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Sample records for sorption isotherm studies

  1. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip

    2017-04-01

    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2  > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  2. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption onto tartaric acid esterified wheat straw. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... esterified wheat straw (EWS), was originally prepared by solid phase thermochemistry method.

  3. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The isothermal data correlated with the Langmuir model better than the. Freundlich model. ... there were two intra-particle diffusion steps in the dye sorption processes. .... rated monolayer of sorbate molecule on the sorbent.

  4. Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution unto Modified Rice Husk: Isotherms Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the sorption potential of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent was carried out. The rice husk was modified with orthophosphoric acid and was used for adsorption of lead (II ions (Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Physicochemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. Equilibrium sorption data were confirmed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. On the basis of adsorption isotherm graphs, R2 values were determined to be 0.995, 0.916, and 0.797 for Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms, respectively, indicating that the data fitted well into the adsorption isotherms, but Langmuir isotherm is a better model. The maximum monolayer coverage from Langmuir studies, Qmax=138.89 mg/g, Langmuir isotherm constant, KL=0.699 L/mg, and the separation factor, RL=1.41×10−2 at 100 mg/L of lead(II ions indicating that the sorption process, was favourable. The suitability of modified rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution and its potential for pollution control is established.

  5. A study of sorption mechanism onto cement hydrates by isotherm measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari

    2003-01-01

    In the concept for TRU waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cement material, which controls the aqueous concentrations of elements in the porewater, is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from the near field of a repository. Many safety assessment calculations currently assume radionuclide retardation as linear sorption equilibrium and describe it with a distribution ratio (R d value). In this study, the sorption mechanism is discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of caesium, strontium and thorium onto Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H gel), to justify and support this assumption. In addition, the effect of competitive sorption between thorium and uranium and other groundwater ions is studied by examining sorption using a range of sodium chloride concentrations to simulate different groundwater ionic strengths. Based on the experimental results, we have showed that: Caesium and strontium sorb by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases and the presence of some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values is suggested; Thorium would be fixed in a surface co-precipitation to form a solubility-limiting phase. The results of sorption experiments are reasonably well modelled by the ion-exchange model for caesium and strontium and the surface co-precipitation model for thorium, respectively. (author)

  6. Studies of Dye Sensitisation Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms of Direct Red 23 on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Holliman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms have been measured for a commercial dye (Direct Red 23 on different samples of powdered Titania, and the data were analysed to better understand the dye sensitization process for dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs. For the sorption kinetics, the data show rapid initial sorption (<1 hour followed by slower rate of increasing uptake between 1 and 24 hours. While higher initial concentrations of dye correspond to higher sorption overall, less dye is absorbed from higher initial dye concentrations when considered as percentage uptake. The correlation between the sorption data and model isotherms has been considered with time. The Langmuir model shows better correlations compared to the Freundlich isotherm. The dye uptake data has also been correlated with Titania characterization data (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, BET and zero point charge analysis. Kinetic data show significantly better fits to second-order models compared to first order. This suggests that chemisorption is taking place and that the interaction between the dye sorbate and the Titania sorbent involves electron sharing to form an ester bond.

  7. A study of the water vapor sorption isotherms of hardened cement pastes: Possible pore structure changes at low relative humidity and the impact of temperature on isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    cement paste samples and a model material MCM-41. The pronounced impact of temperature on desorption isotherms of cement based materials as reported in literature was not found in this investigation. The results suggest that the differences between the sorption isotherms measured at different...

  8. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  9. Determination of field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte JG; Grinsven JJM van; Peijnenburg WJGM; Tiktak A; LBG; ECO

    1999-01-01

    Sorption isotherms for metals in soil obtained in the laboratory generally underpredict the observed metal content in the solid phase in the field. Isotherms based on in-situ data are therefore required. The aim of this study is to obtain field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as input

  10. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  11. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  12. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 thermodynamic properties such as isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy, spreading pressure, net integral enthalpy and entropy. Net isosteric heat of sorption and differential entropy were evaluated through direct use of moisture isotherms by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and used to investigate the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. Both sorption enthalpy and entropy for desorption increase to a maximum with increasing moisture content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  13. Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation. Principles and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Klamer, Morten; Venås, Thomas Mark

    2010-01-01

    The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods...... for obtaining sorption isotherms are very time consuming. With new dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) instrumentation, the acquisition of data for constructing sorption isotherms is suddenly dramatically lowered. Where the traditional methods often required months, data can now be obtained in a matter of days...... depending on the number of data points required. The fast data acquisition makes DVS a useful tool in studying the sorption properties of wood, and especially in studying the effect of different modification treatments on these properties. This study includes an investigation of the sorption properties...

  14. Sorption studies of heavy metal ions by salicylic acid–formaldehyde–catechol terpolymeric resin: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhish R. Bhatt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymeric resin has been synthesized by condensing salicylic acid with catechol employing formaldehyde as a cross linking agent at 80 ± 5 °C using DMF as a solvent. The resin was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DTA and DTG. The morphology of the resin was studied by optical photographs and scanning electron micrographs (SEM at different magnifications. The physico-chemical properties have been studied. The uptake behavior of various metal ions viz. Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II towards synthesized resin has been studied depending on contact time, pH and temperature. The selectivity order found is: Cu(II > Zn(II > Pb(II > Ni(II > Cd(II. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were analyzed by six two parameter isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R, Halsey and Harkins–Jura. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R isotherms were found better to describe the sorption data with high correlation for the adsorption with a low SSE value for all the metals under study. The adsorption capacities of the SFC resin for removal of Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II were determined with the Langmuir equation and found to be 0.815, 1.104, 1.215, 0.498, and 0.931 mmol/g respectively. The adsorption process follows first order kinetics and specific rate constant Kr was obtained by the application of Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters viz. ΔGads, ΔSads and ΔHads have also been calculated for the metal-resin systems. The external diffusion rate constant (Ks and intra-particle diffusion rate constant (Kid were calculated by Spahn–Schlunder and Weber–Morris models respectively. Desorption studies were done using various desorbing agents viz. de-ionized water, boiled water, various concentrations of HCl, ammonia, thiourea, citric acid and tartaric acid.

  15. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...... directions accurately. Evaluation of the developed prediction equations showed good estimation of the sorption/desorption isotherms for tested soils....

  16. Sorption performance of activated nkaliki clay in removing chromium (vi) ion from aqueous solution: kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajemba, R.O.; Ugonabo, V.I.; Okafor, V.N.

    2017-01-01

    Bentonite from Nkaliki was modified by acid activation using different concentrations of sulphuric acid. The physicochemical properties of the raw and modified samples were analyzed. The sorption performance of the modified and raw bentonite was studied in the removal of chromium (VI) ion from aqueous solution. Effect of key process parameters on the adsorption process was studied. Results of the physicochemical analyses showed that the acid activation altered the structural arrangements of the bentonite. The surface area and adsorption capacity increased from 37.6m/sup 2//g to 74m/sup 2//g and 45 to 98%, respectively, after activating with 6mol/l of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The chromium (VI) ion adsorption increased with increase in process parameters studied. The kinetics analysis of the adsorption data follows the pseudo second-order kinetics, while equilibrium analysis conformed to the Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. This study shows that modified Nkaliki bentonite could be used for wastewater treatment. (author)

  17. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  18. Mathematical modelling of the sorption isotherms of quince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of quince were determined at four temperatures 15, 30, 45, and 60°C over a range of water activity from 0.110 to 0.920 using the standard static gravimetric method. The experimental data were fitted with generated three parameter sorption isotherm models on Mitrevski et al., and the referent Anderson model known in the scientific and engineering literature as Guggenheim- Anderson-de Boer model. In order to find which models give the best results, large number of numerical experiments was performed. After that, several statistical criteria for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm model was used. The performed statistical analysis shows that the generated three parameter model M11 gave the best fit to the sorption data of quince than the referent three parameter Anderson model.

  19. Sorption isotherms, GAB parameters and isosteric heat of sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion-sorption drying model has been developed as a physics-based way to model the decreasing drying rate at low moisture contents. This new model is founded on the existence of different classes of water: free and bound water. The transition between these classes and the corresponding

  20. Nitrate sorption on activated carbon modified with CaCl2: Equilibrium, isotherms and kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella Odivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrate (NO3- removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using granular activated carbon (GAC modified with CaCl2. Batch sorption studies were performed as a function of sorbent dose, initial nitrate concentration and pH. Sorption was maximized between pH 3 and 9. Studies on the effect of pH showed that the ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the sorption process. The percentage of nitrate removed increased with increasing sorbent concentration, and the ideal sorbent dose was found to be 20 g•L-1. Four isotherm models-Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips-were used to fit the experimental data. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model explained the sorption process well and showed the best coefficient of determination (0.9979 and Chi-square test statistic (0.0079. Using the Sips isotherm model, the sorption capacity (qe was found to be 1.93 mg nitrate per g of sorbent. Kinetic experiments indicated that sorption was a fast process, reaching equilibrium within 120 min. The nitrate sorption kinetic data were successfully fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The overall results demonstrated potential applications of modified GAC for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity (aw ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given aw, the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove. After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given.

  2. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  3. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  4. Limitations of sorption isotherms on modeling groundwater contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Figueira da

    2007-01-01

    Design and safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, as well as remediation of radionuclide contaminated groundwater require the development of models capable of accurately predicting trace element fate and transport. Adsorption of trace radionuclides onto soils and groundwater is an important mechanism controlling near- and far- field transport. Although surface complexation models (SCMs) can better describe the adsorption mechanisms of most radionuclides onto mineral surfaces by directly accounting for variability of system properties and mineral surface properties, isotherms are still used to model contaminant transport in groundwater, despite the much higher system dependence. The present work investigates differences between transport model results based on these two approaches for adsorption modeling. A finite element transport model is used for the isotherm model, whereas the computer program PHREEQC is used for the SCM approach. Both models are calibrated for a batch experiment, and one-dimensional transport is simulated using the calibrated parameters. At the lower injected concentrations there are large discrepancies between SCM and isotherm transport predictions, with the SCM presenting much longer tails on the breakthrough curves. Isotherms may also provide non-conservative results for time to breakthrough and for maximum concentration in a contamination plume. Isotherm models are shown not to be robust enough to predict transport behavior of some trace elements, thus discouraging their use. The results also illustrate the promise of the SCM modeling approach in safety assessment and environmental remediation applications, also suggesting that independent batch sorption measurements can be used, within the framework of the SCM, to produce a more versatile and realistic groundwater transport model for radionuclides which is capable of accounting more accurately for temporal and spatial variations in geochemical conditions. (author)

  5. Sorption Isotherm of Southern Yellow Pine—High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH are two major external factors, which affect equilibrium moisture content (EMC of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. In this study, the effect of different durability treatments on sorption and desorption isotherms of southern yellow pine (SYP-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites was investigated. All samples were equilibriumed at 20 °C and various RHs including 16%, 33%, 45%, 66%, 75%, 85%, 93%, and100%. EMCs obtained from desorption and absorption for different WPC samples were compared with Nelson’s sorption isotherm model predictions using the same temperature and humidity conditions. The results indicated that the amount of moisture absorbed increased with the increases in RH at 20 °C. All samples showed sorption hysteresis at a fixed RH. Small difference between EMC data of WPC samples containing different amount of ultraviolet (UV stabilizers were observed. Similar results were observed among the samples containing different amount of zinc borate (ZB. The experimental data of EMCs at various RHs fit to the Nelson’s sorption isotherm model well. The Nelson’s model can be used to predicate EMCs of WPCs under different RH environmental conditions.

  6. Sorption isotherms modeling approach of rice-based instant soup mix stored under controlled temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of rice-based instant soup mix at temperature range 15–45°C and relative humidity from 0.11 to 0.86 were determined using the standard gravimetric static method. The experimental sorption curves were fitted by five equations: Chung-Pfost, GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin. The sorption isotherms of soup mix decreased with increasing temperature, exhibited type II behavior according to BET classification. The GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The isosteric heat of sorption of water was determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures. It decreased as moisture content increased and was found to be a polynomial function of moisture content. The study has provided information and data useful in large-scale commercial production of soup and have great importance to combat the problem of protein-energy malnutrition in underdeveloped and developing countries.

  7. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  8. Sorption of Lead (Pb from Aqueous Solutions by Sepiolite and Bentonite Modified with Chitosan Biopolymers: Isotherms and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rafiei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sepiolite and bentonite clay minerals were modified with a natural chitosan biopolymer and the modified-clays were characterized using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TOC analyses. The isothermal and kinetic parameters of lead (Pb sorption by both the minerals and the modified-minerals were determined in a batch mode under various conditions such as different contact times and initial concentrations of Pb. It was found that the Freundlich model described well the isotherm experimental data of Pb sorption by the sorbents. Modification with chitosan, however, decreased the Pb adsorption capacity of sepiolite from 83 to 27 mg g-1 and that of bentonite from 56 to 29 mg g-1. Kinetic results showed that more than 24 hours was required for Pb sorption by the natural clays to reach equilibrium, while the equilibrium time reduced to 16 and 4 hours for Pb sorption on chitosan-sepiolite and chitosan–bentonite, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model well described the time-dependent Pb sorption data by sepiolite, chitosan-sepiolite, and chitosan-bentonite, suggesting that chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step of Pb adsorption mechanism. The Pb sorption data by bentonite showed the best fit with Elovich model.

  9. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0...

  10. Isothermal titration calorimetry of sorption processes. A promising approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Norbert; Foerstendorf, Harald [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Drobot, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Reder, Christian

    2017-06-01

    As a consequence of nuclear waste disintegration heat, elevated temperatures in the near field may influence radionuclide retention significantly. However, there is a nearly complete lack of spectroscopic investigations of sorption processes at elevated temperatures. In addition, experimental data on free Gibbs energy (Δ{sub R}G), enthalpy (Δ{sub R}H) and entropy (Δ{sub R}S) of reactions of most radionuclides including fission products such as {sup 79}Se are sparse. Using the Se(IV)/hematite system, we show that microcalorimetry can provide these thermodynamic parameters with high accuracy and in a manner that allows studying various radionuclides.

  11. Experiences of fitting isotherms to data from batch sorption experiments for radionuclides on tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1989-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the sorption of radionuclides on tuff as site characterization information for the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper presents general observations on the results of curve-fitting of sorption data by isotherm equations and the effects of experimental variables on their regressional analysis. Observations are specific to the effectiveness and problems associated with fitting isotherms, the calculation and value of isotherm parameters, and the significance of experimental variables such as replication, particle size, mode of sorption, and mineralogy. These observations are important in the design of laboratory experiments to ensure that collected data are adequate for effectively characterizing sorption of radionuclides on tuffs or other materials. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Atienza, Vanessa Bernadette B.; Capili, Jomicah B.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551)+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764)+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466)+ -0.0011t for 50°C) was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906)(0.7811)aw)/(1-(0.7811)aw)[1-(0.7811)aw+(0.1906)(0.7811)aw])) was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  13. Considerations about the correct evaluation of sorption thermodynamic parameters from equilibrium isotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvestrini, Stefano; Leone, Vincenzo; Iovino, Pasquale; Canzano, Silvana; Capasso, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Different methods to derive sorption thermodynamic parameters have been discussed. • ΔG° and, ΔS° values depend on the selected standard states. • Isosteric heat values help in evaluating the applicability of the sorption models. -- Abstract: This is a comparative analysis of popular methods currently in use to derive sorption thermodynamic parameters from temperature dependence of sorption isotherms. It is emphasized that the standard and isosteric thermodynamic parameters have sharply different meanings. Moreover, it is shown with examples how the sorption model adopted conditions the standard state and consequently the value of ΔG° and ΔS°. These trivial but often neglected aspects should carefully be considered when comparing thermodynamic parameters from different literature sources. An effort by the scientific community is needed to define criteria for the choice of the standard state in sorption processes

  14. Phosphate sorption by three potential filter materials as assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsie, Gry; Penn, Chad J; Hansen, Hans C B; Borggaard, Ole K

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorus eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of phosphate (P) sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of reactions involved in P sorption by three commercial P sorbing materials, i.e. Ca/Mg oxide-based Filtralite-P, Fe oxide-based CFH-12 and Limestone in two particle sizes (2-1 mm and 1-0.5 mm), by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that P retention by CFH is due to surface complexation by rapid formation of strong Fe-P bonds. In contrast, retention of P by Filtralite-P and Limestone strongly depends on pH and time and is interpreted due to formation of calcium phosphate precipitate(s). Consequently, CFH can unambiguously be recommended as P retention filter material in drain outlets, whereas the use of Filtralite-P and Limestone has certain (serious) limitations. Thus, Filtralite-P has high capacity to retain P but only at alkaline pH (pH ≥ 10) and P retention by Limestone requires long-time contact and a high ratio between sorbent and sorbate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present an evaluation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.93 based on measured data of 207 soils with widely varying textures, organic carbon contents, and clay mineralogy. In addition, the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general, all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for adsorption and desorption data. While regression analysis relating model parameters and clay content and subsequent model application for prediction of measured isotherms showed promise for the majority of investigated soils, for soils with distinct kaolinitic and smectitic clay mineralogy predicted isotherms did not closely match the measurements.

  16. Sorption data bases and mechanistic sorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In common with many other countries with a nuclear programme, the Swiss concept for the disposal of radioactive waste is focused on deep burial in specially constructed repositories in geologically stable host rocks. Under such conditions, the most likely means whereby radionuclides might return to the biosphere involves their transport in slowly moving groundwater. The sorption of radionuclides by solid phases in the engineered barriers within the repository, and in the surrounding geological media, limits their release and retards their movement. Performance assessment studies for disposal concepts are carried out by Nagra, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, in which various release scenarios are examined, and 'doses to man' calculated. The uptake of radionuclides by immobile phases is one of the pillars upon which the safety case rests. Hence, sorption databases are very important data sets for performance assessments. The methodology lying behind the construction of sorption databases, and some aspects of the supporting experimental work, are briefly described in this report. Flexible, long-term, focused research programmes are required to properly understand the radionuclide/rock/groundwater system, and this is an essential pre-requisite for producing robust state-of-the-art sorption databases. (author)

  17. Sorption data bases and mechanistic sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H

    2000-07-01

    In common with many other countries with a nuclear programme, the Swiss concept for the disposal of radioactive waste is focused on deep burial in specially constructed repositories in geologically stable host rocks. Under such conditions, the most likely means whereby radionuclides might return to the biosphere involves their transport in slowly moving groundwater. The sorption of radionuclides by solid phases in the engineered barriers within the repository, and in the surrounding geological media, limits their release and retards their movement. Performance assessment studies for disposal concepts are carried out by Nagra, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, in which various release scenarios are examined, and 'doses to man' calculated. The uptake of radionuclides by immobile phases is one of the pillars upon which the safety case rests. Hence, sorption databases are very important data sets for performance assessments. The methodology lying behind the construction of sorption databases, and some aspects of the supporting experimental work, are briefly described in this report. Flexible, long-term, focused research programmes are required to properly understand the radionuclide/rock/groundwater system, and this is an essential pre-requisite for producing robust state-of-the-art sorption databases. (author)

  18. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Alicia [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: anoqam@iiqab.csic.es; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Johannes A.C. [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lacorte, Silvia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca de l' Aigua (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, Pic de Peguera, 15, 17003 Girona (Spain); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f{sub OC}) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g{sub OC} g{sup -1}. All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements.

  19. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Alicia; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman; Barth, Johannes A.C.; Lacorte, Silvia; Barcelo, Damia; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f OC ) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g OC g -1 . All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements

  20. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    G. Diukareva; A. Pak; A. Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of stud...

  1. Kinetic and isotherm studies of bisphenol A adsorption onto orange albedo(Citrus sinensis): Sorption mechanisms based on the main albedo components vitamin C, flavones glycosides and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgaing, Theophile; Doungmo, Giscard; Melataguia Tchieno, Francis Merlin; Gouoko Kouonang, Jimmy Julio; Mbadcam, Ketcha Joseph

    2017-07-03

    Orange albedo and its adsorption capacity towards bisphenol A (BPA) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in batch mode at 25-55°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the biosorbent. The effects of various parameters including adsorption time, equilibrium pH, adsorbent dosage and initial adsorbate concentration were investigated. The optimum contact time and pH for the removal of BPA were 60 min and 2, respectively. It was found that the adsorption isotherms best matched the Freundlich model, the adsorption of BPA being multilayer and that of the albedo surface heterogeneous. From the kinetic studies, it was found that the removal of BPA best matched the pseudo-second order kinetic model. An adsorption mechanism based on the albedo surface molecules is proposed and gives a good account of π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. Orange albedo, with a maximum BPA loading capacity of 82.36 mg g -1 (significantly higher than that of most agricultural residues), is a good candidate for BPA adsorption in aqueous media.

  2. PENGARUH ISOTERM SORPSI AIR TERHADAP STABILITAS BERAS UBI [Effect of Moisture Sorption Isotherm to Stability of “Sweet Potato Rice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widowati1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Sweet Potato Rice” stability as a dry food product was determined by water activity (aw and equilibrium moisture content (Me. This relationship is known as moisture sorption isotherm. This research were aimed 1 to study moisture sorption isotherm of “Sweet Potato Rice” from sweet potato flour (Cangkuang variety and native/heat moisture treatment (HMT starch which was stored at the range of aw:0.06 - 0.96 and 28oC; 2 to determine an appropriate model for describing product moisture sorption isotherm and 3 to predict “Sweet Potato Rice” shelf of life. Experimental design used was a random complete design with two factor, namely: 1 sweet potato starch: native and HMT, and 2 packaging material: polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP.The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm profiles were sigmoid. Smith equation was the best model which described moisture sorption isotherm with R2= 0,991-0,993 for adsorption and R2= 0,964-0,971 for desorption. Shelf life test showed that “Sweet Potato Rice” from Cangkuang flour and modified starch had longer shelf life (5.67 months when packed in PP bag and 2.3 months when packed in PE bag; while shelf life artificial sweet potato made from Cangkuang flour and native starch was 4.24 months when packed in PP bag and 1.72 months when packed in PE bag.

  3. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T E; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Summary report on the evaluation of a 1977--1985 edited sorption data base for isotherm modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Beckman, R.J.; Fuentes, H.R.; Yong, C.; Chan, P.; Rao, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption data bases collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1977 to 1985 for the Yucca Mountain Project.(YMP) have been inventoried and fitted with isotherm expressions. Effects of variables (e.g., particle size) on the isotherm were also evaluated. The sorption data are from laboratory batch measurements which were not designed specifically for isotherm modeling. However a limited number of data sets permitted such modeling. The analysis of those isotherm data can aid in the design of future sorption experiments and can provide expressions to be used in radionuclide transport modeling. Over 1200 experimental observations were inventoried for their adequacy to be modeled b isotherms and to evaluate the effects of variables on isotherms. About 15% of the observations provided suitable data sets for modeling. The data sets were obtained under conditions that include ambient temperature and two atmospheres, air and CO 2

  6. Prediction of water vapour sorption isotherms and microstructure of hardened Portland cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgh, James M. de; Foster, Stephen J.; Valipour, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms of cementitious materials reflect the multi-scale physical microstructure through its interaction with moisture. Our ability to understand and predict adsorption and desorption behaviour is essential in the application of modern performance-based approaches to durability analysis, along with many other areas of hygro-mechanical and hygro-chemo-mechanical behaviour. In this paper, a new physically based model for predicting water vapour sorption isotherms of arbitrary hardened Portland cement pastes is presented. Established thermodynamic principles, applied to a microstructure model that develops with hydration, provide a rational basis for predictions. Closed-form differentiable equations, along with a rational consideration of hysteresis and scanning phenomena, makes the model suitable for use in numerical moisture simulations. The microstructure model is reconciled with recently published 1 H NMR and mercury intrusion porosimetry results.

  7. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: Comparison of various error functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Porkodi, K.; Rocha, F.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r 2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r 2 ), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r 2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K 2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm

  8. Removal of dissolved organic carbon by aquifer material: Correlations between column parameters, sorption isotherms and octanol-water partition coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Snigdhendubala; Boernick, Hilmar; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2016-07-15

    The correlation between octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and the transport of aqueous samples containing single organic compound is well documented. The concept of the KOW of river water containing the mixture of organics was evolved by Pradhan et al. (2015). The present study aims at determining the KOW and sorption parameters of synthetic aqueous samples and river water to finding out the correlation, if any. The laboratory scale columns packed with aquifer materials were fed with synthetic and river water samples. Under the operating conditions, the compounds in the samples did not separate, and all the samples that contain more than one organic compound yielded a single breakthrough curve. Breakthrough curves simulated from sorption isotherms were compared with those from the column runs. The sorption parameters such as retardation factor (Rf), height of mass transfer zone (HMTZ), rate of mass transfer zone (RMTZ), breakpoint column capacity (qb) and maximum column capacity (qx) estimated from column runs, sorption isotherms and models developed by Yoon-Nelson, Bohart-Adam and Thomas were in agreement. The empirical correlations were found between the KOW and sorption parameters. The transport of the organics measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through the aquifer can be predicted from the KOW of the river water and other water samples. The novelty of the study is to measure KOW and to envisage the fate of the DOC of the river water, particularly during riverbank filtration. Statistical analysis of the results revealed a fair agreement between the observed and computed values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotherm Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions by Modified and Unmodified Breadfruit Seed Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an economically cheap adsorbent material of natural origin, African breadfruit seed hull, was assessed for Cu(II and Cd(II ions’ adsorption from aqueous solutions. The effects of adsorbent dose, particle size and initial metal ion concentrations were investigated in a batch adsorption process. The experimental data were analyzed using five two-parameter isotherm equations (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkins-Jura and Halsey isotherm models. Freundlich and Halsey models provided the best description for the adsorption data while the other three models gave fairly good interpretation to the experimental adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacity corresponding to saturation of sites (qmax, obtained from the Langmuir plots, were 7.76 and 8.06 mg g-1 for Cu(II and Cd(II onto the unmodified breadfruit seed hull (UBSH and 12.67 and 13.97 mg g-1, respectively for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption onto the modified breadfruit seed hull (MBSH. The experimental results showed that there was an enhancement in the removal of the metal ions by the mercaptoacetic acid-modified breadfruit seed hull. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.625 

  10. Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and desorption isotherms of fresh and dried Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. were determined at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C using a gravimetric technique. The data obtained were fitted to several models including Guggenheim-Anderson- De Boer (GAB, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Henderson, Caurie, Smith, Oswin, Halsey and Iglesias-Chirife. A non-linear least square regression analysis was used to evaluate the models. The Iglesias-Chirife model fitted best the experimental data. Isosteric heat of sorption was also determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy-controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperature (Tg of Cape gooseberry was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry and modelled as a function of moisture content with the Gordon-Taylor, the Roos and the Khalloufi models, which proved to be excellent tools for predicting glass transition of Cape gooseberry.

  11. Environmental Conditions Influencing Sorption of Inorganic Anions to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-05-02

    Sorption to carbon-based nanomaterials is typically studied in batch experiments. An alternative method offering advantages to study sorption is column chromatography. Sorbent packed columns are used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. We have now for the first time applied this technique to study the influence of environmental conditions on sorption of inorganic anions (bromide, nitrite, nitrate, and iodide) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were best described by the Freundlich model. Sorption increased in the order bromide 4.5 the surface charge was negative, but sorption was still detectable at pH 6 and 9. Consequently, other forces than electrostatic attraction contributed to sorption. These forces may include H-bonding as indicated by sorption enthalpy determined by variation of column temperature. Overall, column chromatography represents a promising alternative in sorption studies to reveal sorbent properties.

  12. Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Properties of Sorbed Water of Neem ( Azadirichta indica A. Juss) Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono Mbarga, M. C.; Bup Nde, D.; Mohagir, A.; Kapseu, C.; Elambo Nkeng, G.

    2017-01-01

    A neem tree growing abundantly in India as well as in some regions of Asia and Africa gives fruits whose kernels have about 40-50% oil. This oil has high therapeutic and cosmetic qualities and is recently projected to be an important raw material for the production of biodiesel. Its seed is harvested at high moisture contents, which leads tohigh post-harvest losses. In the paper, the sorption isotherms are determined by the static gravimetric method at 40, 50, and 60°C to establish a database useful in defining drying and storage conditions of neem kernels. Five different equations are validated for modeling the sorption isotherms of neem kernels. The properties of sorbed water, such as the monolayer moisture content, surface area of adsorbent, number of adsorbed monolayers, and the percent of bound water are also defined. The critical moisture content necessary for the safe storage of dried neem kernels is shown to range from 5 to 10% dry basis, which can be obtained at a relative humidity less than 65%. The isosteric heats of sorption at 5% moisture content are 7.40 and 22.5 kJ/kg for the adsorption and desorption processes, respectively. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to give the important parameters necessary for drying and storage of neem kernels, a potential raw material for the production of oil to be used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and biodiesel manufacturing.

  13. Fluoride Sorption Efficiency of Vermiculite Functionalised with Cationic Surfactant: Isotherm and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayo Oladipo Ologundudu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a major source of water, especially in rural communities. The presence of excess fluoride in groundwater has been a health concern for many decades because it causes fluorosis. The persistence of this problem led to the development of several approaches for reducing fluoride in groundwater to ≤1.5 mg/L, which is the World Health Organization’s (WHO permissible limit. Despite recorded success in fluoride reduction, drawbacks such as cost and efficiency have remained apparent, thus necessitating further research on defluoridation. This paper aims at assessing the defluoridation capacity of a clay mineral, vermiculite, when modified with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The effects of experimental parameters such as pH, agitation time, mass of adsorbent, and temperature were examined to determine the most favourable adsorption conditions. Using batch technique, the results showed a fluoride sorption of 51% from an 8 mg/L fluoride solution. The adsorption conformed more to Freundlich than Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 2.36 mg/g, while the kinetics conformed to a pseudo-second-order reaction. pH emerged as the most influential factor in optimisation. The findings of this study indicated that modified vermiculite could be efficient in reducing fluoride in groundwater to more tolerable limits, but requires adequate pH control.

  14. Sorption Isotherm Modelling Of Fermented Cassava Flour by Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, M. N.; Alfiah, M. N.; Hartini, S.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the characteristic of moisture sorption isotherm from fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice using various modeling. This research used seven salt solutions and storage temperature of 298K, 303K, and 308K. The models used were Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Caurie model. The monolayer moisture content was around 4.51 – 5.99% db. Constant related to absorption heat in the multilayer area of [GAB model was around 0.86-0,91. Constant related to absorption heat in the monolayer area of GAB model was around 4.67-5.97. Constant related to absorption heat in the monolayer area of BET model was around 4.83-7.04. Caurie constant was around 1.25-1.59. The equilibrium and monolayer moisture content on fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice was decreasing as increasing temperature. GAB constant value indicated that the process of moisture absorption on the fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice categorized in type II.

  15. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.

    2009-05-01

    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  16. Incorporating classic adsorption isotherms into modern surface complexation models: implications for sorption of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Computer-aided surface complexation models (SCM) tend to replace the classic adsorption isotherm (AI) analysis in describing mineral-water interface reactions such as radionuclide sorption onto (hydr) oxides and clays. Any site-binding SCM based on the mole balance of surface sites, in fact, reproduces the (competitive) Langmuir isotherm, optionally amended with electrostatic Coulomb's non-ideal term. In most SCM implementations, it is difficult to incorporate real-surface phenomena (site heterogeneity, lateral interactions, surface condensation) described in classic AI approaches other than Langmuir's. Thermodynamic relations between SCMs and AIs that remained obscure in the past have been recently clarified using new definitions of standard and reference states of surface species [1,2]. On this basis, a method for separating the Langmuir AI into ideal (linear) and non-ideal parts [2] was applied to multi-dentate Langmuir, Frumkin, and BET isotherms. The aim of this work was to obtain the surface activity coefficient terms that make the SCM site mole balance constraints obsolete and, in this way, extend thermodynamic SCMs to cover sorption phenomena described by the respective AIs. The multi-dentate Langmuir term accounts for the site saturation with n-dentate surface species, as illustrated on modeling bi-dentate U VI complexes on goethite or SiO 2 surfaces. The Frumkin term corrects for the lateral interactions of the mono-dentate surface species; in particular, it has the same form as the Coulombic term of the constant-capacitance EDL combined with the Langmuir term. The BET term (three parameters) accounts for more than a monolayer adsorption up to the surface condensation; it can potentially describe the surface precipitation of nickel and other cations on hydroxides and clay minerals. All three non-ideal terms (in GEM SCMs implementation [1,2]) by now are used for non-competing surface species only. Upon 'surface dilution

  17. Study of thermodynamic water properties and moisture sorption hysteresis of mango skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio José Ferreira de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium moisture content for adsorption and desorption isotherms of mango skin was determined using the static gravimetric method at temperatures of 20, 26, 33, 38 and 44 oC in the 0.056 to 0.873 water activity range. Both sorption curves show a decrease in equilibrium moisture content as the temperature increasing. The hysteresis effect was observed at constant water activity. The Guggenheim, Anderson, and de Boer (GAB model presented the best fitting accuracy among a group of models and was used to determine the thermodynamic properties of water sorption. Integral enthalpy and integral entropy areas showed inverted values for the adsorption and desorption isotherms over the wide range of water activity studied. These values confirm, in energetic terms, the difference between adsorption and desorption isotherms observed in the hysteresis phenomenon. Finally, the Gibbs free energy revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous for both sorption isotherms.

  18. Sorption of cobalt and nickel on anaerobic granular sludges: isotherms and sequential extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Peerbolte, A.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the sorption capacity and the fractionation of sorbed nickel and cobalt onto anaerobic granular sludges. Two different anaerobic granular sludges (non-fed, pH = 7) were loaded with nickel and cobalt in. adsorption experiments (monometal and competitive

  19. TWO-PARAMETER ISOTHERMS OF METHYL ORANGE SORPTION BY PINECONE DERIVED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi ، M. Hadi ، S. Moayedi ، F. Barjasteh Askari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of a mono azo dye methyl-orange (MeO onto granular pinecone derived activated carbon (GPAC, from aqueous solutions, was studied in a batch system. Seven two-parameter isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevic, Temkin, Halsey, Jovanovic and Hurkins-Jura were used to fit the experimental data. The results revealed that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order of Jovanovic (X2=1.374 > Langmuir > Dubinin-Radushkevic > Temkin > Freundlich > Halsey > Hurkins-Jura isotherms. Adsorption isotherms modeling showed that the interaction of dye with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo-second order, Elovich and Lagergren kinetic models. Lagergren first order model was found to agree well with the experimental data (X2=9.231. In order to determine the best-fit isotherm and kinetic models, two error analysis methods of Residual Mean Square Error and Chi-square statistic (X2 were used to evaluate the data.

  20. Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project

  1. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  2. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (T g ), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔT g (≡T g  - T g0 ; where T g0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  3. Applicability of microautoradiography to sorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of microautoradiography was applied to the study of the sorption of uranium and americium on five rock types which exist at the Nevada Test Site. It was found that autoradiograms could be prepared in a few days which would allow the specific minerals responsible for sorption to be identified. Furthermore, the state of aggregation of the sorbed species was clearly indicated. It was concluded that microautoradiography was a useful adjunct to currently used methods for studying sorption of certain radionuclides

  4. Study of sorption properties of nickel on chitosan; Studium sorpcnych vlastnosti niklu na chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivarciova, L; Rosskopfova, O; Galambos, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Sorption of nickel on the selected sorbent was studied by a batch method. The effect of contact time and pH to reach sorption equilibrium was studied. During sorption of Ni{sup 2+} ions there proceed predominantly ion-exchange reactions on its surface. Time to reach sorption equilibrium of nickel on chitosan was 14 hours. Sorption percentage after 14 hours reached a value of 84 %. Solutions with starting pH value between 3.9 and 8.1 were used for sorption of nickel. A sorption of nickel on chitosan was > 97% in monitored interval of pH after 24 hours of contact . At an initial pH from 3.9 to 6.4 was the final pH 6.6 due to protonisation of amino groups. A pH value was 6.4 after sorption of 7.1. Sorption of nickel is reduced by increasing of concentrations of Ni{sup 2+} ions in the solution. Langmuir isotherm was used for interpretation of nickel sorption on chitosan. A maximum sorption capacity for chitosan was 2,67 {center_dot} 10{sup -3} mol/g{sup -}1. (authors)

  5. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  6. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for

  7. Kinetics and equilibrium studies for sorption of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) ions onto polymeric composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The sorption behavior of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions was studied using polymeric composite resins. Batch sorption experiments were performed as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, complexing agent concentration, resin weight and ionic strength. Kinetic parameters as a function of initial ion concentration were determined to predict the sorption behavior of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) onto polymeric composite resins. The equilibrium data could be fitted by the frendlich adsorption isotherm equation

  8. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos; José Antonio Gomez Vieira; Javier Telis-Romero; Harvey Alexander Villa-Vélez; Jose Francisco Lopes Filho

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters ...

  9. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Pumacahua-Ramos, Augusto; Gomez Vieira, José Antonio; Telis- Romero, Javier; Villa-Vélez, Harvey Alexander; Lopes Filho, Jose Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) and in relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data:  GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown...

  10. Sorption study of U+6 in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R 2 ); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC C ). The coefficient of determination (R 2 ), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R 2 values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  11. Sorption study of U{sup +6} in Brazilian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M., E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mantovan@ien.gov.br, E-mail: leonel@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: daniel@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuarias (Embrapa Solos-CNPS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}). The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R{sup 2} values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  12. Water sorption isotherms of skimmed milk powder within the temperature range of 5–20 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Langová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms (MSI’s of skimmed milk powder in the temperature range of 5–20 °C were determined using manometric method. MSI’s, which show the water content versus water activity (Aw at a constant temperature, are used to describe relationships between water content and equilibrium state relative vapour pressure (RVP. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC of skimmed milk powder samples is growing with an increase of Aw at a constant temperature both for water adsorption and desorption. Isotherms were found to be type II of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller classification. It is the type most common for foods. The shape of created isotherms was sigmoid. Structural modifications of crystals were observed during adsorption in the microscope, too. Critical value of EMC of tested samples corresponding to the Aw equal to 0.6 for adsorption was 6.50% MC (w.b. at temperature 5 °C, 9.15% MC (w.b. at temperature 10 °C, and 7.71% MC (w.b. at temperature 20 °C. These values determine optimal conditions for storage from the point of view microorganisms grow, Aw<0.6.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms and mechanical properties of selected paper-based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 3 selected paper-based packaging materials, that is, vegetable parchment (VP) paper, Kraft paper, and solid-bleached-sulfate (SBS) paperboard, were determined at 3 different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 degrees C). The GAB isotherm model was found to fit adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the paper samples. The monolayer moisture content of the paper samples decreased with increase in temperature, which is in the range of 0.0345 to 0.0246, 0.0301 to 0.0238, and 0.0318 to 0.0243 g water/g solid for the MG paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively. The net isosteric heats of sorption (q(st)) for the paper samples decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content after reaching the maximum values of 18.51, 27.39, and 26.80 kJ/mol for the VP paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively, at low-moisture content. The differential enthalpy and entropy of 3 paper samples showed compensation phenomenon with the isokinetic temperature of 399.7 K indicating that water vapor had been adsorbed onto the paper samples with the same mechanism. Depending on the paper material, tensile strength of paper samples was affected by moisture content.

  14. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures

  15. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail: kouhila@hotmail.com; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  16. Study of sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Dong; Fan Xianhua; Su Xiguang; Zeng Jishu

    2001-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of technetium on pyrrhotine are studied with batch experiment and dilute sulfuric acid is used to dissolve the technetium adsorbed on pyrrhotine. Sorption and desorption experiment are performed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (inert gas box). The results show that a significant sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine is found under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the sorption on the mineral is supposed to be due to the reduction of TcO 4 - to insoluble TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Desorption process of the sorbed technetium into dilute sulfuric acid is found to be different under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. On addition of H 2 O 2 to the leach solution a sudden increase of the technetium concentration is observed

  17. KINETIC MODELING AND ISOTHERM STUDIES ON A BATCH REMOVAL OF ACID RED 114 BY AN ACTIVATED PLANT BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAJAMOHAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dye Acid Red 114(AR 114 was removed from aqueous solutions using Acid-Activated Eichornia Crassipes (AAEC under batch conditions. The optimum conditions for AR 114 removal were found to be pH 1.5, adsorbent dosage = 1.25 g/L of solution and equilibrium time = 3 h. The equilibrium data were evaluated for compliance with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and Langmuir isotherm was found to fit well. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated as 112.34 mg/g of adsorbent. Also, adsorption kinetics of the dye was studied and the rates of sorption were found to follow pseudo-second order kinetics with good correlation (R2 ≥ 0.997.The kinetic study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was an endothermic process. The activation energy of the sorption process was estimated as 9.722 kJ/mol.

