenesis as it promotes endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation. Previously, we reported that in vitro M-CSF induces the expression of biologically-active VEGF from human monocytes. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of M-CSF-induced VEGF production. Using a construct containing the VEGF promoter linked to a luciferase reporter, we found that a mutation reducing HIF binding to the VEGF promoter had no significant effect on luciferase production induced by M-CSF stimulation. Further analysis revealed that M-CSF induced VEGF through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via the transcription factor, Sp1. Thus, inhibition of either ERK or Sp1 suppressed M-CSF-induced VEGF at the mRNA and protein level. M-CSF also induced the nuclear localization of Sp1, which was blocked by ERK inhibition. Finally, mutating the Sp1 binding sites within the VEGF promoter or inhibiting ERK decreased VEGF promoter activity in M-CSF-treated human monocytes. To evaluate the biological significance of M-CSF induced VEGF production, we used an in vivo angiogenesis model to illustrate the ability of M-CSF to recruit mononuclear phagocytes, increase VEGF levels, and enhance angiogenesis. Importantly, the addition of a neutralizing VEGF antibody abolished M-CSF-induced blood vessel formation. CONCLUSION: These data delineate an ERK- and Sp1-dependent mechanism of M-CSF induced VEGF production and demonstrate for the first time the ability of M-CSF to induce angiogenesis via VEGF in vivo.

  12. Minoxidil Induction of VEGF Is Mediated by Inhibition of HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohwan Yum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topical application of minoxidil may achieve millimolar concentrations in the skin. We investigated whether millimolar minoxidil could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a possible effector for minoxidil-mediated hair growth, and how it occurred at the molecular level. Cell-based experiments were performed to investigate a molecular mechanism underlying the millimolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. The inhibitory effect of minoxidil on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2 was tested by an in vitro von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL binding assay. To examine the angiogenic potential of millimolar minoxidil, a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay was used. In human keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells, millimolar minoxidil increased the secretion of VEGF, which was not attenuated by a specific adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits the micromolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. Millimolar minoxidil induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, and the induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Moreover, minoxidil applied to the dorsal area of mice increased HIF-1α and VEGF in the skin. In an in vitro VHL binding assay, minoxidil directly inhibited PHD-2, thus preventing the hydroxylation of cellular HIF-1α and VHL-dependent proteasome degradation and resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α protein. Minoxidil inhibition of PHD-2 was reversed by ascorbate, a cofactor of PHD-2, and the minoxidil induction of cellular HIF-1α was abrogated by the cofactor. Millimolar minoxidil promoted angiogenesis in the CAM assay, an in vivo angiogenic test, and this was nullified by the specific inhibition of VEGF. Our data demonstrate that PHD may be the molecular target for millimolar minoxidil-mediated VEGF induction via HIF-1.

  13. Minoxidil Induction of VEGF Is Mediated by Inhibition of HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soohwan; Jeong, Seongkeun; Kim, Dohoon; Lee, Sunyoung; Kim, Wooseong; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Dae-Duk; Min, Do Sik; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    The topical application of minoxidil may achieve millimolar concentrations in the skin. We investigated whether millimolar minoxidil could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a possible effector for minoxidil-mediated hair growth, and how it occurred at the molecular level. Cell-based experiments were performed to investigate a molecular mechanism underlying the millimolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. The inhibitory effect of minoxidil on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) was tested by an in vitro von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL) binding assay. To examine the angiogenic potential of millimolar minoxidil, a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used. In human keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells, millimolar minoxidil increased the secretion of VEGF, which was not attenuated by a specific adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits the micromolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. Millimolar minoxidil induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and the induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Moreover, minoxidil applied to the dorsal area of mice increased HIF-1α and VEGF in the skin. In an in vitro VHL binding assay, minoxidil directly inhibited PHD-2, thus preventing the hydroxylation of cellular HIF-1α and VHL-dependent proteasome degradation and resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α protein. Minoxidil inhibition of PHD-2 was reversed by ascorbate, a cofactor of PHD-2, and the minoxidil induction of cellular HIF-1α was abrogated by the cofactor. Millimolar minoxidil promoted angiogenesis in the CAM assay, an in vivo angiogenic test, and this was nullified by the specific inhibition of VEGF. Our data demonstrate that PHD may be the molecular target for millimolar minoxidil-mediated VEGF induction via HIF-1. PMID:29295567