  18. Research on the phenomenon of graphitization. Crystallographic study - Study of bromine sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, Jacques

    1967-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the mechanism of graphitization of carbon by using X-ray diffraction analysis and the physical and chemical study of lamellar reactions between carbon and bromine. The author first presents generalities and results of preliminary studies (meaning of graphitization, presentation of the various carbon groups and classes), and then reports the study of the graphitization of compact carbons (soft carbons). More precisely, he reports the crystallographic study of partially graphitized carbons: methods and principles, experimental results and their analysis, discussion of the graphitization mechanism. In the next part, the author reports the study of bromine sorption on carbons: experimental method, isotherms of a natural graphite and of a graphitized carbon, structure of carbon-bromine complexes, isotherms of graphitizable carbons and of all other carbons, distribution of bromine layers in partially graphitized carbons, bromine sorption and Fermi level

  19. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the sorption of 3-methoxybenzaldehyde on activated kaolinites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, Huelya [Forensic Medicine Foundation, Nasuhpasa Bath Street, No. 12, 16010 Heykel, Bursa (Turkey)]. E-mail: hkoyuncu@yyu.edu.tr; Kul, Ali Riza [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 65080 Van (Turkey)]. E-mail: alirizakul@yyu.edu.tr; Yildiz, Nuray [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nyildiz@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Calimli, Ayla [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: calimli@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Ceylan, Hasan [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 65080 Van (Turkey)]. E-mail: hceylan@yyu.edu.tr

    2007-03-06

    The sorption of 3-methoxybenzaldehyde on activated kaolinites has been investigated at different temperatures. Two types of activation tests were performed. The sorption equilibrium was studied by sorption isotherms in the temperature range 303-333 K for natural (untreated), thermally and acid activated kaolinites. It was shown that the isotherm shapes were not affected by temperature and activation types of kaolinite. The absorbance data at 312 nm were fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the model parameters were determined for different temperatures. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy ({delta}G), the enthalpy ({delta}H) and the entropy change of sorption ({delta}S) were determined for natural, thermally and acid activated kaolinites. It was shown that the sorption processes were an endothermic reactions, controlled by physical mechanisms and spontaneously. Adsorption capacity of acid activated kaolinite for 3-methoxybenzaldehyde was higher compared to that of natural and thermally activated kaolinites at various temperatures. The adsorption and desorption rate constants (k {sub a} and k {sub d}) were obtained separately by applying a geometric approach to the first order Langmuir model. This method provided good conformity between the K from Langmuir parameters and K {sub geo} (k {sub a}/k {sub d}) from geometric approach.

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the sorption of 3-methoxybenzaldehyde on activated kaolinites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, Huelya; Kul, Ali Riza; Yildiz, Nuray; Calimli, Ayla; Ceylan, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    The sorption of 3-methoxybenzaldehyde on activated kaolinites has been investigated at different temperatures. Two types of activation tests were performed. The sorption equilibrium was studied by sorption isotherms in the temperature range 303-333 K for natural (untreated), thermally and acid activated kaolinites. It was shown that the isotherm shapes were not affected by temperature and activation types of kaolinite. The absorbance data at 312 nm were fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the model parameters were determined for different temperatures. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG), the enthalpy (ΔH) and the entropy change of sorption (ΔS) were determined for natural, thermally and acid activated kaolinites. It was shown that the sorption processes were an endothermic reactions, controlled by physical mechanisms and spontaneously. Adsorption capacity of acid activated kaolinite for 3-methoxybenzaldehyde was higher compared to that of natural and thermally activated kaolinites at various temperatures. The adsorption and desorption rate constants (k a and k d ) were obtained separately by applying a geometric approach to the first order Langmuir model. This method provided good conformity between the K from Langmuir parameters and K geo (k a /k d ) from geometric approach

  1. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  2. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld. grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown to be appropriate by the coefficients of determination (R2 and the mean absolute error (MA%E. The influence of temperature was observed because the adsorption of water by the grains was lower at highertemperatures. The equilibrium moisture contents for security of storage, for long periods of time at water activity lower than 0.65, were 12 -13%. The effect of temperature on the parameters of the GAB model was analysed using the exponential Arrhenius equation. The isosteric heats of sorption were determined by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of humidity. The isosteric heat at 5% moisture for grains of the Blanca de Juli variety was 3663 kJ/kg and for the Pasankalla variety it was 3393 kJ/kg. The experimental data for isosteric heat as a function of humidity were satisfactorily modelled using three mathematical equations.

  3. Monolayer and multilayer adsorption isotherm models for sorption from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadi, Reyhaneh; Saadi, Zahra; Fazaeli, Reza; Fard, Narges Elmi [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Industrial wastewater polluted with various contaminants, including heavy metals, dyes, etc., endangers human health and the environment. Various separation techniques have been developed for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process has drawn considerable attention due to its simplicity of design, high removal efficiency, even at dilute concentration, and economical aspect. We reviewed the most common two, three, four, and five parameter adsorption isotherm models corresponding to monolayer and multilayer adsorption on the basis of parameters that can be used for exploring novel adsorbents. Thermodynamic assumptions of the models give information about the surface properties, capacity of the adsorbent and adsorption mechanism. Seven error functions were investigated to evaluate the fitness quality of isotherm models with the experimental equilibrium data.

  4. Applicability of the Linear Sorption Isotherm Model to Represent Contaminant Transport Processes in Site Wide Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.; LAST, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of flux of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater under varying geologic, hydrologic, and chemical conditions is key to making technically credible and sound decisions regarding soil site characterization and remediation, single-shell tank retrieval, and waste site closures (DOE 2000). One of the principal needs identified in the science and technology roadmap (DOE 2000) is the need to improve the conceptual and numerical models that describe the location of contaminants today, and to provide the basis for forecasting future movement of contaminants on both site-specific and site-wide scales. The State of Knowledge (DOE 1999) and Preliminary Concepts documents describe the importance of geochemical processes on the transport of contaminants through the Vadose Zone. These processes have been identified in the international list of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) (NEA 2000) and included in the list of FEPS currently being developed for Hanford Site assessments (Soler et al. 2001). The current vision for Hanford site-wide cumulative risk assessments as performed using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) is to represent contaminant adsorption using the linear isotherm (empirical distribution coefficient, K d ) sorption model. Integration Project Expert Panel (PEP) comments indicate that work is required to adequately justify the applicability of the linear sorption model, and to identify and defend the range of K d values that are adopted for assessments. The work plans developed for the Science and Technology (S and T) efforts, SAC, and the Core Projects must answer directly the question of ''Is there a scientific basis for the application of the linear sorption isotherm model to the complex wastes of the Hanford Site?'' This paper is intended to address these issues. The reason that well documented justification is required for using the linear sorption (K d ) model is that this approach is strictly empirical and is often

  5. Experimental study of Pb (II) solution sorption behavior onto Coffee Husk Bioactivated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fona, Z.; Habibah, U.

    2018-04-01

    Coffee husk which is abundantly produced in the coffee plantations is potential to be a challenging adsorbent. The fate of Pb (II) solution in the sorption mechanism onto the adsorbent has been investigated. This paper aimed to study the efficiency of Pb (II) aqueous solution removal using activated carbon from coffee husk (CAC). The sorption characteristics were using two isotherm models, Langmuir and Freundlich, were also reported. The coffee husk from local plantations in Middle Aceh was carbonized and sieved to 120/140 mesh. The charcoal was activated using hydrochloric acid before contacted with the different initial concentrations of Pb (II) solution. The remaining concentrations of the metal in the specified contact times were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer at 283.3 wavelength. The result showed that the equilibrium concentrations were obtained in about 30 minutes which depended on the initial concentration. The sorption mechanism followed Freundlich isotherm model where the adsorption constant and capacity were accordingly 1.353 and 1.195 mgg‑1. The iodine sorption was up to 1,053 mgg‑1. Based on the ash and moisture content, as well as iodine sorption, the activated carbon met the national standard.

  6. Sorption studies of caesium by complex hexacyanoferrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, D.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was carried out on the preparation of complex hexacyanoferrates in a granular form suitable for use in a packed column. The preparation of sodium nickel hexacyanoferrate using a freeze-thaw method was studied in detail and a method developed to produce a consistent and reproducible granular product. The equilibrium and sorption kinetics were studied using batch and column tests, and the process modelled to predict performance under various conditions. (author)

  7. Kinetic and isotherm studies of Cu(II) biosorption onto valonia tannin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengil, I. Ayhan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey)], E-mail: asengil@sakarya.edu.tr; Ozacar, Mahmut [Department of Chemistry, Science and Arts Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey); Tuerkmenler, Harun [Institute of Sciences and Technology, Sakarya University, 54040 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by valonia tannin resin was investigated as a function of particle size, initial pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms that govern copper removal and find a suitable equilibrium isotherm and kinetic model for the copper removal in a batch reactor. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The equilibrium data fit well in the Langmuir isotherm. The experimental data were analysed using four sorption kinetic models - the pseudo-first- and second-order equations, the Elovich and the intraparticle diffusion model equation - to determine the best fit equation for the biosorption of copper ions onto valonia tannin resin. Results show that the pseudo-second-order equation provides the best correlation for the biosorption process, whereas the Elovich equation also fits the experimental data well.

  8. Assessment of the possibility of using data mining methods to predict sorption isotherms of selected organic compounds on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbek Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the use of four data mining methods (Support Vector Machines. Cascade Neural Networks. Random Forests and Boosted Trees to predict sorption on activated carbons. The input data for statistical models included the activated carbon parameters, organic substances and equilibrium concentrations in the solution. The assessment of the predictive abilities of the developed models was made with the use of mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean squared error (RMSE. The computations proved that methods of data mining considered in the study can be applied to predict sorption of selected organic compounds 011 activated carbon. The lowest values of sorption prediction errors were obtained with the Cascade Neural Networks method (MAE = 1.23 g/g; MAPE = 7.90% and RMSE = 1.81 g/g, while the highest error values were produced by the Boosted Trees method (MAE=14.31 g/g; MAPE = 39.43% and RMSE = 27.76 g/g.

  9. Study of sorption processes of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Ometakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Caplovicova, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sorption of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite sample prepared by a wet precipitation process was of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.688. The sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4 to 6 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption of copper was rapid and the percentage of Cu sorption was >98% during the first 15-30 min of the contact time. The experimental data for sorption of copper have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Cu 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ and Pb 2+ towards Cu 2+ sorption was stronger than that of Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The ability of the bivalent cations to depress the sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was in the following order Pb 2+ > Fe 2+ > Zn 2+ > Co 2+ ∼ Ni 2+ . (author)

  10. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, John A.; Yui, Mikazu; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-11-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  11. Europium sorption on zirconia at elevated temperatures: experimental study and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglizaud, N.; Catalette, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep underground repository is being considered by several countries. The waste package maintains an elevated temperature for thousands of years. As sorption is one of the main phenomenon limiting the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment, it has to be studied at elevated temperatures. Zirconia is an oxide produced by cladding oxidation which is suspected in the near field of a nuclear repository. It then could possibly be in contact with waste elements as Europium (III), the sorption of which is therefore studied on zirconia. Experiments were performed by the batch method at a solid/liquid ratio of 10 g.L-1. The sorption edges were recorded in the pH-range from 2 to 10 at 2.10 -5 mol.L -1 Eu(NO 3 ) 3 (I = 0.1 mol.L -1 KNO 3 ). An over-pressure device in an autoclave with an incorporated filtering system allowed the experiments, carbonate free, at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, 80 deg. C, 120 deg. C and 150 deg. C and in situ pH measurements. Filtrates were analyzed by the ICP-AES method. Sorption isotherms show an increase in the sorption phenomenon when the temperature raises. The half sorption pH decreases from 7 at 25 deg. C to 3,6 at 150 deg. C. The distribution coefficients that were obtained at elevated temperatures enriched the databases of integrated performance assessment codes. Raw data were modeled with the surface complexation theory using the double layer model (DLM). Several possible surface complexes were examined and discussed, taking into account aqueous hydrolyzed and precipitated species of Europium. A good agreement between experimental values and modeled isotherms was found at all studied temperatures. Results were consistent with a bidentate complex formed by Europium (III) on the zirconia surface. Associated formation constants were then determined with the geochemical computer code CHESS. (authors)

  12. The sorption behaviour of 99Tc on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Deying; Zeng Jishu

    2004-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of 99 Tc on apricot-pit activated carbon with batch experiment is studied. The influence of such factors as sorbent particle size, temperature, pH value on sorption ratio, and the Freundlich sorption isotherms are reported in this paper. (author)

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, L; Kubínová, J; Juszczak, L; Witczak, M

    2012-02-01

    Sorption isotherms of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root samples were obtained at 25 °C. Elecampe exhibited hysteresis loop in the range of 0.35-0.90 a(w) , whereas burdock roots showed significant differences between adsorption and desorption isotherms from 0.65 to 0.80 a(w) . Blahovec-Yanniotis was considered to give the best fit over the whole range of a(w) tested. Various parameters describing the properties of sorbed water derived from GAB, Henderson and Blahovec-Yanniotis models have been discussed. Differential scanning calorimetric method was used to measure the glass transition temperature (T (g)) of root samples in relation to water activity. The safe moisture content was determined in 12.01 and 14.96 g/100 g d. b. for burdock and elecampe root samples at 25 °C, respectively. Combining the T (g) line with sorption isotherm in one plot, it was found that the glass transition temperature concept overestimated the temperature stability for both root samples.

  14. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  15. Kinetic studies on phosphorus sorption by selected soil amendments for septic tank effluent renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K C; Venkitachalam, T H

    2006-01-01

    A systematic kinetic study of phosphorus (P) sorption by various materials in the soil infiltration system of septic tanks was undertaken by following the time course of P sorption by sorbents in contact with various P solutions over periods up to 360 days. Uptake of P seemed to consist of two distinct stages. Initial uptake was very rapid and this phase was completed in 4 days or less. A slower removal stage followed for some materials over many months. Phosphorus sorption during the fast reaction stage appeared to be associated with the soluble Ca content of the materials. The fast reaction of calcareous materials accounted for the bulk (>70%) of the total P removed. Merribrook loamy sand exhibited the highest proportion of P sorption during the slow phase. It should be noted, however, that for solution P concentrations in the range found in typical effluents (approximately 20 mg L(-1)) the fast reaction phase seemed to be responsible for virtually all P removed. None of the six kinetic formulae examined possessed the sophistication and detail needed to portray accurately the time course of P sorption for all the sorbents investigated. The Elovich equation and the kinetic modification of the Freundlich isotherm expression appeared to provide a reasonable fit of the experimental data.

  16. Histerese das isotermas de sorção da polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. variedade manteiga Hysteresis of the sorption isotherms of mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. manteiga variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de S. Paglarini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As isotermas de sorção são de grande importância para predizer processos de secagem e armazenamento de um produto. A histerese é um fenômeno que ocorre devido à diferença entre as curvas de adsorção e dessorção. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar a influência da temperatura nas isotermas de sorção e na histerese da polpa de manga variedade manteiga. As isotermas foram determinadas pelo método gravimétrico estático, com a utilização de diferentes concentrações ácidas, nas temperaturas de 20, 30, 40 e 50 °C e atividade de água variando de 4,3 a 88,8% até atingir a umidade de equilíbrio. Foram analisados seis modelos matemáticos para isotermas de sorção (GAB, BET, Halsey, Henderson-Thompson, Oswin e Luikov ajustados aos dados experimentais, através de regressão não-linear. A histerese foi calculada pela área compreendida entre as curvas de dessorção e adsorção. De acordo com os resultados obtidos o modelo de GAB foi o que melhor se ajustou às isotermas de equilíbrio da manga. A área da histerese reduziu 51% entre as temperaturas de 20 e 50 °C.The sorption isotherms are of great importance for predicting drying and storage of a product. Hysteresis is a phenomenon that occurs due to the difference between the curves of adsorption and desorption. This study aimed to analyse the influence of temperature on sorption isotherms and hysteresis of mango pulp manteiga variety. The isotherms were determined by the static method with the use of different acid concentrations. The samples were submitted to temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C and water activity ranging from 4.3 to 88.8% until the equilibrium moisture content. Six mathematical models for the sorption isotherms (GAB, BET, Halsey, Henderson-Thompson, Oswin and Luikov were analysed and adjusted to the experimental data using nonlinear regression. The hysteresis was calculated as the area between the curves of adsorption and desorption

  17. Study of sorption processes of strontium on the synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2011-01-01

    The sorption of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by a wet precipitation process followed by calcination of calcium phosphate that precipitated from aqueous solution. Also, commercial hydroxyapatites were used. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of preparation and it was pH independent ranging from 4 to 9 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The distribution coefficient K d was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ ions in solution with concentration above 1 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 . The percentage strontium sorption for commercial and by wet method prepared hydroxyapatite was in the range of 83-96%, while calcined hydroxyapatite was ranging from 10 to 30%. The experimental data for sorption of strontium have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Sr 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite. Although calcined hydroxyapatite is successfully used as biomaterial for hard tissues repair, it is not used for the treatment of liquid wastes. (author)

  18. Studies on sorption of cadmium (II) ions onto Haro river sand from aqueous media using radiotracer and voltammetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Hasany, S.M.; Yamin, T.; Ansari, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of Cd(II) ions on Haro river sand has been studied using radiotracer technique. The effects of pH and acid concentrations on the sorption were studied. The sorption increases with pH. reaches a maximum at pH 7 and decreases at higher pH values. With acids, it was found that sorption decreases with increasing acid concentration, and for more oxidizing acids sorption was less. Kinetic studies indicate that mostly intra particle diffusion occurs with first order rate constant of 18.45 x 10 -2 min -1 . The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. In addition to the radiotracer method, voltammetric technique was applied and the results by the two techniques are in good agreement. The sorption free energy value indicates that adsorption process is chemisorption. The effect of temperature was studied and values of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for Cd(II) have been calculated which are 20.15 kJ mol -1 , 74.04 J mol -1 K -1 and -1.754 kJ mol -1 . Adsorption of Cd(II) on Haro river sand is endothermic, spontaneous and entropy driven. The effect of different anions and cations at different concentrations was studied. Levels of cadmium have been monitored in water and sediments. (orig.)

  19. ANALISIS FRAKSI-FRAKSI KURVA ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DARI TEPUNG ROSELA DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MUTU PRODUK [Analysis of Moisture Sorption Isotherm Fraction of Roselle Powder and Its Effect on Products the Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the fractions of moisture sorption isotherm curve and the critical water content of roselle powder and its effect on the product quality during storage. Roselle flowers were harvested at 25 days after flowering and sun dried (30ºC for 3 days. The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm curve of the roselle powder was sigmoid. The critical transition points among the three fractions of the bound water in the roselle flour were first at moisture content (Mp and water activity (ap of 7.97% dry basis (db and 0.23 respectively, and second at Ms 21.1% db water content and water activity (as of 0.65%. Roselle powder samples were stored for 20 days at three relative humidity (RH fractions represented by RH 22% (moisture content at 7.2% db, RH 57 % (20.5% db and 84 % (54.2% db. The samples stored in the first fraction was stable in texture, colour and appearance, while the sample in the secondary bound water fraction (21.1% db, changed in colour into darker red. The sample stored in the tertiary bound water fraction (54.2% db changed into brown colour with musty smell and mouldy after 15 days.

  20. Sorption of carbamazepine by commercial graphene oxides: a comparative study with granular activated carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nan; Larese-Casanova, Philip

    2014-07-15

    Graphene nanosheet materials represent a potentially new high surface area sorbent for the treatment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water. However, sorption behavior has been reported only for laboratory graphene prepared by a laborious and hazardous graphite exfoliation process. A careful examination of commercially available, clean, high-volume produced graphene materials should reveal whether they are appropriate for sorbent technologies and which physicochemical properties most influence sorption performance. In this study, three commercially available graphene oxide powders of various particle sizes, specific surface areas, and surface chemistries were evaluated for their sorption performance using carbamazepine and nine other EDCs and were compared to that of conventional granular activated carbon (GAC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sorption kinetics of carbamazepine on graphene oxide powders was rapid and reversible with alcohol washing, consistent with π-π interactions. The various sorption extents as described by Freundlich isotherms were best explained by available surface area, and only the highest surface area graphene oxide (771 m(2)/g) out-performed GAC and MWCNTs. Increasing pH caused more negative surface charge, a twofold decrease in sorption of anionic ibuprofen, a onefold increase in sorption of cationic atenolol, and no change for neutral carbamazepine, highlighting the role of electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorptive removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by almond gum: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Kallel, Fatma; Ghorbel, Rhoudha Ellouz; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed at investigating the potential of almond gum as low cost adsorbent for the removal of the cationic dye; malachite green from aqueous solutions. Almond gum was first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and then the adsorption behavior was studied in batch system. The effects of the adsorption parameters (adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, particle size, initial dye concentration, temperature and agitation) on the dye removal have been studied. Adsorption equilibrium and isotherms were evaluated depending on temperature using the isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Tempkin. The obtained result showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich models were adapted to study the dye sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities were equal to 172.41mg/g, 181.81mg/g, and 196.07mg/g at 303.16K, 313.16K, and 323.16K, respectively. The kinetics of sorption were following the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic changes in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and free energy (ΔG) indicated that the adsorption of malachite green at the surface of almond gum is endothermic and occurs spontaneously. Desorption experiments were conducted to regenerate almond gum, showing great desorption capacity when using HCl at pH 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The objective of the study is to investigate the potential application of a selective EIR for sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. • The effects of several physiochemical parameters were investigated. • The sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms were used to explain the sorption mechanism. • The thermodynamic studies showed the feasibility of sorption process. • The EIR beads showed a great potential for effective removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. - Abstract: In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid–liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions

  3. Effect of humidity on the hydration behaviour of prazosin hydrochloride polyhydrate: Thermal, sorption and crystallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Utility of TGA to differentiate between unbound and bound water was demonstrated. → Nature of the lattice arrangement in prazosin hydrochloride polyhydrate was confirmed to be expanded (non-stoichiometric) type hydrate. → Correlation of the DSC, TGA, PXRD and DVS for dehydration of prazosin hydrochloride polyhydrate was delineated. - Abstract: In this study, hydration behaviour of prazosin hydrochloride polyhydrate was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and dynamic vapour sorption techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis at faster heating rate (20 o C/min) showed single step water loss, attributed to both dihydrate and unbound water. In contrast, thermogravimetric analysis at slower heating rate (1 o C/min) showed unbound and dihydrate lattice water separately, with unbound water being lost initially, followed by loss of dihydrate water. Variable vacuum and variable humidity PXRD study revealed shift in diffraction peaks to higher values on removal of unbound water. Initial PXRD patterns were regained when kept again at ambient conditions. Dynamic vapour sorption depicted type I sorption isotherm with interstitial water, indicating that polyhydrate form show reversible behaviour with change in humidity. Correlation between thermal, sorption and crystallographic data established hydration behaviour to be characteristic of expanded channel type (non-stoichiometric) hydrate.

  4. Cadmium removal by bioclastic granules (Lithothamnium calcareum): batch and fixed-bed column systems sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneu, Diego Macedo; Schneider, Claudio Luiz; de Mello Monte, Marisa Bezerra; Cunha, Osvaldo Galvão Caldas; Yokoyama, Lídia

    2017-06-19

    The potential of Bioclastic Granules - BG (calcium-carbonate-based material) using the algae Lithothamnium calcareum as sorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by sorption was evaluated through batch and continuous systems tests using a fixed-bed column. Sorption process variables, in particular pH (2-7), particle size (<38-300 μm), initial BG concentration (0.1-1.0 g L -1 ), initial Cd(II) concentrations (5-400 mg L -1 ) and contact time (5-240 min), were evaluated. Adsorption isotherm profiles of Cd(II) per BG were similar to an L-type, or Langmuir type, with the adsorption forming a monolayer of approximately 0.61 μm, with a q max of 188.74 mg g -1 and k L of 0.710 L mg -1 . Thomas's model considers that sorption is not limited to a chemical reaction but is controlled by mass transfer at the interface. In the present study, the obtained value of k Th was 0.895 mL h -1  mg -1 , reaching a sorption capacity q o of 124.4 mg g -1 . For the Yoon-Nelson model, it was possible to obtain two important parameters to describe the behavior of the column, the rate constant (k YN ), obtaining a value of 0.09 h -1 and an τ of 82.12 h corresponding to the time required for sorption to occur of 50% of the solute in the rupture curve. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses coupled to the X-ray dispersive energy system (SEM/EDS) of the BG after the Cd(II) ion sorption tests evidenced the formation of crystals with the prevalence of a new mineral phase (otavite).

  5. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): a stochastic TMDSC study

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus Solé, Yolanda; Fraga Rivas, Iria

    2012-01-01

    The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures Tc has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature Tg as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by co...

  6. Sorption of uranium and cesium by Hanford basalts and associated secondary smectite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.; Walker, B.A.; Salter, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    Three characterized basalts and an associated secondary smectite were used in comparative uranium and cesium sorption studies. Experiments utilizing two synthetic characteristic basalt groundwaters at 23 and 60 0 C allowed comparison of increased temperature and carbonate concentration effects on Cs and U sorption. The sorption data were fitted to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, and loading maxima and energetics derived. An increase in temperature caused a decrease in Cs sorption maxima on all solids from all groundwaters studied and an increase in U sorption maxima, especially from the higher-carbonate-content groundwater. Sorption energies were characteristic of ion exchange for both Cs and U sorption processes. Basalt U sorption maxima were relatively insignificant, but smectite U sorption maxima surpassed Cs sorption maxima in both groundwaters at 60 0 C. The uranyl carbonate complexes thus may be relatively temperature-sensitive. Upon removal of excess Fe-oxides from the secondary smectite, U sorption decreased and the D-R isotherm reverted to a normal Freundlich sorption isotherm. Removal of excess Fe-oxides from the basalts and secondary smectite would probably result in Freundlich sorption isotherms for both Cs and U. (Auth.)

  7. Study of the radium sorption/desorption on goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassot, S.; Stammose, D.; Mallet, C.; Lefebvre, C.; Ferreux, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    The oxi-hydroxides, present at trace level in uranium mill tailings, are responsible of about 70% of the 226 radium sorption, half being fixed on crystallized forms. This radionuclide (half time=1622y), present at high level (50 to 100kBq.kg -1 ), can be released in groundwater, involving a possible contamination of the food chain (actual concentration limit=0.37Bq.1 -1 ). So, it is very important to point out the mechanisms of the radium sorption/desorption on crystallized oxi-hydroxides as a function of chemical conditions of the system. The radium sorption on synthetic goethite α-FeOOH has been studied as a function of contact time, initial radium activity, pH, sodium and calcium concentrations. The results show that, after one hour of contact time (necessary to reach equilibrium), the radium sorption increases widely in a pH range 6-7. The increase of Na + concentration is without influence on the radium sorption, indicating the low interactions between sodium and surface sites. At the opposite, the presence of calcium in solution decreases widely the radium sorption, that indicates a competition between calcium and radium for the same kind of sorption sites of the oxi-hydroxide surface. The percentage of radium desorbed increases widely with time, from 1 to 120h and becomes constant at a time higher than 120h. This long equilibrium time for desorption in comparison with sorption one can be explain by a local evolution of the sorption sites of the solid, which become less accessible for the solution in contact. (author)

  8. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  9. Sorption Characteristics of Mixed Molecules of Glutaraldehyde from Water on Mesoporous Acid-Amine Modified Low-Cost Activated Carbon: Mechanism, Isotherm, and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukosha Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental discharge of inefficiently treated waste solutions of the strong biocide glutaraldehyde (GA from hospitals has potential toxic impact on aquatic organisms. The adsorption characteristics of mixed polarized monomeric and polymeric molecules of GA from water on mesoporous acid-amine modified low-cost activated carbon (AC were investigated. It was found that the adsorption strongly depended on pH and surface chemistry. In acidic pH, the adsorption mechanism was elaborated to involve chemical sorption of mainly hydroxyl GA monomeric molecules on acidic surface groups, while in alkaline pH, the adsorption was elaborated to involve both chemical and physical sorption of GA polymeric forms having mixed functional groups (aldehyde, carboxyl, and hydroxyl on acidic and amine surface groups. The optimum pH of adsorption was about 12 with significant contribution by cooperative adsorption, elucidated in terms of hydrogen bonding and aldol condensation. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted to isotherm data. The adsorption kinetics was dependent on initial concentration and temperature and described by the Elovich model. The adsorption was endothermic, while the intraparticle diffusion model suggested significant contribution by film diffusion. The developed low-cost AC could be used to supplement the GA alkaline deactivation process for efficient removal of residual GA aquatic toxicity.

  10. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; EI-Khouly, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO 3 , H CI, HBr, NaNO 3 , Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K d values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions δG, δH and δS have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results

  11. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A [Nuclear Chemistry Dept., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); EI-Khouly, S H [Radioisotopes and Generators Dept., Radioisotopes Prod. Division, Hot Lahoratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO{sub 3}, H CI, HBr, NaNO{sub 3}, Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K{sub d} values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions {delta}G, {delta}H and {delta}S have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results.

  12. Correlational study between sorption and goo apparent organoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.L.; Silva, M.R.O.; Ferreira, H.S.; Brasileiro, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The sorption of surfactants in bentonite clay can occur through the mechanism of adsorption and absorption, this being a very supple phenomenon according clay and surfactant utilized. Thus the more surfactant sorbed at the organoclay it becomes, and can be used in various applications, including in oil drilling fluid. This study aimed to correlate the sorption of surfactants with the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluids (oil base). In organophilization process was used Bentongel clay which had its concentration varied from 3.16 to 7.16% by weight of clay. It was used to organophilization an ionic surfactant Praepagem WB with 75% of active matter, where its concentration ranged from 127-181 mEq. After organophilizated the clays were filtered, dried in an oven for 48 hours and passed in ABNT sieve No. 200, to be so characterized. Sorption was calculated from mathematical equations. Non-aqueous fluids were prepared according to standard Petrobras (EP-1EP-00023A) for rheological testing. Correlating the sorption of surfactant, and the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluid, obtained satisfactory results where observed through the scatter plots there is a strong correlation between the variables sorption and apparent viscosity, it should also be noted that the viscosity is a variable which increases with an increase in sorption, confirming that the surfactant concentration influences the viscosity. (author)

  13. Annealing effect on thermodynamic and physical properties of mesoporous silicon: A simulation and nitrogen sorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Huber, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of porous silicon formation in silicon substrate in 1956 while electro-polishing crystalline Si in hydrofluoric acid (HF), has triggered large scale investigations of porous silicon formation and their changes in physical and chemical properties with thermal and chemical treatment. A nitrogen sorption study is used to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on electrochemically etched mesoporous silicon (PS). The PS was thermally annealed from 200˚C to 800˚C for 1 hr in the presence of air. It was shown that the pore diameter and porosity of PS vary with annealing temperature. The experimentally obtained adsorption / desorption isotherms show hysteresis typical for capillary condensation in porous materials. A simulation study based on Saam and Cole model was performed and compared with experimentally observed sorption isotherms to study the physics behind of hysteresis formation. We discuss the shape of the hysteresis loops in the framework of the morphology of the layers. The different behavior of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen in PS with pore diameter was discussed in terms of concave menisci formation inside the pore space, which was shown to related with the induced pressure in varying the pore diameter from 7.2 nm to 3.4 nm.

  14. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  15. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Analyzer for Rapid Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms for Applications in Soil Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and description of important soil processes such as water vapor transport, volatilization of pesticides, and hysteresis require accurate means for measuring the soil water characteristic (SWC) at low water potentials. Until recently, measurement of the SWC at low water...... potentials was constrained by hydraulic decoupling and long equilibration times when pressure plates or single-point, chilled-mirror instruments were used. A new, fully automated Vapor Sorption Analyzer (VSA) helps to overcome these challenges and allows faster measurement of highly detailed water vapor...

  16. Numerical studies of pulsating buoyant plume in isothermal and non isothermal situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Mohanty, Ananya; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    A computational study has been carried out for predicting the behaviour of buoyant plume in isothermal and non isothermal configuration. General simulation objectives of any buoyant flow simulation are macroscopic in nature and deals with the grass data in respect of buoyancy induced scalar transport. However, the accuracy of predicting such macroscopic parameters is a strong function of several other microscopic parameters which govern the overall macroscopic behaviour. Some of the microscopic parameters for analysis could be buoyancy induced stable/unstable flows, relative plume behaviour, baroclinic velocity distribution etc. Only the CFD based flow modelling approach is capable of calculating several of these aspects. LES based modelling scores over the conventional RANS based computational modelling. The primary objective of the present study was to model buoyant plume simulation of different types in order to explore the details regarding plume and flow structure, instabilities and puffing behaviour. One of the influencing parameters on the overall plume behaviour is the buoyancy resolution index i.e. fineness of chosen grid in relation to the buoyancy intensity and other hydrodynamic parameters. The grid sensitivity studies have been carried out to find out the optimum value grid size by way of buoyant pool fire simulations. Comparative simulation has also been made for a square and round pool fire and it was found that for engineering simulations equivalent area square pool modeling is sufficient. Using the optimum value of grid size and square pool shape simulations have been carried out for different value of fire intensity. The flame puffing frequency as calculated by the reported correlation was compared against the computationally observed puffing frequency and the agreement was generally found to be excellent. Besides these results the comparisons of predicted peak flames temperatures data for various case studies with the available experimental data

  17. Evaluating the potential of a Nigerian soil as an adsorbent for tartrazine dye: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Dawodu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic tartrazine dye from industrial effluent into the environment is of public health concern. This study therefore aimed at the removal of tartrazine from solution using Nigerian soil as a low cost potential sorbent. The sorbent was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and Scanning electron microscope. Batch sorption methodology was used to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, contact time and temperature. The sorbent recorded a Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of 9.8 m2/g and pH point of zero charge of 5.8. Optimum sorption was achieved at pH 2.0, contact time of 120 min, adsorbent dose of 0.05 g and tartrazine concentration of 50 mg/L. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Scatchard and Flory-Huggins isotherm models. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Bangham models were used for kinetic analysis. Thermodynamics revealed a spontaneous, feasible and endothermic sorption process. The soil was found to be suitable as a low cost sorbent for tartrazine from contaminated solution.

  18. EXAFS study of plutonium sorption onto kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, T.Y.; Banik, L.; Buda, R.A.; Amayri, S.; Drebert, J.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Reich, T.; Ageev, A.L.; Korshunov, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of plutonium by kaolinite was investigated by applying X-ray absorption spectroscopy to batch sorption samples (total Pu concentrations 1 and 10 μM; 4 g kaolinite/L in 0.1 M NaClO 4 ; 1 ≤ pH ≤ 9; presence and absence of ambient CO 2 ). For XAFS measurements, one sample was prepared from a Pu(III) solution at pH 6 under argon atmosphere. Three samples were obtained by sorption of Pu(IV) at pH I, 4, and 9 in an air-equilibrated system. The Pu L III -edge XANES spectra indicated that in all samples, including the Pu(III) sample, plutonium is sorbed at the kaolinite surface as Pu(IV). The Pu L III -edge k 3 -weighted EXAFS spectra showed eight oxygen atoms at an average Pu-O distance of 2.3 angstrom. Two Pu atoms were detected at ∼ 3.7 angstrom in all spectra, indicating the formation of polynuclear Pu(IV) species at the kaolinite surface. For the sample prepared from Pu(III) solution, an additional Pu-O shell at 3.2 angstrom was observed. The spectra of samples prepared from Pu(IV) included a Pu-Al/Si co-ordination shell at approximately 3.6 angstrom, indicating formation of inner-sphere sorption complexes. The structural models used in the least-squares fits were confirmed by an alternative EXAFS data analysis approach based on a modified Tikhonov regularization method. (authors)

  19. ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DAN ANALISIS UMUR SIMPAN IKAN KAYU TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis DARI ACEH [Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Shelf Life Analysis of Dried Tongkol (Euthynnus affinis from Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol dried fish (Ikan Kayu Tongkol is lumps of less salted dried fish usually used as popular ingredient for some traditional fish dishes in Aceh as well as in Malaysia. In Japan it is further processed into Katsou-bushi for preparation of special soup. The objective of this research was to find out water relation parameters in the less salted dried fish as related to shelf life, characteristic changes during storage and estimate analysis of its expired date. Dried fish samples were equilibrated in 15 levels of RH at 28oC and their equilibrium moisture contents were determined.Moisture sorption isotherm derived from the correlation of equilibrium moisture content data indicated a typical sigmoidal curve implying 3 regions of water adsorption. The water sorption regions accounted for three fractions of bound water as analyzed using three different mathematical models. The first water fraction ranged 0 - 5.95 %, the second 5.95 - 17.52 % and the third fraction ranged 17.52 - 91.12 % dry basis, equivalent to 0 - 5.6 %, 5.6 - 14.9 % and 14.9 - 47.4 % wet basis respectively. Storage simulation experiment in two packaging materials as carried out at 30oC and 90 % RH resulted shelf life of 2749 days (91 months in the packaging of plastic impregnated allumunium and 1204 days (40 months in plastic packaging. These very long shelf life was due to the added salt in the produt which increased Mc as high as 46.9 % to cause mold growth. This estimate analysis of shelf life using the mathematical model of Labuza (1984 is one of the appropriate methods to determining expired date of dry food products.

  20. Comparative study about hydrogen sorption in sponge and powder titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, Felicia; Preda, Anisoara; Zamfirache, Marius; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    Currently, hydrogen may be stored as a compressed gas or a cryogenic liquid. Neither method appears to be practical for many applications in which hydrogen use would otherwise be attractive. For example, gaseous storage of stationary fuel is not feasible because of the large volume or weight of the storage vessels. Liquid hydrogen could be use extensively but the liquefaction process is relatively expensive. The hydrogen can be stored for a long term with a high separation factor, as a solid metal hydride. Using hydride-forming metals and intermetallic compounds, for example, recovery, purification and storage of heavy isotopes in tritium containing system, can solve many problems arising in the nuclear-fuel cycle. The paper presents a comparative study about hydrogen sorption on two titanium structures: powder and sponge. Also, it is presented the characterization, by X-Ray diffraction, of two structures, before and after sorption process. From our results, one can conclude that sorption method is efficient for both samples. Kinetic curves indicates that sorption rate for titanium powder is lower than for sponge titanium. This is the effect of reaction surface, which is larger for powder titanium. Sorption capacity for hydrogen is lower in powder titanium for identical experimental conditions. The difference between storage capacities could be explained by activation temperature, which was lower for titanium powder than for sponge. (authors)

  1. Experimental studies of Cs, Sr, Ni, and Eu sorption on Na-illite and the modelling of Cs sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1999-08-01

    A natural illite (illite du Puy) was purified and converted to the homo-ionic Na-form. The conditioned Na-illite was characterised in terms of its mineralogy, chemical inventory and physico-chemical properties. The structural formula was determined from energy dispersive spectroscopic analyses (SEM/TEM-EDS) and bulk chemistry measurements. A cation exchange capacity of 127 meq kg -1 was determined by the 22 Na isotope dilution method at neutral pH. The Na-CEC was also measured as a function of pH. The stability of Na-illite as a function of pH in the range between 3 and 6 was investigated. At low pH values partial dissolution of the illite occurs releasing the structural elements Al, Si, Mg, and K into solution. The presence of Ca and Sr in solution was interpreted as being due to desorption from cation exchange sites. All of these elements are also present at neutral pH but at considerably lower levels. Such effects cannot be avoided and must be considered in the interpretation of the sorption measurements. The main focus of the experimental work presented here is on the sorption behaviour of Cs, Sr, Ni and Eu on conditioned Na-illite as a function of NaClO 4 background electrolyte concentration (0.1 and 0.01 M), nuclide concentration and pH in the range between 3 and 11. Sorption edge data (R d versus pH) and sorption isotherms (quantity of nuclide sorbed versus equilibrium nuclide concentration) are presented for these four elements. Prior to beginning these experiments, sorption kinetics were measured. The broad based pool of sorption measurements generated from this work will provide the source data sets for subsequent modelling. So far only the Cs sorption measurements have been modelled. A two site cation exchange model was developed to describe the sorption of Cs over the whole range of experimental conditions. The two site types were termed 'frayed edge sites' (FES, high affinity/low capacity) and 'type II sites' (low affinity/high capacity). Selectivity

  2. Autoradiographic studies of actinide sorption in groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiography is a convenient and sensitive technique for the study of spacial distributions of alpha radioactive nuclides on slabs of rock or on other planar surfaces. The autoradiographic camera contains an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a plastic scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of the specimen. As an example of the use of the autoradiographic method, a series of sorption experiments were carried out in which synthetic groundwater solutions of americium, neptunium, uranium, and plutonium were contacted with Climax Stock granite under aerated and anoxic conditions at pH 8 to 9. The sorption observed at specific mineral sites was correlated with data on sorption of these actinides on pure minerals

  3. A comparative study of phosphate sorption in lowland soils under oxic and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Pedersen, Thomas Vils; Jensen, Henning S.

    2010-01-01

    of 36 to 93% of the dithionite-extractable FeIII (FeBD). Langmuir fitted Pi sorption isotherms showed a Pi release of up to 1.1 mmol kg-1 in six soils when Pi concentrations in the matrix (Psol) were lower than 10 µM. Phosphate desorption was attributed to dissolution of amorphous iron oxides......, and higher pH under anoxic conditions. The point of zero net sorption (EPC0) increased 2- to 10-fold on reduction. Five soils showed higher Pi sorption capacities in the anoxic than in the oxic state at higher Psol concentrations. Solubility calculations indicated that precipitation of vivianite or similar...

  4. 137Cs sorption onto Fullers' Earth (calcium montmorillonite) -the influence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Haigh, D.G.; Hooker, P.J.; Rowe, E.J.

    1987-12-01

    The influences of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on the sorption of 137 Cs onto Fullers' Earth (Calcium montmorillonite) has been studied using batch sorption methods. Results were expressed as distributions ratios (Rd) and as Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. They show that microbes present naturally in the Fullers' Earth did not influence sorption data, however the addition of microbes in the aqueous phase alters the sorption properties in a complex manner. (author)

  5. Isotermas de sorção de metais pesados em solos do cerrado de Goiás Sorption isotherm of heavy metals in soils of 'Cerrado' of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    limits. The potential and linear sorption isotherms presented good fitting to describe the behavior of adsorption of heavy metals in different classes of studied soil. The detention of heavy metals in, descending order was for PVe: Cr+3 > Cr+6 > Ni+2 > Zn+2 > Cu+2 > Pb+2 > Cd+2; for LVwf: Cr+3 > Cr+6 > Ni+2 > Cu+2 > Cd+2 > Zn+2 > Pb+2; for RQ: Cr+6 > Cr+3 >Cu+2 > Pb+2 > Ni+2 > Zn+2 > Cd+2 and for NVef: Cr+3 > Cr+6 > Pb+2 > Cu+2 > Zn+2 > Ni+2 > Cd+2. The Quartzipsamment presented a less retention of metal compared to other classes of soil, and is therefore, more vulnerable to contamination of groundwater.

  6. Absorption of calcium ions on oxidized graphene sheets and study its dynamic behavior by kinetic and isothermal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Fathy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sorption of calcium ion from the hard underground water using novel oxidized graphene (GO sheets was studied in this paper. Physicochemical properties and microstructure of graphene sheets were investigated using Raman spectrometer, thermogravimetry analyzer, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope. The kinetics adsorption of calcium on graphene oxide sheets was examined using Lagergren first and second orders. The results show that the Lagergren second-order was the best-fit model that suggests the conception process of calcium ion adsorption on the Go sheets. For isothermal studies, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used at temperatures ranging between 283 and 313 K. Thermodynamic parameters resolved at 283, 298 and 313 K indicating that the GO adsorption was exothermic spontaneous process. Finally, the graphene sheets show high partiality toward calcium particles and it will be useful in softening and treatment of hard water.

  7. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): A stochastic TMDSC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus, Yolanda; Fraga, Iria

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First evaluation of T g of tri-functional epoxy resin TGAP by DSC. ► Clearly shows advantages of TOPEM for isothermal and non-isothermal cure analysis. ► Evidence of highly non-linear enthalpy relaxation in partially cured TGAP system. - Abstract: The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures T c has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature T g as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by conventional DSC from a second (non-isothermal) scan, and the vitrification time t v is obtained as the time at which T g = T c . In parallel, TOPEM experiments at the same T c lead directly to the determination of t v from the sigmoidal change in the quasi-static heat capacity. It is not possible to identify the glass transition temperature of the fully cured system, T g∞ , in a third scan by conventional DSC. In contrast, with TOPEM a second (non-isothermal) scan at 2 K/min after the isothermal cure gives rise to three separate transitions: devitrification of the partially cured and vitrified material; almost immediate vitrification as the T g of the system again rises; finally another devitrification, at a temperature approximating closely to T g∞ . Thus with TOPEM it is possible to obtain a calorimetric measure of the glass transition temperature of this fully cured system.

  8. Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous phase by eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodbane, Ilhem; Nouri, Loubna; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Chiha, Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of eucalyptus bark as a low cost sorbent for removing cadmium ions from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch mode. The equilibrium data could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm but a worse fit was obtained by the Freundlich model. The five linearized forms of the Langmuir equation as well as the non-linear curve fitting analysis method were discussed. Results show that the non-linear method may be a better way to obtain the Langmuir parameters. Maximum cadmium uptake obtained at a temperature of 20 deg. C was 14.53 mg g -1 . The influence of temperature on the sorption isotherms of cadmium has been also studied. The monolayer sorption capacity increased from 14.53 to 16.47 when the temperature was raised from 20 to 50 deg. C. The ΔG o values were negative, which indicates that the sorption was spontaneous in nature. The effect of experimental parameters such as contact time, cadmium initial concentration, sorbent dose, temperature, solution initial pH, agitation speed, and ionic strength on the sorption kinetics of cadmium was investigated. Pseudo-second-order model was evaluated using the six linear forms as well as the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that sorption process is best described by the pseudo-second-order model using the non-linear method. The pseudo-second-order model parameters were function of the initial concentration, the sorbent dose, the solution pH, the agitation speed, the temperature, and the ionic strength

  9. Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tsair-Fuh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

  10. A study of sorption of pertechnetate anion on chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.; Rosskopfova, O.; Rajec, P.; Galambos, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the natural materials of biological origin. The sorption of pertechnetate anions from aqueous solutions on chitosan was studied in a batch system. This work was aimed to study influence of the contact time, effect of pH and effect of different ions on sorption of pertechnetate anions on chitosan. This sorbent was characterized by BET-surface area and potentiometric titration. The point of zero charge (pH pzc ) was at pH=7.15. The highest percentage of technetium sorption on chitosan was near pH 3. The adsorption capacity of chitosan decreased with increase in pH value above 3. In the initial pH range of 4-10, final pHs are the same. The selectivity of chitosan for these cations with concentration above 1·10 -3 mol·dm -3 was in the order Na + > Ca 2+ > Fe 3+ > Fe 2+ . The competition effect of (SO 4 ) 2- towards TcO 4 - sorption was stronger than the competition effect (ClO 4 ) - of ions. (authors)

  11. Computational Studies of CO 2 Sorption and Separation in an Ultramicroporous Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.; Pham, Tony; Hogan, Adam; McLaughlin, Keith; Tudor, Brant; Nugent, Patrick; Burd, Stephen D.; Mullen, Ashley; Cioce, Christian R.; Wojtas, Lukasz; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian

    2013-01-01

    . This MOM was recently shown to have an unprecedented selectivity for CO2 over N2, CH4, and H 2 under industrially relevant conditions. The simulated CO 2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement

  12. Computational Studies of CO 2 Sorption and Separation in an Ultramicroporous Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2013-08-29

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of CO2 sorption and separation were performed in [Zn(pyz)2SiF6], a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of a square grid of Zn2+ ions coordinated to pyrazine (pyz) linkers and pillars of SiF6 2- ions. This MOM was recently shown to have an unprecedented selectivity for CO2 over N2, CH4, and H 2 under industrially relevant conditions. The simulated CO 2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the experimental data for all the state points considered. CO2 saturation in [Zn(pyz) 2SiF6] was achieved at near-ambient temperatures and pressures lower than 1.0 atm. Moreover, the sorbed CO2 molecules were representative of a liquid/fluid under such conditions as confirmed through calculating the isothermal compressibility, βT, values. The simulated CO2 uptakes within CO2/N2 (10:90), CO2/CH4 (50:50), and CO2/H2 (30:70) mixture compositions, characteristic of flue gas, biogas, and syngas, respectively, were comparable to those that were produced in the single-component CO2 sorption simulations. The modeled structure at saturation revealed a loading of 1 CO2 molecule per unit cell. The favored CO2 sorption site was identified as the attraction of the carbon atoms of CO2 molecules to four equatorial fluorine atoms of SiF6 2- anions simultaneously, resulting in CO2 molecules localized at the center of the channel. Furthermore, experimental studies have shown that [Zn(pyz)2SiF6] sorbed minimal amounts of CO2 and N2 at their respective liquid temperatures. Analysis of the crystal structure at 100 K revealed that the unit cell undergoes a slight contraction in all dimensions and contains pyrazine rings that are mildly slanted with an angle of 13.9. Additionally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that the sorbate molecules are anchored to the framework at low temperatures, which inhibits diffusion. Thus, it is hypothesized that the sorbed molecules

  13. Application of simplified desorption method to sorption study. (2) Sorption of neptunium (V) on montmorillonite-based mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the sorption behaviors of radionuclides in multi-mineral systems and the mutual effects of minerals on the sorption, this paper carried out the sorption and desorption experiments of neptunium(V) on montmorillonite-based two-mineral mixtures. The Np sorbed on montmorillonite at pH from 4 to 8 was desorbed with 1M KCl solutions, indicating that the sorption was cation exchange. The Np sorbed on apatite and calcite was nondesorbable with 1M KCl solutions, which is in harmony with the knowledge that Np forms strong complexes with the phosphate groups of apatite and the carbonate groups of calcite. This study utilized these clear distinguishes of the desorption behaviors for examining the two-mineral systems. In montmorillonite-apatite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased and Np was accumulated on the apatite. In montmorillonite-calcite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased due to the interference by the calcium and carbonate ions dissolved from calcite while no accumulation of Np to calcite was observed. (author)

  14. A Study of Moisture Sorption and Dielectric Processes of Starch and Sodium Starch Glycolate : Theme: Formulation and Manufacturing of Solid Dosage Forms Guest Editors: Tony Zhou and Tonglei Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Huang, Rongying; Popov, Ivan; Feldman, Yuri; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the potential of combining the use of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric relaxation profiles of starch and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) to probe the location of moisture in dried and hydrated samples. Starch and SSG samples, dried and hydrated, were prepared. For hydrated samples, their moisture contents were determined. The samples were probed by dielectric spectroscopy using a frequency band of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz to investigate their moisture-related relaxation profiles. The moisture sorption and desorption isotherms of starch and SSG were generated using a vapor sorption analyzer, and modeled using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. A clear high frequency relaxation process was detected in both dried and hydrated starches, while for dried starch, an additional slower low frequency process was also detected. The high frequency relaxation processes in hydrated and dried starches were assigned to the coupled starch-hydrated water relaxation. The low frequency relaxation in dried starch was attributed to the local chain motions of the starch backbone. No relaxation process associated with water was detected in both hydrated and dried SSG within the frequency and temperature range used in this study. The moisture sorption isotherms of SSG suggest the presence of high energy free water, which could have masked the relaxation process of the bound water during dielectric measurements. The combined study of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric spectroscopy was shown to be beneficial and complementary in probing the effects of moisture on the relaxation processes of starch and SSG.

  15. Study on sorption capacity of synthetic zeolite for simulated nuclide Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Yi Facheng

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of understanding the functionary order of simulated nuclide Cs + and Synthetic Zeolite (ZF), the sorption equilibrium time and sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF are studied with the intermittence method. The difference of temperature, pH value, Cs + concentration and medium on sorption capacity and sorption ratio are investigated. The results show that the sorption complexion of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF in the same concentration solution are sorption equilibrium quantity in range of 155-190 mg/g in different temperatures and that in range of 165-190 mg/g in different pH values and that in range of 120-210 mg/g in different media; and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is the same to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, but their changing range are wider than that of sorption equilibrium quantity; equilibrium adsorption quantity in range of 180-380 mg/g in different concentration solutions, and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is opposite to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, and more-over, their changing range are wider than that of the sorption equilibrium quantity. Sorption equilibrium time of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF is about ten to fifteen days. So the changing range of sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF with conditions effects is smaller and the sorption equilibrium time is also less and ZF preferably absorbs Cs in radiation wastes and thus consumedly reduces the effect of radwaste on the environment. (authors)

  16. Study of the sorption properties of the peat for removal of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, S.S.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Hayrapetyan, L.S.; Bareghamyan, S.F.; Pirumyan, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    The processes of sorption of several heavy metals on peat samples taken from basin of lake Sevan (near Vardenis Gegharkunik region of Armenia) were investigated. The peat samples were taken from different locations from 1 m depth. The sorption processes have been done in the static mode. The peat samples were used without any modification, i.e. the sorption properties of natural raw peat were studied. The studies were conducted on the basis of synthetic solution containing ions of these following metals - Ni, Co, As, U, Ba. The sorption properties of peat were estimated by ICP-MS. Thus, peat can be a very effective sorption medium for removal of heavy metals from water. Most of them are absorbed in the first minutes of peat exposure to aqueous solution. For the sorption of barium, uranium, arsenic peat exhibits very high sorption efficiency. For comparison, their relative sorption values about 10 times more than those of cobalt, nickel and zinc.

  17. Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Rastogi, A.

    2008-01-01

    This communication presents results pertaining to the sorptive and desorptive studies carried out on chromium(VI) removal onto nonviable freshwater cyanobacterium (Nostoc muscorum) biomass. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of chromium(VI), such as the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of biosorbent, the contact time with the biosorbent, the temperature for the removal of chromium, the effect of light metal ions and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of chromium on to cyanobacterial species obeyed both the first and the second-order rate equation and the experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 22.92 mg/g at 25 o C and pH 3.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and the values of thermodynamic parameters of the process were calculated. Various properties of the cyanobacterium, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, surface area calculation by BET method and surface functionality by FTIR. Sorption-desorption of chromium into inorganic solutions and distilled water were observed and this indicated the biosorbent could be regenerated using 0.1 M HNO 3 and EDTA with upto 80% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cyanobacterial biomass N. muscorum could be used as an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of chromium(VI) bearing wastewater

  18. Kinetics, equilibrium data and modeling studies for the sorption of chromium by Prosopis juliflora bark carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the activated carbon was prepared from Prosopis juliflora bark as a novel adsorbent. Removal of chromium (Cr was assessed by varying the parameters like metal concentration, temperature, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time. The feasibility of the sorption was studied using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms including linear and non-linear regression methods. In Langmuir, various forms of linearized equations were evaluated. The isotherm parameter of dimensionless separation factor (RL was also studied. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by using Lagergren’s pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations and the results have shown that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second order kinetics and the adsorption process depends on both time and concentration. The mechanistic pathway of the adsorption process was evaluated with intraparticle diffusion model. The effect of heat of adsorption of the adsorbate onto the adsorbent material was determined using the thermodynamic parameters and the reusability of the adsorbent materials was ascertained with desorption studies. The adsorbent material characterization was done by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD method and morphology of the surface of adsorbent was identified with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM.

  19. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  20. Sorption study of system soil/water solution of CsCl using 137Cs as a radio-indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Krajnakova, M.; Lesny, J.; Matusek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Mobility of the radiocesium in natural environment is a function of all scale of variables, including the time. The important factor that influences on the mobility is quality and quantity of loamy minerals in soils. This paper represents a study of sorption characteristics of soils of the object No. 41, which is in the area of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP, for radiocesium, examined experimentally appointed adsorption isotherms according to Langmuir and Freundlich. The identical experiments with the montmorillonite K-10 were realized simultaneously for a comparison of the results. (authors)

  1. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  2. Sorption of Heterocyclic Organic Compounds to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Funck, Matin; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-01-16

    Sorption is an important natural and technical process. Sorption coefficients are typically determined in batch experiments, but this may be challenging for weakly sorbing compounds. An alternative method enabling analysis of those compounds is column chromatography. A column packed with the sorbent is used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. In this study, column chromatography was applied for the first time to study sorption of previously hardly investigated heterocyclic organic compounds to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sorption data for these compounds are very limited in literature, and weak sorption is expected from predictions. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model and data showed reasonable agreement with predicted values. Sorption was exothermic and physisorption was observed. H-bonding may contribute to overall sorption, which is supported by reduced sorption with increasing ionic strength due to blocking of functional groups. Lowering pH reduced sorption of ionizable compounds, due to electrostatic repulsion at pH 3 where sorbent as well as sorbates were positively charged. Overall, column chromatography was successfully used to study sorption of heterocyclic compounds to MWCNTs and could be applied for other carbon-based sorbents.

  3. Sorption and desorption studies of some radionuclides by soil samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ezz El-Din, M R; Abd El-Gawad, A S [Hot Laborities Center, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The different factors influencing the sorption/desorption of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 60} Co, {sup 241} Am and {sup (152+154)}Eu by soil samples of Inshas area were investigated. Mineralogical analysis of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil (X/m) increased as the carrier concentration [C] increased from (10{sup -9} to 10{sup -}1 mol) following a freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient [K d] of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being carried out to calculate different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. The mathematical model for the dispersion of the radioisotopes investigated in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Understanding the sorption behavior of Pu{sup 4+} on poly(amidoamine) dendrimer functionalized carbon nanotube. Sorption equilibrium, mechanism, kinetics, radiolytic stability, and back-extraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Parveen [Indian Institute of Technology, Himachal Pradesh (India); Sengupta, Arijit [Bahbha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Deb, Ashish Kumar Singha; Ali, S. Musharaf [Bahbha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Chemical Engineering Div.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Dasgupta, Kinshuk [Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India). Mechanical Metallurgy Div.

    2017-07-01

    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer functionalized carbon nanotube was demonstrated as highly efficient sorbent of the Pu{sup 4+} from radioactive waste solution. The second generation dendrimer was found to have more efficiency as compared to the 1{sup st} generation might be due to the availability of more functionality for coordinating to the Pu{sup 4+} ion. Analysis of different isotherm models revealed that, Langmuir isotherm was predominantly operating through chemi-sorption (with the sorption energy 10.07 and 16.95 kJ mol{sup -1} for 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer) with the sorption capacity 89.22 mg g{sup -1} and 92.48 mg g{sup -1} for 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer, respectively. Analysis of different sorption kinetics model revealed that the sorption proceeded via pseudo 2{sup nd} order reaction. The 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer was found to be radiolytically more stable while oxalic acid was found to be suitable for quantitative back extraction of Pu{sup 4+}.

  5. Experimental study of a laboratory concrete material representative of containment buildings: desorption isotherms and permeability determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Fevrier, B.; Delorme, J.; Sanahuja, J.; Desgree, P.; Le Pape, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The isotherm sorption curve is a first order parameter for the calculations of concrete drying and/or creep using Finite Element Analysis. An experimental campaign was undertaken by EDF MMC in order to characterize the first desorption isotherm at room temperature of a laboratory material representative of concrete containment buildings. Long term drying tests were carried out on cement paste and on three samples geometries on concrete (with radial and axial one-dimensional drying on thin disks and multi-dimensional drying on Representative Elementary Volumes). The measurements results (porosity, densities and mass loss curves) are provided and the isotherms obtained for the four different configurations are compared. Several analyses of the results are proposed including the assessment of a criterion for the determination of the moisture content final balance (estimation of the asymptotic mass loss) and the back-analysis of equivalent permeability. (authors)

  6. Radionuclide sorption kinetics and column sorption studies with Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and desorption reactions in basalt-groundwater systems were evaluated at 60 degrees C using a batch equilibration method. It was found that many sorption reactions on surfaces of fresh (unaltered) basalt from the Umtanum and Cohassett flows are slow. Some reactions require more than 50 days to reach a steady state. Sorption of neptunium and uranium in oxidizing (air saturated) groundwater appears to be controlled by slow reduction of these elements by the basalt surfaces. The resulting lower oxidation states are more strongly sorbed. Technetium and selenium, which are anionic under oxidizing conditions, are not measurably sorbed on fresh basalt surfaces, but are slightly sorbed on the altered surfaces of flow top basalt. Under reducing conditions, where the groundwater contains dilute hydrazine, sorption is faster for neptunium, uranium, technetium, selenium, and lead. Plutonium sorption rates were not affected by the groundwater Eh. It was shown that radium was precipitated rather than sorbed under the conditions of these experiments. Umtanum flow top material sorbed radionuclides much faster than fresh basalt surfaces due to its greater surface area and cation exchange capacity. Desorption rates for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, technetium, and selenium were generally much less than sorption rates (especially for reducing conditions). These radionuclides are irreversibly sorbed on the basalts. 25 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs

  7. Sorption properties of bentonite clays towards Pu(IV), U(VI), Np(V) and Cs: experimental and surface complexation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabodina, M.N. [Institute of Physical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, St.N.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A. [Radiochemistry div., Chemistry dept., Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, (Russian Federation); Gupalo, T.A.; Beigul, V.P. [VNIPI Promtechnology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Sorption of radionuclides, their diffusion in bentonite as well as its solubility are the major factors that define bentonite as a geochemical barrier. Sorption of cations by bentonite could be governed by two mechanisms including ion exchange with interlayer cations and formation of surface complexes with either silanol or aluminol groups. The aim of this work was to study mechanisms of {sup 137}Cs, Pu(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) sorption by bentonite and their solubility in bentonite pore waters. Bentonite (Khakassiya deposit) used in the experiments was taken in Na-form and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titration. The cation exchange capacities of bentonite at pH=6 were measured by isotopic exchange with {sup 22}Na{sup +} and Cs{sup +} saturation. Sorption experiments were performed in N{sub 2} atmosphere in plastic vials. Bentonite samples were left in the working solutions to swell for few days before sorption experiments were performed. After the desired concentration of radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Np, {sup 238}U) was added to the suspension, the required pH values are established and samples were left until the equilibrium was reached. Separation of solution after the sorption was performed using micro- and ultrafiltration techniques. The sorption of Pu(IV), U(VI) and Np(V) was highly pH dependent that indicates predominant surface complexation mechanism of sorption. For {sup 137}Cs the pH dependence of sorption was less pronounced and significant decrease of sorption occurs at pH<1.7 that indicate the ion exchange as the major mechanism. The equilibrium constant of Na{sup +}/Cs{sup +} exchange was calculated form sorption isotherms and pH dependence of sorption. It is established using micro- and ultra-filtrations, that sorption of radionuclides onto bentonite nano colloids is essential. Surface complexation modeling exercises

  8. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  9. Sorption study and contribution of ion exchange in the dynamics of 137Cs n highly weathered soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Sobrinho, Guilherme Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the sorption kinetics and the reversibility of 137 Cs within highly weathered soils, by means of sorption isotherms and desorption with three concentrations of silver thiourea (AgTU). For this purpose, four soils were selected based on their mineralogy and pedogenetics and sampled from lysimeters placed within the experimental area of the Tropical Radioecology Laboratory of the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry. Three of them were tropical soils, belonging to the Argissolo (ARG), Latossolo vermelho (LV) and Latossolo vermelho amarelo (LVA) classes, and one subtropical, belonging to the Nitossolo (NIT) class. The 'goodness-of-fit' of the constant partition, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to the experimental data were assessed by means of a 'traditional' approach, i.e. correlation (R) and determination (R 2 ) coefficients, and a 'theoretic-informative' one, based upon the Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc). In this work became clear that even presenting high affinity for the soil surface, once the sorption equilibrium was reached within 24 h (66 to 97% of sorbed 137 Cs), quite a lot of this radionuclide remains easily mobile (40 to 73% of desorbed 137 Cs), by means of a single extraction with AgTU 0,05 mol.L-1, and that such reversibility relates in an inverse manner to the sorption capacity of the studied soils for 137 Cs. This work pointed also that the constant partition model, mostly known as Kdi, does not fit at all for the sorption data gathered for four highly weathered soils from four mineralogical groups, and for a very dilute solution of 137 Cs. The mathematical model that most adequately described the sorption data for the four studied soils was the Langmuir equation (R 2 > 0,95). The multi model analysis was not able to support generalizations for the four soils. The three models considered in this study provided good predictions of the sorbed 137 Cs for the ARG, LVA and NIT samples (ΔAICc AICc = 0

  10. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay, E-mail: mandal_ajay@hotmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  11. Autoradiographic study of actinide sorption on climax stock granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Allard, B.

    1980-06-01

    An autoradiographic technique that employed an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of a specimen was applied to a study of the sorption of americium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium on Climax Stock granite under varying conditions of pH and Eh. Qualitative agreement was found between the sorption of americium on crushed, pure minerals and on the minerals comprising the specimen of Climax Stock granite. The observations also supported a mechanism for reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) by Fe(II)-containing minerals. There was no evidence for reduction of U(VI) by the Fe(II)-containing minerals, although the uranium, assumed to be present as UO 2 2+ , appeared to be the only actinide species to exhibit sorption by a simple, cation-exchange mechanism at particular mineral sites. Some implications of these results for nuclear waste isolation are discussed briefly

  12. Use of radiotracers for studies of metal sorption behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, D.; Leonard, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotracers provide a convenient tool to study the behaviour of metal ions and other contaminants in natural waters. Furthermore, the use of radiotracers in controlled laboratory experiments provides an ideal approach for investigating, in a systematic manner, the role of individual parameters on processes, at mass concentrations found in the environment. A simplistic procedure has been developed to produce a thorium radiotracer ( 234 Th), in a similar chemical form (non-acidic) to that of the aquatic medium under investigation, to determine the kinetics of sorption to marine particulate material. The benefit of this procedure is that the system is likely to be perturbed to a lesser extent by changes in pH and dissolved Th species following tracer addition. Results from filtering different tracer batches through membranes, to determine the sorption characteristics prior to use, indicate that the physico-chemical behaviour of individual batches was extremely variable. Not surprisingly, the amount of uptake immediately following tracer additions to solutions containing marine particulate material was also variable. It is suggested that the role of tracer may be underestimated if added in acid form. Nevertheless, having accounted for the initial sorption, the subsequent uptake between different batches was reasonably reproducible. The usefulness of radiotracers is discussed in the context of these observations

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of Co sorption in clay montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Montes, M. L.; Taylor, M. A.; Errico, L. A.; Alonso, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clays are 2:1 layered structures which in natural state may allocate different hydrated cations such as M-nH2O (M = Na, Ca, Fe, etc) in its interlayer space. Depending on the capability for ion sorption, these materials are interesting for environmental remediation. In this work we experimentally study the Co sorption in a natural Na-MMT using UV-visible spectrometry and XRD on semi-oriented samples, and then analyze the sorption ability of this clay by means of ab initio calculation performed on pristine MMT. The structural properties of Na-MMT and Co-adsorbed MMT, and the hyperfine parameters at different atomic sites were analyzed and compared with the experimental ones for the first, and for the case of the hyperfine parameters, presented for the first time for the last. The theoretical predictions based on total energy considerations confirm that Co incorporation replacing Na is energetically favorable. Also, the basal spacing d001 experimentally obtained is well reproduced.

  14. A study of selenium and tin sorption on granite and geothite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticknor, K.V.; McMurry, J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity analyses based on an illustrative performance assessment case study of a disposal concept for nuclear fuel waste have shown that radioisotopes of Se and Sn could have a significant effect on cumulative radioactive dose if they were to be transported through the geosphere without retardation. Static batch sorption methods, coupled with 2 n factorial experimental designs, were used to determine the extent to which Se and Sn can be sorbed by granite and goethite as a function of total dissolved solids concentration, [TDS], natural fulvic acid concentration as dissolved organic carbon, [DOC], pH and, for the studies with Se, the Se concentration, [Se]. Aqueous speciation and the saturation indices of solubility-controlling solid phases were estimated using the speciation code HARPHRQ with the HATCHES thermodynamic database. The experimental results indicated that Se sorption on granite was, low and not affected by changes in [DOC] or [TDS]. Increased [Se] and increased pH decreased sorption. For Se sorption on goethite, the pH range was narrow but indicated that sorption decreased as pH increased. Increased [TDS] and [Se] lowered sorption on goethite, but changes in [DOC] had no effect on sorption. For Sn, increased pH, [TDS] and [DOC] decreased sorption on granite. For Sn sorption on goethite, increased [DOC] resulted in decreased sorption, but differences in [TDS] and pH had little consistent effect on sorption. (orig.)

  15. A study of selenium and tin sorption on granite and goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticknor, K.V.; McMurry, J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity analyses based on an illustrative performance assessment case study of a disposal concept for nuclear fuel waste have shown that radioisotopes of Se and Sn could have a significant effect on cumulative radioactive dose if they were to be transported through the geosphere without retardation. Static batch sorption methods, coupled with 2 n factorial experimental designs, were used to determine the extent to which Se and Sn can be sorbed by granite and goethite as a function of total dissolved solids concentration, (TDS), natural fulvic acid concentration as dissolved organic carbon, [DOC], pH and, for the studies with Se, the Se concentration, [Se]. Aqueous speciation and the saturation indices of solubility-controlling solid phases were estimated using the speciation code HARPHRQ with the HATCHES thermodynamic database. The experimental results indicated that Se sorption on granite was low and not affected by changes in [DOC] or [TDS]. Increased [Se] and increased pH decreased sorption. For Se sorption on goethite, the pH range was narrow but indicated that sorption decreased as pH increased. Increased [TDS] and [Se] lowered sorption on goethite, but changes in (DOC] had no effect on sorption. For Sn, increased pH, [TDS] and [DOC] decreased sorption on granite. For Sn sorption on goethite, increased [DOC] resulted in decreased sorption, but differences in [TDS] and pH had little consistent effect on sorption. (author)

  16. Isotermas de sorção de tâmaras: determinação experimental e avaliação de modelos matemáticos Dates sorption isotherms: experimental determination and mathematics models evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica E.T. PRADO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As isotermas de sorção de tâmaras (Phoenix dactylifera L., da variedade Zahidi, foram determinadas para três temperaturas, 60, 70 e 80° C pelo método estático gravimétrico. As curvas experimentais foram ajustadas pelas equações de BET, BET linearizada, GAB, HALSEY, OSWIN e PELEG. O desvio relativo entre os valores experimentais e os valores estimados foi calculado para cada curva, a fim de se avaliar qual equação melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais.Dates sorption isotherms were determined by gravimetric at three differents temperatures (60, 70 and 80° C. Experimental data was adjusted to six sorption models de BET, linear BET, GAB, HALSEY, OSWIN and PELEG. The average relative deviations between calculated and experimental data were calculated do select best fit model.

  17. Experimental measurements and integrated modelling studies of actinide sorption onto cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Baston, G.M.N.

    2003-01-01

    An Integrated Cement Sorption Model (ICSM) for actinides onto Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is developed. The experimental measurements using the batch sorption technique for actinides onto cement and constituent minerals, which were considered in the modelling calculations, are also described. The actinide elements studied (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were strongly sorbed onto OPC. An initial comparison of the experimental data relating the sorption values of actinides onto cement-component phases with those onto OPC is carried out. The results suggest that the Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) phases were found to be the most likely candidates to be the dominant-sorbing phases in order to describe the sorption of a actinides onto OPC. An approach to develop the integrated cement sorption model, based on a thermodynamic surface complexation model, is described with discussions on the possible mineralogy and phase distribution of OPC. Another approach than sorption, assuming that co-precipitation on the surface of the cement phase dominates 'sorption', is proposed and discussed. A scoring system is introduced to assess the applicability of the proposed ICSMs. It is suggested that the thermodynamic sorption model is recommended for the sorption of ionic species and the surface co-precipitation model is recommended for the sorption of neutral species though the sorption model is still recommended to be used to model OPC-based systems. (author)

  18. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  19. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    les capacités d'adsorption ont été obtenues en équilibrant 3.0 g de chaque échantillon avec 30 ml de CaCl2 à 0.01. Molaire, ces ... kg-1 ; ils étaient alors classés sols à haut potentiel d'adsorption de P. les ions échangeables Al3+ et Fe2+ etaient positivement .... involves 3.0 g of air-dried sample of each soil, transferred in to ...

  20. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)); Erten, H. (Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry); Martens, R. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Bodenbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ({sup 125}I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R{sub d} < 1) was detected in clay minerals. Generally, higher R{sub d}-values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10{sup -5} mmol.ml{sup -1}. Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I{sup -} was found to be strongly preferred to Br{sup -}. Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O{sub 2}-concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.).

  1. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.; Erten, H.; Martens, R.

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ( 125 I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R d d -values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10 -5 mmol.ml -1 . Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I - was found to be strongly preferred to Br - . Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O 2 -concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl 2 ) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.)

  2. Investigating the gas sorption mechanism in an rht -metal-organic framework through computational studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2014-01-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate CO2 and H2 sorption in an rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) that was synthesized with a ligand having a nitrogen-rich trigonal core through trisubstituted triazine groups and amine functional groups. This MOF was synthesized by two different groups, each reporting their own distinct gas sorption measurements and crystal structure. Electronic structure calculations demonstrated that the small differences in the atomic positions between each group\\'s crystal structure resulted in different electrostatic parameters about the Cu2+ ions for the respective unit cells. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed with and without many-body polarization effects and using our recently developed CO2 potentials, in addition to a well-known bulk CO2 model, in both crystallographic unit cells. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the results reported previously by Eddaoudi et al. for both structures using the polarizable CO2 potential. For both crystal structures, the initial site for CO2 sorption were the Cu 2+ ions that had the higher positive charge in the unit cell, although the identity of this electropositive Cu2+ ion was different in each case. Simulations of H2 sorption were performed with three different hydrogen potentials of increasing anisotropy in both crystal structures and the results, especially with the highest fidelity model, agreed well with Eddaoudi et al.\\'s experimental data. The preferred site of H 2 sorption at low loading was between two Cu2+ ions of neighboring paddlewheels. The calculation of the normalized hydrogen dipole distribution for the polarizable model in both crystal structures aided in the identification of four distinct sorption sites in the MOF, which is consistent to what was observed in the experimental inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra. Lastly, while the

  3. Ellipsometry-based combination of isothermal sorption-desorption measurement and temperature programmed desorption technique: A probe for interaction of thin polymer films with solvent vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Mikhail Yu.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2018-05-01

    An environmental chamber equipped with an in situ spectroscopic ellipsometer, programmatic vapor pressure control, and variable temperature substrate holder has been designed for studying polymer coating behavior during an exposure to a solvent vapor and also for probing the residual solvent in the film afterwards. Both sorption-desorption cycle at a constant temperature and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the residual solvent manifest themselves as a change of the film thickness. Monitoring of ellipsometric angles of the coating allows us to determine the thickness as a function of the vapor pressure or sample temperature. The solvent vapor pressure is precisely regulated by a computer-controlled pneumatics. TPD spectra are recorded during heating of the film in an oil-free vacuum. The vapor pressure control system is described in detail. The system has been tested on 6-170 nm thick polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) films deposited on silicon substrates. Liquid toluene, water, ethanol, isopropanol, cyclohexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and chlorobenzene were used to create a vapor atmosphere. Typical sorption-desorption and TPD curves are shown. The instrument achieves sub-monolayer sensitivity for adsorption studies on flat surfaces. Polymer-solvent vapor systems with strong interaction demonstrate characteristic absorption-desorption hysteresis spanning from vacuum to the glass transition pressure. Features on the TPD curves can be classified as either glass transition related film contraction or low temperature broad contraction peak. Typical absorption-desorption and TPD dependencies recorded for the 6 nm thick polystyrene film demonstrate the possibility to apply the presented technique for probing size effects in extremely thin coatings.

  4. A study of sorption of cadmium by goethite in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salami

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation has been carried out on the potential of a locally sourced goethite for the removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solutions using batch equilibration technique. The maximum uptake of cadmium is 6.4  10-2 mg/g-goethite. The sorption kinetics appears to be rapid as equilibrium was attained within a period of 1 hour. The highest sorption capacity was obtained for particle size with diameter (Φ 0.09 mm. Both infrared spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques have also provided evidence for cadmium fixation on to the surface of the goethite. The sorption mechanism appears to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The Langmuir constants K and Xm (mass of Cd2+ required to form monolayer on the entire surface of the goethite were 0.096 mg/g-goethite and 0.075 mg/g-goethite, respectively.

  5. A Study of Some Parameters Affecting the Bio sorption of "1"3"7 Cs Radionuclide by Non Living Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Khadra, S.A.; Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.; Elrafie, M.; Killa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the bio sorption process of "1"3"7 Cs using three types of non living biomass namely; ( waste tea leaves, peanut shell and waste sugarcane bagasse) was investigated in a batch technique. The effect of some parameters e .g. heating, biomass weight, contact time, carrier concentration and solution ph on the bio sorption of "1"3"7Cs by the three chosen bio masses was studied. Heating the biomass samples to 250 degree C showed the highest uptake percentage of Cs. The uptake percentage increased as the biomass weight increased. Increasing the carrier concentration from 10-7-10-4 M/L, increased the bio sorbed amount of Cs (mg/g). Increasing the solution ph, from 3 to 9 showed an insignificant effect on the uptake percentage. The sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results of the present study suggest that these kinds of non living biomass can be used beneficially for cesium removal from aqueous solution

  6. Radionuclide sorption and migration studies of getters for backfill barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Bentonite and hectorite clay minerals were chosen for study and development as potential backfill materials for testing in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt. This choice of materials was based on initial screening results which are presented and on the predicted physical properties of these materials. These properties were verified experimentally in concentrated brines specific to the WIPP site. Distribution coefficients, K/sub d/, were calculated from batch sorption measurements on bentonite and hectorite in the nearly saturated brines A and B. The resulting K/sub d/ values were in the range of (1 to 5) x 10 3 ml/g for europium; (2 to 40) x 10 3 ml/g for plutonium(IV); and (4 to 16) x 10 3 ml/g for americium(III). A silica- and calcite-containing sand mixed with bentonite and hectorite acted as a sorber of americium(III) but was merely an inert diluent for plutonium(IV). Pertechnetate anions (TcO 4 - ) sorbed on activated charcoal with K/sub d/ values in the range of (0.2 to 0.4) x 10 3 ml/g. Pertechnetate, cesium, and strontium ions in brine were not sorbed appreciably by bentonite or hectorite. Although experimental evidence is given for a possible role of solubility in the sorption of europium on getters, other data presented here and evidence from the literature are inconsistent with a simple single reaction sorption mechanism. It is concluded that a backfill containing bentonite on hectorite and activated charcoal is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Eu(III), Pu(IV), and Am(III) cations and, with further development, to the migration of TcO 4 - anions as well

  7. Kinetic Study of Denatonium Sorption to Smectite Clay Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Garry S; Sandmann, Emily

    2013-06-01

    The denatonium cation, as a benzoate salt, is the most bitter cation known to modern society and is frequently added to consumer products to reduce accidental and intentional consumption by humans and animals. Denatonium can enter the environment by accidental discharges, potentially rendering water supplies undrinkable. Interactions of denatonium with soil components ( i.e. , smectite minerals) ultimately control the environmental fate of denatonium, but the current literature is devoid of studies that evaluate denatonium sorption to smectite minerals. This study investigated the mechanism and kinetics of denatonium sorption to smectite clay minerals as a function of smectite type, temperature, pH and ionic strength. Uptake by synthetic mica montmorillonite (Syn-1), Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2), and Texas montmorillonite (STx-1b) at 305K was rapid, with equilibrium being reached within 2 min for all clays. Complete removal of denatonium was observed for STx-1b at pH 6.9, while partial removal was observed for Syn-1 and SWy-2. Kinetic behavior of SWy-2 and Syn-1 is consistent with a pseudo-second-order model at 305K. An activation energy of +25.9 kJ/mol was obtained for sorption to Syn-1 and was independent of temperature between 286K and 338K. Activation-free energy (Δ G *), activation enthalpy (Δ H *), and activation entropy (Δ S *) for Syn-1 were found to be +62.91 kJ/mol, +23.36 kJ/mol, and -0.130 kJ/(K·mol), respectively. Sorption capacities at pH 3.6, 6.9, and 8.2 were constant at 1.3×10 -2 g denatonium/g clay; however, the kinetic rate constant increased by 56%, going from acidic to basic solution conditions. Distribution coefficients were negatively correlated with ionic strength, suggesting cation exchange. Collectively, results suggested that smectite minerals can serve as efficient sinks for denatonium cations. This is much-needed information for agencies developing regulations regarding denatonium usage and for water treatment professionals

  8. Chlorpyrifos sorption studies on two soils from the VI Region, using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll S, Oscar; Potenza M, Dennisse; Nario M, Adriana; Luzio L, Walter; Pino N, Ines; Parada C, Ana Maria; Carrasco R, M.Adriana

    2005-01-01

    The soil sorption of a pesticide, is one of the main factor that affects its mobility in a soil profile and the potential groundwater contamination. The chlorpyrifos insecticide (CLP) is used to control a wide range of insects, and represents the 41% of the total amount of traded pesticides in the VI Region of Chile. Thus, to study the CLP behaviour and its potential leaching, sorption studies were carried out on two soil surface horizons, Serie O'Higgins (S1) and Serie Rancagua (S2), Fluventic Haploxerolls Family, located at the VI Region of Chile. Different 14 C-CLP concentrations of a CaCl 2 0,01 M solution were added to soil samples. The equilibrium time was 24 h and 6 h for S1 and S2 respectively. The datas were adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm, where the distribution coefficient K d were 32.4 mL g -1 and 67.25 mL g -1 for S1 and S2. The normalized K d at 100% of the organic carbon (K CO ) of the soil were 1140 mL g -1 and 2690 mL g-1 for S1 and S2, respectively. For the non polar character of the CLP and its affinity with the organic matter, both soils presented a low potential to contaminate the groundwater. This information was complemented with CLP biodegradation and half life studies to characterize the product under establish parameters. This study is part of a joint project between SAG, CCHEN, INIA and UCH, focused on national programs on SAG's pesticide management, and the Technical Cooperation Program of the IAEA. Besides, the study rely on the support of the national company ANASAC (AN)

  9. Water vapor sorption thermodynamics of the Nafion ionomer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsö, Lars; Jannasch, Patric

    2013-07-18

    The water interactions of polymer electrolyte membranes are of significant interest when these materials are used in, for example, fuel cells. We have therefore studied the sorption thermodynamics of Nafion with a sorption calorimeter that simultaneously measures the sorption isotherm and the mixing (sorption) enthalpy. This unique method is suitable for investigating the sorption thermodynamics of ionic polymers. The measurements were made at 25 °C on a series of samples dried at different temperatures from 25 to 120 °C. The sorption isotherms indicate that the samples dried at 120 °C lost about 0.8 more water molecules per sulfonic group during the drying than did the samples dried at 25 °C, and this result was verified gravimetrically. The mixing enthalpies showed several peaks or plateaus for the samples dried at 60-120 °C. This behavior was seen up to about 2 water molecules per sulfonic group. As these peaks were not directly related to any feature in the sorption isotherm, they probably have their origin in a secondary process, such as a reorganization of the polymer.