  14. Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis through Downregulation of HIF-1/VEGF Signaling under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factors-1 (HIF-1 plays a critical role in promoting tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF is prepared from brown algae, and exhibits anticancer activity. However, whether LMWF attenuates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in bladder cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. This is the first study to demonstrate that LMWF can inhibit hypoxia-stimulated H2O2 formation, HIF-1 accumulation and transcriptional activity vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion, and the migration and invasion in hypoxic human bladder cancer cells (T24 cells. LMWF also downregulated hypoxia-activated phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP-1 signaling in T24 cells. Blocking PI3K/AKT or mTOR activity strongly diminished hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and VEGF secretion in T24 cells, supporting the involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in the induction of HIF-1α and VEGF. Additionally, LMWF significantly attenuated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo evidenced by reduction of tube formation of hypoxic human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and blood capillary generation in the tumor. Similarly, administration of LMWF also inhibited the HIF-1α and VEGF expression in vivo, accompanied by a reduction of tumor growth. In summary, under hypoxia conditions, the antiangiogenic activity of LMWF in bladder cancer may be associated with suppressing HIF-1/VEGF-regulated signaling pathway.

  15. Immunoliposome-mediated delivery of neomycin phosphotransferase for the lineage-specific selection of differentiated/committed stem cell progenies: potential advantages over transfection with marker genes, fluorescence-activated and magnetic affinity cell-sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Cao, Tong

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in the therapeutic application of stem cells in regenerative medicine is the lineage-specific selection of their committed/differentiated progenies for transplantation. This is necessary to avoid engraftment of undesired lineages at the transplantation site, i.e. fibroblastic scar tissue, as well as to enhance the efficacy of transplantation therapy. Commonly used techniques for lineage-specific selection of committed/differentiated stem cell progenies include marker gene transfection, fluorescence-activated (FACS) and magnetic-affinity (MACS) cell-sorting. Nevertheless, these have their disadvantages for therapeutic applications. Marker gene transfection invariably leads to permanent genetic modification of stem cells, which in turn limits their use in human clinical therapy due to overwhelming ethical and safety concerns. FACS requires expensive instrumentation and highly-skilled personnel, and is unsuited for handling bulk quantities of cells that would almost certainly be required for transplantation therapy. MACS is a cheaper alternative, but the level of purity attained is also reduced. A possible novel approach that has yet to be investigated is immunoliposome-mediated delivery of neomycin phosphotranferase (NPT) for lineage-specific selection of stem cell progenies. This would avoid permanent genetic modification to the cell, unlike recombinant NPT expression linked to activation of specific promoter sequences. Moreover, it could potentially provide a much more practical and cost-effective alternative for handling bulk quantities of cells that would be required for transplantation therapy, as compared to FACS or MACS. As such, this alternative approach needs to be rigorously investigated, in view of its potentially useful applications in stem cell therapeutics.

  16. ARTEMIN promotes de novo angiogenesis in ER negative mammary carcinoma through activation of TWIST1-VEGF-A signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Banerjee

    Full Text Available The neurotrophic factor ARTEMIN (ARTN has been reported to possess a role in mammary carcinoma progression and metastasis. Herein, we report that ARTN modulates endothelial cell behaviour and promotes angiogenesis in ER-mammary carcinoma (ER-MC. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1 do not express ARTN but respond to exogenously added, and paracrine ARTN secreted by ER-MC cells. ARTN promoted endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and 3D matrigel tube formation. Angiogenic behaviour promoted by ARTN secreted by ER-MC cells was mediated by AKT with resultant increased TWIST1 and subsequently VEGF-A expression. In a patient cohort of ER-MC, ARTN positively correlated with VEGF-A expression as measured by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. In xenograft experiments, ER-MC cells with forced expression of ARTN produced tumors with increased VEGF-A expression and increased microvessel density (CD31 and CD34 compared to tumors formed by control cells. Functional inhibition of ARTN by siRNA decreased the angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells. Bevacizumab (a humanized monoclonal anti-VEGF-A antibody partially inhibited the ARTN mediated angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells and combined inhibition of ARTN and VEGF-A by the same resulted in further significant decrease in the angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells. Thus, ARTN stimulates de novo tumor angiogenesis mediated in part by VEGF-A. ARTN therefore co-ordinately regulates multiple aspects of tumor growth and metastasis.

  17. Suppression of Retinal Neovascularization in vivo by Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Using Soluble VEGF-Receptor Chimeric Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pierce, Eric A.; Foley, Eliot D.; Takagi, Hitoshi; Chen, Helen; Riddle, Lavon; Ferrara, Napoleone; King, George L.; Smith, Lois E. H.