  10. Sorption of phosphates and thiocyanates on isomorphic substituted Mg/Zn–Al-type hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA PODE

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The sorption equilibriums of phosphate and thiocyanate anions on isomorphic substituted Mg/Zn–Al-type hydrotalcites were investigated in this study. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to interpret the equilibrium data for phosphate. The sorption equilibriums of phosphate on Mg3Al, Mg2ZnAl and Mg1.5Zn1.5Al hydrotalcites were well described by the Langmuir isotherm. The highest maximum sorption capacities for these adsorbents were as follows: 111, 101 and 95 mg g-1. The equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy changes were also calculated from the sorption data. Standard Gibbs energy changes of about –20 kJ mol-1 indicated that the process might be considered as physical adsorption. The sorption equilibriums of phosphate on isomorphic substituted samples of MgZn2Al and Zn3Al were well described by the Freundlich isotherm. Thiocyanate showed a relative low affinity for the studied materials, as indicated by both the “S”-shaped isotherms and low sorption capacities. The sorption of phosphate and thiocyanate on the investigated hydrotalcites showed a continuous decrease of the sorption capacity in the following order: Mg3Al > Mg2ZnAl > Mg1.5Zn1.5Al > MgZn2Al > Zn3Al.

  11. Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Rastogi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2008-06-15

    This communication presents results pertaining to the sorptive and desorptive studies carried out on chromium(VI) removal onto nonviable freshwater cyanobacterium (Nostoc muscorum) biomass. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of chromium(VI), such as the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of biosorbent, the contact time with the biosorbent, the temperature for the removal of chromium, the effect of light metal ions and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of chromium on to cyanobacterial species obeyed both the first and the second-order rate equation and the experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 22.92 mg/g at 25 {sup o}C and pH 3.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and the values of thermodynamic parameters of the process were calculated. Various properties of the cyanobacterium, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, surface area calculation by BET method and surface functionality by FTIR. Sorption-desorption of chromium into inorganic solutions and distilled water were observed and this indicated the biosorbent could be regenerated using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and EDTA with upto 80% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cyanobacterial biomass N. muscorum could be used as an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of chromium(VI) bearing wastewater.

  12. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  13. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  14. A numerical study of non-isothermal turbulent coaxial jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges le; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille (France)

    2008-07-15

    In this work, we propose to study non isothermal air-air coaxial jets with two different approaches: parabolic and elliptic approaches. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the equations governing this flow type was carried out for: the parabolic approach, by a ''home-made'' CFD code based on a finite difference method, and the elliptic approach by an industrial code (FLUENT) based on a finite volume method. In forced convection mode (Fr={infinity}), the two turbulence models are valid for the prediction of the mean flow. But for turbulent sizes, k-{epsilon} model gives results closer to those achieved in experiments compared to RSM Model. Concerning the limit of validity of the parabolic and elliptic approaches, we showed that for velocities ratio r lower than 1, the results of the two approaches were satisfactory. On the other hand, for r>1, the difference between the results became increasingly significant. In mixed convection mode (Fr{approx_equal}20), the results obtained by the two turbulence models for the mean axial velocity were very different even in the plume region. For the temperature and the turbulent sizes the two models give satisfactory results which agree well with the correlations suggested by the experimenters for X{>=}20. Thus, the second order model with {sigma}{sub t}=0.85 is more effective for a coaxial jet study in a mixed convection mode. (orig.)

  15. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  16. Sorption of metaldehyde using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salvestrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of granular activated carbon (GAC to sorb metaldehyde was evaluated. The kinetic data could be described by an intra-particle diffusion model, which indicated that the porosity of the sorbent strongly influenced the rate of sorption. The analysis of the equilibrium sorption data revealed that ionic strength and temperature did not play any significant role in the metaldehyde uptake. The sorption isotherms were successfully predicted by the Freundlich model. The GAC used in this paper exhibited a higher affinity and sorption capacity for metaldehyde with respect to other GACs studied in previous works, probably as a result of its higher specific surface area and high point of zero charge.

  17. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagapati, Venkata Subbaiah; Kim, Dong-Su

    2017-07-01

    The present study is concerned with the batch adsorption of congo red (CR) from an aqueous solution using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite (CABI nano-goethite) as an adsorbent. The optimum conditions for CR removal were determined by studying operational variables viz. pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye ion concentration and temperature. The CABI nano-goethite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The CR sorption data onto CABI nano-goethite were described using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (181.1mg/g) of CR was occurred at pH 3.0. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of regenerating the adsorbent and the adsorbed CR from CABI nano-goethite. The best desorbing agent was 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 94% recovery. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° for the CR adsorption were determined by using adsorption capacities at five different temperatures (293, 303, 313, 323 and 303K). Results show that the adsorption process was endothermic and favoured at high temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sorption mechanisms and sorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.; Lefevre, G.; Duc, M.; Neskovic, C.; Milonjic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption at the solid-liquid interfaces play a major role in many phenomena and technologies: chemical separations, catalysis, biological processes, transport of toxic and radioactive species in surface and underground waters. The long term safety of radioactive waste repositories is based on artificial and natural barriers, intended to sorb radionuclides after the moment when the storage matrixes and containers will be corroded. Predictions on the efficiency of sorption for more than 10 6 years have to be done in order to demonstrate the safety of such depositories, what is a goal never encountered in the history of sciences and technology. For all these purposes, and, especially for the long term prediction, acquiring of sorption data constitutes only a first step of studies. Modeling based on a very good knowledge of sorption mechanisms is needed. In this review, we shall examine the main approaches and models used to quantify sorption processes, including results taken from the literature and from our own studies. We shall compare sorption models and examine their adequacy with sorption mechanisms. The cited references are only a few examples of the numerous articles published in that field. (orig.)

  19. Possible use of tannin resins belonging to the luztan family in the Cd (II) sorption of watery sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchor, K.; Lima, L.; Luzardo, F. M.; Vargas, L. M.; Santana, J. L.; E.mail: keniamr@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2003-01-01

    There are studied the optimum sorption conditions of the Cd (II) in five different natural sorbent variants obtained from the tannin immobilization and re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Ecualiptus saligna and Pinus caribea for being used to remove this metal from waste water. It was determined the sorption balance time of the Cd (II) in every sorbent, as well as, the corresponding sorption isotherms. The breakdown curves were obtained under dynamic conditions for the absorbents, that experienced a higher sorption for the Cd (II), from these curves, it was obtained the dynamic sorption capacity of them for the Cd (II)

  20. Study of sorption of platinum metals, gold and silver by phosphonium hydroxide antonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaybergenov, U.; Tajibaev, D.; Yuldasheva, K.T.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study and to use a phosphonium hydroxide anionite for concentrating of trace amounts of platinum metals, gold and silver from the mixed solutions composed of copper, nickel, cobalt, iron and zinc. The experiments were done using radionuclides of determined and interfered elements. Conditions for sorption concentrating of the noble metals by phosphonium hydroxide were determined by the selectivity of the phosphonium hydroxide to the noble metals from acid solutions. A noble metal sorption degree was observed from the experiments to be rather high at the acid concentration level of 0.1-0.5 M. At higher than 0.5 M acid concentration sorption activity decreased. With increase of chlorine acid-concentration sorption of palladium was observed to considerably decrease, while iridium sorption was increased. The latter fact can be caused by lowering of hydration of iridium ions. A considerable decrease of capability of the noble metal sorption from nitric acid solutions was observed. It is possible that HNO 3 anions are strongly bound with the anionite functional group. Thus, nitric acid reduces sorption of the noble metals in the following order: Ir>Ru>Pd>Pt>Os, and it does not have effect on the sorption activity of Au and Ag. Increase of H 2 SO 4 concentration in the solution has slightly reduced noble metal sorption activity. Copper, nickel, iron and other metals accompanying the noble metals, at concentration ratio of 1:1000 have resulted in decrease of sorption activity of the noble metals, although sorption of iridium was increased in the presence of copper, silver and nickel. We suggest that copper, silver and nickel have formed the complex functional compounds, which can probably undergo an anion exchange

  1. Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.; Venkataramani, B.

    1988-01-01

    Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), magnetite (MAG), and hydrous thorium oxide (HThO) has been studied as a function of pH. Hydrous oxides have been characterized by their pH-titration curves, intrinsic dissociation constants (pK ai * ) and point of zero charge (pH pzc ). The fraction of protonated surface hydroxyl groups as well as the surface pH (pH surf ) as a function of solution pH have been computed. The distribution of various hydrolyzed species of uranyl ions with solution pH have been compared with uranyl sorption isotherm on these oxides. Sorption edge in all the cases occurs when free hydroxyl groups are available on the surface and pH surf is sufficiently high to favor the formation of dimer-like species on the surface. A new model for the sorption process, called surface hydrolysis model, which explains these and other features of uranyl sorption on hydrous oxides has been proposed. The model visualizes the sorption process as linking of uranyl ions with two adjacent free surface hydroxyl groups without deprotonation (provided the surface pH is high for the hydrolysis of uranyl ions) and formation of dimer-like structures on the surface. The new model has been successfully applied to the present and other available data on uranyl ion sorption on hydrous oxides. (author)

  2. Copper foliar sorption: study of cuticular uptake and penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, Andre; Bougie, Bernadette

    1977-01-01

    Results show that copper is easily retained by enzymatically isolated cuticles from pear leaves discs. The sorption is very rapid during the first hour, then progressively slower with increasing time. Upper and lower cuticles exhibit the same sorption when immersed, but the sorption by the upper internal surface is greater than that by the external surface. Sorption depends on the dates of sampling of the leaves and vegetal species. The variation of the process with concentrations is hyperbolic. The retained copper may be partially exchanged: from 16 to 95% after 24 hours of exchange in a cupric solution, as the Cu concentration increases from 10 -6 to 10 -2 M. The penetration of copper through astomatous cuticular discs is extremely reduced if there is pure water in the receiver unit [fr

  3. PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L. [Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Diah2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried grain was longer than the powder. When stored at 90 % RH, the dried grain black pepper packaged in HDPE demonstrated the longest shelf life which was equal to 2187 days and for the powder equal to 2037 days. The volatile oil loss for dried grain black pepper after 30 days of preservation was 1.36 % and for the powder was 40.82%.

  4. Computer simulation of molecular sorption in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmiano, Mark Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis encompasses the computer simulation of molecular sorption. In Chapter 1 we outline the aims and objectives of this work. Chapter 2 follows in which an introduction to sorption in zeolites is presented, with discussion of structure and properties of the main zeolites studied. Chapter 2 concludes with a description of the principles and theories of adsorption. In Chapter 3 we describe the methodology behind the work carried out in this thesis. In Chapter 4 we present our first computational study, that of the sorption of krypton in silicalite. We describe work carried out to investigate low energy sorption sites of krypton in silicalite where we observe krypton to preferentially sorb into straight and sinusoidal channels over channel intersections. We simulate single step type I adsorption isotherms and use molecular dynamics to study the diffusion of krypton and obtain division coefficients and the activation energy. We compare our results to previous experimental and computational studies where we show our work to be in good agreement. In Chapter 5 we present a systematic study of the sorption of oxygen and nitrogen in five lithium substituted zeolites using a transferable interatomic potential that we have developed from ab initio calculations. We show increased loading of nitrogen compared to oxygen in all five zeolites studied as expected and simulate adsorption isotherms, which we compare to experimental and simulated data in the literature. In Chapter 6 we present work on the sorption of ferrocene in the zeolite NaY. We show that a simulated, low energy sorption site for ferrocene is correctly located by comparing to X-ray powder diffraction results for this same system. The thesis concludes with some overall conclusions and discussion of opportunities for future work. (author)

  5. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  6. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study

  7. Sorption behaviour of uranium and thorium on cryptomelane-type hydrous manganese dioxide from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; El-Absy, M.A.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous nitrate solutions on cryptomelane-type hydrous manganese dioxide (CRYMO) was studied. The exchange of uranium is particle diffusion controlled while that of thorium is chemical reaction at the exchange sites. Sorption of uranium and thorium by CRYMO has been also studied as a function of metal concentrations and temperature. The sorption of both cations is found to be an endothermic process and increases markedly with temperature between 30 and 60 degree C. The sorption results have been analysed by the langmuir adsorption isotherm over the entire range of uranium and thorium concentrations investigated. 35 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Calorimetric Studies and Structural Aspects of Ionic Liquids in Designing Sorption Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünig, Thorge; Krekić, Kristijan; Bruhn, Clemens; Pietschnig, Rudolf

    2016-11-02

    The thermal properties of a series of twenty-four ionic liquids (ILs) have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with the aim of simulating processes involving water sorption. For eleven water-free ILs, the molecular structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography in the solid state, which have been used to derive the molecular volumes of the ionic components of the ILs. Moreover, the structures reveal a high prevalence of hydrogen bonding in these compounds. A relationship between the molecular volumes and the experimentally determined energies of dilution could be established. The highest energies of dilution observed in this series were obtained for the acetate-based ILs, which underlines their potential as working fluids in sorption-based thermal energy storage systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  10. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by 1 H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructural evolution during isothermal aging and strain-induced transformation followed by isothermal aging in Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, H.R.; Zangeneh, Sh.; Hasanabadi, F.; Saghafi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of isothermal aging (at 850 deg. C for 4, 8, 16 and 24 h) and strain-induced transformation (engineering strains of 10% and 20%) followed by isothermal aging (at 850 deg. C for 4, 8 and 16 h) on the microstructural evolution of a Co-28Cr-5Mo-0.3C alloy. The obtained results showed that isothermal aging at 850 deg. C resulted in the formation of lamellar-type carbides at the grain boundaries. Moreover, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that isothermal aging of solution treated specimens at 850 deg. C for 24 h did not lead to complete fcc phase transformation to hcp one. In contrast with the isothermally aged specimens, applying plastic deformation to the solutionized samples accelerated the completion and saturation of fcc(metastable) → hcp transformation after 8 h aging at 850 deg. C. In addition, the X-ray diffraction results indicated that implementing isothermal aging of the strain-induced specimens at the higher aging time (16 h) caused the formation of (1 1 1) fcc and (2 0 0) fcc diffraction peaks again. Also, the strain-induced specimens followed by isothermal aging showed higher amount of microhardness as compared with the other specimens aged solely.

  12. Effects of nitrate, fulvate, phosphate, phthalate, salicylate and catechol on the sorption of uranyl onto SiO2. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Wen Chuanxi; Tao Zuyi; Wu Wangsuo

    2011-01-01

    We have performed a large number of batch sorption experiments of uranyl onto SiO 2 and examined the effects of nitrate or ionic strength, phosphate, fulvic acid(FA), phthalic acid (PH), salicylic acid (SA), and catechol (CA) on the uranyl sorption onto SiO 2 . Three sorption edges and three sorption isotherms at ionic strengths 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mol/L KNO 3 were used to investigate the effect of ionic strength or nitrate on the sorption and the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models are used to simulate the sorption isotherms, respectively. Five sorption edges in the presence of phosphate, FA, PH, SA, and CA were compared with that in the absence of complexing ligand. The results suggest that the effect of complexation of uranyl with nitrate on the uranyl sorption can be negligible and the sorption can be described Freundlich and D-R model very well. The positive effect of phosphate on the uranyl sorption was found, though the extent of effect was decreased with increasing pH. The positive effect and the negative effect of FA on the uranyl sorption were found at low pH and high pH ranges, respectively. The sorption edge of uranyl sorption remained unaffected in the presence of PH in the pH 2-10. In the presence of SA, the no effect and the negative effect on the uranyl sorption were, respectively, found at low pH and high pH ranges. The negative effect of CA on the uranyl sorption was found in the pH 2-10. (author)

  13. Water Sorption and Gamma Radiolysis Studies for Uranium Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2002-02-27

    During the development of a standard for the safe, long-term storage of {sup 233}U-containing materials, several areas were identified that needed additional experimental studies. These studies were related to the perceived potential for the radiolytic generation of large pressures or explosive concentrations of gases in storage containers. This report documents the results of studies on the sorption of water by various uranium oxides and on the gamma radiolysis of uranium oxides containing various amounts of sorbed moisture. In all of the experiments, {sup 238}U was used as a surrogate for the {sup 233}U. For the water sorption experiments, uranium oxide samples were prepared and exposed to known levels of humidity to establish the water uptake rate. Subsequently, the amount of water removed was studied by heating samples in a oven at fixed temperatures and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was demonstrated that heating at 650 C adequately removes all moisture from the samples. Uranium-238 oxides were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source and in the high-gamma-radiation fields provided by spent nuclear fuel elements of the High Flux Isotope Reactor. For hydrated samples of UO{sub 3}, H{sub 2} was the primary gas produced; but the total gas pressure increase reached steady value of about 10 psi. This production appears to be a function of the dose and the amount of water present. Oxygen in the hydrated UO{sub 3} sample atmosphere was typically depleted, and no significant pressure rise was observed. Heat treatment of the UO{sub 3} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O at 650 C would result in conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and eliminate the H{sub 2} production. For all of the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples loaded in air and irradiated with gamma radiation, a pressure decrease was seen and little, if any, H{sub 2} was produced--even for samples with up to 9 wt % moisture content. Hence, these results demonstrated that the efforts to remove trace

  14. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R"2 > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T_B = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  15. Effect of pH and ionic strength on sorption of Eu(III) to MX-80 bentonite: batch and XAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, G.D.; Wang, X.K. [School of Nuclear Science and Engincering, North China Electric Power Univ., BJ (China); Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Inst. of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Shao, D.D.; Fan, Q.H.; Xu, D. [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Inst. of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Chen, Y.X. [School of Nuclear Science and Engincering, North China Electric Power Univ., BJ (China)

    2009-07-01

    Sorption of radionuclides on MX-80 bentonite has been studied extensively because of its high sorption capacity and low penetrability. Herein, MX-80 bentonite was characterized by acid-base titration, XRD and FTIR in detail. The sorption of Eu(III) from aqueous solution to MX-80 bentonite was investigated as a function of contact time, solid content, ionic strength and pH under N{sub 2} conditions. The experimental data was performed with the diffuse layer model (DLM) with the aid of FITEQL 3.1 code. The site densities are 2.52 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for [{identical_to}XOH] and 1.54 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for [{identical_to}YOH], and acidity constants as pK{sub a} are pK{sub XO} = 6.772, pK{sub YOH{sub 2}{sup +}} = -1.68. and pK{sub YO} = 4.145. The sorption of Eu(III) on MX-80 bentonite consists of {identical_to}YOEu{sup 2+} species at low pH values and {identical_to}XOEu(OH){sup 2+} species at high pH values. The sorption isotherms were simulated by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubini-Radushkevich (D-R) models, respectively, and the results indicated that Langmuir model fitted the sorption data better than the Langmuir and D-R models. XAFS technique was applied to characterize the local structural environment of the adsorbed Eu(III), and the results indicated that Eu(III) was bond to O atoms at a distance of about 2.43 A as {identical_to}Y/XO-Eu{sup 2+} at low pH values. (orig.)

  16. Study of the sorption of actinide analogues on calcite and smectite as a model to predict the evolution of radioactive waste disposal in geological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the problem of the radioactive waste disposal in deep geological sites, the purpose of this study is to predict the sorption of radionuclides on minerals within the geological barrier, after the rupture of the containers and the release of the radionuclides into underground water. Neodymium labelled by 147 Nd was used as an analogue of trivalent actinides. Calcite and smectite were used as examples of altered minerals of granitic sites. In simple media, neodymium is retained with a high affinity on both minerals. Fast kinetics of fixation, high distribution coefficients and sorption capacities are favorable factors for the slowing down of radionuclide migration in underground water. Fixation on calcite is quasi irreversible. A second kinetic step was observed, leading to an increase of the retention capacity. In the first step, this is probably a superficial sorption, but with a non-homogeneous affinity for sorption sites. An exchange mechanism of Nd 3+ with Na + et Ca 2+ ions of smectite occurs. The Freundlich isotherm observed for both minerals can be used for predicting the retention of radioelements as a function of their concentration and introducing these data in a migration model after comparison with the results of dynamic and field experiments. (author) [fr

  17. Sorption of fluoride using chemically modified Moringa oleifera leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Shabnam; Chattree, Amit

    2018-05-01

    Contamination of drinking water due to fluoride is a severe health hazard problem. Excess of fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) in drinking water is harmful to human health. Various treatment technologies for removing fluoride from groundwater have been investigated. The present study showed that the leaves of Moringa oleifera, a herbal plant is an effective adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Acid treated Moringa oleifera leaves powder showed good adsorption capacity than alkali treated Moringa oleifera leaves powder. Batch sorptive defluoridation was conducted under the variable experimental condition such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial fluoride ion concentration. Maximum defluoridation was achieved at pH 1. The percentage of fluoride removal increases with adsorbent dose. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Of the three adsorption isotherms, the R 2 value of Langmuir isotherm model was the highest. The maximum monolayer coverage ( Q max) from Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be 1.1441 mg/g, the separation factor indicating a favorable sorption experiment is 0.035. It was also discovered that the adsorption did not conform to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The heat of sorption process was estimated from Temkin Isotherm model to be - 0.042 J/mol which vividly proved that the adsorption experiment followed a physical process.

  18. Studies on regularities of metal ion sorption from seawater by clinoptilolytes of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamizov, R.Kh.; Butenko, T.Yu.; Bronov, L.V.; Skovyra, V.V.; Novikova, V.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok

    1988-01-01

    The regularities of metal ion sorption from sea water by different clinoptilolyte (CP) samples are studied with the purpose of choosing the most prospective sorbents to extract strontium and rubidium. It is shown that the internal diffusion is the sorption rate determining stage. The dependence of effective coefficients of internal diffusion on the exchange level is determined. The distribution coefficients and those of single metal ion separation are determined, the series of sorption selectivity are determined. All CP studied can be used for initial Rb concentration from sea water, and to extract strontium it is advisable to use zeolites of Dzegvi and Tedzami deposits

  19. Experimental study and modelling of selenite sorption onto illite and smectite clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, T; Alonso, U; García-Gutiérrez, M

    2009-06-15

    This study provides a large set of experimental selenite sorption data for pure smectite and illite. Similar sorption behavior existed in both clays: linear within a large range of the Se concentrations investigated (from 1x10(-10) to 1x10(-3) M); and independent of ionic strength. Selenite sorption was also analysed in the illite/smectite system with the clays mixed in two different proportions, as follows: (a) 30% illite-70% smectite and (b) 43% illite-57% smectite. The objective of the study was to provide the simplest model possible to fit the experimental data, a model also capable of describing selenite sorption in binary illite/smectite clay systems. Selenite sorption data, separately obtained in the single mineral systems, were modeled using both a one- and a two-site non-electrostatic model that took into account the formation of two complexes at the edge sites of the clay. Although the use of a two-site model slightly improved the fit of data at a pH below 4, the simpler one-site model reproduced satisfactorily all the sorption data from pH 3 to 8. The complexation constants obtained by fitting sorption data of the individual minerals were incorporated into a model to predict the adsorption of selenium in the illite/smectite mixtures; the model's predictions were consistent with the experimental adsorption data.

  20. Identification of TCE and PCE sorption and biodegradation parameters in a sandy aquifer for fate and transport modelling: batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, E; Kiecak, A; Malina, G; Nijenhuis, I; Postawa, A

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the sorption and biodegradation parameters of trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) as input data required for their fate and transport modelling in a Quaternary sandy aquifer. Sorption was determined based on batch and column experiments, while biodegradation was investigated using the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). The aquifer materials medium (soil 1) to fine (soil 2) sands and groundwater samples came from the representative profile of the contaminated site (south-east Poland). The sorption isotherms were approximately linear (TCE, soil 1, K d = 0.0016; PCE, soil 1, K d = 0.0051; PCE, soil 2, K d = 0.0069) except for one case in which the best fitting was for the Langmuir isotherm (TCE, soil 2, K f = 0.6493 and S max = 0.0145). The results indicate low retardation coefficients (R) of TCE and PCE; however, somewhat lower values were obtained in batch compared to column experiments. In the column experiments with the presence of both contaminants, TCE influenced sorption of PCE, so that the R values for both compounds were almost two times higher. Non-significant differences in isotope compositions of TCE and PCE measured in the observation points (δ(13)C values within the range of -23.6 ÷ -24.3‰ and -26.3 ÷-27.7‰, respectively) indicate that biodegradation apparently is not an important process contributing to the natural attenuation of these contaminants in the studied sandy aquifer.

  1. RBS and RNRA studies on sorption of europium by apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Isobe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murakami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Aoki, Yasushi; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    The sorption mechanism of europium, alternative of trivalent TRU has been studied based on the depth profiles of elements obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA). The positive peak for Eu and the negative peak for Ca were observed in the subtracted RBS spectra of the apatites on which Eu was sorbed from that of the fresh apatite. This indicates that Eu was sorbed on apatite, while a fraction of Ca was released from apatite. The peak height for Eu in the RBS spectrum of the apatite obtained at 75degC was higher than that of the apatite at 40degC. The depth profile of hydrogen of the apatite on which Eu was sorbed was similar to that of the fresh apatite. The concentration of Eu in the solution decreased with increasing temperature. On the contrary, the concentration of Ca increased with increasing temperature. Thus, it is concluded that a fraction of Eu is exchanged for Ca in the structure of apatite. (author)

  2. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study in a soil column from a headwater catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, M.; Sněhota, M.; Budínová, E.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 234-243 ISSN 0042-790X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03691S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : isothermal infiltration * non-isothermal infiltration * column leaching * breakthrough curve * deuterium * viscosity * capillary trapping * entrapped air * permeability Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  3. Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics in Aluminum-based Water Treatment Residuals Reacted with Dairy Wastewater: 1. Isotherms, XRD, and SEM-EDS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Iris; Massey, Michael S; Ippolito, James A; Litaor, M Iggy

    2018-05-01

    We examined P sorption characteristics in Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) generated from slightly alkaline surface water and in an organic residual composite (WW-Al/O-WTR), produced by using the Al-WTR to treat organic-rich and high P concentration dairy wastewater. Solids from both residuals were examined using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and exposed to P additions of 0 to 4000 mg L in a sorption experiment. The Al-WTR removed ∼97% of the added P, whereas WW-Al/O-WTR removed only 78% of the added P in the addition range of 0 to 100 mg P L. With P additions of ≥100 mg L, the removal rate declined to XRD indicated that the major mineral was calcite, with some silica and poorly crystalline Al hydroxides. Analysis by SEM-EDS, which used three-element overlay maps of the residual surfaces, indicated that P was sparsely sorbed on both calcic and Al (hydr)oxide surfaces, along with a few clusters, even at low P concentrations of the treated waters. Ternary clusters of P, Al, and Ca were more abundant on the WW-Al/O-WTR. Carbon distribution suggested that organic substances covered Al surfaces. Sorption of P onto WW-Al/O-WTR may be reversible due to relatively weak Ca-P and Al-P bonds induced by the slight alkaline nature and in the presence of organic moieties, enhancing the WW-Al/O-WTR potential to act as a P source, rather than a P sink, in agricultural applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Sorption properties study of nitron fibre S-3 relative to rhodium (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, S.; Khusainov, A.D.; Shadieva, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of present work is studying of sorption properties of nitron fibre S-3 relative to rhodium (III) from chloride solutions. Nitron sorbent S-3 was synthesised by reprocessing of wastes of production of nitron fibre by sulfited compound Na 2 Sn:NH 4 SCN=50:50 during 3 hours at temperature 90 d ig C . The sulfur containing in the sorbent was about 9%. During investigation by authors was determined that fibre nitron-S has good kinetic characteristics relative to rhodium (III), limitative stage of sorption process is diffusion and kinetics of sorption has mixed-diffusion character

  5. Sorption of organophosphate and triazine agrochemicals on biochars and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochars are known to strongly sorb polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and biochar soil amendment can have counteracting impacts on the efficacy of, and runoff contamination by agrochemicals. This study investigated the sorption-desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine)...

  6. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  7. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  8. Study of boric acid sorption and desorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czosnowska, B.; Laren, E.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of the experimental determination of the effect on the boric acid flow and sorption and desorption efficiency of the flow rate of boric acid at different concentrations through an ion exchange column 10.2 cm 2 in cross section. The strongly alkaline VOFATIT RO ion exchanger was used. (B.S.)

  9. Sorption studies of radionuclides on a modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.; Yavari, R.; Khanchi, A.R.; Waqif-Husain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Five different samples of a new sorbent, modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate have been prepared with various mole ratios of Si/Ce and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr) as template. XRD, nitrogen sorption, SEM, IR, thermogravimetry and sorption of radionuclides have been studied. Separation of Hg(II)-Th(IV), Hg(II)-Zr(IV) and Rb(I)-Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this novel sorbent. (author)

  10. Radiochemical study of the sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Sipalo-Zuljevic, J.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide in dependence on the pH, the aging time of the precipitate and the duration of the contact between the sorbate and the sorbent have been studied. Na 131 IO 3 was used as a radioactive indicator. The sorption mechanism has been discussed in terms of electrostatic and ion-exchange processes at the solid/liquid interface. (author)

  11. Sorption and desorption of diuron in Oxisol under biochar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron in an Oxisol under application of biochar. The samples were collected in a field experiment conducted in randomized design blocks consisted of 2 base fertilization levels (0 and 400 kg∙ha−1 NPK 00-20-20 fertilizer formula and 3 doses of biochar (0, 8 and 16 Mg∙ha−1. In the evaluation of sorption and desorption, Batch Equilibrium method was used. The kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron, total organic carbon, fulvic acid, humic acid and humin, pH and partition coefficient to organic carbon were evaluated. The Freundlich isotherm was adjusted appropriately to describe diuron sorption kinetics in all the studied treatments. The application of biochar provided increment in the sorption (Kf and reduction in the desorption of diuron in 64 and 44%, respectively. This effect is attributed to the biochar contribution to the total organic carbon and C-humin and of these to diuron through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The positive correlation between the partition coefficient to organic carbon and Kf confirms the importance of soil organic compartment in the sorption of diuron. There was no competition of NPK fertilizer for the same sorption site of diuron. The increase and reduction in sorption and desorption, respectively, show that the application of biochar is an important alternative for the remediation of soil leaching of diuron, especially in sandy soils.

  12. Effect of Cosolutes on the Sorption of Phenanthrene onto Mineral Surface of River Sediments and Kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%, organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP, and humic acid (HA on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (Kdapp of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including “cosolute added prior to phenanthrene” and “cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously,” were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene Kdapp while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents.

  13. Experimental Study and modelling of the Sorption of Selenite and Europium Onto Smectite and Illite Clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missana, T.; Alonso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a large set of experimental selenite sorption data for pure smectite and illite. Similar sorption behavior existed in both clays: linear within a large range of the Se concentrations investigated and independent of ionic strength. Selenite sorption was also analysed in the illite/smectite system with the clays mixed in two different proportions. The objective of the study was to provide the simplest model possible to fit the experimental data, a model also capable of describing selenite sorption in binary illite/smectite clay systems. Selenite sorption data were modeled using both a one-and a two-site non-electrostatic model that took into account the formation of two complexes at the edge sites of the clay. The complexation constants obtained by fitting sorption data of the individual minerals were incorporated into a model to predict the adsorption of selenium in the illite/ smectite mixtures; the models predictions were consistent with the experimental adsorption data. (Author) 42 refs

  14. Experimental Study and modelling of the Sorption of Selenite and Europium Onto Smectite and Illite Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.; Alonso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.

    2009-10-12

    This study provides a large set of experimental selenite sorption data for pure smectite and illite. Similar sorption behavior existed in both clays: linear within a large range of the Se concentrations investigated and independent of ionic strength. Selenite sorption was also analysed in the illite/smectite system with the clays mixed in two different proportions. The objective of the study was to provide the simplest model possible to fit the experimental data, a model also capable of describing selenite sorption in binary illite/smectite clay systems. Selenite sorption data were modeled using both a one-and a two-site non-electrostatic model that took into account the formation of two complexes at the edge sites of the clay. The complexation constants obtained by fitting sorption data of the individual minerals were incorporated into a model to predict the adsorption of selenium in the illite/ smectite mixtures; the models predictions were consistent with the experimental adsorption data. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. Sorption Hysteresis of Light Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide in Shale and Kerogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huangjing

    2017-11-20

    We present adsorption and desorption isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane as well as carbon dioxide for two shales and isolated kerogens determined by a gravimetric method. The sorption measurements of two shales were performed at three different temperatures, 308.15, 323.15, and 338.15 K. For the isolated kerogens, the measurements were conducted at 338.15 K. Methane and ethane sorption isotherms were measured to 35 bar. Carbon dioxide sorption isotherms were studied to 30 bar. Due to the low vapor pressure at room temperature, the sorption isotherms of propane, n-butane and iso-butane were measured to 8, 2, and 2 bar, respectively. The adsorptions of propane, n-butane, and iso-butane were much higher than methane at the highest pressures where the measurements were conducted. The adsorption of n-butane was 10 times higher than methane by mole at 2 bar, followed by iso-butane and propane. Our data show significant adsorption hysteresis in ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane. The most pronounced hysteresis was found in n-butane and iso-butane. Significant hysteresis is attributed to the reversible structural changes of kerogens. Dissolution of adsorbates into organic matter may also affect the hysteresis. This is the first report of propane and butane sorption isotherms in shales.

  16. Sorption Hysteresis of Light Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide in Shale and Kerogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huangjing; Lai, Zhiping; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    We present adsorption and desorption isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane as well as carbon dioxide for two shales and isolated kerogens determined by a gravimetric method. The sorption measurements of two shales were performed at three different temperatures, 308.15, 323.15, and 338.15 K. For the isolated kerogens, the measurements were conducted at 338.15 K. Methane and ethane sorption isotherms were measured to 35 bar. Carbon dioxide sorption isotherms were studied to 30 bar. Due to the low vapor pressure at room temperature, the sorption isotherms of propane, n-butane and iso-butane were measured to 8, 2, and 2 bar, respectively. The adsorptions of propane, n-butane, and iso-butane were much higher than methane at the highest pressures where the measurements were conducted. The adsorption of n-butane was 10 times higher than methane by mole at 2 bar, followed by iso-butane and propane. Our data show significant adsorption hysteresis in ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane. The most pronounced hysteresis was found in n-butane and iso-butane. Significant hysteresis is attributed to the reversible structural changes of kerogens. Dissolution of adsorbates into organic matter may also affect the hysteresis. This is the first report of propane and butane sorption isotherms in shales.

  17. Studies Regarding As(V Adsorption from Underground Water by Fe-XAD8-DEHPA Impregnated Resin. Equilibrium Sorption and Fixed-Bed Column Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ciopec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of arsenic adsorption onto Fe-XAD8-DEHPA resin were studied on the laboratory scale using aqueous solutions and natural underground waters. Amberlite XAD8 resin was impregnated with di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA via the dry method of impregnation. Fe(III ions were loaded onto the impregnated resin by exploiting the high affinity of arsenic towards iron. The studies were conducted by both in contact and continuous modes. Kinetics data revealed that the removal of arsenic by Fe-XAD8-DEHPA resin is a pseudo-second-order reaction. The equilibrium data were modelled with Freundlich Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R isotherms and it was found that the Freundlich model give the poorest correlation coefficient. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm is 22.6 µg As(V/g of Fe-XAD8-DEHPA resin. The mean free energy of adsorption was found in this study to be 7.2 kJ/mol and the ΔG° value negative (−9.2 kJ/mol. This indicates that the sorption process is exothermal, spontaneous and physical in nature. The studied Fe-XAD8-DEHPA resin showed excellent arsenic removal performance by sorption, both from synthetic solution and the natural water sample, and could be regenerated simply by using aqueous NaOH or HCl solutions.

  18. Radiotracer study of sorption of europium on Gorleben sand from aqueous solutions containing humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Stamberg, K.; Siroky, L.; Mizera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of trace europium, as a trivalent actinide homologue, was studied in the system Gorleben sand - aqueous solution with the aim to elucidate its mechanism. Radiotracer method ( 152/154 Eu) and batch experiments were used. Simultaneously, the distribution of humic substances present in, or added to the system was measured. The evaluation of the sorption was complicated by the adsorption of Eu on the walls of polyethylene vials used for the experiments, which was rather high and had to be taken into consideration. It has been found that Eu sorption on Gorleben sand increases from pH 2 to pH 5-7 and then it decreases. The decrease is due to the complexation of Eu with humic substances leached from Gorleben sand at pH>7. The position of the sorption maximum depends on the composition of the solution and on the liquid-to-solid ratio. It is shifted to lower pH values in the presence of added humic acid (HA), which enhances Eu sorption at low PH values and suppresses it at pH values higher than 5. The regions of the enhancing/suppressing effects coincidence with the high/low adsorption of HA on Gorleben sand, respectively. The increasing ionic strength (from 0.01 to 0.1) and europium concentration (3.4 x 10 -8 to 9.3 x 10 -7 mol/l) suppress the relative sorption (expressed in %) at low pH values and enhance it at pH>6-8. Addition of carbonates (5 x 10 -3 mol/l) supports Eu sorption at pH>7.5 so that no decrease with pH is observed till pH 9. Alkaline leaching of the sand significantly changes most of the effects found. These results were qualitatively interpreted and conclusions were drawn on the mechanism of the sorption. (author)

  19. A study on the uranium sorption properties of a domestic granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Keum, Dong Kwon; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we selected a domestic granite rock as a studying medium. Granite rock is considered as candidate rock for a high-level radioactive waste repository site and as a representative system of the composite mineral systems. We performed sorption experiments for crushed particles, intact rock surfaces, and natural fracture surfaces of the domestic granite rock and investigated the effects of important geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, carbonate concentration. Fracture surfaces showed higher sorption capacities than intact rock surfaces due to the higher content of secondary minerals and the amount of sorbed uranium was greatly dependent on pH, surface types, and carbonate concentration but little on ionic strength. Besides, we tried to investigate the nuclide sorption behaviors of composite mineral systems in terms of mineralogy in order to evaluate the contribution of constituent minerals and to analyze the sorption properties using sequential chemical extraction and XRD, and EPMA methods. It was found that one dominant mineral(mica in case of intact rock surfaces and chlorite in case of fracture surfaces) controls the uranium sorption and nuclide sorption behavior of composite mineral systems are quite different with that of single mineral systems.