    1995-11-01

    The majority of severe visual loss in the United States results from complications associated with retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. Intraocular expression of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely correlated with neovascularization in these human disorders and with ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in mice. In this study, we evaluated whether in vivo inhibition of VEGF action could suppress retinal neovascularization in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. VEGF-neutralizing chimeric proteins were constructed by joining the extracellular domain of either human (Flt) or mouse (Flk) high-affinity VEGF receptors with IgG. Control chimeric proteins that did not bind VEGF were also used. VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins eliminated in vitro retinal endothelial cell growth stimulation by either VEGF (P hypoxic conditioned medium (P < 0.005) without affecting growth under nonstimulated conditions. Control proteins had no effect. To assess in vivo response, animals with bilateral retinal ischemia received intravitreal injections of VEGF antagonist in one eye and control protein in the contralateral eye. Retinal neovascularization was quantitated histologically by a masked protocol. Retinal neovascularization in the eye injected with human Flt or murine Flk chimeric protein was reduced in 100% (25/25; P < 0.0001) and 95% (21/22; P < 0.0001) of animals, respectively, compared to the control treated eye. This response was evident after only a single intravitreal injection and was dose dependent with suppression of neovascularization noted after total delivery of 200 ng of protein (P < 0.002). Reduction of histologically evident neovascular nuclei per 6-um section averaged 47% ± 4% (P < 0.001) and 37% ± 2% (P < 0.001) for Flt and Flk chimeric proteins with maximal inhibitory effects of 77% and 66

  18. Inhibition of prostate cancer osteoblastic progression with VEGF121/rGel, a single agent targeting osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and tumor neovasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedali, Khalid A; Li, Zhi Gang; Starbuck, Michael W; Wan, Xinhai; Yang, Jun; Kim, Sehoon; Zhang, Wendy; Rosenblum, Michael G; Navone, Nora M

    2011-04-15

    A hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression is the development of osteoblastic bone metastases, which respond poorly to available therapies. We previously reported that VEGF(121)/rGel targets osteoclast precursors and tumor neovasculature. Here we tested the hypothesis that targeting nontumor cells expressing these receptors can inhibit tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of osteoblastic PCa. Cells from MDA PCa 118b, a PCa xenograft obtained from a bone metastasis in a patient with castrate-resistant PCa, were injected into the femurs of mice. Osteoblastic progression was monitored following systemic administration of VEGF(121)/rGel. VEGF(121)/rGel was cytotoxic in vitro to osteoblast precursor cells. This cytotoxicity was specific as VEGF(121)/rGel internalization into osteoblasts was VEGF(121) receptor driven. Furthermore, VEGF(121)/rGel significantly inhibited PCa-induced bone formation in a mouse calvaria culture assay. In vivo, VEGF(121)/rGel significantly inhibited the osteoblastic progression of PCa cells in the femurs of nude mice. Microcomputed tomographic analysis revealed that VEGF(121)/rGel restored the bone volume fraction of tumor-bearing femurs to values similar to those of the contralateral (non-tumor-bearing) femurs. VEGF(121)/rGel significantly reduced the number of tumor-associated osteoclasts but did not change the numbers of peritumoral osteoblasts. Importantly, VEGF(121)/rGel-treated mice had significantly less tumor burden than control mice. Our results thus indicate that VEGF(121)/rGel inhibits osteoblastic tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and bone formation. Targeting VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1- or VEGFR-2-expressing cells is effective in controlling the osteoblastic progression of PCa in bone. These findings provide the basis for an effective multitargeted approach for metastatic PCa. ©2011 AACR.