  20. Influence of sorption competition on sorption data for MX-80 bentonite used in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In order to obtain a (quasi) mechanistic understanding of radionuclide uptake on clay minerals and argillaceous rocks, the majority of sorption experiments have been carried out on purified clay minerals such as montmorillonite and illite at trace concentrations (sorption edges), or as a function of concentration (sorption isotherms), with a single radionuclide under well-defined conditions in simple background electrolytes. As a result of such studies the 2 site proto-lysis non electrostatic surface complexation cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model, was developed and has been successfully applied to quantitatively describe the uptake of numerous radionuclides of differing valences as a function of pH and concentration on montmorillonite. In a deep geological repository for high level waste, stable impurities arise from many sources: they are present in the pore waters, in the tunnel back fill materials and host rock formations, they arise from the corrosion of the carbon steel canister and finally they are dissolved from the spent fuel and vitrified high level waste simultaneously with the radionuclides. These impurities, which are an integral part of a realistic repository system, can potentially compete with radionuclides for the sorption sites on the backfill materials and host rock and thus reduce their uptake on them. The influence of competitive sorption is not intrinsically included (or only partly so) in the sorption model. It is clearly an inherently important issue to quantify the influence of sorption competition on the transport of released radionuclides through the multi-barrier system in a deep repository. In this study an extreme case of a competitive sorption scenario in the near field of a HLW repository is presented. Two factors are considered: one associated with the high concentrations and the other with competitive sorption effects. The tendency in both cases is to cause a reduction in

  1. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  2. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Isothermal and Non-isothermal Deep Drawing of IS 513 CR3 Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayavan, T.; Karthikeyan, L.; Senthilkumar, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effects of the temperature gradient developed within the tool profiles on the formability of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets using the cup drawing test. The deformation characteristics of steel sheets were analyzed by comparing the thicknesses in various regions of the formed cup and also the limiting drawing ratios (LDR). Finite element simulations were carried out to predict the behavior of the steel sheets in isothermal and non-isothermal forming using Abaqus/Standard 6.12-1. An analytical model created by Kim was used to validate the experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) results on identical process parameters. Both the FEA and analytical modeling results showed that formability improvement is possible in warm forming; the findings are in good agreement with the experimental results in determining the locations and values of excessive thinning. The results also indicated that formability improvement cannot be achieved by keeping the tooling temperature at the same level. The LDR increased by around 9.5% in isothermal forming and by 19% in non-isothermal forming (with the punch maintained at a lower temperature compared with the die and blank holder). In addition, the fractured surfaces of unsuccessfully formed samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Metallographic investigations confirmed that the fracture mechanism during the forming of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets depends on the brittleness, strain hardening value, forming temperature, and magnitude of stresses developed.

  3. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  4. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption of metal-ions by ion exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    ABBASOV ALIADDIN DAYYAN; JAFARLI MAHNUR MOYSUN; MEMMEDOVA FIZZA SADIKH; HEYDEROVA FARAH FARMAN

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of sorption equilibrium of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead-ions by chelatforming resins Diaion CR 11, Dowex M 4195 and Duolite C 467 depending on the degree of neutralization of their ionogenic groups, the acidity of the medium and concentration of solutions are studied; corresponding equations expressing the isotherms of sorption are offered. Kinetics of these processes is studied; on the basis of equilibrium and kinetic parameters are calculated thermodynamic quantities. It is sho...

  5. Thermodynamic investigations of protein's behaviour with ionic liquids in aqueous medium studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    While a number of reports appear on ionic liquids-proteins interactions, their thermodynamic behaviour using suitable technique like isothermal titration calorimetry is not systematically presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a key technique which can directly measure the thermodynamic contribution of IL binding to protein, particularly the enthalpy, heat capacities and binding stoichiometry. Ionic liquids (ILs), owing to their unique and tunable physicochemical properties have been the central area of scientific research besides graphene in the last decade, and growing unabated. Their encounter with proteins in the biological system is inevitable considering their environmental discharge though most of them are recyclable for a number of cycles. In this article we will cover the thermodynamics of proteins upon interaction with ILs as osmolyte and surfactant. The up to date literature survey of IL-protein interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry will be discussed and parallel comparison with the results obtained for such studies with other techniques will be highlighted to demonstrate the accuracy of ITC technique. Net stability of proteins can be obtained from the difference in the free energy (ΔG) of the native (folded) and denatured (unfolded) state using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS). Isothermal titration calorimetry can directly measure the heat changes upon IL-protein interactions. Calculation of other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, binding constant and free energy depends upon the proper fitting of the binding isotherms using various fitting models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Yao, Linlin; Li, Jiale; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang; Evalde, Mulindankaka

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO 2 ) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (K oc ) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area

  7. Impact of water quality parameters on the sorption of U(VI) onto hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Donglin; Wang Xianbiao; Yang Shitong; Guo Zhiqiang; Sheng Guodong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution on hematite was studied as a function of various water quality parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, soil humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA), solid content and temperature by using a batch technique. The results demonstrated that the sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0 and the sorption was mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation. The presence of HA/FA increases U(VI) sorption at low pH, whereas decreases U(VI) sorption at high pH. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 , and ΔG 0 ) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggested that U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results might be important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management. Highlights: ► The sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0. ► A positive effect of HA/FA on U(VI) sorption was found at low pH, whereas a negative effect was observed at high pH. ► U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. ► The results are quite important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management.

  8. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process.

  9. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  10. Sorption interactions of heavy metals with biochar in soil remediation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Wawra, Anna; Soja, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    The search for new materials in soil remediation applications has led to new conversion technologies such as carbonization and pyrolysis. Biochar represents the pyrolytic product of different biomass input materials processed at 350-1000°C and anoxic conditions. The pyrolysis temperature and feedstock have a considerable influence on the quality of the charred product and also its main physico-chemical properties. Biochar as porous material with large specific surface and C-stability is utilized in various environmental and agricultural technologies. Carbon sequestration, increase of soil water-holding capacity and pH as well as sorption of different xenobiotics present only a fraction of the multitude of biochar application possibilities. Heavy metals as potential sources of ecotoxicological risks are characterized by their non-degradability and the potential transfer into the food chain. Carbonaceous materials have been used for a long time as sorbents for heavy metals and organic contaminants in soil and water technologies. The similarity of biochar with activated carbon predetermines this material as remediation tool which plays an important role in heavy metal immobilization and retention with a parallel reduction in the risk of ground water and food crop contamination. In all this processes the element-specific sorption behaviour of biochar creates new conditions for pollutant binding. Sorption interaction and separation of contaminants from soil solution or waste effluent can be affected by wide-ranging parameters. In detail, our study was based on batch-sorption comparisons of two biochars produced from wood chips and green waste residues. We observed that sorption efficiency of biochar for model bivalent heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu) can be influenced by equilibrium parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of metal in reaction solutions, presence of surfactants and chemical modification by acid hydrolysis, esterification and methylation. The

  11. Sorption-desorption studies on tuff III. A continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Aguilar, R.D.; Bayhurst, B.P.

    1981-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports describing studies of sorption and migration of radionuclides in tuff. The investigations were extended to lithologies of tuff not previously studied. Continuing experiments with uranium, plutonium, and americium are described. The dependence of sorption on the concentration of the sorbing element and on the solution-to-solid ratio was investigated for a number of nuclides and two lithologies. A circulating system was designed for measuring sorption ratios. Values obtained from this system, batch measurements, and column elutions are compared. Progress on measuring and controlling Eh is described

  12. Spectroscopic studies of U(VI) sorption at the kaolinite-water interface. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.A.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Efficient use of U as a resource and safe handling, recycling and disposal of U-containing wastes require an understanding of the factors controlling the fate of U, where fate refers to the destination of U, typically expressed as an environmental medium or a process phase. The sorption process constitutes a change in elemental fate. Partitioning of an element from solution to a solid phase, or sorption, can be divided into three broad categories: adsorption, surface precipitation, and absorption. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), a type of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), offers the possibility for distinguishing among different modes of sorption by characterizing the atomic environment of the sorbing element. In this study, the authors use EXAFS to determine the structure of U(VI) sorption complexes at the kaolinite-water interface. In Chapter One, they present an overview of selected aspects of U structural chemistry as a basis for considering the structural environment of U at the solid-water interface. To evaluate the utility of XAS for characterization of the structural environment of U(VI) at the solid-water interface, they have carried out an in-depth analysis of XAS data from U(VI)-containing solid and solution model compounds, which they describe in Chapter Two. In Chapter three, they consider sorption of U by kaolinite as a means of effecting the removal of U from surface collection pond waters on the Rocky Flats Plant site in northern Colorado

  13. PAL application to the study of sorption mechanism in polymers - capillary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Shimadzu, A.; Ikeda, K.

    1999-01-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime technique can be applied to the study of the sorption mechanism in polymers in a quite unique way. In our previous experiments it had been shown that τ 3 and I 3 of polymers show a V-shaped dependence as a function of the contact with vapours. The decreasing part of the V-shaped dependence had been attributed to the Langmuir-type sorption, and the increasing part of delayed occurrence of the Henry-type sorption. But since there was some doubt that the capillary effect, i.e. the vapour to be sorbed is deposited in between the polymer membranes, might be involved in the increasing part, we performed a careful experiment to avoid the capillary effect. We have performed further experiments in a careful conditions to avoid the capillary effect, and have observed the same V-shape as before. Thus our interpretation of the V-shaped dependence has been established. Furthermore, in another example it is shown a case where the capillary effect is observed. This latter case is an example how positron annihilation lifetime can distinguish the real sorption and false sorption (capillary effect). (author)

  14. Studies of the effects of organic materials on the sorption of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.; Ferguson, D.R.; Pilkington, N.J.

    1989-10-01

    The effects of the presence of cellulosic degradation products on the sorption of uranium and plutonium on London clay and Caithness flagstones have been studied using the batch sorption method. Experimental conditions were chosen to simulate both those expected close to a cementitious repository (pH ∼ 11) and at the edge of the zone of migration of the calcium plume (pH ∼ 8). Work was carried out (i) under baseline conditions, in the absence of organic materials (ii) with gluconate, acting as a well-characterised simulant (iii) with authentic degradation products. These experimental studies are complemented by thermodynamic modelling work, the results of which are presented in a companion paper. The results have shown that organic degradation products can have a marked effect on sorption and the present work provides further evidence of the need to take account of the presence of such materials in safety assessment modelling. (author)

  15. Determination of Sorption Coefficient of Phosphorus Applied for Sugarcane Production in Southwestern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwamba, A; Nkedi-Kizza, P; Morgan, K T

    2016-09-01

    Phosphorus is among the essential nutrients applied to sugarcane ( L.) fields in the form of a fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) in southwestern Florida. Sorption coefficient is used for modeling P movement, and in this study, we hypothesized that the sorption coefficient determined using fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) will be significantly different from values determined using KCl and CaCl, the electrolytes most commonly used for conducting sorption experiments. Supporting electrolytes, 0.01 mol L KCl, 0.005 mol L CaCl, deionized (DI) water, simulated Florida rain, and fertilizer mixture prepared in Florida rain were used to characterize P sorption. Immokalee (Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) and Margate (Sandy, siliceous hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents) are the dominant mineral soils used for sugarcane production in southwestern Florida; we used the A and B horizons of Margate soil and the A and B horizons of the Immokalee soil for sorption experiments in this study. Freundlich sorption isotherms described P sorption data. The Freundlich sorption isotherm coefficients followed the trend 0.005 mol L CaCl > 0.01 mol L KCl ≈ fertilizer mixture > simulated Florida rain ≈ DI water. Sorption coefficients were used for modeling P movement with HYDRUS 1D; similar P results were obtained with the 0.01 mol L KCl and fertilizer mixture electrolyte treatments. The sorption coefficient for DI water and simulated Florida rain overpredicted P movement. The P sorption data showed the importance of choosing the appropriate electrolyte for conducting experiments based on the composition of fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. An experimental study on the sorption of U(VI) onto granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of U(VI) on a domestic granite is studied as a function of experimental conditions such as contact time, solution-solid ratio, ionic strength, and pH using a batch procedure. The distribution coefficients, K d 's, of U(VI) are about 1-100mL/g depending on the experimental conditions. The sorption of U(VI) onto granite particles is greatly dependent upon the contact time, solution-solid ratio, and pH, but very little is dependent on the ionic strength. It is noticed that an U(VI)-carbonato ternary surface complex can be formed in the neutral range of pH. In the alkaline range of pH above 7, U(VI) sorption onto granite particles is greatly decreased due to the formation of anionic U(VI)-carbonato aqueous complexes

  17. Kinetic study in the sorption of cesium on some egyptian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, A S; Hegazi, W S [University College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Malik, W E.W.; Kamel, N H.M. [Radiation protection Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Soil samples were Collected from different locations of the egyptian desert and were subjected to physical, chemical, mineralogical and sorption studies. Kinetic analysis were made on the sorption of radiocesium by these soil samples. Two models of analysis were treated namely; the one step first order model (the integer model), and the sum of the exponential components (the compartmental model). Statistical treatment of the results obtained showed that. For the one step first order model, samples having the lowest rate constant showed the longest reaction half life t{sup 1} /2 (771 to 121 minutes), while the samples having higher rate constant the reaction half life decreased markedly ranging from 56 to 14 minutes. The compartmental model of analysis showed that the sorption of cesium of the soil samples involved two or three steps represented by two or three exponential equations. The equation of each step was calculated. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Comparative in vitro study for orthodontic adhesives relatively to sorption and solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, A.; Mesaros, A.; Festila, D.; Moldovan, M.; Boboia, S.; Mesaros, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water sorption and solubility correspond to undesirable physical characteristics because it may cause micro leakage and dissolution for composite materials used for orthodontic attachment bonding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four composite materials employed in orthodontic as adhesives, relatively to water and 50% alcoholic solution, by means of in vitro tests of sorption and solubility. We used an experimental composite sealer SO® (ICCRR Cluj Napoca) and 3 commercial products already on the market: Blugloo® (Ormco), Opal Bond MV® (Ultradent) and Bond It® (DB orthodontics). Data were recorded and specific statistic tests were performed, revealing significant differences for all materials relatively to tested solutions. The materials expressed an adequate performance in terms of sorption and solubility, offering various alternatives for orthodontists.

  19. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  20. Effect of biosurfactant[0] on the sorption of phenanthrene onto original and H2O2-treated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xiaohong; ZHAN Xinhua; ZHOU Lixiang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biosurfactant on sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) onto the original or H2O2-treated black loamy soil (typic isohumisols) and red sandy soil (typic ferralisols). The sorption isotherms were performed with the original and "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence and absence of biosurfactant (200 mg/L). The sorption and degradation of biosurfactant were investigated. The result showed that organic matter played an important role in PHE sorption onto the black loamy and red sandy soils, and the PHE sorption isotherms on the "soft" carbon-removed soils exhibited more nonlinearity than those on the original soils. The values of partition coefficient (Kd) on the original black loamy soil with or without 200 mg/L biosurfactant were 181.6 and 494.5 mL/g, respectively. Correspondingly, in the red sandy soil, Kd was 246.4 and 212.8 mL/g in the presence or absence of biosurfactant, respectively. The changes of Kd suggested that biosurfactant inhibited PHE sorption onto the black loamy soil, but facilitated PHE sorption onto the red sandy soil. The nonlinearity of PHE sorption isotherm was decreased in the presence of biosurfactant. Site specific sorption might occur during PHE sorption onto both the original and the "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence of biosurfactant. It was noted that biosurfactant could also be sorbed onto soils. The maximal sorption capacity of the red sandy soil for biosurfactant was (76.9 ± 0.007) μg/g, which was 1.31 times that of black loamy soil. Biosurfactant was degraded quickly in the two selected soils, and 92% of biosurfactant were mineralized throughout the incubation experiment for 7 d. It implied that biosurfactant should be added frequently when the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils was conducted through PAH desorption approach facilitated by biosurfactant.

  1. Sorption of U(VI) species on hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Moore, R.C.; Choppin, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The sorption of uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) cations to hydroxyapatite was studied as a function of the amount of sorbent, ionic strength, U(VI) concentration, pH and temperature. The rate of uranyl sorption on hydroxyapatite decreased with increased uranyl concentrations. The amount sorbed decreased with increased ionic strength and increased with pH to a maximum at 7-8. The sorption data for UO 2 2+ were fitted well by the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The anions Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- and CH 3 COO - decreased the sorption of uranium on hydroxyapatite while S 2 O 3 2- slightly increased it. The sorbed uranium was desorbed by 0.10 M and 1.00 M solutions of HCl and HNO 3 . The thermodynamic parameters for the sorption of UO 2 2+ were measured at temperatures of 298, 313, 323 and 333 K. The temperature dependence confirmed an endothermic heat of sorption. The activation energy for the sorption process was calculated to be +2.75±0.02 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  2. Using fluorescent dyes as proxies to study herbicide removal by sorption in buffer zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Jeanne; Dagès, Cécile; Voltz, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The performance of buffer zones for removing pesticides from runoff water varies greatly according to landscape settings, hydraulic regime, and system design. Evaluating the performance of buffers for a range of pesticides and environmental conditions can be very expensive. Recent studies suggested that the fluorescent dyes uranine and sulforhodamine B could be used as cost-effective surrogates of herbicides to evaluate buffer performance. However, while transformation mechanisms in buffers have been extensively documented, sorption processes of both dyes have rarely been investigated. In this study, we measured the adsorption, desorption, and kinetic sorption coefficients of uranine and sulforhodamine B for a diverse range of buffer zone materials (soils, litters, plants) and compared the adsorption coefficients (Kd) to those of selected herbicides. We also compared the global sorption capacity of 6 ditches, characterized by varying proportions of the aforementioned materials, between both dyes and a set of four herbicides using the sorption-induced pesticide retention indicator (SPRI). We found that both the individual Kd of uranine for the diverse buffer materials and the global sorption capacity of the ditches are equivalent to those of the herbicides diuron, isoproturon, and metolachlor. The Kd of sulforhodamine B on plants and soils are equivalent to those of glyphosate, and the global sorption capacities of the ditches are equivalent for both molecules. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that uranine can be used as a proxy of moderately hydrophobic herbicides to evaluate the performance of buffer systems, whereas sulforhodamine B can serve as a proxy for more strongly sorbing herbicides.

  3. Sorption mechanisms of phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine with various humic acid fractions from a single soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Guo, Xiaoying; Yang, Yu; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-15

    The sorption behavior of organic compounds (phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine) to sequentially extracted humic acids and humin from a peat soil was examined. The elemental composition, XPS and (13)C NMR data of sorbents combined with sorption isotherm data of the tested compounds show that nonspecific interactions govern sorption of phenanthrene and lindane by humic substances. Their sorption is dependent on surface and bulk alkyl carbon contents of the sorbents, rather than aromatic carbon. Sorption of atrazine by these sorbents, however, is regulated by polar interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding). Carboxylic and phenolic moieties are key components for H-bonding formation. Thermal analysis reveals that sorption of apolar (i.e., phenanthrene and lindane) and polar (i.e., atrazine) compounds by humic substances exhibit dissimilar relationships with condensation and thermal stability of sorption domains, emphasizing the major influence of domain spatial arrangement on sorption of organic compounds with distinct polarity. Results of pH-dependent sorption indicate that reduction in sorption of atrazine by the tested sorbents is more evident than phenanthrene with increasing pH, supporting the dependence of organic compound sorption on its polarity and structure. This study highlights the different interaction mechanisms of apolar and polar organic compounds with humic substances.

  4. Probing the microscopic hydrophobicity of smectite surfaces. A vibrational spectroscopic study of dibenzo-p-dioxin sorption to smectite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Kiran; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Liu, Cun; Johnston, Cliff T

    2009-04-28

    The interaction of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), from aqueous suspension, with smectite was investigated using in situ vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman), structural and batch sorption techniques. Batch sorption isotherms were integrated with in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sorption isotherms revealed that the affinity of DD for smectite in aqueous suspension was strongly influenced both by the type of smectite and by the nature of the exchangeable cation. Cs-saponite showed a much higher affinity over Rb-, K- and Na-exchange saponites. In addition, DD sorption was found to depend on clay type with DD showing a high affinity for the tetrahedrally substituted trioctahedral saponite over SWy-2 and Upton montmorillonites. A structural model is introduced to account for the influence of clay type. Raman and FTIR data provided complementary molecular-level insight into the sorption mechanisms. In the case of Cs-saponite, the selection rules of DD based on D(2h) symmetry were broken indicating a site-specific interaction between DD and intercalated Cs(+) ions in the interlayer of the clay. Polarized in situ ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that the molecular plane of sorbed DD was tilted with respect to the clay surface which was consistent with a d-spacing of 1.49 nm. Finally, cation-induced changes in both the skeletal ring vibrations and the asymmetric C-O-C stretching vibrations provided evidence for site specific interactions between the DD and exchangeable cations in the clay interlayer. Together, the combined macroscopic and spectroscopic data show a surprising link between a hydrophilic material and a planar hydrophobic aromatic hydrocarbon.

  5. Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of Pb(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous phase by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... Abstract. This paper reports the kinetic and equilibrium studies of Eichhornia crassipes root biomass as a biosorbent for Pb(II) ions from aqueous system.

  6. Neptunium(V) sorption on kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amayri, S.; Jermolajev, A.; Reich, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    The sorption behavior of neptunium(V) onto the clay mineral kaolinite was studied in batch experiments under different experimental conditions: [Np(V)] = 7 x 10{sup -12}-8 x 10{sup -6} M, solid-to-liquid ratio 2-20 g L{sup -1}, I = 0.1 and 0.01 M NaClO{sub 4}, pH = 6-10, ambient air and Ar atmosphere. The short-lived isotope {sup 239}Np (T{sub 1/2} = 2.36 d) was used instead of {sup 237}Np (T{sub 1/2} = 2.14 x 10{sup 6} a) to study the sorption behavior of Np(V) at environmentally-relevant concentrations, i.e., 7 x 10{sup -12} M Np. In addition, {sup 239}Np(V) served as tracer to measure sorption isotherms over six orders of magnitude in Np concentration (4.8 x 10{sup -12}-1.0 x 10{sup -4} M). The results show that Np(V) sorption on kaolinite is strongly influenced by pH, CO{sub 2}, and ionic strength. The sorption of 8 x 10{sup -6} M Np(V) at pH 9.0, and ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} was proportional to the solid-to-liquid ratio of kaolinite in the range of 2-10 g L{sup -1}. In the absence of CO{sub 2}, the Np(V) uptake increased continuously with increasing pH value up to 97% at pH 10. Under ambient CO{sub 2}, the sorption of Np decreased above pH 8 up to zero at pH 10. An increase of Np(V) concentration from 7 x 10{sup -12} to 8 x 10{sup -6} M resulted in a shift of the sorption pH edge by up to one pH unit to higher pH values. The ionic strength influenced the Np(V) sorption onto kaolinite only in the presence of ambient CO{sub 2}. Under Ar atmosphere the sorption of Np(V) was independent from ionic strength, indicating the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Np(V) with kaolinite. Time-dependent batch experiments at pH 9.0 under ambient CO{sub 2} showed that the sorption of Np(V) on kaolinite is fast and fully reversible over six orders in Np(V) concentration. (orig.)

  7. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  8. Desorption isotherms of cementitious materials: study of an accelerated protocol and estimation of RVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qier

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of French radioactive waste management and storage, the durability evaluation and prediction of concrete structures requires the knowledge of desorption isotherm of concrete. The aim of the present study is to develop an accelerated experimental method to obtain desorption isotherm of cementitious materials more quickly and to estimate the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size related to the desorption isotherm of concrete. In order to ensure that experimental results can be statistically considered representative, a great amount of sliced samples of cementitious materials with three different thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) have been de-saturated. The effect of slice thickness and the saturation condition on the mass variation kinetics and the desorption isotherms is analyzed. The influence of the aggregate distribution on the water content and the water saturation degree is also analyzed. A method based on statistical analysis of water content and water saturation degree is proposed to estimate the RVE for water desorption experiment of concrete. The evolution of shrinkage with relative humidity is also followed for each material during the water desorption experiment. A protocol of cycle of rapid desaturation-re-saturation is applied and shows the existence of hysteresis between desorption and adsorption. (author)

  9. ISOTERMAS DE SORCION DE AGUA EN RESIDUOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE JUGO DE NARANJA ISOTERMAS DE SORCAO DA AGUA EM RESIDUOS DE EXTRACAO DE SUCO DE LARANJA SORPTION ISOTHERMS OF WATER IN ORANGE JUICE EXTRACTION RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA OMAÑA

    2010-06-01

    não varié ou alcance o equilibrio. Além demais, realizouse um ajuste com o modelo proposto pelo Smith obtendose erros medios de 8.56% e 7.57% para Túnez e Pomelo, respectivamente.Waste from orange juice extraction, such as skins, shells and seeds, are known as citrus pulp, they may cause two major impacts, be a potential source ofraw material in the food industry concentrates for animals, and reduce problem posed to the environment with unnecessary use of landfills. The purpose of this paper is to obtain experimental sorption isotherms of this waste, at a temperature of 20° in a wide range of water activity (0.33 -0.97 from the two producers of orange juice, called Túnez and Pomelo. The process used to determine isothermal sorption curves, is the method recommended by the COST Project 90, which consisted of placing a known amount of sample in an airtight container with a given relative humidity until the weight does not vary orreaches balance. In addition, an adjustment to the model proposed by Smith obtained average errors of 8.56% and 7.57% for Túnez and Pomelo, respectively.

  10. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by Mahua seed activated carbon: Kinetic, isotherm, mass transfer and isosteric heat of adsorption studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yadav Lallan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca longifolia seed activated carbon (MSAC has been developed as an effective adsorbent for the removal of phenol from contaminated wastewaters. Prepared MSAC was characterized for various physico-chemical properties, Fourier transform infra- red (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of MSAC dosage (w, pH, contact time (t, and initial phenol concentrations (Co on sorption efficiency at optimal conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained at pH=6, t=5 h and MSAC dosage=1.2 g/l. The kinetics data of phenol adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The average effective diffusion coefficient 6.4×10-13 m2/s was calculated from the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the sorption process to be spontaneous and exothermic. The isosteric heat of adsorption of phenol was found to increase with an increase in the surface loading indicating that MSAC have more homogeneous surface.

  11. Electroanalytical procedure for the determination of methylparathion in soil suspensions and its application for sorption studies with Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanho Giuliane M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential pulse polarography technique was used to establish an electroanalytical procedure for the determination of the organophosphorous insecticide methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate in soil samples. Three reduction peaks were observed in mercury electrodes as a function of the solution pH. The more cathodic peak (Ep= -0.55V, only observed for pH values higher than 5.0, was chosen for the analytical determinations. The limit of detection was 1.93x10-8 mol L-1 for pure water and about 8x10-8 mol L-1 for soil suspensions with a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a pH of 6.75. The electroanalytical procedure developed was applied for the determination of sorption isotherms of methylparathion on 3 soils from São Paulo State, Brazil, at different pH and diverse amounts of clay and organic matter. The experimental data were fitted using the Freundlich isotherm model and the Freundlich coefficients (K F obtained for each soil varied from 7 to 29 L kg-1, representing a low to medium sorption capacity, according to the IBAMA (Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency standards. The amounts of organic matter and clay were the most important soil parameters controling the sorption of methylparathion by these soils.

  12. Surface complexation modeling of zinc sorption onto ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James A; Trivedi, Paras; Scrivner, Noel C; Sparks, Donald L

    2004-02-01

    A previous study involving lead(II) [Pb(II)] sorption onto ferrihydrite over a wide range of conditions highlighted the advantages of combining molecular- and macroscopic-scale investigations with surface complexation modeling to predict Pb(II) speciation and partitioning in aqueous systems. In this work, an extensive collection of new macroscopic and spectroscopic data was used to assess the ability of the modified triple-layer model (TLM) to predict single-solute zinc(II) [Zn(II)] sorption onto 2-line ferrihydrite in NaNO(3) solutions as a function of pH, ionic strength, and concentration. Regression of constant-pH isotherm data, together with potentiometric titration and pH edge data, was a much more rigorous test of the modified TLM than fitting pH edge data alone. When coupled with valuable input from spectroscopic analyses, good fits of the isotherm data were obtained with a one-species, one-Zn-sorption-site model using the bidentate-mononuclear surface complex, (triple bond FeO)(2)Zn; however, surprisingly, both the density of Zn(II) sorption sites and the value of the best-fit equilibrium "constant" for the bidentate-mononuclear complex had to be adjusted with pH to adequately fit the isotherm data. Although spectroscopy provided some evidence for multinuclear surface complex formation at surface loadings approaching site saturation at pH >/=6.5, the assumption of a bidentate-mononuclear surface complex provided acceptable fits of the sorption data over the entire range of conditions studied. Regressing edge data in the absence of isotherm and spectroscopic data resulted in a fair number of surface-species/site-type combinations that provided acceptable fits of the edge data, but unacceptable fits of the isotherm data. A linear relationship between logK((triple bond FeO)2Zn) and pH was found, given by logK((triple bond FeO)2Znat1g/l)=2.058 (pH)-6.131. In addition, a surface activity coefficient term was introduced to the model to reduce the ionic strength

  13. [Surface Property and Sorption Characteristics of Phosphorus onto Surface Sediments in Sanggou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-mei; Cao, Xiao-yan; Liu, Su-mei; Wang, Li-sha; Yang, Gui-peng; Ge, Cheng-feng; Lu, Min

    2016-02-15

    Kinetic curves and isotherms were investigated to study the sorption mechanism of phosphorus onto the sediments of Sanggou Bay, together with the surface charge properties of sediments and the forms of phosphorus studied. The results showed that the sorption including a fast process and a slow one, and could be described by a two-compartment first order equation. The thermodynamic isotherms were well fitted with a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity was larger in summer than in spring, and the smaller particle size was favorable to the sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) were 0.0471-0.1230 mg x g(-1), and the zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0) of the sediments ranged from 0.0596 mg x L(-1) to 0.1927 mg x L(-1), which indicated that the sediments from Sanggou Bay were sources of phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the main form of total phosphorus (TP). The contents of exchangeable or loosely absorbed P and Fe-bound P increased significantly in the samples after sorption. The sorption process involved physical sorption and chemical sorption, with the former being the predominant.

  14. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Properties comparison of biochars from corn straw with different pretreatment and sorption behaviour of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuchen; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye; Wang, Fangli; Han, Sheng; Geng, Xiaojun

    2013-11-01

    Biochar has been recognised as an efficient pollution control material. In this study, biochars (CS450 and ADPCS450) were produced using corn straw with different pretreatment techniques (without and with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)). The character of the two biochars was compared using elemental analysis, specific surface area (SSA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). ADPCS450 had a higher residue yield and a much larger specific surface area than CS450. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the results fit the Redlich-Peterson equation best. The isothermal sorption parameters indicated that the sorption capacity of atrazine on ADPCS450 was much larger than the sorption capacity of atrazine on CS450. Atrazine sorption was also favoured in acidic solution and under higher temperature conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of the isomerism on the sorption of imazamethabenz-methyl by soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Pusino, Alba

    2013-04-01

    The sorption of meta and para isomers of the herbicide imazamethabenz-methyl, methyl 6-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]-m- or p-toluate, by three soils and soil organic matter, was studied. Sorption isotherms conformed to the Freundlich equation. It was found that pH was the main factor influencing the adsorption in all of the systems. The highest level of sorption was measured on soils with low pH and high organic carbon content. Moreover, at low pH value, the soil rich in smectite clays, favoured the sorption of meta rather than para isomer. The higher affinity of clay surfaces for the meta isomer of the herbicide is due to the stabilization of the meta protonated form by resonance. At all pH values, the sorption on soil organic matter did not differ between two isomers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of particle size on sorption of estrogens, androgens and progestagens in aquatic sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, Jodi L.; Oke, Hugues; Zhang, Yun; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two sediments were used to evaluate the effects of particle size on steroid sorption. • Sorption capacity did not increase with decreasing particle size for all steroids. • Particle interactions affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. • Preferential sorption to fine particles was observed. - Abstract: There is growing concern about the biologic effects of steroid hormones in impacted waterways. There is increasing evidence of enhanced transport and biological effects stemming from steroid hormones associated with soils or sediments; however, there are limited studies evaluating how steroid hormone distribution between various particle sizes within whole sediments affects steroid fate. In this study, sorption of 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone was evaluated to different size fractions of two natural sediments, a silty loam and a sandy sediment, to determine the steroid sorption capacity to each fraction and distribution within the whole sediment. Sorption isotherms for all steroid hormones fit linear sorption models. Sorption capacity was influenced more by organic carbon content than particle size. Interactions between size fractions were found to affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. All four steroids preferentially sorbed to the clay and colloids in the silty loam sediment at the lowest aqueous concentration (1 ng/L) and as aqueous concentration increased, the distribution of sorbed steroid was similar to the distribution by weight of each size fraction within the whole sediment. In the sandy sediment, preferential sorption to fine particles was observed.

  18. The effect of particle size on sorption of estrogens, androgens and progestagens in aquatic sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangster, Jodi L.; Oke, Hugues; Zhang, Yun; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L., E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Two sediments were used to evaluate the effects of particle size on steroid sorption. • Sorption capacity did not increase with decreasing particle size for all steroids. • Particle interactions affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. • Preferential sorption to fine particles was observed. - Abstract: There is growing concern about the biologic effects of steroid hormones in impacted waterways. There is increasing evidence of enhanced transport and biological effects stemming from steroid hormones associated with soils or sediments; however, there are limited studies evaluating how steroid hormone distribution between various particle sizes within whole sediments affects steroid fate. In this study, sorption of 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone was evaluated to different size fractions of two natural sediments, a silty loam and a sandy sediment, to determine the steroid sorption capacity to each fraction and distribution within the whole sediment. Sorption isotherms for all steroid hormones fit linear sorption models. Sorption capacity was influenced more by organic carbon content than particle size. Interactions between size fractions were found to affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. All four steroids preferentially sorbed to the clay and colloids in the silty loam sediment at the lowest aqueous concentration (1 ng/L) and as aqueous concentration increased, the distribution of sorbed steroid was similar to the distribution by weight of each size fraction within the whole sediment. In the sandy sediment, preferential sorption to fine particles was observed.

  19. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organic pollutants are present as complex mixtures in the marine environment. ► The competitive sorption of phenanthrene and DDT in a bi-solute system was investigated onto PVC and PE. ► DDT outcompeted phenanthrene for sorption onto plastic. ► DDT also appeared to have a negative effect on the sorption of phenanthrene onto plastic when added at high concentration. - Abstract: Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4′-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  20. Comparison of sorption measurements on argillaceous rocks and bentonite with predictions using the SGT-E2 approach to derive sorption data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2014-11-15

    In Stage 1 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, four rock types have been identified as being suitable host rocks for a radioactive waste repository, namely, Opalinus Clay for a high-level (HLW) and a low- and intermediate-level (L/ILW) repository, and 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marls for a L/ILW repository. Sorption data bases (SDBs) for all of these host rocks are required for the provisional safety analyses, including all of the bounding porewater and mineralogical composition combinations. In addition, SDBs are needed for the rock formations lying below Opalinus Clay (lower confining units) and for the bentonite backfill in the HLW repository. A detailed procedure was developed for deriving SDBs for argillaceous rocks (and bentonite) based on sorption edge measurements on illite (and montmorillonite), the hypothesis that 2:1 clay minerals are the dominant sorbents and a series of so called conversion factors which take into account the different radionuclide speciations in the different porewaters. Since this methodology for generating SDBs is relatively new, a validation and demonstration of the robustness and reliability of the sorption values derived was required. This report describes an extensive piece of work in which blind predictions of sorption values were compared with measured ones. Sorption isotherms were measured for the following metal ions Cs(I), Co(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV) and U(VI) in a range of realistic porewater chemistries for a range of host rock mineralogies. In the end 53 isotherm data sets were measured. For each of these isotherms a prediction was made of the sorption at trace concentrations using the SDB derivation methodology. A comparison between measured and predicted values for each case was then made. This validation study shows that the methodology used for the derivation of the sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and bentonite produces reliable sorption values. (authors)

  1. Clinoptilolite and palygorskite as sorbents of neutral emerging organic contaminants in treated wastewater: Sorption-desorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, María; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Meffe, Raffaella; Lillo, Javier; de Bustamante, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Water reuse for aquifer recharge could be an important route for the introduction of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) into the environment. The installation of a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (H-PRB) could constitute a tertiary treatment process to remove EOCs from treated domestic wastewater prior to recharge activities. The sorption-desorption behaviour of six neutral EOCs present in treated domestic wastewater (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, 4-acetamidoantipyrine (4-AAA) and 4-formylaminoantipyrine (4-FAA)) has been evaluated. Clinoptilolite and palygorskite have been studied as sorbents to be installed in the H-PRB. Batch tests were carried out using an EOC initial concentration ranging from 5 to 100 μg L -1 . Apart from acetaminophen and caffeine, both materials showed a limited sorption capacity of neutral EOCs (K d  = 0.63-5.42 L kg -1 ). In general, the experimental results show that EOCs exhibit a higher sorption affinity for clinoptilolite than for palygorskite. With the exception of carbamazepine, the sorption of the compounds occurs mainly by interactions with mineral surfaces as indicated by the comparison of the partition coefficients into organic matter and into mineral surfaces. According to the molecular geometry of the compounds and the sorption sequences observed, it appears that the dimensions of the organic molecules play a key role in the sorption process. All the studied EOCs exhibit irreversible sorption and sorption-desorption hysteresis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption of Cs onto γ-Al2O3 using batch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangke

    2004-01-01

    The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 is studied by using batch technique, ultra-filtration method and UV vis spectrophotometer at room temperature, pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0, the ionic strength of NaClO 4 is from 0.001 mol/L to 0.1 mol/L. The concentration of humic acid in the solution is determined at wavelength of 254 nm. The sorption of humic acid on the γ-Al 2 O 3 is strong (≅98% HA is sorbed on the surface of alumina at pH zpc =9.2)) and strongly dependent on pH values. At pH>9.2, the sorption of HA is decreased markedly with the increasing of pH. Humic acid has a little negative effect on the sorption of Cs onto alumina, this may be attributed to the formation of HA-Cs complexation in the solution. The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 is weakly dependent on the pH and independent on the ionic strength. Freundlich isotherm can fit the sorption isotherms very well. The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 may be contributed to cation exchange and surface complexation mechanisms. (authors)

  3. In vitro study of 137Cs sorption by hexacyanoferrates(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.; Dresow, B.; Heinrich, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    We synthesized a variety of colloidal and non-colloidal mixed hexacyanoferrate(II) complexes of Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn and studied the cesium sorption in vito under physiological conditions (artificial gastric juice, pH 1.2 and artificial duodenal juice, pH 6.8). All of the hexacyanoferrates under study (except cesium iron(III) hexacyanoferrate CsFeHCF) sorb tracer amounts of 137 Cs quantitatively. Differences in the sorption capacity become obvious by offering substantial amounts of cesium. Potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) (KCuHCF) and potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) (KZnHCF) are most efficient in cesium sorption at pH 1.2 and at pH 6.8. The sorption capacities of KCuHCF and KZnHCF (2.3-3.0 mmol Cs/g HCF) are twice as high as for colloidal Prussian blue (KFeHCF; 1.0-1.3 mmol Cs/g HCF) and insoluble Prussian blue (FeHCF; 1.0-1.6 mmol Cs/g HCF). The most promising compounds, KCuHCF and KZnHCF, should be further investigated in in vivo studies for 137/134 cesium decorporation. Evidence indicate that the sorption mechanism for most of the compounds under study is a cesium/potassium ion-exchange reaction. In the case of insoluble Prussian blue (FeHCF), a cesium/proton exchange was observed. On laboratory scale, 137/134 Cs-contaminated whey dry powder, produced from South German cow milk in summer 1986 was almost completely decontaminated by dialysing a whey suspension against buffer solution containing FeHCF. The 137/134 Cs + -ions, completely bound by FeHCF, can be isolated from the buffer solution by simple filtration. The buffer solution and the FeHCF can be re-used several times. (orig.)