  19. Galectin-3 disruption impaired tumoral angiogenesis by reducing VEGF secretion from TGFβ1-induced macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Camila Maria Longo; Andrade, Luciana Nogueira Sousa; Teixeira, Verônica Rodrigues; Costa, Fabrício Falconi; Melo, Camila Morais; Santos, Sofia Nascimento dos; Nonogaki, Suely; Liu, Fu-Tong; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Chammas, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the role of galectin-3 in tumor angiogenesis associated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and tumor parenchyma, the galectin-3 expression was reconstituted in Tm1 melanoma cell line that lacks this protein. Galectin-3-expressing cells (Tm1G3) and mock-vector transfected cells (Tm1N3) were injected into wild-type (WT) and galectin-3 knockout (KO) C57Bl/6 mice. Tumors originated from Tm1G3 were larger in tumor volume with enlarged functional vessels, decreased necrotic areas, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. Galectin-3-nonexpressing-cells injected into WT and KO showed increased levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and, in WT animals this feature was also accompanied by increased VEGFR2 expression and its phosphorylation. In KO animals, tumors derived from galectin-3-expressing cells were infiltrated by CD68 + -cells, whereas in tumors derived from galectin-3-nonexpressing-cells, CD68 + cells failed to infiltrate tumors and accumulated in the periphery of the tumor mass. In vitro studies showed that Tm1G3 secreted more VEGF than Tm1N3 cells. In the latter case, TGFβ1 induced VEGF production. Basal secretion of VEGF was higher in WT-bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) than in KO-BMDM. TGFβ1 induced secretion of VEGF only in WT-BMDM. Tm1G3-induced tumors had the Arginase I mRNA increased, which upregulated alternative macrophage (M2)/TAM induction. M2 stimuli, such as interleukin-4 (IL4) and TGFβ1, increased Arginase I protein levels and galectin-3 expression in WT- BMDM, but not in cells from KO mice. Hence, we report that galectin-3 disruption in tumor stroma and parenchyma decreases angiogenesis through interfering with the responses of macrophages to the interdependent VEGF and TGFβ1 signaling pathways

  20. Perbandingan Bubble Sort dengan Insertion Sort pada Bahasa Pemrograman C dan Fortran

    OpenAIRE

    Reina, Reina; Gautama, Josef Bernadi

    2013-01-01

    Sorting is a basic algorithm studied by students of computer science major. Sorting algorithm is the basis of other algorithms such as searching algorithm, pattern matching algorithm. Bubble sort is a popular basic sorting algorithm due to its easiness to be implemented. Besides bubble sort, there is insertion sort. It is lesspopular than bubble sort because it has more difficult algorithm. This paper discusses about process time between insertion sort and bubble sort with two kinds of data. ...

  1. Identification of a common reference gene pair for qPCR in human mesenchymal stromal cells from different tissue sources treated with VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tratwal, Josefine; Follin, Bjarke; Ekblond, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and ASCs are manifold and in vitro pretreatment of the cells with growth factors has been applied to potentially enhance these properties. When characterizing the transcriptional activity of these cellular mechanisms in vitro it is important to consider the effect of the growth factor treatment...

  2. VEGF-A, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the pathological vascular phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Janice A.; Senger, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Normal angiogenesis is a complex process involving the organization of proliferating and migrating endothelial cells (ECs) into a well-ordered and highly functional vascular network. In contrast, pathological angiogenesis, which is a conspicuous feature of tumor growth, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation, is characterized by vessels with aberrant angioarchitecture and compromised barrier function. Herein we review the subject of pathological angiogenesis, particularly that driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), from a new perspective. We propose that the serious structural and functional anomalies associated with VEGF-A-elicited neovessels, reflect, at least in part, imbalances in the internal molecular cues that govern the ordered assembly of ECs into three dimensional vascular networks and preserve vessel barrier function. Adopting such a viewpoint widens the focus from solely on specific pro-angiogenic stimuli such as VEGF-A to include a key set of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules, the Rho GTPases, which are known to direct multiple aspects of vascular morphogenesis including EC motility, alignment, multi-cellular organization, as well as intercellular junction integrity. We offer this perspective to draw attention to the importance of endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics for proper neovascularization and to suggest new therapeutic strategies with the potential to improve the pathological vascular phenotype

  3. Excess HB-EGF, which promotes VEGF signaling, leads to hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joon W.; Sandlund, Johanna; Hameed, Mustafa Q.; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie; Zhou, Feng C.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an angiogenic factor mediating radial migration of the developing forebrain, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence rostral migratory stream in rodents. Cell migratory defects have been identified in animal models of hydrocephalus; however, the relationship between HB-EGF and hydrocephalus is unclear. We show that mice overexpressing human HB-EGF with β-galactosidase reporter exhibit an elevated VEGF, localization of β-galactosidase outside the subventricular zone (SVZ), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ventriculomegaly. In Wistar polycystic kidney rats with hydrocephalus, alteration of migratory trajectory is detected. Furthermore, VEGF infusions into the rats result in ventriculomegaly with an increase of SVZ neuroblast in rostral migratory stream, whereas VEGF ligand inhibition prevents it. Our results support the idea that excess HB-EGF leads to a significant elevation of VEGF and ventricular dilatation. These data suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that elevated HB-EGF can elicit VEGF induction and hydrocephalus. PMID:27243144