  4. Panus tigrinus as a potential biomass source for Reactive Blue decolorization: Isotherm and kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monawar Munjid Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The biosorption process provided vital information on the process parameters required to obtain the optimum level of dye removal. The isotherm study indicated the homogeneous distribution of active sites on the biomass surface, and the kinetic study suggested that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step that controlled the biosorption process. According to the obtained results, P. tigrinus biomass can be used effectively to decolorize textile dyes and tackle the pollution problems in the environment.

  5. Comparative evaluation for the sorption capacity of four carbonaceous sorbents to phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Feng Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms of phenol by four carbonaceous sorbents (activated carbon (AC, mesoporous carbon (MPC, bamboo biochar (BBC and oak wood biochar (OBC were compared in this study. MPC has the fastest sorption rate and initial sorption potential, which were indicated by sorption rate constants and initial sorption rate “h” in a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The ordered and straight pore structure of MPC facilitated the accessibility of phenol. The AC showed the greatest sorption capacity towards phenol with maximum sorption of 123 mg/g as calculated by the Langmuir model. High surface area, complexity of pore structure, and the strong binding force of the π–π electron-donor-acceptor interaction between phenol molecules and AC were the main mechanisms. The BBC and OBC had much slower sorption and lower sorption capacity (33.04 and 29.86 mg/g, respectively, compared to MPC (73.00 mg/g and AC, indicating an ineffective potential for phenol removal from water.

  6. Sorption of Arsenic from Desalination Concentrate onto Drinking Water Treatment Solids: Operating Conditions and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions with high salinity is required for safe disposal of the concentrate and protection of the environment. The use of drinking water treatment solids (DWTS to remove arsenic from reverse osmosis (RO concentrate was studied by batch sorption experiments. The impacts of solution chemistry, contact time, sorbent dosage, and arsenic concentration on sorption were investigated, and arsenic sorption kinetics and isotherms were modeled. The results indicated that DWTS were effective in removing arsenic from RO concentrate. The arsenic sorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Multilayer adsorption was simulated by Freundlich equation. The maximum sorption capacities were calculated to be 170 mg arsenic per gram of DWTS. Arsenic sorption was enhanced by surface precipitation onto the DWTS due to the high amount of calcium in the RO concentrate and the formation of ternary complexes between arsenic and natural organic matter (NOM bound by the polyvalent cations in DWTS. The interactions between arsenic and NOM in the solid phase and aqueous phase exhibited two-sided effects on arsenic sorption onto DWTS. NOM in aqueous solution hindered the arsenic sorption onto DWTS, while the high organic matter content in solid DWTS phase enhanced arsenic sorption.

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption by Lagenaria vulgaris shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić-Stojanović Dragana-Linda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solution by Lagenaria vulgaris shell biosorbent (LVB in batch system was investigated. The effect of relevant parameters such as contact time, biosorbent dosage and initial metal ions concentration was evaluated. The Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption equilibrium (when 98% of initial metal ions were sorbed was attained within 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively. The pseudo first, pseudo-second order, Chrastil’s and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second order kinetic model and intra-particle diffusion model. Removal efficiency of lead(II, cadmium(II and zinc(II ions rapidly increased with increasing biosorbent dose from 0.5 to 8.0 g dm-3. Optimal biosorbent dose was set to 4.0 g dm-3. An increase in the initial metal concentration increases the sorption capacity. The sorption data of investigated metal ions are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir model best fitted the equilibrium data (r2 > 0.99. Maximal sorption capacities of LVB for Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II at 25.0±0.5°C were 0.130, 0.103 and 0.098 mM g-1, respectively. The desorption experiments showed that the LVB could be reused for six cycles with a minimum loss of the initial sorption capacity.

  8. Cs sorption to potential host rock of low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan: experiments and numerical fitting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Chen, Chin-Lung; Ou, Lu-Yen; Wei, Yuan-Yaw; Chang, Fu-Lin; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2011-09-15

    A reliable performance assessment of radioactive waste repository depends on better knowledge of interactions between nuclides and geological substances. Numerical fitting of acquired experimental results by the surface complexation model enables us to interpret sorption behavior at molecular scale and thus to build a solid basis for simulation study. A lack of consensus on a standard set of assessment criteria (such as determination of sorption site concentration, reaction formula) during numerical fitting, on the other hand, makes lower case comparison between various studies difficult. In this study we explored the sorption of cesium to argillite by conducting experiments under different pH and solid/liquid ratio (s/l) with two specific initial Cs concentrations (100mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-4)mol/L and 0.01 mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-8)mol/L). After this, numerical fitting was performed, focusing on assessment criteria and their consequences. It was found that both ion exchange and electrostatic interactions governed Cs sorption on argillite. At higher initial Cs concentration the Cs sorption showed an increasing dependence on pH as the solid/liquid ratio was lowered. In contrast at trace Cs levels, the Cs sorption was neither s/l dependent nor pH sensitive. It is therefore proposed that ion exchange mechanism dominates Cs sorption when the concentration of surface sorption site exceeds that of Cs, whereas surface complexation is attributed to Cs uptake under alkaline environments. Numerical fitting was conducted using two different strategies to determine concentration of surface sorption sites: the clay model (based on the cation exchange capacity plus surface titration results) and the iron oxide model (where the concentration of sorption sites is proportional to the surface area of argillite). It was found that the clay model led to better fitting than the iron oxide model, which is attributed to more amenable sorption sites (two specific sorption sites along with larger site

  9. Study of the factors affecting the sorption and fixation of radiocesium on some egyptian soil sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work with studying the use of egyptian soil samples for the sorption and fixation of low level activity wastes containing Cs-134 isotope. This radioactive isotope is one of the most important radionuclides found in low and intermediate level waste streams, as a fission product. The sorption process of radiocesium by the soil samples is governed by a number of variables such as the physical, mineralogical and chemical composition of the samples, effect of carrier ion concentrations,contact time, saturation with different cations and heat treatment of the soil samples . The effect of these variables had been investigated. The sorption behavior of Cs has been explained by applying Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Raduskevich equations. sorption of Cs can also be described on a laboratory time scale by more than one kinetic process. About 30 soil samples, supplied from the institute of metallurgy and the geological survey administration in egypt, were brought from different locations from the egyptian desert. These samples represent areas from Fayom, Wadi El-Rayan, Cairo Fayom Road, Quasr El-Sagha, North of the Eastern desert (egyptian vermiculite) and cairo - alexandria desert road(at 46 - 48 km from cairo). A pure german sample was used as a reference smectite clay for comparing the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties

  10. Removal Rate of Organic Matter Using Natural Cellulose via Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Low, Wen-Pei; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Iwao, Kenzo; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Ismail, Zulhilmi; Jamal, Mohamad Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using coconut fiber (CF) and palm oil fiber (POF) was investigated. Preliminary analysis was performed using a jar test for the selection of optimal medium before the fabricated column model experiment. The equilibrium studies on isotherms and kinetic models for NOM adsorption were analyzed using linearized correlation coefficient. Results showed that the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm model for both CF and POF. The most suitable adsorption model was the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for POF and pseudo-second-order kinetic model for CF. The adsorption capacities achieved by the CF and POF were 15.67 and 30.8 mg/g respectively. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that the POF is the most suitable material for the removal of NOM in semi polluted river water.

  11. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by nostoc commune: isotherm and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Fatthy M. [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, Sedky H.A. [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Koutb, Mostafa [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, Nostoc commune (cyanobacterium) was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of various physicochemical factors on Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption such as pH 2.0-7.0, initial metal concentration 0.0-300 mg/L and contact time 0-120 min were studied. Optimum pH for removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was 6.0, while the contact time was 30 min at room temperature. The nature of biosorbent and metal ion interaction was evaluated by infrared (IR) technique. IR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn (II). The maximum biosorption capacities for Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption by N. commune calculated from Langmuir biosorption isotherm were 126.32 and 115.41 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption isotherm for two biosorbents fitted well with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (r{sup 2} < 0.99). The biosorption kinetic data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, this study indicated that the N. commune is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. In Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Non-Isothermal Tempering of Bainitic and Martensitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hesamodin Talebi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations during non-isothermal tempering of bainitic or martensitic microstructures obtained after quenching of a medium-carbon low-alloy steel was studied. The microstructures correspond to different locations of an as-quenched large-sized forged ingot used as a die material in the automotive industry. High-resolution dilatometry experiments were conducted to simulate the heat treatment process, as well as to investigate different phenomena occurring during non-isothermal tempering. The microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dilatometry analyses demonstrated that tempering behavior varied significantly from bainitic to martensitic microstructures. Retained austenite, which exists between bainitic ferrite sheaves, decomposes to lower bainite causing a remarkable volume increase. It was found that this decomposition finishes below 386 °C. By contrast, martensite tempering was accompanied with a volume decrease due to the decomposition of medium-carbon martensite to low carbon martensite and carbides.

  13. MODELADO DE LAS ISOTERMAS DE SORCIÓN Y DEL CALOR ISOSTÉRICO DE SORCIÓN EN PULPA DE MANGO cv. TOMMY ATKINS MODELAGEM DE ISOTERMAS DE SORÇÃO E CALOR ISOSTÉRICO DE SORÇÃO DE POLPA DE MANGA cv. TOMMY ATKINS MODELING SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND ISOSTERIC HEAT OF SORPTION OF MANGO PULP cv. TOMMY ATKINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ BON

    2012-12-01

    polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins foi analisada para determinar as isotermas de sorção. A atividade de água foi medida empregando um higrômetro elétrico a cinco diferentes temperaturas (10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 °C e amplas faixas de conteúdo de umidade (2.829 - 0.031 kg kg-1 b.s. e atividade de água (0.977 - 0.215. O modelo de teórico de GAB e os modelos empíricos de (Oswin, Henderson, Halsey e Ratti foram empregados para modelar as isotermas de sorção. Depois de considerar diferentes critérios, o modelo de GAB apresentou a melhor opção para representar o equilíbrio higroscópico da polpa de manga (RMSE = 0.057, VAR = 0.996.As isotermas mostraram um comportamento acorde aos materiais agroalimentícios e similar ao reportado para polpa de manga de outras variedades. O calor isostérico de sorção foi calculado utilizando a equação de Clausius-Clapeyron a partir do modelo de GAB. Observou-se uma diminuição no calor isostérico de sorção quando aumentou o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio, com um grande efeito da umidade em valores abaixo de 0.8 kg kg-1 (b.s..Mango is an agricultural product of great economic importance for various developing countries, which has increased demand for its nutritional properties and exotic characteristics. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for mango processing, especially for drying and storage operations. Water activity and moisture content of mango pulp (Mangiferaindica L. cv. Tommy Atkins were analyzed to determine the sorption isotherms. The water activity was measured using an electric hygrometer at five different temperatures (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C and wide ranges of moisture content (2.829-0.031 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.977-0.215. One theoretical (GAB and four empirical equations (Oswin, Henderson, Halsey and Ratti were used for modeling the sorption isotherms. After following several criteria to evaluate the models, the GAB

  14. Detailed sorption characteristics of the anti-diabetic drug metformin and its transformation product guanylurea in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Rowena M; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2018-07-15

    Detection of metformin, an antidiabetic drug and its transformation product guanylurea in various environmental matrices such as surface water and groundwater, coupled with their effects on aquatic organisms warrant an understanding of the compounds fate and behaviour in the environment. Batch studies were conducted with the aim of evaluating the sorption of these two emerging contaminants in six New Zealand agricultural soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties. Kinetic studies revealed that metformin and guanylurea sorption in Te Kowhai soil was very rapid initially achieving 90% sorption within the first 4 and 13h, respectively. Fit of several isotherm models to the measured batch sorption data showed that the hybrid models Langmuir-Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson best described the isotherms. Freundlich isotherm showed higher linearity for guanylurea (n F =0.58-0.93) in all soils compared to metformin (n F =0.25-0.71). A linear isotherm was fitted at environmentally relevant low concentrations (< 3mg/L) of target compounds and calculated values of sorption distribution coefficient (K d ) were in the range of 8.97 to 53.49L/kg for metformin and between 10.6 and 37.51L/kg for guanylurea. Sorption of both metformin and guanylurea was dependent on the soil characteristics, however, no generalisation could be made as to which had higher affinity to soils studied. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses indicate that Si/Al (p=0.042) and clay (p=0.015) significantly influenced metformin K d values, whereas the soil's cation exchange capacity (p=0.024) is the single most significant factor determining guanylurea sorption in soils. It is likely that the type of minerals present in soils and its ion-exchange capacity could play an important role in metformin and guanylurea sorption, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Recent progress in sorption mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.; Lefevre, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the migration of radioactive species in surface and underground waters. In order to predict the transport of these species, we need a good knowledge of sorption processes and data, together with reliable models able to be included in transport calculation. Traditional approaches based on experimentally determined distribution coefficients (Kd) and sorption isotherms have a limited predictive capability, since they are very sensitive to the numerous parameters characterizing the solution and the solid. Models based on thermodynamic equilibria were developed to account for the influence these parameters: the ion exchange model and the surface complexation models (2-pK mono-site, 1-pK multi-site, with several different electrostatic models: CCM, DLM, BSM, TLM,...). Although these models are very useful, studies performed in recent years showed that they have important theoretical and experimental limitations, which result in the fact that we must be very careful when we use them for extrapolating sorption data to long term and to large natural systems. Among all problems which can be found are: the possibility to fit a set of experimental data with different models, sometimes bad adequacy with the real sorption processes, some theoretical limitations such as a rigorous definition of reference and standard states in surface equilibria, slow kinetics which prevent from equilibrium achievement, irreversibility, solubility and evolution of solid phases... Through the increase of the number of sensitive spectroscopic methods, we are now able to know more about sorption processes at the atomic scale. Models such as the 1-pK CD-MUSIC model can account for the influence of orientation of the faces of the solid. More and more examples of the influence of this orientation on the sorption properties are known. Calculations performed by 'ab initio' modeling is also useful to predict the

  16. Characterization of phosphorus sorption on the sediments of Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Jiamei; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Sumei; Yang, Guipeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied the kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics of phosphorus sorption onto the sediments of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters, as well as the sediments' compositions and physicochemical properties. The process could be described well by a two-compartment first order equation. The sorbed phosphorus mainly consisted of Ex-P and Fe-P, with Ex-P being the dominant. The equilibrium isotherms could be fitted well with a modified Langmuir equation. The calculations of the thermodynamic parameters indicated that the process was spontaneous and exothermic. The CEC and the fractions of clay, calcite and organic matter were correlated with the sorption parameters, while the surface proton charge of the sediments was significantly negatively correlated with them. Considering the kinetics and phosphorus forms changes during the process, the sorption in our study could be considered that the physical process plays an important role. - Highlights: • The kinetic curves and phosphorus fractions changes during sorption were studied. • The sorbed phosphorus mainly consisted of Ex − P and Fe-P, with Ex − P being dominant. • The equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamic parameters were investigated. • Sediment composition and surface characteristics influenced phosphorus sorption parameters.

  17. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  18. Alkali metal ion-proton exchange equilibria and water sorption studies on nafon 117 membrane and dowex 50 W exchange resins: effect of long storage or aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, Jayshree; Venkataramani, B.

    2004-09-01

    Alkali metal ion -H + exchanges on Nafion 117 membrane treated differently, Dowex 50 W x 4 and Dowex 50 W x 8 resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 . The water sorption isotherms of these exchangers in different ionic forms generated over the entire range of water activity, have been analysed by the D'Arcy and Watt equation (DWE). Water sorption studies have shown that the physical structure of the exchangers have changed due to long -storage or aging, resulting in poorer water sorption and even formation of pores in the case of Dowex 50 W x 8 resin. As a result, the counter ions in the exchangers are not hydrated and the water is present in a free form, albeit structured, in the resin phase. The selectivity sequence for the alkali metal ions with reference to the H + (Li + + + ) for the exchangers used in the present study is in accordance with that reported in the literature for the ionomers having sulphonic acid as the functional group. In view of the absence of hydration of the cations in the resin phase, the driving force for the selectivity of the cation, namely, the net gain in entropy, is expected to come from the loss of structured water during the exchange process. Pre treating the Nafion 117 membrane with boiling acid solution activates the clustered region of the membrane in the H + form, while pretreatment with boiling water expands the non-ionic domain (the region connecting the clusters). These modifications influence the state of water present in the Nafion 117 membrane and the ion exchange equilibria. As a result of long storage or aging, the ion exchangers lose their elasticity or swelling characteristics. The results obtained in the present study indicate that in aged materials, the ionogenic groups are existing as isolated ion -pairs rather than in a clustered morphology. (author)

  19. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  20. Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry (downward cone- cylinder)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A. [Yazd Univ., Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Goharkhah, M.; Ashjaee, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Laminar free convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry which consists of a downward cone attached to a vertical cylinder was studied. In particular, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to determine the change in local and average heat transfer coefficients on the surface of an isothermal combined geometry for different vertex angles. The effect of the vertex angle on heat transfer was also investigated by keeping the height of the cylinder and slant length of the cone constant for all objects. The experimental data showed that the local heat transfer coefficient on the conical part increased in the vicinity of the cylinder and cone intersection. The distance between the point of minimum heat transfer coefficient on the cone and vertex of the cone decreased as the vertex angle increased. The maximum average Nusselt number for a constant Rayleigh number was obtained for the geometry with the smallest vertex angle. For all objects, the average Nusselt number increased with an increase in the Rayleigh number. An experiment was carried out on a vertical isothermal cylinder of circular cross section in order to validate the experimental approach. An analytical solution was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Gas sorption properties of microporous metal organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, JeongYong; Li Jing; Jagiello, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    A low-temperature gas sorption study has been carried out on four three-dimensional microporous metal organic framework (MMOF) structures and two two-dimensional layered structures. The pore characteristics are analyzed based on the argon adsorption-desorption isotherms at 87 K. The results from hydrogen sorption experiments conducted at 77 and 87 K show that all MMOFs have a relatively high hydrogen uptake, with adsorbed hydrogen densities falling in the range of liquid hydrogen. Isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption data calculated based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are consistent with these observations, indicating strong sorbent-sorbate interactions. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 and 87 K

  2. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  3. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  4. Base Catalytic Approach: A Promising Technique for the Activation of Biochar for Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Copper, Cu(II Ions in Single Solute System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of catalytically pretreated biochar derived from the dried exocarp or fruit peel of mangostene with Group I alkali metal hydroxide (KOH. The pretreated char was activated in the presence of carbon dioxide gas flow at high temperature to upgrade its physiochemical properties for the removal of copper, Cu(II cations in single solute system. The effect of three independent variables, including temperature, agitation time and concentration, on sorption performance were carried out. Reaction kinetics parameters were determined by using linear regression analysis of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The regression co-efficient, R2 values were best for the pseudo second order kinetic model for all the concentration ranges under investigation. This implied that Cu(II cations were adsorbed mainly by chemical interactions with the surface active sites of the activated biochar. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to interpret the equilibrium data at different temperature. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The surface area of the activated sample was 367.10 m2/g, whereas before base activation, it was only 1.22 m2/g. The results elucidated that the base pretreatment was efficient enough to yield porous carbon with an enlarged surface area, which can successfully eliminate Cu(II cations from waste water.

  5. Sorption mechanism of U(VI) on to natural soil system: a study using intra-particle diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, S.; Kumar, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of U(VI) adsorption onto natural soils from different parent materials has been studied experimentally using the batch adsorption method at five different initial U(VI) concentrations. The utility of Weber and Morris Interparticle diffusion model for describing the mechanism and kinetics of sorption is discussed. The study reveals that the mechanism of U(VI) sorption involves three steps such as: external surface adsorption, gradual adsorption stage which is the rate determining step and the last portion refers to the final equilibrium stage. The steps involved in sorption of U(VI) on to soil is same irrespective of soil types and initial U(VI) concentration. (author)

  6. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2003-07-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10{sup -6} M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10{sup -3} M HNO{sub 3} solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84{+-}0.45 mmol g{sup -1}) and sorption energy (10.6{+-}0.13 kJ mol{sup -1}) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced (< 63 > 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters {delta}H = -37.4{+-}2 kJ mol{sup -1} {delta}S = -105{+-}7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and {delta}G = -2.58{+-}0.05 kJ mol{sup -1} at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of {sup 203}Hg (279 keV) from {sup 75}Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  7. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10 -6 M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10 -3 M HNO 3 solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84±0.45 mmol g -1 ) and sorption energy (10.6±0.13 kJ mol -1 ) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced ( 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters ΔH = -37.4±2 kJ mol -1 ΔS = -105±7 J mol -1 K -1 and ΔG = -2.58±0.05 kJ mol -1 at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of 203 Hg (279 keV) from 75 Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  8. A study of specific sorption of neptunium(V) on smectite in low pH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka; Ito, Yoshimoto

    1996-01-01

    The 'specific sorption' of neptunium(V) on smectite, in other words, a strong sorption undesorbable by 1 M KCl, is studied with a combination of batch type sorption and desorption experiments over a pH range of 2 to 5. Six types of homoionic smectite (Li-, Na-, K-, Cs-, Mg-, and Ca-smectite) are used in this study. Distribution coefficients (K d ) of neptunium for smectite vary over a wide pH range; the maximum K d value of ∝300 cm 3 x g -1 at around pH 2 for Li- and Na-smectite and the minimum value of ∝2 cm 3 x g -1 for Cs-smectite. The specific sorption of neptunium depends on pH and on the affinity of the exchangeable cation for smectite; the lower the pH of solution or the affinity, the larger the specific sorption. The neptunium-smectite association varies with the elapse of contact time. Within the first day of the neptunium-smectite contact the neptunium sorbed on na-smectite at low pH is desorbable by 1 M KCl solution, and on the passage of time most of the neuptunium sorbed becomes undesorbable by KCl (the specific sorption). Hydronium ion in solution is sorbed on smectite at low pH and dissociates the exchangeable cation from smectite into solution, and the specific sorption of neuptunium increases with increasing the exchangeable cation that is dissociated from smectite. (orig.)

  9. Experimental study of water desorption isotherms and thin-layer convective drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnimi, Thouraya; Hassini, Lamine; Bagane, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the desorption isotherms and the drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves ( Laurus Nobilis L.). The desorption isotherms were performed at three temperature levels: 50, 60 and 70 °C and at water activity ranging from 0.057 to 0.88 using the statistic gravimetric method. Five sorption models were used to fit desorption experimental isotherm data. It was found that Kuhn model offers the best fitting of experimental moisture isotherms in the mentioned investigated ranges of temperature and water activity. The Net isosteric heat of water desorption was evaluated using The Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was then best correlated to equilibrium moisture content by the empirical Tsami's equation. Thin layer convective drying curves of bay laurel leaves were obtained for temperatures of 45, 50, 60 and 70 °C, relative humidity of 5, 15, 30 and 45 % and air velocities of 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. A non linear regression procedure of Levenberg-Marquardt was used to fit drying curves with five semi empirical mathematical models available in the literature, The R2 and χ2 were used to evaluate the goodness of fit of models to data. Based on the experimental drying curves the drying characteristic curve (DCC) has been established and fitted with a third degree polynomial function. It was found that the Midilli Kucuk model was the best semi-empirical model describing thin layer drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves. The bay laurel leaves effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were also identified.

  10. Porosity, sorption and diffusivity data compiled for the SKB 91 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Skagius, K.

    1991-04-01

    The SKB 91 study is an integrated safety analysis of the KBS-3 concept of a repository located in the Finnsjoen area. For this study, values of important transport parameters in the bentonite backfill and in the rock are proposed. K d -values, diffusivities and diffusion porosity for different elements in compacted MX-80 bentonite are based on experimental data found in the literature. With regard to sorption, both a best estimate and a conservative value is given. Because sorption on bentonite is very much dependent on the conditions prevailing and experimental data are limited and not necessary representative for the conditions expected in the repository, the proposed best estimate values may include large uncertainties. Data proposed for rock are matrix diffusivities, matrix porosity and diffusivity in mobile bulk water. These values are based on experimental results on Finnsjoe rock. (au)

  11. Influence of organic matter type and medium composition on the sorption affinity of C12-benzalkonium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Hermens, Joop L.M.; Droge, Steven T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We used the 7-μm polyacrylate ion-exchange SPME fibers to investigate C12-benzalkonium sorption to 10 mg/L natural organic matter at concentrations well below the cation-exchange capacity. C12-BAC sorption at constant medium conditions differed within 0.4 log units for two humic acids (Aldrich, Leonardite) and peat (Sphagnum, Pahokee), with similar nonlinear sorption isotherms (K F ∼ 0.8). Sorption to the SPME fibers and Aldrich humic acid (AHA) was reduced at both low pH and high electrolyte concentration, and reduced more strongly by Ca 2+ compared with Na + at similar concentrations. Sorption isotherms for AHA (5–50–500 mM Na + , pH 6) was modeled successfully by the NICA-Donnan approach, resulting in an intrinsic sorption coefficient of 5.35 (C aq = 1 nM). The NICA-Donnan model further explained the stronger specific binding of Ca 2+ compared to Na + by differences in Boltzmann factors. This study provides relevant information to interpret bioavailability of quaternary ammonium compounds, and possibly for other organic cations. -- Highlights: •The ion-exchange SPME was used to investigate C12-benzalkonium sorption behavior. •Sorption to different organic matter differed within 0.4 log units (5 mM Ca 2+ , pH6). •Sorption to AHA was reduced at both low pH and high electrolyte concentration. •The NICA-Donnan approach lead to an intrinsic log D OC,IE of 5.35 (C aq = 1 nM). •The Boltzmann factors in NICA-Donnan model explained the specific binding of Ca 2+ . -- C12-BAC sorption to the four organic matter samples were investigated by the ion-exchange SPME and the NICA-Donnan model explained the different sorption affinities caused by Na + and Ca 2+

  12. Kinetic Study on the Sorption of Te (IV), Ce (III) and Eu (III) on some Inorganic Ion Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Shehata, M.K.K.; El-Shazly, E.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of Te (IV), Ce (III) and Eu (III) on zirconium phosphate (Zr P) and ceric tungstate under various conditions was studied. Some factors affecting the sorption kinetics of the aforementioned metal ions on both ion exchangers were investigated. These factors were: hydrogen ion concentration in the absence of complexing agents, contact time, particle size of the two mentioned ion exchangers, metal in concentration and temperature. Radioactive isotopes were used for tracing the corresponding elements. Some physical parameters related to the sorption process were calculated from the obtained data

  13. Sorption and desorption of glyphosate in Mollisols and Ultisols soils of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Ortiz, Ana Maria; Okada, Elena; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in recent years as a result of the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in 3 Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (K f ). Glyphosate sorption was high, and the K f varied from 115.6 to 1612 mg 1-1/n L 1/n /kg. Cerro Azul soil had the highest glyphosate sorption capacity as a result of a combination of factors such as higher clay content, cation exchange capacity, total iron, and aluminum oxides, and lower available phosphorus and pH. Desorption isotherms were also modeled using the Freundlich equation. In general, desorption was very low (glyphosate strongly sorbs to the soils and that it is almost an irreversible process. Anguil soil had a significantly higher desorption coefficient (K fd ) than the other soils, associated with its lower clay content and higher pH and phosphorus. Glyphosate high sorption and low desorption to the studied soils may prevent groundwater contamination. However, it may also affect its bioavailability, increasing its persistence and favoring its accumulation in the environment. The results of the present study contribute to the knowledge and characterization of glyphosate retention in different soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2587-2592. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. The sorption behavior of DDT onto sediment in the presence of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoyan; Han Huayu; Yang Guipeng; Gong Xiaofei; Jing Jianning

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sorption behavior of a complex system consists of DDT and CTAB onto marine sediment was studied. → Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics. → The presence of CTAB could remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT. → The sorption of DDT had relatively more negative ΔG 0 and ΔH 0 in the presence of CTAB. - Abstract: The sorption behavior of p,p'- and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on sediment was studied. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the process. The kinetic behavior of these three chemicals on sediment was described by pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and the isotherms followed the Freundlich model well. The presence of CTAB was able to remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT, whereas DDT showed no effect on the sorption of CTAB in our considered concentration ranges. The thermodynamic parameters, such as standard enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ), standard entropy change (ΔS 0 ) and standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔG 0 ) showed that the sorption process of p,p'- and o,p'-DDT was physical, spontaneous and exothermic, and the randomness at the solid-liquid interface increased during the process. In the presence of CTAB, the sorption of DDT showed significantly negative ΔG 0 and ΔH 0 values.

  15. Column studies on the sorption of radioactive isotopes by some natural clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, A.S.; Misak, N.Z.; Maghrawy, H.B.; Shafik, A.

    1982-01-01

    Different types of naturally occuring minerals have been investigated in respect of the sorption of various radioisotopes. The present work deals with column studies of the sorption of 89 Sr and 60 Co on four natural bentonites. Columns having a cross section of 1.47 cm 2 were used for determining the breakthrough capacities for both Sr and Co. The applicability of the Glueckauf plate theory to the systems was tested. It was found that HETP is constant for a given system of column and cationic species, which proves the applicability of the theory. From this, it follows that the data obtained for the short laboratory columns can be used to predict the breakthrough behaviour for longer columns. (author)

  16. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  17. Study of flow past an exponentially accelerated isothermal vertical plate in the presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical study of unsteady flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion has been presented in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and species concentration level near the plate is made to rise linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters like chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, a and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or t. But the trend is just reversed with respect to K.

  18. Sorption/desorption of Cs on clay and soil fractions from various regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erten, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption/desorption behaviour of Cs ion in the concentration region of 10 -8 to 10 -4 meqml -1 have been studied using clay and soil fractions from various regions of Turkey. The sorption curves for all the material studied show similar behaviour indicating at least two different sorption processes. One with high and the other with low distribution coefficients. The results of desorption studies indicate that Cs cation is to a large extent attached to the solid material in a reversible manner. The adsorption isotherms were found to be nonlinear in all cases. The increase of R D values with decreasing particle size in most cases, suggests that sorption and/or exchange is primarily a surface phenomenon in the clay and soil fractions studied. 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. Sorption of benzothiazoles onto sandy aquifer material under equilibrium and nonequlibrium conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragulj Marijana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorption behaviour of 1,3-benzothiazole (BT and 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole (MTBT was investigated on Danube geosorbent under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich model (R2=0.932-0.993. The results showed that organic matter of the Danube geosorbent has a higher sorption affinity for the more hydrophobic MTBT compared to BT. However, sorption-desorption experiments showed that MTBT was more easily desorbed than BT molecules, which indicates the importance of absorption relative to adsorption in the overall sorption mechanism of MTBT. In general, molecules of BT and MTBT were more easily desorbed in the lower concentration range, which resulted in an increase in the hysteresis indices with increasing concentrations. Column experiments revealed that retention of the investigated compounds on the aquifer material followed the compound’s hydrophobicity. BT showed a lower retention, in accordance with its lower sorption affinity obtained in the static experiments, while MTBT showed a greater sorption affinity, and thus had a longer retention time on the column. Thus during transport BT represent greater risk for groundwaters than MTBT. These results have increased our understanding of benzothiazoles sorption and desorption process which represent one of the most important factors which influence the behaviour of organic compounds in the environment.

  20. β-Zeolite modified by ethylenediamine for sorption of Th(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng; Wu, Hanyu; Yuan, Ni; Yin, Zhuoxin; Pan, Duoqiang; Wu, Wangsuo [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Ministry of Education, Lanzhou (China). Key Lab. of Special Function Materials and Structure Design

    2017-08-01

    β-Zeolite-EDA was modified with ethylenediamine (EDA) after synthesized. The synthesized material was characterized and used for removal of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions. The influences of pH, ionic strength, contact time, temperature and humic acid (HA) on Th(IV) sorption onto synthesized β-zeolite-EDA was studied by batch technique. The dynamic process showed that the sorption of Th(IV) onto β-zeolite-EDA matched the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The sorption of Th(IV) on β-zeolite-EDA was significantly dependent on pH values, the sorption percentage increased markedly at pH 3.5-4.5, and then maintained a steady state as pH values increased. Through simulating the sorption isotherms by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubini-Radushkevich (D-R) models, it could be seen respectively that the sorption pattern of Th(IV) on β-zeolite-EDA was mainly controlled by surface complexation, and that the sorption processes was endothermic and spontaneous. The presence of HA increased Th(IV) sorption on β-zeolite-EDA.

  1. Comparative study on sorption of radiocobalt to montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Cheng, J.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences of FA/Co 2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption. (author)

  2. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  3. Sorption of cobalt in zeolites and natural clays of the clinoptilolite and kaolinite type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila R, J.I.; Solache R, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the sorption of cobalt of aqueous solutions in two natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) and a clay (kaolinite) of origin in the center-north region of Mexico is evaluated. The effect of the pH and the time of contact in the process of sorption were evaluated. The cobalt retained in the aluminosilicates was determined by neutron activation analysis. The cobalt sorption in the materials in a range of pH from 4 to 7 does not present significant variations. The studies of reaction kinetics show a very fast sorption in the first 5 hours of contact, reaching the equilibrium in approximately 24 hours. The kinetics of sorption of the cobalt ions was represented better by the Ritchie reaction model modified of second order. The experimental data for the zeolites obtained at ambient temperature and varying the concentration were adjusted to the models of Freundlich, Langmuir and Freundlich-Langmuir isotherms and it was observed that the cobalt sorption it behaves according to the Freundlich isotherm model. (Author)

  4. Experimental study of natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder in cold pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riu, Kap Jong; Yea, Yong Taeg; Park, Sang Hee

    1991-01-01

    A natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder is studied experimentally in cold pure water. The experiments are carried out as changing the temperature of the ambient water and then the flow and heat transfer characteristics is visualized and observed. It is shown that flow patterns are steady state upflow, unsteady state flow, steady state dual flow, and steady state downflow. There is also obtained a heat transfer coefficient and mean Nusselt number at various ambient temperature. These results are in good agreement with the theoretical ones. (Author)

  5. A study of the properties of hexacyanoferrate sorbents and their use for sorption of caesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareta, V.I.; Grivkova, A.I.; Artemova, T.N.; Mizina, L.I.; Krasavina, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    A method of deposition of zinc, copper, and nickel hexacyanaferrates on silica-containing substrate (clinoptilolite) has been developed to produce mechanically strong sorbents for cesium and strontium separation from solutions of different compositions. The modification of clinoptilolite increases its sorption capacity for both cesium and strontium. Sorption behaviour of radionuclides was studied both in static and kinetic conditions. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  6. Batch kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of strontium from aqueous solutions onto low cost rice-straw based carbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yakout

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the feasibility of using waste rice-straw based carbons as adsorbent for the removal of strontium under different experimental conditions. The batch sorption is studied with respect to solute concentration (2.8 - 110 mg/L, contact time, adsorbent dose (2.5 - 20 g/L and solution temperature (25 - 55oC. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were applied to experimental equilibrium data and isotherm constants were calculated using linear regression analysis. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of strontium on rice-straw carbon was evaluated for the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham’s kinetics models. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudosecond-order kinetic model and also followed by intra-particle diffusion model, whereas diffusion is not only the rate-controlling step. The results show that the sorption capacity increases with an increase in solution temperature from 25 to 55 oC. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The positive value of ΔH (40.93 kJ indicated that the adsorption of strontium onto RS1 carbon was endothermic, which result was supported by the increasing adsorption of strontium with temperature. The positive value of ΔS (121.8 kJ/mol reflects good affinity of strontium ions towards the rice-straw based carbons. The results have establishedgood potentiality for the carbons particles to be used as a sorbent for the removal of strontium from wastewater.

  7. Sorption studies of uranium in sediment-groundwater systems from the natural analogue sites of Needle's Eye and Broubster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.; Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of sorption experiments designed to provide essential data for migration modelling. Sorption of 233 U from natural ground-water onto peat from Broubster and silt from Needle's Eye was studied under atmospheric conditions and different pH regimes. The temperature was maintained at 10 0 C and, in the case of Needle's Eye silt, the kinetics of sorption were followed. The results were analyzed in conjunction with speciation modelling in an attempt to understand the sorption mechanisms and to extrapolate the findings to cover the range of conditions likely to be met in the field. This work is part of the CEC project Mirage - Second phase, research area 'Natural analogues'

  8. Sorption of citalopram, irbesartan and fexofenadine in soils: Estimation of sorption coefficients from soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Aleš; Kodešová, Radka; Bauerová, Martina; Golovko, Oksana; Kočárek, Martin; Fér, Miroslav; Koba, Olga; Nikodem, Antonín; Grabic, Roman

    2018-03-01

    The sorption of 3 pharmaceuticals, which may exist in 4 different forms depending on the solution pH (irbesartan in cationic, neutral and anionic, fexofenadine in cationic, zwitter-ionic and anionic, and citalopram cationic and neutral), in seven different soils was studied. The measured sorption isotherms were described by Freundlich equations, and the sorption coefficients, K F (for the fixed n exponent for each compound), were related to the soil properties to derive relationships for estimating the sorption coefficients from the soil properties (i.e., pedotransfer rules). The largest sorption was obtained for citalopram (average K F value for n = 1 was 1838 cm 3  g -1 ) followed by fexofenadine (K F  = 35.1 cm 3/n μg 1-1/n g -1 , n = 1.19) and irbesartan (K F  = 3.96 cm 3/n μg 1-1/n g -1 , n = 1.10). The behavior of citalopram (CIT) in soils was different than the behaviors of irbesartan (IRB) and fexofenadine (FEX). Different trends were documented according to the correlation coefficients between the K F values for different compounds (R IRB,FEX  = 0.895, p-valuesoil properties in the pedotransfer functions. While the K F value for citalopram was positively related to base cation saturation (BCS) or sorption complex saturation (SCS) and negatively correlated to the organic carbon content (Cox), the K F values of irbesartan and fexofenadine were negatively related to BCS, SCS or the clay content and positively related to Cox. The best estimates were obtained by combining BCS and Cox for citalopram (R 2  = 93.4), SCS and Cox for irbesartan (R 2  = 96.3), and clay content and Cox for fexofenadine (R 2  = 82.9). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microplastics play a minor role in tetracycline sorption in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baile; Liu, Fei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2018-05-02

    Microplastics have a great potential to sorb organic pollutants from the adjacent environment. In this study, the sorption of tetracycline, a polar and ionizable antibiotic, on three types of microplastics (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS)) were investigated in batch sorption experiments. The sorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model, indicating that not only hydrophobic interactions but also other interactions (e.g. electrostatic interactions) played important roles in the sorption process. PS had the maximum sorption capacity, following the order PS > PP > PE, which can be attributed to polar interactions and π-π interactions. The sorption of tetracycline on microplastics was significantly influenced by pH, with sorption capacity increasing gradually, peaking at pH 6.0 and then decreasing, likely due to the influence of tetracycline speciation with the change of pH. Fulvic acid was selected as representative dissolved organic matter (DOM) to examine the effect on sorption. The increasing concentration of fulvic acid inhibited the sorption of tetracycline on three microplastics, decreasing them by more than 90% at the fulvic acid concentration of 20 mg/L, which implied a greater affinity of tetracycline to fulvic acid than to microplastics. Increasing salinity from 0.05 to 3.5% had negligible effects on the sorption of tetracycline on the three microplastics. Our results highlight the importance of pH and DOM on the sorption of tetracycline on microplastics, and suggest the relatively minor role of microplastics in the fate and transport of tetracycline in the aquatic environment in the presence of DOM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Hg (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of swamp arum (Lasimorpha senegalensis) seeds as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The influence of initial metal concentration on the percent adsorption of Hg (II) ions onto powdered swamp arum seeds was studied in a batch system ...