  4. Metronomic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer Impact on VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Arab, L.R.; Menha Swellam, M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anticancer chemotherapy is thought to be effective by means of direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells. Alternative mechanisms of efficacy have been ascribed to several common anticancer agents; including cyclophosphamide (CTX) and capecitabine (Cap) when given at lower doses for prolonged period (metronomic chemotherapy) postulating an antiangiogenic activity as well, Aim of work :To evaluate the action and tolerability of metronomic chemotherapy (MC) and its impact on serum vascular endothetial growth factor (VEGF) levels in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Patients and methods: In this study we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of low dose, capecitabine (500 mg twice daily) together with oral cyclophosphamide (CTX) (a dose of 50 mg once daily) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic marker, was measured in the serum samples; at base line, and after 2 and 6 months of therapy. Results: Sixty patients were evaluable. One achieved complete response (CR), 12 partial responses (PR), and 21 stable diseases (SD), while 26 were with progressive disease (PD). The overall response rate was 21.7% with overall disease control (CR, PR, and SD) 56.7%. The median time to progression was 7±2.59 months and overall survival 16 ±8.02 months. Toxicity was mild, Palmar-plantar erythrodythesia was the must common side effect and was observed in 22 patients (37%), leucopenia (Gl + 2) was the most common hematological toxicity, and it was reported in 27% of the cases. The median VEGF level was significantly declined after 2 and 6 months of therapy compared to the base line among the patients with disease control (CR, PR, and SD). In multivariate logisatic regression analysis, patients with post-menopausal, positive hormonal receptors, negative HER-2/Neu, and one, metastatic site, were statistically significant and have a better disease control rate. Coclcusions: MC induced drop in VEGF, and was

  5. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of VEGF-Responsive Endothelial Protein S-Nitrosylation Using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Lechuga, Thomas J; Chen, Yuezhou; Yang, Yingying; Huang, Lan; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2016-05-01

    Adduction of a nitric oxide moiety (NO•) to cysteine(s), termed S-nitrosylation (SNO), is a novel mechanism for NO to regulate protein function directly. However, the endothelial SNO-protein network that is affected by endogenous and exogenous NO is obscure. This study was designed to develop a quantitative proteomics approach using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture for comparing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)- and NO donor-responsive endothelial nitroso-proteomes. Primary placental endothelial cells were labeled with "light" (L-(12)C6 (14)N4-Arg and L-(12)C6 (14)N2-Lys) or "heavy" (L-(13)C6 (15)N4-Arg and L-(13)C6 (15)N2-Lys) amino acids. The light cells were treated with an NO donor nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, 1 mM) or VEGFA (10 ng/ml) for 30 min, while the heavy cells received vehicle as control. Equal amounts of cellular proteins from the light (GSNO or VEGFA treated) and heavy cells were mixed for labeling SNO-proteins by the biotin switch technique and then trypsin digested. Biotinylated SNO-peptides were purified for identifying SNO-proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ratios of light to heavy SNO-peptides were calculated for determining the changes of the VEGFA- and GSNO-responsive endothelial nitroso-proteomes. A total of 387 light/heavy pairs of SNO-peptides were identified, corresponding to 213 SNO-proteins that include 125 common and 27 VEGFA- and 61 GSNO-responsive SNO-proteins. The specific SNO-cysteine(s) in each SNO-protein were simultaneously identified. Pathway analysis revealed that SNO-proteins are involved in various endothelial functions, including proliferation, motility, metabolism, and protein synthesis. We collectively conclude that endogenous NO on VEGFA stimulation and exogenous NO from GSNO affect common and different SNO-protein networks, implicating SNO as a critical mechanism for VEGFA stimulation of angiogenesis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction

  6. Anti-VEGF therapy in the management of retinopathy of prematurity: what we learn from representative animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of childhood blindness, affecting infants born prematurely. ROP is characterized by the onset of delayed physiological retinal vascular development (PRVD) and followed by pathologic neovascularization into the vitreous instead of the retina, called intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV). Therefore, the therapeutic strategy for treating ROP is to promote PRVD and inhibit or prevent IVNV. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ROP. There is a growing body of studies testing the use of anti-VEGF agents as a treatment for ROP. Intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment for ROP has potential advantages compared with laser photocoagulation, the gold standard for the treatment of severe ROP; however, intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment has been associated with reactivation of ROP and suppression of systemic VEGF that may affect body growth and organ development in preterm infants. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of VEGF in PRVD and IVNV. This review includes the current knowledge of anti-VEGF treatment for ROP from animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), highlighting the importance of VEGF inhibition by targeting retinal Müller cells, which inhibits IVNV and permits PRVD. The signaling events involved in mediating VEGF expression and promoting VEGF-mediated angiogenesis, including hypoxia-dependent signaling, erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor-, oxidative stress-, beta-adrenergic receptor-, integrin-, Notch/Delta-like ligand 4- and exon guidance molecules-mediated signaling pathways, are also discussed.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing BMP-VEGF loaded PLGA microspheres for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan; Zhang, Xiu-Ping; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Hou, Yong; Cheng, Lei; Si, Meng; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Yu-Hua; Nie, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is difficult to treat due to high pressure and hypoxia, and reduced levels of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We generated a novel calcium phosphate (CPC) composite scaffold, which contains BMP-VEGF-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC). The BMP-VEGF-loaded microspheres have an encapsulation efficiency of 89.15% for BMP, and 78.55% for VEGF. The BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold also demonstrated a porosity of 62% with interconnected porous structures, and pore sizes of 219 μm and compressive strength of 6.60 MPa. Additionally, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded on scaffolds in vitro. Further characterization showed that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. Using a rabbit model of ANFH, BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted into the bone tunnels of core decompression in the femoral head for 6 and 12 weeks. Radiographic and histological analysis demonstrated that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, and osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vivo. These results indicate that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold may improve the therapeutic effect of core decompression surgery and be used as a treatment for ANFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds containing VEGF for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Jafarian, Mohammad; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Bastami, Farshid; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering is sought to apply strategies for bone defects healing without limitations and short-comings of using either bone autografts or allografts and xenografts. The aim of this study was to fabricate a thin layer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) coated beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PLGA coating increased compressive strength of the β-TCP scaffolds significantly. For in vitro evaluations, canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and canine endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) were isolated and characterized. Cell proliferation and attachment were demonstrated and the rate of cells proliferation on the VEGF released scaffold was significantly more than compared to the scaffolds with no VEGF loading. A significant increase in expression of COL1 and RUNX2 was indicated in the scaffolds loaded with VEGF and MSCs compared to the other groups. Consequently, PLGA coated β-TCP scaffold with sustained and localized release of VEGF showed favourable results for bone regeneration in vitro, and this scaffold has the potential to use as a drug delivery device in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Luteolin suppresses angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation through inhibiting Notch1-VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Mingde; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Baogui; Zhu, Zhenglun; Li, Jianfang; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2017-08-26

    Gastric cancer is a great threat to the health of the people worldwide and lacks effective therapeutic regimens. Luteolin is one of Chinese herbs and presents in many fruits and green plants. In our previous study, we observed that luteolin inhibited cell migration and promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. In the present study, luteolin significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through decreasing cell migration and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) tubes formed by gastric cancer cells were also inhibited with luteolin treatment. To explore how luteolin inhibited tubes formation, ELISA assay for VEGF was performed. Both of the VEGF secretion from Hs-746T cells and HUVECs were significantly decreased subsequent to luteolin treatment. In addition, cell migration was increased with the interaction between gastric cancer cells and HUVECs in co-culture assays. However, the promoting effects were abolished subsequent to luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited VEGF secretion through suppressing Notch1 expression in gastric cancer. Overexpression of Notch1 in gastric cancer cells partially rescued the effects on cell migration, proliferation, HUVECs tube formation, and VM formation induced by luteolin treatment. In conclusion, luteolin inhibits angiogenesis and VM formation in gastric cancer through suppressing VEGF secretion dependent on Notch1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing BMP-VEGF loaded PLGA microspheres for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan [Department of Orthopedics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Xiu-Ping [School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Gui-Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Hou, Yong; Cheng, Lei; Si, Meng; Wang, Shuai-Shuai [Department of Orthopedics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Yu-Hua, E-mail: qiluyuhua@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Nie, Lin, E-mail: hoho05@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-03-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is difficult to treat due to high pressure and hypoxia, and reduced levels of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We generated a novel calcium phosphate (CPC) composite scaffold, which contains BMP-VEGF-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC). The BMP-VEGF-loaded microspheres have an encapsulation efficiency of 89.15% for BMP, and 78.55% for VEGF. The BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold also demonstrated a porosity of 62% with interconnected porous structures, and pore sizes of 219 μm and compressive strength of 6.60 MPa. Additionally, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded on scaffolds in vitro. Further characterization showed that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. Using a rabbit model of ANFH, BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted into the bone tunnels of core decompression in the femoral head for 6 and 12 weeks. Radiographic and histological analysis demonstrated that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, and osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vivo. These results indicate that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold may improve the therapeutic effect of core decompression surgery and be used as a treatment for ANFH. - Highlights: • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, and osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vivo. • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds provided a new approach for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH).

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing BMP-VEGF loaded PLGA microspheres for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan; Zhang, Xiu-Ping; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Hou, Yong; Cheng, Lei; Si, Meng; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Yu-Hua; Nie, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is difficult to treat due to high pressure and hypoxia, and reduced levels of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We generated a novel calcium phosphate (CPC) composite scaffold, which contains BMP-VEGF-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC). The BMP-VEGF-loaded microspheres have an encapsulation efficiency of 89.15% for BMP, and 78.55% for VEGF. The BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold also demonstrated a porosity of 62% with interconnected porous structures, and pore sizes of 219 μm and compressive strength of 6.60 MPa. Additionally, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded on scaffolds in vitro. Further characterization showed that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. Using a rabbit model of ANFH, BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted into the bone tunnels of core decompression in the femoral head for 6 and 12 weeks. Radiographic and histological analysis demonstrated that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, and osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vivo. These results indicate that the BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffold may improve the therapeutic effect of core decompression surgery and be used as a treatment for ANFH. - Highlights: • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, and osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vivo. • BMP-VEGF-PLGA-CPC scaffolds provided a new approach for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH).

  12. Inhibition of prostate cancer osteoblastic progression with VEGF121/rGel, a single agent targeting osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and tumor neovasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedali, Khalid A.; Li, Zhi Gang; Starbuck, Michael W.; Wan, Xinhai; Yang, Jun; Kim, Sehoon; Zhang, Wendy; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Navone, Nora M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression is the development of osteoblastic bone metastases, which respond poorly to available therapies. We previously reported that VEGF121/rGel targets osteoclast precursors and tumor neovasculature. Here we tested the hypothesis that targeting non-tumor cells expressing these receptors can inhibit tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of osteoblastic PCa. Experimental Design Cells from MDA PCa 118b, a PCa xenograft obtained from a bone metastasis in a patient with castrate-resistant PCa, were injected into the femurs of mice. Osteoblastic progression was monitored following systemic administration of VEGF121/rGel. Results VEGF121/rGel was cytotoxic in vitro to osteoblast precursor cells. This cytotoxicity was specific as VEGF121/rGel internalization into osteoblasts was VEGF121 receptor driven. Furthermore, VEGF121/rGel significantly inhibited PCa-induced bone formation in a mouse calvaria culture assay. In vivo, VEGF121/rGel significantly inhibited the osteoblastic progression of PCa cells in the femurs of nude mice. Microcomputed tomography analysis revealed that VEGF121/rGel restored the bone volume fraction of tumor-bearing femurs to values similar to those of the contralateral (non–tumor bearing) femurs. VEGF121/rGel significantly reduced the number of tumor-associated osteoclasts but did not change the numbers of peritumoral osteoblasts. Importantly, VEGF121/rGel-treated mice had significantly less tumor burden than control mice. Our results thus indicate that VEGF121/rGel inhibits osteoblastic tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and bone formation. Conclusions Targeting VEGFR-1 – or VEGFR-2–expressing cells is effective in controlling the osteoblastic progression of PCa in bone. These findings provide the basis for an effective multitargeted approach for metastatic PCa. PMID:21343372

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C - a potent risk factor in children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Miskowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 in cancer tissue of children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma (NB and correlate their presence with the survival rate of children diagnosed with that stage of the disease. Eighteen children assigned to stadium 4 composed the study group. Fourteen patients (allocated to stadium 3 formed a control group. VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay. Consecutive slides incubated with anti-CD34 and anti-VEGFR-2 antibodies revealed that the two markers were colocalized within endothelial layer of the blood vessels. On the other hand, VEGF-C was expressed exclusively in tumour cells. As demonstrated by Fisher's exact test, the risk of NB treatment failure (progression or relapse as well as tumour related death, when all the patients were considered, was found to be significant in VEGF-C positive patients. VEGF-C expression in NB constitutes a potent risk factor and may direct future anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. The proximity of VEGF-C and CD34/VEGFR-2 of NB could be the equivalent of a potentially interesting VEGF-C fashion involving a tumour cell invasion into the blood vessels in an early phase of metastases promoting.