  11. Agro-waste biosorbents: Effect of physico-chemical properties on atrazine and imidacloprid sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera; Nain, Lata

    2017-09-02

    Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with K F values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values imidacloprid sorption parameter [K F .(1/n)] with the physicochemical properties of the biosorbents suggested that atrazine adsorption correlated significantly to the aromaticity, polarity, surface area, fractal dimension, lacunarity and relative C-O band intensity parameters of biosorbents. Probably, both physisorption and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the pesticide sorption. The eucalyptus bark can be exploited as low cost adsorbent for the removal of these pesticides as well as a component of on-farm biopurification systems.

  12. Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles for Cr(VI) adsorption: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Ali; Demirbel, Emel; Tekin, Nalan; Osman, Bilgen; Beşirli, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) can oxidize biological molecules and be one of the most harmful substance. • Magnetic seperation techniques are used on different applications in many fields. • Magnetic systems can be used for rapid and selective removal as a magnetic processor. • We investigate properties of both new material and other magnetic adsorbents reported in the literatures on the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions. • No researchments were reported on adsorption of Cr(VI) with magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(EG)–vinylphenyl boronic acid(VPBA)) [m-poly(EG–VPBA)], produced by suspension polymerization and characterized, was found to be an efficient solid polymer for Cr(VI) adsorption. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were prepared by copolymerizing of ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EG) with 4-vinyl phenyl boronic acid (VPBA). The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were used at adsorbent/Cr(VI) ion ratios. The influence of pH, Cr(VI) initial concentration, temperature of the removal process was investigated. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Langmuir isotherm and Dubinin–Radushkvich isotherm were found to better fit the experiment data rather than Fruendlich isotherm. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Cr(VI) on the m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were investigated using the pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, results showed that the pseudo-second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results. The thermodynamic

  13. Sorption of uranyl ions on silica. Effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength, concentration and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Tao Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of UO 2 2+ and phosphate on silica were simultaneously studied. The effect of contact time between the solid phase and aqueous solution, pH and ionic strength on the UO 2 2+ sorption in the absence and the presence of phosphate was investigated. The effect of contact time between the solid phase and aqueous solution, pH and ionic strength on the phosphate sorption was investigated too. The isotherms of UO 2 2+ and phosphate sorption at different pH values were determined. It was found that as compared with the sorption in the absence of phosphate, the sorption of UO 2 2+ on silica in the presence of phosphate is increased at low pH and decreased at high pH; the abruptly increased with increasing pH in the pH range 3-6; the sorption is gradually decreased with increasing pH in the pH range 2-12; the sorption insensitive and the sorption of phosphate is sensitive to ionic strength. (author)

  14. Phosphorus sorption-desorption and effects of temperature, pH and salinity on phosphorus sorption in marsh soils from coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Ye, Xiaofei; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils act as a sink or source of phosphorus (P) to the overlaying water due to phosphorus sorption-desorption processes. Litter information is available on sorption and desorption behaviors of phosphorus in coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphorus sorption-desorption processes, fractions of adsorbed phosphorus, and the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on phosphorus sorption on soils in tidal-flooding wetlands (TW), freshwater-flooding wetlands (FW) and seasonal-flooding wetlands (SW) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that the freshly adsorbed phosphorus dominantly exists in Occluded-P and Fe/AlP and their percentages increased with increasing phosphorus adsorbed. Phosphorus sorption isotherms could be better described by the modified Langmuir model than by the modified Freundlich model. A binomial equation could be properly used to describe the effects of salinity, pH, and temperature on phosphorus sorption. Phosphorus sorption generally increased with increasing salinity, pH, and temperature at lower ranges, while decreased in excess of some threshold values. The maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Q max ) was larger for FW soils (256 mg/kg) compared with TW (218 mg/kg) and SW soils (235 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The percentage of phosphorus desorption (P des ) in the FW soils (7.5-63.5%) was much lower than those in TW (27.7-124.9%) and SW soils (19.2-108.5%). The initial soil organic matter, pH and the exchangeable Al, Fe and Cd contents were important factors influencing P sorption and desorption. The findings of this study indicate that freshwater restoration can contribute to controlling the eutrophication status of water bodies through increasing P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gallium sorption on montmorillonite and illite colloids: Experimental study and modelling by ionic exchange and surface complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedicto, Ana; Degueldre, Claude; Missana, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ga sorption onto illite and montmorillonite was studied and modelled for the first time. • The developed sorption model was able to well explain Ga sorption in both clays. • Number of free parameters was reduced applying the linear free energy relationship. • Cationic exchange dominate sorption at pH < 4.5; surface complexation at higher pH. - Abstract: The migration of metals as gallium (Ga) in the environment is highly influenced by their sorption on clay minerals, as montmorillonite and illite. Given the increased usage of gallium in the industry and the medicine, the Ga-associated waste may result in environmental problems. Ga sorption experiments were carried out on montmorillonite and illite colloids in a wide range of pH, ionic strength and Ga concentration. A Ga sorption model was developed combining ionic exchange and surface complexation on the edge sites (silanol and aluminol-like) of the clay sheets. The complexation constants were estimated as far as possible from the Ga hydrolysis constants applying the linear free energy relationship (LFER), which allowed to reduce the number of free parameters in the model. The Ga sorption behaviour was very similar on illite and montmorillonite: decreasing tendency with pH and dependency on ionic strength at very acidic conditions. The experimental data modelling suggests that the Ga sorption reactions avoid the Ga precipitation, which is predicted in absence of clay colloids between pH 3.5 and 5.5. Assuming this hypothesis, clay colloids would affect Ga aqueous speciation, preventing precipitation in favour of sorption. Ga sorption on montmorillonite and illite can be explained on the basis of three main reactions: Ga 3+ exchange at very acidic conditions (pH < ∼3.8); Ga(OH) 4 - complexation on protonated weak sites in acidic-neutral conditions (between pH ∼5.2 and pH ∼7.9); and Ga(OH) 3 complexation on strong sites at basic conditions (pH > ∼7.9)

  16. Sorption behaviour of perfluoroalkyl substances in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), was studied in six soils with contrasting characteristics, especially in the organic carbon content. Sorption isotherms were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2 solutions spiked with increasing concentrations of the target PFAS. The sorption reversibility of PFASs was also tested for some of the samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the target PFASs in the solutions. Both the Freundlich and linear models were appropriate to describe the sorption behaviour of PFASs in soils, and enabled us to derive solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) for each compound in each soil. Kd values increased from 19 to 295 mL g(-1) for PFOS, from 2.2 to 38 mL g(-1) for PFOA and from 0.4 to 6.8 mL g(-1) for PFBS, and were positively correlated with the organic carbon content of the soil. KOC values obtained from the correlations were 710, 96 and 17 mL g(-1) for PFOS, PFOA and PFBS, respectively. Whereas Kd values decreased in the sequence PFOS>PFOA>PFBS, desorption yields were lower than 13% for PFOS, from 24 to 58% for PFOA, and from 32 to 60% for PFBS. This shows that the physicochemical characteristics of PFASs, basically their hydrophobicity, controlled their sorption behaviour in soils, with PFOS being the most irreversibly sorbed PFAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  18. Sorption studies of nickel ions onto activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parth; Vyas, Meet; Patel, Chirag

    2018-05-01

    Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. The use of low-cost activated carbon derived from azadirachta indica, an agricultural waste material, has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing nickel ions from wastewater. The temperature variation study showed that the nickel ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the nickel ion solutions. Therefore, this study revealed that azadirachta indica can serve as a good source of activated carbon with multiple and simultaneous metal ions removing potentials and may serve as a better replacement for commercial activated carbons in applications that warrant their use.

  19. Studies on the sorption behaviours of Th(IV) and U(VI) from aqueous sulphate solutions using impregnated resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, A.F.; Sheta, M.E.; Mahfouz, M.G.; Tolba, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The sorption behaviours of thorium (IV) and uranium (VI) from aqueous sulphate solutions have been studied using n-dodecylamine and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) dissolved in benzene and impregnated onto amberlite XAD-4 (styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer). The sorption behaviours were evaluated as a function of free acidity, salting out effect, ph value, equilibrium time, V/m ratio, initial metal ion concentration, loaded amine concentration and sorption temperature. The equilibrium time for Th(IV) and U(VI) sorption from aqueous sulphate solution was found to be 90 and 60 minutes, respectively. The sorption of Th(IV) was quantitatively at ph range 3.7-4.3 and at 4.3-5.2 for U(VI). The sorption capacity of the impregnated resin was determined by batch method and it was found to be 0.031 and 0.033 mmol/g for Th(IV) and U(VI), respectively. Elution of Th(IV) from thorium-loaded impregnated resin was quantitatively achieved by using 2 mol/l HNO 3 and by using 0.1 mol/l HCl for U(VI)

  20. Correlational study between sorption and goo apparent organoclays; Estudo correlacional entre sorcao e viscosidade aparente em argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.L.; Silva, M.R.O.; Ferreira, H.S.; Brasileiro, C.T., E-mail: darciely_lin@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcusraffael@outlook.com, E-mail: hebersivini@gmail.com, E-mail: camilabrasileiro@globo.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The sorption of surfactants in bentonite clay can occur through the mechanism of adsorption and absorption, this being a very supple phenomenon according clay and surfactant utilized. Thus the more surfactant sorbed at the organoclay it becomes, and can be used in various applications, including in oil drilling fluid. This study aimed to correlate the sorption of surfactants with the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluids (oil base). In organophilization process was used Bentongel clay which had its concentration varied from 3.16 to 7.16% by weight of clay. It was used to organophilization an ionic surfactant Praepagem WB with 75% of active matter, where its concentration ranged from 127-181 mEq. After organophilizated the clays were filtered, dried in an oven for 48 hours and passed in ABNT sieve No. 200, to be so characterized. Sorption was calculated from mathematical equations. Non-aqueous fluids were prepared according to standard Petrobras (EP-1EP-00023A) for rheological testing. Correlating the sorption of surfactant, and the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluid, obtained satisfactory results where observed through the scatter plots there is a strong correlation between the variables sorption and apparent viscosity, it should also be noted that the viscosity is a variable which increases with an increase in sorption, confirming that the surfactant concentration influences the viscosity. (author)

  1. Status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radionuclides in groundwater and rocks and sediments away from the nearfield repository. Two approaches were used to study the primary mechanism, adsorption-desorption. Empirical studies rely on distribution coefficient measurements, and mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate, and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation. The status of sorption mechanism studies is discussed, with emphasis on delineating the usefulness of ideal ion-exchange, site-binding electrical double-layer, and redox-controlled sorption constructs. Since studies to date show greater potential for site-binding electrical double-layer models, future efforts will concentrate on this construct. Laboratory studies are discussed which corroborate the importance of redox reactions in causing nuclide retardation for multivalent elements, such as Tc, Np, Pu, and U. Results suggest that both solution-mediated reduction, such as the Fe(II)-Fe(III) couple, and solid-solution heterogeneous reduction reactions, such as reduction of solution Pu(VI) at the mineral surface by structural Fe(II), occur. Coupled microscopy, microprobe, and autoradiography studies have determined actual sorption sites for radionuclides on polymineralic rocks. The studies show that it is possible for minor phases to completely dominate the mass of radionuclides adsorbed. The most active minerals are typically alternation products (clays and zeolites). Several exercises are discussed which rank radionuclides according to their potential dose hazards. In each of the analyses discussed, the top four radionuclides are I, Tc, Np, and Ra. Other elements that rank high in potential hazards are Pu, U, Am, Th, Pb, Sn, Pd, and Se

  2. Modification of zirconium diphosphate with salicylic acid and its effect on the uranium (Vi) sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Garcia G, N.; Simoni, E.

    2014-10-01

    The surface of zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ) was modified with salicylic acid and its effect was evaluated on the uranium (Vi) sorption. The modified surface of the material was analyzed with different analytical techniques among which are included the atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This analysis allowed showing that the salicylic acid is being held on the surface of the zirconium diphosphate. The reactivity of modified zirconium diphosphate compared with uranium (Vi) was investigated using the classical method of batch sorption. The analysis of sorption isotherms shows that the salicylic acid has an important effect in the uranium (Vi) sorption. According to the study conducted, the interaction among the uranium (Vi) and the surface of zirconium diphosphate modified with the salicylic acid most likely leads to the complexes formation of binary (U(Vi)/ZrP 2 O 7 ) and ternary (U(Vi)/salicylate/ZrP 2 O 7 ) surface. (Author)

  3. A comparative study of sorption of chromium (III) onto chitin and chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Nagendran, R.

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals have always been the most hazardous components in the wastewater of industries like electroplating, automobiles, mining facilities and fertilizer manufacturers. Treatment of heavy metal laden wastewater requires expensive operational and maintenance systems. Food processing industries create a huge amount of shell waste which is sold to poultry farms in powdered form but the quantity thus used is still not comparable to the left over waste. The shell contains chitin which acts as an adsorbent for the heavy metals and can be used to treat heavy metal wastewater. The paper presents a study on the use of chitin and its processed product, chitosan, to remove chromium. Shake flask experiment was conducted to compare the adsorptive capacity of chitin and chitosan for chromium removal from simulated solution and isotherm studies were carried out. The studies showed that the chitosan was a better adsorbent than chitin. Both chitin and chitosan gave best adsorption results at pH 3. Chitin exhibited maximum chromium removal of 49.98 % in 20 min, whereas chitosan showed 50 % removal efficiency at a contact time of 20 min showing higher adsorptive capacity for chromium than chitin. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm studies showed very good adsorption capacity and monolayer interaction according to the regression coefficient 0.973 for chitosan and 0.915 for chitin. The regression coefficient for Freundlich isotherm was 0.894 and 0.831 for chitosan and chitin, respectively.

  4. A hygroscopic method to measure the adsorption isotherm of porous construction materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, A.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Stephan, D.; Daake, von H.; Markl, V.; Land, G.

    2013-01-01

    A sorption isotherm is the relationship between the moisture content in a material and the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere in an equilibrium situation. Most often, the sorption isotherm is measured with a gravitational method. This work presents a method to measure the adsorption

  5. Effect made by the colloids to the sorption behavior of strontium on granite fracture-fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zuo, R.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects made by the colloid to the sorption capacity of colloids in granite fracture-fillings in aqueous solutions. The granite fracture-fillings were collected from three different depth of the research mine in Gansu province. According to the composition of the local soil and groundwater, two colloids were chosen to investigate this sorption process. Batch tests had been investigated at 27° under the air atmosphere as a function of pH(3 11), initial uranium concentration(5 400 mg/L) and water-rock ratio on the sorption of Sr on granite fracture-fillings. The batch experimental results showed that the sorption capacity presented a positive relationship with pH value, which may be caused by the hydrolytic adsorption raised by the reaction between Sr(OH)+ and OH- groups on the surface on the adsorbent. Initial strontium concentration also showed a positive relationship with sorption capacity when the concentration was lower than 200mg/mL, when the concentration was higher than 200mg/ml sorption reached the equilibrium. Sorption percentage showed a positive relationship with water/solid ratios, when the ratio was lower than 1:100 the system got equilibrium. When other experiment parameters were fixed and only the solid-liquid ratio changed, the adsorption capacity increased with the increasing solid-water ratio. The reason was that the total amount of Sr in the adsorption system remained unchanged, the adsorption sites increased with the solid-liquid ratio, and the adsorption capacity increased gradually with the increasing adsorption sites. The experiments data were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the data fitted the former better. Equilibrium isotherm studies were used to evaluate the maximum sorption capacity of colloid.

  6. Sorption study of organic contaminant on raw and modified clay materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammak N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of volatile organic compound VOC (o-xylene was studied by a static headspace coupled to gas chromatography in natural and intercalated clay. Vapor–solid adsorption isotherms of o-xylene were measured at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Clay was modified with hexadecyl trimetyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA. Absolute values of the amounts of o- xylene adsorbed in intercalated clay were about eighteen times higher than natural clay. The adsorption isotherm were analysed with Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir–Freundlich and Toth models. Langmuir–Freundlich model describes well the equilibrium adsorption data. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters presents an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process.

  7. Chemical and geotechnical analyses of soil samples from Olkiluoto for studies on sorption in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusa, M.; Aemmaelae, K.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-05-01

    The safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate on the behavior of nuclear waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the transfer of nuclear waste nuclides in the soil and sediments is to be considered. In this study soil samples were collected from three excavator pits in Olkiluoto and the geotechnical and chemical characteristics of the samples were determined. In later stage these results will be used in sorption tests. Aim of these tests is to determine the Kd-values for Cs, Tc and I and later for Mo, Nb and Cl. Results of these sorption tests will be reported later. The geotechnical characteristics studied included dry weight and organic matter content as well as grain size distribution and mineralogy analyses. Selective extractions were carried out to study the sorption of cations into different mineral types. The extractions included five steps in which the cations bound to exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of Fe and Mn, organic matter and residual fractions were determined. For all fractions ICPMS analyses were carried out. In these analyses Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs and Pb were determined. In addition six profiles were taken from the surroundings of two excavator pits for the 137 Cs determination. Besides the samples taken for the characterization of soil, supplement samples were taken from the same layers for the separation of soil water. From the soil water pH, DOC, anions (F, Cl, NO 3 , SO 4 ) and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, S, Cd, Cs, Pb, U) were determined. (orig.)

  8. Decreasing Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn heavy metal magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites and adsorption isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M.; Zakeri Khatir, M.; Khodadadi Darban, A.; Meshkini, M.

    2018-04-01

    This present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite on heavy metal removal from an effluent. For this purpose, magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite was prepared through the chemical method and characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, followed by studying the effect of produced nanocomposite on the removal of Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ heavy metal ions. The results showed that adsorption capacity of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites for the studied ions is in the order of Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. Adsorption isotherms were drawn for Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ cations and found that cations adsorption on nanocomposite fit into Langmuir model.

  9. Sorption of Emerging Organic Wastewater Contaminants to Four Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional onsite wastewater treatment system design relies on a septic tank and soil treatment unit (STU for treatment of wastewater and integration of the final effluent into the environment. Organic water contaminants (OWCs, chemicals found in pharmaceutical drugs, detergents, surfactants, and other personal care and cleaning products, have been observed in septic tank effluent and the environment. Sorption of OWC mass to soil is a key mechanism in the removal and retardation of many of these chemicals in effluent as it travels through an STU. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fraction of organic carbon of soil and the equilibrium sorption partitioning coefficient of a selected group of relevant and diverse OWCs. A secondary goal is to evaluate current methods of modeling the sorption of selected OWCs in soil. Five point Freundlich isotherms were constructed from equilibrium sorption batch tests for target OWCs with four different soils. For soils with organic carbon fraction between 0.021 and 0.054, Kd values were calculated between 60 and 185 for 4-nonylphenol, 75 to 260 for triclosan, 115 to 270 for bisphenol-A, 3 to 255 for 17β-estradiol, 40 to 55 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, and 28 to 70 for estrone. An empirically derived, direct relationship between foc and Kd may be a useful approach to estimating sorption for a soil based on organic carbon content.

  10. Sorption of graphites at high temperatures. Progress report, February 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyecha, T.D.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary to mixed isotherm studies, one additional cesium isotherm was obtained with a finned-rod H-451 graphite sample at 1100 0 C. The results indicated that not only are long times required to reach saturation, but also there is a hysteresis effect at low vapor pressures and concentrations and that under these conditions sorption of cesium in graphite is not readily reversible. Several cesium isotherms (at 1000 0 C) were obtained of H-451 graphite which had been pre-impregnated with selected concentrations of Sr-85-tagged strontium. The runs were of long duration to attain equilibrium. The data obtained showed a substantial effect of the presence (concentration) of strontium on cesium sorption. End-of-run cesium and strontium concentration profiles were obtained. As yet the data on the mixed-sorption behavior, relative to possible models, has not been analyzed in depth. As a preliminary to the mixed-sorption studies, strontium impregnation in the absence of cesium was studied and a few experiments on the effect of concentration on strontium diffusion were carried out with interesting results. Finally a few experiments on sample characterization and on the microdistribution of cesium and strontium were conducted. It was found difficult to obtain distributions at the concentration levels characteristic of our experiments

  11. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  12. Generalized isothermic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem

  13. THE SORPTION OF OFLOXACIN BY HYDRATED ALUMINA AND SILICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chebotarev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of ofloxacin (OFL – the antibiotic from class of fluoroquinolones has been studied on alumina (γ-Al2O3 different acid-base modifications – acidic Al2O3(acidic, neutral Al2O3 (Neutral and the basic Al2O3 (core and amorphous silica – silica gel (SG L 5/40 and aerosil A-300. Determination of ofloxacin in solutions has been carried out by spectrophotometry on spectrophotometer SF-46 at λ = 291 nm and acidity 7. To clarify the nature of the sorption surfaces of OFL hydrated on aluminum and silicon oxides were studied according to the degree of extraction (S% from pH, contact time of the phases (min. sample from the sorbent mass (g; sorption isotherms were built and antibiotic desorption was studied. The OFL significant recovery (~ 60% is observed at the pH range of 4 ÷ 8, and reaches its maximum (80-85% at pH 7. The maximum degree of extraction of the antibiotic on aerosil A-300 and L 5/40 silica realized at pH 6 and it was ~ 80%. Comparative analysis of the forms constructed isotherms (L – type indicates a significant affinity investigated hydrated oxides to sorbate. The value of the static exchange capacity and concentration ratios can proof that. Differences in the quantitative characteristics of sorption of aluminum and silicon oxides are associated with nature and the acid-base properties of adsorption sites. In the study of the OFL concentrates desorption in static mode dilute NaOH and HNO3 solutions it was found that growth desorption degree occured with increasing concentration. Desorption was 2-3 times better in the case of aluminum oxide than silicon oxide when there were the same concentrations of acid and alkali. This is another confirmation of the participation in various sorption interactions forces of physical and chemical nature.

  14. Numerical study of free convection in an enclosure with two vertical isothermal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, A.; Rossi di Schio, E.; Zanchini, E.; Nobile, E.; Pinto, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, natural convection is studied in a 2D-cavity with two vertical isothermal walls, kept at different temperatures, and two adiabatic walls which are either straight (rectangular cavity) or elliptic (modified rectangular cavity). The local mass, momentum and energy balance equations are written in a dimensionless form and solved numerically, by means of two different software packages based on Galerkin finite element methods. With reference to a Prandtl number of 0.71, two rectangular cavities are studied: a square one and a cavity with height double than width. Then, for each value of the ratio between height and width, two cavities with elliptic boundaries are investigated. The numerical solution shows that the elliptic boundaries enhance the mean Nusselt number and the dimensionless mean kinetic energy of the fluid. (authors)

  15. Kinetics and equilibrium modeling of uranium(VI) sorption by bituminous shale from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaboy, Sinem; Atun, Gülten

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil shales are sedimentary rocks containing a polymeric matter in a mineral matrix. • Sorption potential of bituminous shale (BS) for uranium recovery was investigated. • U(VI) sorption increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. • Kinetic data were analyzed based on single and two resistance diffusion models. • The results fit well to the McKay equation assuming film and intraparticle diffusion. - Abstract: Sorption of U(VI) onto a bituminous shale (BS) from a nuclear power plant project site in Black Sea region was investigated for potential risk assessment when it releases into the environment with contaminated ground and surface water. The sorption characteristics of the BS for U(VI) recovery were evaluated as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetic results fit better with pseudo-second-order model rather than pseudo-first-order. The possibility of diffusion process was analyzed based on Weber–Morris intra-particle diffusion model. The McKay equation assuming film- and intraparticle diffusion better predicted the data than the Vermeulen approximation presuming surface diffusion. Equilibrium sorption data were modeled according to the Langmuir, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) and Freundlich isotherm equations. Sorption capacity increased from 0.10 to 0.15 mmol g −1 in 298–318 K temperature range. FT-IR analysis and pH dependent sorption studies conducted in hydroxide and carbonate media revealed that U(VI) species were sorbed in uranyl and its hydroxo forms on the BS. Desorption studies showed that U(VI) leaching with Black Sea water was negligible from the loaded BS. The activation parameters (E a , ΔH ∗ and ΔG ∗ ) estimated from diffusion coefficients indicated the presence of an energy barrier in the sorption system. However, thermodynamic functions derived from sorption equilibrium constants showed that overall sorption process was spontaneous in nature

  16. Yucca Mountain Project far-field sorption studies and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, A.

    1990-09-01

    Batch sorption experiments in which radionuclides dissolved in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain were sorbed onto samples of crushed tuff have resulted in a substantial database of sorption coefficients for radionuclides of interest to the repository program. Although this database has been useful in preliminary evaluations of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository, the database has limitations that must be addressed before it can be used for performance assessment calculations in support of a license application for a waste repository. The purpose of this paper is to: review the applicability of simple (constant) sorption coefficients in transport calculations; review and evaluate alternative methods for the derivation of sorption coefficients; summarize and evaluate the present YMP sorption database to identify areas of data sufficiency and significant data gaps; summarize our current understanding of pertinent sorption mechanisms and associated kinetic parameters; evaluate the significance to the YMP of potential problems in the experimental determination and field application of sorption coefficients as enumerated by the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1987) in its technical position paper on sorption; formulate and evaluate strategies for the resolution of NRC concerns regarding experimental problems; and formulate a position on the sorption coefficient database and the level of understanding of sorption mechanisms likely to be required in the licensing application. 75 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    The use of maize (Zea mays) cob for the biosorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) is ... Variations in the concentration of the different adsorbates during the adsorption process .... Langmuir isotherm is the dimensionless separation .... The use of Sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper. Water S. Afr., 24 (3), p251-256.

  18. Effects of sorption behaviour on contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, T.W.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of sorption behaviour on contaminant migration in groundwater systems are varied. Retardation of migration and dispersive effects can vary widely and contaminant concentration profiles can take a number of different shapes. This report examines the nature of some of these effects, especially those due to sorption behaviours that are dependent on the concentration of the contaminant in the groundwater. The effects are calculated using, in most cases, analytical solutions to the chemical equations imbedded in a simple reaction-cell or box-model transport algorithm. The hydrogeological parameters are held constant, and radioactive decay and hydrodynamic dispersion are excluded. A general discussion of the role of sorption equations in transport modelling is followed by presentation of migration results for a number of models of sorption behaviour varying from linear isotherms, Langmuir, Freundlich and ion-exchange isotherms, to precipitation reactions and multiple-site sorption reactions. The results are compared and general conclusions are drawn about the various migration behaviours calculated. The conclusions are that equilibrium sorption of trace contaminants can be modelled with linear isotherms (constant distribution coefficients or constant retardation factors) but the evaluation and extrapolation of the distribution coefficient are not easy. Nonlinear isotherms lead to unsymmetrical migration fronts. A comparison of Freundlich and linear isotherms is made. Sorption/desorption kinetic factors can be significant on the time scale of laboratory experiments and can cause large dispersive effects. Slow but important reactions can be missed altogether. Precipitation or mineralization behaviour cannot be modelled with constant distribution coefficients. Also, mineralization reactions can be kinetically slow even on the geological time scale. 89 refs

  19. In situ Raman study of C60 polymerization during isothermal pressurizing at 800 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyzin, A V; Dubrovinsky, L S

    2004-01-01

    The first in situ Raman study of C 60 isothermal compression at 800 K and up to 32 GPa was performed using rhombohedral and tetragonal phases as starting materials. The rhombohedral phase shows a phase transition to 3D polymer above 10 GPa, similar to that in experiments where isobaric heating was used at pressures of 9-13 GPa. It is shown that the T-P diagram of C 60 polymeric phases (temperature increase followed by pressurizing) is significantly different from the known P-T diagram (pressurizing followed by heating). Tetragonal polymer exhibited significantly stronger stability and can be followed at least up to ∼15 GPa. Heating up to 800 K of tetragonal polymer at pressures of 6-8 GPa confirms that, due to geometrical frustrations, the tetragonal phase remains stable even at pressure and temperature conditions at which rhombohedral polymer is usually formed

  20. Initial sintering stage kinetics of CeO2 studied by stepwise isothermal dilatometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sayed Ali, M.; Toft Soerensen, O.

    1985-02-01

    The kinetics of the initial sintering stage of CeO 2 is studied by a new dilatometric technique in which the heating of the sample is controlled by its shrinkage rate. By this technique the shrinkage characteristically takes place in 'isothermal steps' which allows both the mechanism and its activation energy to be determined in a single experiment. The basic equations necessary to evaluate the shrinkage data are described, and using these equations on the curves recorded for CeO 2 it it shown that the controlling mechanism for the initial sintering stage for this oxides is grain-boundary diffusion of Ce 4+ -ions with an activation energy of 119.4 kcal/mole (5.2 eV). The corresponding diffusion coefficient is estimated to vary between 8.5 x 10 -17 - 3.1 x 10 -15 cm 2 /sec (1005 - 1099sup(o)C). (author)

  1. Comparative study of incompressible and isothermal compressible flow solvers for cavitating flow dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Shin Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Incompressible flow solvers are generally used for numerical analysis of cavitating flows, but with limitations in handling compressibility effects on vapor phase. To study compressibility effects on vapor phase and cavity interface, pressure-based incompressible and isothermal compressible flow solvers based on a cell-centered finite volume method were developed using the OpenFOAM libraries. To validate the solvers, cavitating flow around a hemispherical head-form body was simulated and validated against the experimental data. The cavity shedding behavior, length of a re-entrant jet, drag history, and the Strouhal number were compared between the two solvers. The results confirmed that computations of the cavitating flow including compressibility effects improved the reproduction of cavitation dynamics.

  2. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed.

  3. Studies on the competitive sorption of divalent metal ions to natural soil samples using a multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, R.; Hirashima, H.; Sawamura, S.

    1997-01-01

    Speciation of minor or trace amount of pollutants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides released from atmospheric precipitation and water streams have been studied in order to elucidate their fates in the environment through 'in situ' observations or laboratory experiments. The authors have investigated sorption of heavy metals on various natural samples radiometrically ( 65 Zn as a tracer). A sequential extraction technique was found to be very effective to elucidate possible scavengers (minerals) of heavy metals in some cases. A sediment with low CEC does not sorb Zn (ii) ions to a great extent. It is thus considered that the zinc sorption occurs competitively with protons present in the aqueous media. Divalent copper and cadmium ions also behaved similarly to Zn(II), which was obtained electrochemically with the ion selective electrodes of Cu(II) and Cd(II). This time the authors investigated the competitive sorption of Mn(ii) and Zn(II) to natural soils using a radiotracer technique, which was considered to be useful to evaluate relative importance of the sorption of each metal ion without serious matrix effects. Quite different properties appeared among those metal ions used independently or simultaneously as a tracer. Proton exchange process may be important for the Zn(II) sorption, whereas a solid-solution partition is supposed to control the Mn(ii) uptake, when each of them was examined independently as a sorbate. In contrast, simultaneous use of those tracers to a soil suspension had great effects on the result; the maximum sorption (A m ) of Zn(II) increased, and Mn(II) behaved like a sorbate which tends to occupy specific sites of the soil surfaces. Those results indicate that the sorption of minor and/or trace elements to natural soils would not be evaluated through a series of experiments with a single sorbate

  4. Surface modification to improve the sorption property of U(VI) on mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijuan Song; Yulong Wang; Lu Zhu; Bolong Guo; Suwen Chen; Wangsuo Wu

    2014-01-01

    Polyoxometalates K 7 [α-PW 11 O 39 ]·14H 2 O (PW11) modified mesoporous silica (MCM-48) with cubic structure, was prepared by impregnation and calcination methods. The modified mesoporous silica sorbent (PW11/MCM-48) was studied as a potential adsorbent for U(VI) from aqueous solutions. MCM-48 and PW11/MCM-48 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption techniques. The results indicate the original keggin structure of PW11 and mesoporous structure of MCM-48 are maintained after supporting PW11 on mesoporous silica MCM-48. The effects of contact time, solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V), solution pH and ionic strength on U(VI) sorption behaviors of the pure and modified mesoporous silicas were also studied. Typical sorption isotherms such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined for sorption process. The results suggest that the sorption of U(VI) on MCM-48 or PW11/MCM-48 are strongly dependent on pH values but independent of ionic strength. The sorption capacity of PW11/MCM-48 for U(VI) is about ten times more than that of MCM-48. (author)

  5. Study about sorption of protium and mixture protium–tritium on sponge titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasut, Felicia, E-mail: feliciavasut@yahoo.com; Stefanescu, Ioan; Bornea, Anisia Mihaela; Zamfirache, Marius; Sofalca, Nicolae; David, Claudia

    2013-10-15

    The Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda is equipped with a CANDU reactor and is one of the most powerful tritium sources from Europe. The reactor is moderated and cooled with heavy water that is continuous enriched with tritium. The presence of the tritium decreases the capacity of the heavy water to moderate the nuclear reactions. For this reason, I.C.I.T. Ramnicu Valcea developed a detritiation technology based on catalytic isotopic exchange and cryogenic distillation. At the end of the detritiation process, heavy water is produced with low concentration of tritium (that could be introduced back for the moderation process) and tritium (that have to be stored into a stable form). Tritium is a radioactive material and one of the basic conditions for the operation of the nuclear installations is the security for the operating personnel and for the environment [1]. At I.C.I.T. Ramnicu Valcea were tested materials with high capacity for storage of tritium, like titanium sponge and powder. The first experimental study was made using protium because it was assumed that tritium behaves similar with protium. In addition, it was made experiments of sorption on sponge titanium using a mixture protium–tritium. The result was similar but not identical, titanium sponge absorbing better protium than mixture protium–tritium, resulting different atomic ratios. The paper presents a study about sorption of protium and mixture of protium and tritium on sponge titanium.

  6. [Study on moisture sorption process model and application traditional Chinese medicine extract powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; He, Yan; Xiao, Xiong; Yuan, Liang; Rao, Xiaoyong; Luo, Xiaojian

    2010-04-01

    Study on the moisture sorption process characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder, to establish a mathematical model, provide a new method for in-depth study for moisture sorption behavior of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder and a reference for determine the production cycle, and predict product stability. Analyzed moisture absorption process of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder by utilized the law of conservation of mass and Fick's first law to establish the double exponential absorption model, fitted the moisture absorption data and compared with other commonly used five kinds of model to estimate the double-exponential absorption model. The statistical analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of double exponential model, Weibull distribution model and first order kinetics model were large, but the residues sum of squares (RSS) and AIC values were small. Synthesized the practical application meaning, we consided that the double exponential model was more suitable for simulating the process of Chinese medicine extract powder moisture absorption. The double exponential is suitable for characterization the process of traditional Chinese medicine extract moisture absorption.

  7. Sorption properties of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  8. Engineered, Spatially Varying Isothermal Holds: Enabling Combinatorial Studies of Temperature Effects, as Applied to Metastable Titanium Alloy β-21S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Brian; Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Samimi, Peyman; Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Collins, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A novel method to systematically vary temperature and thus study the resulting microstructure of a material is presented. This new method has the potential to be used in a combinatorial fashion, allowing the rapid study of thermal holds on microstructures to be conducted. This is demonstrated on a beta titanium alloy, where the thermal history has a strong effect on microstructure. It is informed by simulation and executed using the resistive heating capabilities of a Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator. Spatially varying isothermal holds of 4 h were affected, where the temperature range of the multiple isothermal holds varied by ~175 °C.

  9. Sorption of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on filter media: implications for phase partitioning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharat; Benskin, Jonathan P; Hamilton, M Coreen; Cosgrove, John R

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are ubiquitous in the environment. Investigations into their fate and potential phase-partitioning behavior require separating solid from aqueous phases via filtration. However, sorption of aqueous-phase PFASs on filtration media may lead to underestimation of PFAS concentrations in the aqueous phase. The authors investigated the sorption of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate monoesters, polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), fluorotelomer sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide on filtration media. The effects of concentration (3 spiking levels), filter media (4 types), matrix (4 matrices), and compound structure on sorption are reported. Glass fiber filtration resulted in the least sorption, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene filters resulted in the most sorption (up to 98%). Analyte concentration had no significant effect. Sorption was generally consistent across matrix types except for samples affected by aqueous film forming foam deployment, which displayed high sorption of PFOS on nylon filters. Sorption usually increased with an increasing number of carbon or fluorine atoms and was most pronounced for PFPiAs and diPAPs (30–75% sorption). Overall, glass fiber filters are more recommended than nylon filters in environmental samples when phase separation is required. Use of filtration media for PFAS must be preceded by matrix-specific testing to account for unpredictable effects. (C)2014 SETAC

  10. Experimental methods for studying the diffusion of radioactive gases in solids. VII. Sorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekman, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The details of the use of a sorption method in the study of the diffusion of gasses and vapors labeled with radioactive tracers in solids have been considered. Three variants of diffusion systems, which permit the determination of the diffusion coefficient and the solubility constant of gases both from the increase in the amount of diffusate in the sample and from the decrease in its amount in the reservoir, have been tested. Different ways of conducting the experiment have been discussed. A universal method for taking into account the processes of the absorption and scattering of radiation in the material of the sample has been proposed. The experimental results were treated with the aid of a specially developed program package, which is realized on computers of the BESM-6 type. Various mathematical models of the diffusion of gases in solids have been analyzed. Solutions of the diffusion equations under the boundary conditions of the sorption method for the cases of diffusion with trapping, dissociative diffusion, and diffusion in a plate containing spherical inclusions have been obtained. The method has been tested in the example case of the diffusion of a radiative inert gas, viz., radon-22, in low-density polyethylene

  11. Study of plutonium sorption in aluminia column in the system HNO3-HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.A. de.

    1977-01-01

    The column chromatographic method using alumina has been applied successfully to study the sorption-desorption behavior of plutonium traces in HNO 3 -HF and HNO 3 -HF-UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 systems, aiming to elaborate a process for recovering plutonium traces from reprocessing wastes, mainly in existing solutions where uranium is presented in macro quantities. Basically, the method consists in the sorption of plutonium by percolating a solution containing HNO 3 (0,1 to 0,8M) or uranyl nitrate (1-50 gU/l) and HF(0,1 to 0,3M) through an Al 2 O 3 collumn. The plutonium is fixed on Al 2 O 3 whereas the uranyl ions is collected in the efluent. The adsorption of Pu-III, Pu-IV and Pu-VI in the presence of HF was determined and Pu-IV can be almost completely sorbed. The Pu-IV is eluted by reduction to Pu-III in the column using 3 M HNO 3 -0,005M FeSO 4 at 50 0 C as elutrient. This method is very simple and can be applied for separation and purification of plutonium (traces) from uranyl nitrate or others coming solutions from wet chemistry of irradiated fuels [pt

  12. Study of sorption and diffusion of 137Cs in compacted bentonite saturated with saline water at 60degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Haginuma, Masashi; Suzuki, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    The effect of compaction of bentonite on the sorption behavior of 137 Cs was studied for the safety assessment of the high level radioactive waste. The diffusion coefficients (effective D e and apparent D a ) and the distribution coefficient for sorption K d for 137 Cs in compacted and dispersed bentonite saturated with saline water were investigated at 60degC by four different sorption and diffusion experiments: the in-diffusion, through-diffusion, reservoir-depletion and batch sorption experiments. The system of the through-diffusion experiment was carefully designed to maintain the boundary conditions of constant concentration at each end of the specimen. D e and D a were found to be reproducible and showed good consistency among three of the diffusion experiments (through-diffusion, in-diffusion and reservoir depletion). K d of 137 Cs in compacted bentonite determined from the three types of diffusion experiments was in good accordance with that determined by the batch sorption experiment for dispersed bentonite. (author)

  13. Sorption and desorption reactions of radionuclides with a crushed basalt-bentonite packing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Lane, D.L.; Allen, C.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    Current design of waste packages for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in underground basalt formations includes a layer of packing material that surrounds the waste container. One of the functions of this material is to limit the release of radionuclides from a breached container into groundwater by providing a low hydraulic conductivity zone and by sorbing dissolved radionuclides. The objective of this study was to assess the radionuclide sorption capability of a proposed packing material composed of 25% sodium bentonite and 75% crushed basalt (by weight). Sorption and desorption reactions of several important waste radioelements (neptunium, uranium, plutonium, technetium, selenium, and radium) were investigated in the absence of air at 90 0 C. Uranium and neptunium were sorbed by slow reactions that follow first-order kinetics. The reaction rates are probably controlled by reduction of weakly sorbed uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) by ferrous iron in the crushed basalt component. Technetium(VII) was not reduced or sorbed under these conditions. Freundlich sorption and desorption isotherms for a given radionuclide were non-singular and show a strong tendency for sorption hysteresis. Applying the isotherm data to a one-dimensional transport model indicated that hysteretic sorption on the packing material provides an important safety factor in controlling releases of some radionuclides

  14. Sorption of uranium (VI) on homoionic sodium smectite experimental study and surface complexation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, Smain; Bensmaili, Aicha

    2009-09-30

    This paper is an extension of a previous paper where the natural and purified clay in the homoionic Na form were physico-chemically characterized (doi:10.1016/j.clay.2008.04.014). In this study, the adsorption behavior of U (VI) on a purified Na-smectite suspension is studied using batch adsorption experiments and surface complexation modeling (double layer model). The sorption of uranium was investigated as a function of pH, uranium concentration, solid to liquid ratio, effect of natural organic matter (NOM) and NaNO(3) background electrolyte concentration. Using the MINTEQA2 program, the speciation of uranium was calculated as a function of pH and uranium concentration. Model predicted U (VI) aqueous speciation suggests that important aqueous species in the [U (VI)]=1mg/L and pH range 3-7 including UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), and (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+). The concentration of UO(2)(2+) decreased and that of (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+) increased with increasing pH. The potentiometric titration values and uptake of uranium in the sodium smectite suspension were simulated by FITEQL 4.0 program using a two sites model, which is composed of silicate and aluminum reaction sites. We compare the acidity constants values obtained by potentiometric titration from the purified sodium smectite with those obtained from single oxides (quartz and alpha-alumina), taking into account the surface heterogeneity and the complex nature of natural colloids. We investigate the uranium sorption onto purified Na-smectite assuming low, intermediate and high edge site surfaces which are estimated from specific surface area percentage. The sorption data is interpreted and modeled as a function of edge site surfaces. A relationship between uranium sorption and total site concentration was confirmed and explained through variation in estimated edge site surface value. The modeling study shows that, the convergence during DLM modeling is related to the best estimation of the edge site surface from the N(2

  15. Investigations of the sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the sorption of pertechnetate on neutral and acid salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Particular, distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts, by the addition of non-electrolytes the distribution coefficients decrease. A saturation capacity of about 0.19 mmol Tc/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was determined from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase can be supposed. (author)

  16. Effect of the gamma irradiation on the bio-sorption of Cr (Vi) by orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo L, V.; Barrera D, C. E.; Sanchez M, V.; Urena N, F.