  14. The experimental study of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with lipiodol in arterial embolization of liver cancer in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hanping; Feng Gansheng; Li Xin; Liang Huimin; Zheng Chuansheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibitory effects of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) on cultured Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression, and to observe the anti-tumor effects of intraarterial infusion of asODN mixed with lipiodol on rat liver cancer. Methods: VEGF asODN and sense ODN were added to the media of non-serum cultured Walker-256 cells, and the VEGF concentrations of the supernatants were detected by using ELISA 48 hours later. Cells of endothelial cell line ECV-304 were cultured in the supernatants. The growth of ECV-304 cells was observed by MTT method. 30 rats with Walker-256 carcinoma cells implanted into left liver lobe were randomly divided into 3 groups. 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP group, n=10), 3OD asODN mixed with 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP + asODN group, n=10), and 0.2 ml normal saline (control group, n=10) were infused into the hepatic artery. The volumes of tumors were measured by using MRI before and 7 days after the treatment. VEGF mRNA in cancerous and peri-cancerous tissues was detected by RT-PCR. The microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results: asODN could inhibit Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression. The tumor growth rate was lower in UFLP + asODN group than that in UFLP and control groups [(140.1±33.8)%, (177.9±64.9)%, and (403.9± 69.4)%, respectively, F=60.02, P 0.05). The MVD in UFLP + asODN group (53.1±18.4) was significantly less than that of control group (73.2±20.4) and UFLP group (80.3±18.5) (F=5.44, P<0.05). Conclusion: VEGF asODN could inhibit VEGF expression of Walker-256 cells. It may be an antiangiogenesis therapy drug in malignant tumor. VEGF asODN mixed with UFLP in embolizing liver cancer could decrease liver cancer growth, VEGF expression, and microvessel density better than UFLP alone

  15. VEGF-A isoforms differentially regulate ATF-2-dependent VCAM-1 gene expression and endothelial-leukocyte interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Mughal, Nadeem A; Bruns, Alexander F; Burgoyne, Nicholas J; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Zachary, Ian C; Hollstein, Monica C; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) regulates many aspects of vascular physiology. VEGF-A stimulates signal transduction pathways that modulate endothelial outputs such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. Multiple VEGF-A isoforms exist, but the biological significance of this is unclear. Here we analyzed VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VCAM-1 gene expression, which controls endothelial-leukocyte interactions, and show that this is dependent on both ERK1/2 and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). VEGF-A isoforms showed differential ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation kinetics. A key feature of VEGF-A isoform-specific ERK1/2 activation and nuclear translocation was increased phosphorylation of ATF-2 on threonine residue 71 (T71). Using reverse genetics, we showed ATF-2 to be functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial VCAM-1 gene expression. ATF-2 knockdown blocked VEGF-A-stimulated VCAM-1 expression and endothelial-leukocyte interactions. ATF-2 was also required for other endothelial cell outputs, such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. In contrast, VCAM-1 was essential only for promoting endothelial-leukocyte interactions. This work presents a new paradigm for understanding how soluble growth factor isoforms program complex cellular outputs and responses by modulating signal transduction pathways. © 2014 Fearnley et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Design, synthesis and evaluation of VEGF-siRNA/CRS as a novel vector for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui School of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy. The biological activities were evaluated using cell viability assay, gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and antitumor tests in vivo. The mean nanoparticle size of VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 121.4±0.3 nm with positive ζ potential of 7.69±4.47 mV. The release rate of VEGF-siRNA from VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 82.50% sustained for 48 h in Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (pH 8.0. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the efficiency of the transfection, and the result showed that VEGF mRNA expression had been knocked down by 82.36%. The expression of VEGF protein was also recorded to be downregulated to 14.83% using ELISA. The results of cytotoxicity measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that VEGF-siRNA/CRS had significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. The results of antitumor assays indicated that VEGF-siRNA/CRS exhibited tumor cell growth inhibition in vivo. The results demonstrated that VEGF-siRNA could be delivered and transported by the designed carrier, while siRNA could be released constantly and led to an increasing gene-silencing effect against VEGF gene. In conclusion, VEGF-siRNA/CRS is a promising carrier for si

  17. Regulation of human feto-placental endothelial barrier integrity by vascular endothelial growth factors: competitive interplay between VEGF-A165a, VEGF-A165b, PIGF and VE-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Vincent;