    2009-01-01

    The orange peel (Citrus sp.) is a bioadsorbent that contains functional groups able to remove Cr (Vi). To study the effect of gamma irradiation in the sorption capacity, the Nn materials were irradiated with gamma rays using a Co 60 source to dose from 10 to 3500 KGy (Nlγ). The biomass irradiation with gamma rays was successful since it increased the hexavalent chromium removal obtaining a maximum removal percentage of 100%. Sorption isotherms were realized to determine the concentration effect of initial Cr (Vi), the ph effect of the solution and the relationship m/v. (Author)

  17. Sorption of Ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions using beta-cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of a cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer to remove ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions, including wine, was examined by batch rebinding assays and equilibrium sorption isotherms. The results were fit to two parameter models. Freundlich analysis of the sorption isotherm indicates the polyme...

  18. Sorption to soil, biochar and compost: is prediction to multicomponent mixtures possible based on single sorbent measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amendment with biochar and/or compost has been proposed as a strategy to remediate soil contaminated with low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strong sorption potential of biochar can help sequestering contaminants while the compost may promote their degradation. An improved understanding of how sorption evolves upon soil amendment is an essential step towards the implementation of the approach. The present study reports on the sorption of pyrene to two soils, four biochars and one compost. Detailed isotherm analyzes across a wide range of concentration confirmed that soil amendments can significantly increase the sorption of pyrene. Comparisons of data obtained by a classical batch and a passive sampling method suggest that dissolved organic matter did not play a significant role on the sorption of pyrene. The addition of 10% compost to soil led to a moderate increase in sorption (<2-fold, which could be well predicted based on measurements of sorption to the individual components. Hence, our result suggest that the sorption of pyrene to soil and compost can be relatively well approximated by an additive process. The addition of 5% biochar to soil (with or without compost led to a major increase in the sorption of pyrene (2.5–4.7-fold, which was, however, much smaller than that suggested based on the sorption measured on the three individual components. Results suggest that the strong sorption to the biochar was attenuated by up to 80% in the presence of soil and compost, much likely due to surface and pore blockage. Results were very similar in the two soils considered, and collectively suggest that combined amendments with compost and biochar may be a useful approach to remediate soils with low levels of contamination. Further studies carried out in more realistic settings and over longer periods of time are the next step to evaluate the long term viability of remediation approaches based on biochar amendments.

  19. How the sorption of benzene in soils contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons is affected by the presence of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of biofuels as additives to gasoline may have potential indirect effects on the efficiency of soil remediation technologies used to remediate fuel spills. This problem has not yet been studied. Sorption is one of the controlling processes in soil remediation. The effect of biofuels on sorption and phase distribution of contaminants by different natural soils has not been reported on the literature. The present work examines how two different biofuels, n-butanol and soybean biodiesel, affect benzene sorption in two naturally occurring subsoils (granite and limestone. Sorption isotherms were made with soils deliberately contaminated with benzene, benzene and n-butanol and benzene plus biodiesel, using lab-scale reactors operated at constant temperature, each one loaded with 700 grams of wet sterilized soil. For each type of soil, five isotherms were determined corresponding to different contamination profiles. It was concluded that sorption was strongly affected by the nature of the soil. The partition of benzene into the different phases of the soil was significantly affected by the presence of biofuels. The experimental data was fitted to conventional sorption models, Freundlich, Langmuir and a second order polynomial. Model parameters were determined using a non-linear least squares (NLLS optimization algorithm and showed a good agreement between experimental and fitted data.

  20. Effect of drying method on the adsorption isotherms and isosteric heat of passion fruit pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Marques Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sorption behavior of dry products is generally affected by the drying method. The sorption isotherms are useful to determine and compare thermodynamic properties of passion fruit pulp powder processed by different drying methods. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different drying methods on the sorption properties of passion fruit pulp powder. Passion fruit pulp powder was dehydrated using different dryers: vacuum, spray dryer, vibro-fluidized, and freeze dryer. The moisture equilibrium data of Passion Fruit Pulp (PFP powders with 55% of maltodextrin (MD were determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ºC. The behavior of the curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification, and the GAB model was fitted to the experimental equilibrium data. The equilibrium moisture contents of the samples were little affected by temperature variation. The spray dryer provides a dry product with higher adsorption capacity than that of the other methods. The vibro-fluidized bed drying showed higher adsorption capacity than that of vacuum and freeze drying. The vacuum and freeze drying presented the same adsorption capacity. The isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease with increasing moisture content. Considering the effect of drying methods, the highest isosteric heat of sorption was observed for powders produced by spray drying, whereas powders obtained by vacuum and freeze drying showed the lowest isosteric heats of sorption.

  1. Geochemical studies of sorption and transport of radionuclides in rock media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Weed, H.C.; Tewhey, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Four studies, which supported the goals of the WISAP Program at Battelle PNL, were undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory during FY 1979. These were: (1) Batch K/sub d/ experiments, (2) Dynamic sorption experiments on rock cores, (3) Feasibility study for an in situ tracer test at the Climax Stock, NTS, and (4) Geochemical equilibrium code development. Only the equilibrium code development was not funded by the WISAP during FY 1979. The emphasis for the batch K/sub d/ studies was on various (15) sandstones in brine using 75 Se, 85 Sr, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 141 Ce, and 237 Pu tracers. These sandstone samples were well-characterized for their physical and mineralogical nature. Complex K/sub d/ behavior was observed for the radionuclides studied but 85 Sr showed K/sub d/ values near zero for all samples. Both 141 Ce and 239 Pu K/sub d/ values ranged from 20 to upper limits of greater than or equal to 17,000. Dynamic sorption studies were done on NTS tuff and St. Peter sandstone core using 3 H, 85 Sr, and /sup 95m/Tc. These radionuclides were injected as a short pulse into the rock-equilibrated water that was flowing through the core. Tracer-free water was then continually flowed through the core until elution curves for the mobile radionuclides were established. Tritium and /sup 95m/Tc both traveled through the cores at the same rate, indicating no sorption for the mobile fraction of /sup 95m/Tc ( 95 TcO 4 - ). Strontium-85 did not exit the tuff cores but did exit the sandstone core although the elution curves showed definite retardation relative to the movement of 3 H and /sup 95m/Tc. Post-elution sectioning of the cores indicated that a fraction of the /sup 95m/Tc remained in the cores and was evenly distributed through the tuff cores. Strontium-85 showed a generally decreasing distribution from the inlet side to the outlet side of the tuff cores

  2. Sorption separation of Eu and As from single-component systems by Fe-modified biochar. Kinetic and equilibrium study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard; Michalekova-Richveisova, Barbora; Pipiska, Martin; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal; Duriska, Libor; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of carbonaceous materials in separation processes of radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids represents a burning issue in environmental and waste management. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of chemical modification of corncob-derived biochar by Fe-impregnations on sorption efficiency of Eu and As as a model compounds of cationic lanthanides and anionic metalloids. The biochar sample produced in slow pyrolysis process at 500 C before (BC) and after (IBC) impregnation process was characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis to confirm the effectiveness of Fe-impregnation process. The basic physico-chemical properties showed differences in surface area and pH values of BC- and IBC-derived sorbents. Sorption processes of Eu and As by BC and IBC were characterized as a time- and initial concentration of sorbate-dependent processes. The sorption equilibrium was reached for both sorbates in 24 h of contact time. Batch equilibrium experiments revealed the increased maximum sorption capacities (Q max ) of IBC for As about more than 20 times (Q max BC 0.11 and Q max IBC 2.26 mg g -1 ). Our study confirmed negligible effect of Fe-impregnation on sorption capacity of biochar for Eu (Q max BC 0.89 and Q max IBC 0.98 mg g -1 ). The iron-impregnation of biochar-derived sorbents can be utilized as a valuable treatment method to produce stable and more effective sorption materials for various xenobiotics separation from liquid wastes and aqueous solutions.

  3. Sorption separation of Eu and As from single-component systems by Fe-modified biochar. Kinetic and equilibrium study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard [Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Tulln (Austria). Energy Dept. Environmental Resources and Technologies; Michalekova-Richveisova, Barbora; Pipiska, Martin [Trnava Univ. (Slovakia). Dept. of Chemistry; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Duriska, Libor [Slovak Univ. of Technology in Bratislava, Trnava (Slovakia). Faculty of Materials Science and Technology; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola y Bromatologia

    2017-03-15

    The utilization of carbonaceous materials in separation processes of radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids represents a burning issue in environmental and waste management. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of chemical modification of corncob-derived biochar by Fe-impregnations on sorption efficiency of Eu and As as a model compounds of cationic lanthanides and anionic metalloids. The biochar sample produced in slow pyrolysis process at 500 C before (BC) and after (IBC) impregnation process was characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis to confirm the effectiveness of Fe-impregnation process. The basic physico-chemical properties showed differences in surface area and pH values of BC- and IBC-derived sorbents. Sorption processes of Eu and As by BC and IBC were characterized as a time- and initial concentration of sorbate-dependent processes. The sorption equilibrium was reached for both sorbates in 24 h of contact time. Batch equilibrium experiments revealed the increased maximum sorption capacities (Q{sub max}) of IBC for As about more than 20 times (Q{sub max} BC 0.11 and Q{sub max} IBC 2.26 mg g{sup -1}). Our study confirmed negligible effect of Fe-impregnation on sorption capacity of biochar for Eu (Q{sub max} BC 0.89 and Q{sub max} IBC 0.98 mg g{sup -1}). The iron-impregnation of biochar-derived sorbents can be utilized as a valuable treatment method to produce stable and more effective sorption materials for various xenobiotics separation from liquid wastes and aqueous solutions.

  4. suitability of murram for phosphorus sorption in constructed wetlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    sorption isotherms, determination of Phosphorus sorption capacity of the substrates, determination of. Phosphorus sorption as the function of time and determination of effect of temperature on the ... (Na2O + K2O) % SiO2. %. P2O5. %. TiO2. %. LOI. %. 19.2. 1.3. 0.69. 5.13. 0.05. 6.7. 61.9. 0.04. 0.51. 4.4. As presented in ...

  5. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  6. Sorption study of 226Ra(II) et 238U(VI) on to peat organic matter, in mining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordelet, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The environmental footprint of former uranium mining sites is a major concern for society. In order to guarantee the protection of ecosystems and thus a minimal radiological impact on the biosphere, it is important to understand and to be able to model the phenomena controlling the migration of uranium and its decay products, specially radium ( 226 Ra) (AREVA's Envir-at-Mines project). In the environment, among solid phases which can retain 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II), peat is known to have relevant affinity for U(VI). Because peat is usually composed at 90% dry weight of organic matter, the aim of this study was to qualify and quantify peat organic matter affinity for 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II). Peat samples extracted from Les Sagnes (close to a former uranium mining site in Limousin area, France) was characterised and batch adsorption/desorption experiments were conducted. The results indicate that 226 Ra(II) adsorption onto that peat is higher than 97% for pH ≥ 4-6 (depending on the organic/mineral ratio in dry peat) corresponding to K d values about 4500 ± 500 mL/g and 238 U(VI) adsorption is higher than 80% at pH ≥ 3 with K d maximal values reaching 11000 mL/g around pH 4.5. Only a little desorption was measured after one month. An ion exchange modelling for radium adsorption onto one type of organic matter sorption site was enough to fit the experimental adsorption K d for the peat over the whole range of pH. However, uranium sorption on peat can be modelled on that organic sorption site only from pH 1 to 5. From pH 5 to 10, to explain the experimental uranium adsorption K d values (close to 1500 mL/g), uranium sorption onto mineral phases (such as smectite and iron oxide in this study) has to be considered. An operational data set is given for both 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II) sorption onto Les Sagnes peat. Unlike usual peat, peat from Les Sagnes contains more than 10% dry weight of mineral matter. That is why it is necessary to model sorption of those two

  7. Evaluating the potential of a Nigerian soil as an adsorbent for tartrazine dye: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, M.O.; Akpomie, K.G.

    2016-01-01

    The release of toxic tartrazine dye from industrial effluent into the environment is of public health concern. This study therefore aimed at the removal of tartrazine from solution using Nigerian soil as a low cost potential sorbent. The sorbent was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and Scanning electron microscope. Batch sorption methodology was used to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, contact time and temperature. The sorbent r...

  8. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Shiryaev, Andrei [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2015-06-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  9. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna; Shiryaev, Andrei; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Kalmykov, Stepan; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    2015-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  10. Analysis of sorption into single ODS-silica gel microparticles in acetonitrile-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Kakizaki, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Intraparticle mass transfer processes of Phenol Blue (PB) in single octadecylsilyl (ODS)-silica gel microparticles in acetonitrile-water were analyzed by microcapillary manipulation and microabsorption methods. An absorption maximum of PB, the sorption isotherm parameters, and the sorption rate in the microparticle system were highly dependent on the percentage of acetonitrile in solution. The results are discussed in terms of the microscopic polarity surrounding PB in the ODS phase and the relationship between the isotherm parameters and the sorption rate.

  11. Influence of the temperature in the uranium (Vi) sorption in zirconium diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, N.; Solis, D.; Ordonez R, E.

    2012-10-01

    In the present work was evaluated the uranium (Vi) sorption at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 C on the zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ). They were carried out kinetic and isotherms using the method by lots, these will allow to fix the sorption time (kinetic) and to explain the behavior of this sorption in different ph conditions and temperature (isotherm). The quantity of retained uranium in the surface was quantified by means of the fluorescence technique. (Author)

  12. Sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite: effects of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shitong; Li, Jiaxing; Lu, Yi; Chen, Yixue; Wang, Xiangke

    2009-09-01

    Bentonite has been widely studied in nuclear waste management because of its special physicochemical properties. In this work, the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto GMZ bentonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation simulated the kinetic sorption process well. The sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and on ionic strength. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na(+)/H(+) on GMZ bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. A positive effect of HA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH8. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Ni(II) at three different temperatures: 303.15, 318.15 and 333.15K. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0) and DeltaG(0)) of Ni(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite at the three different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results indicated that the sorption process of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. Experimental results indicate that GMZ bentonite is a suitable sorbent for pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volume solutions.

  13. Sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite: Effects of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shitong; Li Jiaxing; Lu Yi; Chen Yixue; Wang Xiangke

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite has been widely studied in nuclear waste management because of its special physicochemical properties. In this work, the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto GMZ bentonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation simulated the kinetic sorption process well. The sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and on ionic strength. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na + /H + on GMZ bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. A positive effect of HA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH 8. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Ni(II) at three different temperatures: 303.15, 318.15 and 333.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) of Ni(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite at the three different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results indicated that the sorption process of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. Experimental results indicate that GMZ bentonite is a suitable sorbent for pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volume solutions.

  14. Sorption kinetics of TNT and RDX in anaerobic freshwater and marine sediments: Batch studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Vlahos, Penny; Tobias, Craig; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the partitioning of explosives onto sediment in marine environments is critical to predict the toxicological impacts of worldwide explosive-contaminated sites adjacent to estuaries, wetlands, and the coastal ocean. Marine sediments have been identified as sites of enhanced munitions removal, yet most studies addressing these interactions focus on soils and freshwater sediments. The present study measured the kinetics of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) sorption onto 2 marine sediments of varying grain sizes (silt vs sand) and organic carbon (OC) content. Abiotic sediment sorption tests were performed at 23 °C, 15 °C, and 4 °C by spiking TNT and RDX solutions directly into anaerobic sediment slurries. Marine sediments showed significantly higher compound uptake rates (0.30-0.80 h(-1) ) than freshwater silt (0.0046-0.0065 h(-1) ) for both compounds, probably because of lower compound solubilities and a higher pH in marine systems. Equilibrium partition constants are on the same order of magnitude for marine silt (1.1-2.0 L kg(-1) sediment) and freshwater silt (1.4-3.1 L kg(-1) sediment) but lower for marine sand (0.72-0.92 L kg(-1) sediment). Total organic carbon content in marine sediments varied linearly with equilibrium partition constants for TNT and was moderately linear for RDX. Uptake rates and equilibrium constants of explosives are inversely correlated to temperature regardless of sediment type because of kinetic barriers associated with low temperatures. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. The study of sorption of cesium radionuclides by 'T-55' ferrocyanide sorbent from various types of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenischev, V.S.; Voronina, A.V.; Bykov, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of caesium by T-55 sorbent from different types of liquid radioactive wastes is studied. It is shown that the sorbent can be used for extraction of cesium from high level acidic and saline solutions and also for decontamination of caesium contaminated waters containing surfactants and EDTA. (author)

  16. Adsorption isotherm studies of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using sol-gel hydrotalcite-like compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Ramirez, Esthela, E-mail: ramosre@quijote.ugto.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Quimica Inorganica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, Col. Noria Alta, C.P. 36050, Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Gutierrez Ortega, Norma L.; Conteras Soto, Cesar A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Quimica Inorganica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, Col. Noria Alta, C.P. 36050, Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, km 36.5, La Marquesa, Coyoacan Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Olguin Gutierrez, Maria T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, km 36.5, La Marquesa, Coyoacan Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico)

    2009-12-30

    In under-developed countries, industries such as paint and pigment manufacturing, leather tanning, chrome plating and textile processing, usually discharge effluents containing Cr(VI) and Cr(III) into municipal sanitary sewers. It has been reported that Cr(VI) acts as a powerful epithelial irritant and as a human carcinogen. In the present work, hydrotalcite-like compounds with a Mg/Al ratio = 2 were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and their corresponding thermally treated products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and the heated solids were used as adsorbents for Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherm studies of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution are described. The adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. The Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm data fit best to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake by hydrotalcite and the heated solids was determined using the Langmuir equation and was found to range between 26 and 29 mg Cr(VI)/g adsorbent.

  17. Adsorption isotherm studies of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using sol-gel hydrotalcite-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Ramirez, Esthela; Gutierrez Ortega, Norma L.; Conteras Soto, Cesar A.; Olguin Gutierrez, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    In under-developed countries, industries such as paint and pigment manufacturing, leather tanning, chrome plating and textile processing, usually discharge effluents containing Cr(VI) and Cr(III) into municipal sanitary sewers. It has been reported that Cr(VI) acts as a powerful epithelial irritant and as a human carcinogen. In the present work, hydrotalcite-like compounds with a Mg/Al ratio = 2 were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and their corresponding thermally treated products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and the heated solids were used as adsorbents for Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherm studies of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution are described. The adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. The Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm data fit best to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake by hydrotalcite and the heated solids was determined using the Langmuir equation and was found to range between 26 and 29 mg Cr(VI)/g adsorbent.

  18. Adsorption isotherm studies of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using sol-gel hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ramírez, Esthela; Ortega, Norma L Gutiérrez; Soto, Cesar A Contreras; Gutiérrez, Maria T Olguín

    2009-12-30

    In under-developed countries, industries such as paint and pigment manufacturing, leather tanning, chrome plating and textile processing, usually discharge effluents containing Cr(VI) and Cr(III) into municipal sanitary sewers. It has been reported that Cr(VI) acts as a powerful epithelial irritant and as a human carcinogen. In the present work, hydrotalcite-like compounds with a Mg/Al ratio=2 were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and their corresponding thermally treated products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and N(2) adsorption. The hydrotalcite-like compounds and the heated solids were used as adsorbents for Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherm studies of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution are described. The adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. The Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm data fit best to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake by hydrotalcite and the heated solids was determined using the Langmuir equation and was found to range between 26 and 29 mg Cr(VI)/g adsorbent.

  19. Numerical study of transient laminar natural convection over an isothermal sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Raghavan, Vasudevan; Gogos, George

    2007-01-01

    The full Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation for laminar natural convection heat transfer over an isothermal sphere have been discretized using the finite control volume formulation and solved by employing the SIMPLEC method. Transient and 'steady-state' results have been obtained for a wide range of high Grashof numbers (10 5 ≤ Gr ≤ 10 9 ) and a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0.02, 0.7, 7 and 100). Main results are listed below. A plume with a mushroom-shaped cap forms above the sphere and drifts upward continuously with time. The upward movement of the plume cap is slowed as the Prandtl number increases. The size and the level of temperature of the transient cap and plume stem decrease with increasing Gr and Pr. The time at which the 'steady-state' is reached, increases with the Prandtl number. The presence of a vortex in the wake of the sphere has been predicted and has been clearly delineated as a function of both Grashof and Prandtl numbers. The overall Nusselt numbers and total drag coefficients for the range of Grashof and Prandtl numbers investigated are presented and they are in very good agreement with studies available in the literature

  20. Micellization of bovine beta-casein studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnaya, Irina; Cogan, Uri; Livney, Yoav D; Ramon, Ory; Shimoni, Karin; Rosenberg, Moshe; Danino, Dganit

    2006-07-26

    The association behavior, critical micellization concentration (CMC), and enthalpy of demicellization (DeltaHdemic) of bovine beta-casein were studied, for the first time by isothermal titration calorimetry, in a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer with 0.1 ionic strength and in pure water. In the buffer solutions, the CMC decreased asymptotically from 0.15 to 0.006 mM as the temperature was raised from 16 to 45 degrees C. DeltaHdemic decreased with increasing temperature between 16 and 28 degrees C but increased from 28 to 45 degrees C. Thermodynamic analysis below 30 degrees C is consistent with the Kegeles shell model, which suggests a stepwise association process. At higher temperatures, this model exhibits limitations, and the micellization becomes much more cooperative. The CMC values in water, measured between 17 and 28 degrees C, decreased with increasing temperature and, expectedly, were higher than those found in the buffer solutions. beta-Casein micelles were visualized and characterized, for the first time in their hydrated state, using advanced digital-imaging cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The images revealed small, oblate micelles, about approximately 13 nm in diameter. The micelles shape and dimensions remained nearly constant in the temperature range of 24-35 degrees C.

  1. Interaction of chloroquine and its analogues with heme: An isothermal titration calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhawat, K; Thomas, C J; Surolia, N; Surolia, A

    2000-10-05

    Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. Identification of ferriprotoporphyrin IX ([Fe(III)PPIX], haematin) as the drug receptors for these antimalarials called for investigations of the binding affinity, mode of interaction, and the conditions affecting the interaction. The parameters obtained are significant in recent times with the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the malaria parasites. This has underlined the need to unravel the molecular mechanism of their action so as to meet the requirement of an alternative to the existing antimalarial drugs. The isothermal titration calorimetric studies on the interaction of chloroquine with haematin lead us to propose an altered mode of binding. The initial recognition is ionic in nature mediated by the propionyl group of haematin with the quaternary nitrogen on CQ. This ionic interaction induces a conformational change, such as to favour binding of subsequent CQ molecules. On the contrary, conditions emulating the cytosolic environment (pH 7.4 and 150 mM salt) reveal the hydrophobic force to be the sole contributor driving the interaction. Interaction of a carefully selected panel of quinoline antimalarial drugs with monomeric ferriprotoporphyrin IX has also been investigated at pH 5.6 mimicking the acidic environment prevalent in the food vacuoles of parasite, the center of drug activity, which are consistent with their antimalarial activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Using Adsorption Isotherm Studies to Determine Crosslinked Polymeric Adsorbent Performance in Heavy Metals Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric adsorbents are useful tools for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Adsorption models are efficient tools for accurate prediction and evaluation of the practical adsorption process in real situation. In this study, the two isotherms of Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were employed to investigate the absorption performance of chitosan, PVA, and chitosan/PVA blend (with a weight ratio of 1:1 in the removal of Mn (II and Ni (II from aqueous solutions. The PVA adsorbent was crosslinked by both chemical and radiation methods while the others were crosslinked only chemically due to Chitosan’s lack of resistance to radiation. The results showed that the Langmuir model fitted the experimental data better than the Dubinin-Radushkevich one for both metals. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of the Langmuir model showed that the PVA/Chitosan adsorbent had the best adsorption compared to other adsorbents, with 52.63 mg/g for Ni and 30.30 mg/g for Mn (evidently more Ni was absorbed than Mn. Also, maximum adsorption by the chemically crosslinked PVA was 38.46 mg/g for Ni and 19.23 mg/g for Mn, which exhibits a higher level than adsorption by the radiation crosslinked PVA The results indicate that absorption capacity depends on the type of adsorbed metal, absorbent structure, and the crosslinking method employed.

  3. Studies of dynamic and static leaching of cemented and uncemented sorption material loaded with iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.

    1989-05-01

    Leaching tests with water and brines were conducted on AC 6120 iodine sorption material (12 wt.% Ag) in order to improve the assessment of the behaviour of radioactive waste stored in a repository mine (salt or iron ore). As a result of the dynamic and static leaching tests, the leached fraction of I-129 in the uncemented material was found to be -1 %, while that of the cemented iodine sorption material was found to be -2 %. After ordinary steel had been added to the cemented sorption material, the leached fractions found were identical to those measured in uncemented material. The addition of stainless steel had only little influence on the leached fraction. (author)

  4. Thermodynamics of imidacloprid sorption in Croatian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Čedomila; Broznic, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Neonicotinoids are increasingly replacing the organophosphate and methylcarbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which are losing their effectiveness because of selection for resistant pest populations. Imidacloprid is the most important neonicotinoid with low soil persistence, high insecticidal potency and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In Croatia, imidacloprid is most commonly used in olive growing areas, including Istria and Kvarner islands, as an effective means of olive fruit fly infestation control. Sorption-desorption behavior of imidacloprid in six soils collected from five coastal regions in Croatia at 20, 30 and 40°C was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. Isothermal data were applied to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equation, and the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS° were calculated. The sorption isotherm curves were of non-linear and may be classified as L-type suggesting a relatively high sorption capacity for imidacloprid. Our results showed that the KFsor values decreased for all the tested soils as the temperature increases, indicating that the temperature strongly influence the sorption. Values of ΔG° were negative (-4.65 to -2.00 kJ/mol) indicating that at all experimental temperatures the interactions of imidacloprid with soils were spontaneous process. The negative and small ΔH° values (-19.79 to -8.89 kJ/mol) were in the range of weak forces, such as H-bonds, consistent with interactions and par¬titioning of the imidacloprid molecules into soil organic matter. The ΔS° values followed the range of -57.12 to -14.51 J/molK, suggesting that imidacloprid molecules lose entropy during transition from the solution phase to soil surface. It was found that imidacloprid desorption from soil was concentration and temperature dependent, i.e. at lower imidacloprid concentrations and temperature, lower desorption percentage occurred. Desorption studies revealed that hysteretic behavior under different temperature

  5. Gas Sorption, Diffusion, and Permeation in Nafion

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The gas permeability of dry Nafion films was determined at 2 atm and 35 °C for He, H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. In addition, gas sorption isotherms were determined by gravimetric and barometric techniques as a function of pressure up to 20

  6. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  7. Phosphate Sorption Characteristics and External P Requirements of Selected South African Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gichangi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Transkei is the largest consolidated area in South Africa where land is held by smallholder farmers but little is known about the extent of phosphate fixation in the region. This study was conducted to determine the phosphate sorption properties and external P requirements (EPR of selected soils from the Transkei region, South Africa and to relate derived sorption values to selected soil parameters. The P sorption maxima and EPR values varied widely ranging from 192.3 to 909.1 mg P kg−1 and from 2 to 123 mg P kg−1−1 soil, respectively. Citrate dithionite bicarbonate-extractable aluminum explained most of the observed variations in P sorption. About 43% of the soils were found to be moderate P fixers and may need management interventions to ensure adequate P availability to crops. The single point sorption index accurately predicted the EPR of the soils obviating the need to use multiple point sorption isotherms. The results suggested that the use of blanket phosphate fertilizer recommendations may not be a good strategy for the region as it may lead to under-application or over-application of P in some areas.

  8. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  9. Influence of mineral characteristics on the retention of low molecular weight organic compounds: a batch sorption-desorption and ATR-FTIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Sabina; Singh, Balwant; Kookana, Rai S; Farrell, Mark; Sparks, Donald L; Johnston, Cliff T

    2014-10-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption-desorption behaviour of (14)C-labelled carboxylic acids (citric and oxalic) and amino acids (glutamic, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine) on pure minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite and goethite). The sorption experiments were complemented by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to gain possible mechanistic insight into the organic acids-mineral interactions. In terms of charge, the organic solutes ranged from strongly negative (i.e., citric) to positively charged solutes (i.e., lysine); similarly the mineral phases also ranged from positively to negatively charged surfaces. In general, sorption of anionic carboxylic and glutamic acids was higher compared to the other compounds (except lysine). Cationic lysine showed a stronger affinity to permanently charged phyllosilicates than Fe oxides. The sorption of alanine and phenylalanine was consistently low for all minerals, with relatively higher sorption and lower desorption of phenylalanine than alanine. Overall, the role of carboxylic functional groups for the sorption and retention of these carboxylic and amino acids on Fe oxides (and kaolinite) and of amino group on 2:1 phyllosilicates was noticeable. Mineral properties (surface chemistry, specific surface area), chemistry of the organic compounds (pKa value, functional groups) and the equilibrium pH of the system together controlled the differences in sorption-desorption patterns. The results of this study aid to understand the effects of mineralogical and chemical factors that affect naturally occurring low molecular weight organic compounds sorption under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Binding of Cu(II) ions to peptides studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Uber, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Wiczk, Wiesław; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements supported by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions of Cu2 + with four peptides. Two of them were taken from the N-terminal part of the FBP28 protein (formin binding protein) WW domain: Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9) and its mutant Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asn-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9_M) as well as two mutated peptides from the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G derived from Streptococcus: Asp-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J1) and Glu-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J2). The measurements were carried out at 298.15 K in 20 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer solution with a pH of 6. The fluorescence of all peptides was quenched by Cu2 + ions. The stoichiometry, conditional stability constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interactions of the Cu2 + ions with D9 and D9_M were determined from the calorimetric data. The values of the conditional stability constants were additionally determined from fluorescence quenching measurements and compared with those obtained from calorimetric studies. There was a good correlation between data obtained from the two techniques. On the other hand, the studies revealed that J1 and J2 do not exhibit an affinity towards metal ions. The obtained results prove that fluorescence quenching experiments may be successfully used in order to determine stability constants of complexes with fluorescent ligands. Finally, based on the obtained results, the coordinating properties of the peptides towards the Cu2 + ions are discussed.

  11. Binding of Cu(II) ions to peptides studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Uber, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Wiczk, Wiesław; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-01-15

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements supported by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions of Cu(2+) with four peptides. Two of them were taken from the N-terminal part of the FBP28 protein (formin binding protein) WW domain: Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9) and its mutant Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asn-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9_M) as well as two mutated peptides from the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G derived from Streptococcus: Asp-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J1) and Glu-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J2). The measurements were carried out at 298.15K in 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer solution with a pH of 6. The fluorescence of all peptides was quenched by Cu(2+) ions. The stoichiometry, conditional stability constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interactions of the Cu(2+) ions with D9 and D9_M were determined from the calorimetric data. The values of the conditional stability constants were additionally determined from fluorescence quenching measurements and compared with those obtained from calorimetric studies. There was a good correlation between data obtained from the two techniques. On the other hand, the studies revealed that J1 and J2 do not exhibit an affinity towards metal ions. The obtained results prove that fluorescence quenching experiments may be successfully used in order to determine stability constants of complexes with fluorescent ligands. Finally, based on the obtained results, the coordinating properties of the peptides towards the Cu(2+) ions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of a diffusion-sorption experiment on sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1989-11-01

    The results of a diffusion-sorption experiment on a sample of Darley Dale sandstone, using simulated groundwater spiked with a mixture of 125 I, 85 Sr and 137 Cs, are modelled by a one-dimensional porous medium approach in which sorption is described by Freundlich isotherms. The governing equations are solved analytically for the special case of a linear isotherm, and numerically using the computer code RANCHDIFF for non-linear isotherms. A set of time-dependent, ordinary differential equations is obtained using the Lagrange interpolation technique and integrated by Gear's variable order predictor-corrector method. It is shown that the sorption behaviour of 85 Sr can be modelled successfully by a linear isotherm, using a sorption parameter consistent with batch-sorption tests. The behaviour of 137 Cs may be modelled by a non-linear isotherm, but the amount of 137 Cs sorbed is less than that anticipated from batch-sorption tests. 125 I is assumed to be non-sorbing and is used to determine the porosity of the sandstone. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  13. Study on the effects of titanium oxide based nanomaterials as catalysts on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of magnesium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Anderson de Farias; Jardim, Paula Mendes; Santos, Dilson Silva dos, E-mail: anderso.n@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Conceicao, Monique Osorio Talarico da [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Magnesium hydride is highly attractive for hydrogen storage in solid state in reason of its high gravimetric capacity (7,6 wt% of H{sub 2}) and low density (1,7 g/cm³), making it a promissory candidate for mobile applications [1]. However, its low sorption kinetics and desorption temperature are the main obstacles for its application. In the present study the catalytic role of TiO{sub 2} based nanomaterials with different morphologies on the sorption kinetics of MgH{sub 2} was evaluated. The additions consisted on titanate nanotubes (TTNT-Low), TiO{sub 2} nanorods (TTNT-550) and nanoparticles (KA-100, TTNT-ACID). Transmission and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (S/TEM) associated with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) mapping was used to characterize the catalysts' morphology and crystalline structure and their dispersion within magnesium hydride, altogether with other characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET technique for structure and surface area analysis. The sorption kinetics were evaluated by means of a volumetric gas absorption/desorption (Sievert-type) apparatus. The results indicated that all additives improved the sorption kinetics of MgH{sub 2}, but the samples with TTNT-550 (TiO{sub 2} nanorods) and TTNT-ACID (TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles) presented the best and the second best performances, respectively, suggesting that the 1D morphology may promote a slightly superior kinetics than particulate catalysts. (author)

  14. Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Debin; Xu, Wenchen; Han, Xiuzhu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional rigid-plastic finite element model is established to simulate the isothermal precision forging process of the magnesium alloy bracket based on DEFORM 3D in order to analyze the material flow rule and determine the forging process scheme. Some problems such as underfilling and too large forging pressure are predicted and resolved through optimizing the shapes of the billet successfully. Compared to the initial microstructure, the isothermal-forged microstructure of the alloy refines obviously and amounts of secondary phases precipitate on the matrix during isothermal forging process. In subsequent ageing process, large quantities of secondary phases precipitate from α-Mg matrix with increasing ageing time. The optimal comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy have been obtained after aged at 473 K, 63 h with the ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength and elongation 380 MPa, 243 MPa and 4.07% respectively, which shows good potential for application of isothermal forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy.

  15. A sample holder for the study of isothermal heat of hydration of cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    Different techniques for measuring heat of hydration of cement are discussed, and a sample holder designed specially for measuring isothermal heat of hydration is described. A particular characteristic of the sample holder is the vacuum mixing technique which ensures a momentary and homogeneous...

  16. Nitrate Sorption in an Agricultural Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of in surface water and groundwater can cause ecological and public health effects and has come under increased scrutiny by both environmental scientists and regulatory agencies. For many regions though, including the Sahel of Tunisia, little is known about the sorption capacity of soils. In this project we measured sorption by a profile of an iso-humic soil from Chott Meriem, Tunisia. Soil samples were collected from four soil depths (0–25, 25–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm on 1 June 2011, and their sorption capacity was determined using batch experiments under laboratory conditions. The effects of contact time, the initial concentration, and the soil-solution ratio on sorption were investigated. In general, the results suggested that was weakly retained by the Chott Meriem soil profile. The quantity of sorption increased with depth, contact time, initial concentration, and soil-solution ratios. To evaluate the sorption capacities of the soil samples at concentrations ranging between 25 and 150 mg L−1 experimental data were fitted to both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm sorption models. The results indicated that Freundlich model was better for describing sorption in this soil profile.

  17. Study of CaCl2 as an agent that modifies the surface of activated carbon used in sorption/treatment cycles for nitrate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zanella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the application of a chemically-modified activated carbon surface was investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treatment with CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 2000 mg.L-1 on the sorption of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions in successive sorption/t reatment cycles. The sorbent was initially subjected to chemical treatment with CaCl2 and subsequently to the sorption process. Nine sorption cycles were performed. The concentrations of nitrate ions in the solution were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry before and after sorption. The results show that treatment with CaCl2 caused a significant increase in the percentage removal for each treatment step, reaching a removal rate of 80% of nitrate in the solution after nine cycles.

  18. Metal sorption on kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, H.R.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Anderson, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    A key issue in performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste sites is predicting the transport and retardation of radionuclides through local soils under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Improved transport codes should include a mechanistic model of radionuclide retardation. The authors have been investigating metal sorption (Cs + , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ ) on a simple clay mineral (kaolinite) to better understand the geochemical interactions of common soil minerals with contaminated groundwaters. These studies include detailed characterizations of kaolinite surfaces, experimental adsorption measurements, surface complexation modeling, and theoretical simulations of cation sorption. The aluminol edge (010) site has been identified as the most likely site for metal sorption on kaolinite in natural solutions. Relative metal binding strengths decrease from Ba 2+ to Sr 2+ to Cs + , with some portion sorbed on both kaolinite edges and basal surfaces. Some Cs + also appears to be irreversibly sorbed on both sites. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Cs + is sorbed at aluminol (010) edge sites as an inner-sphere complex and weakly sorbed as an outer-sphere complex on (001) basal surfaces. These results provide the basis to understand and predict metal sorption onto kaolinite, and a framework to characterize sorption processes on more complex clay minerals

  19. Heavy metal ion adsorption behavior in nitrogen-doped magnetic carbon nanoparticles: Isotherms and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Keun-Young; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → The monodisperse and multigram-scale N-MCNPs are fabricated by carbonization of polypyrrole as a carbon precursor. → The synthesized N-MCNPs provide an enhanced adsorption uptake for various heavy metal ions. → The N-MCNPs can be applied to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. → The iron-impregnated N-MCNPs are reused up to 5 times with no loss of removal efficiency. - Abstract: To clarify the heavy metal adsorption mechanism of nitrogen-doped magnetic carbon nanoparticles (N-MCNPs), adsorption capacity was investigated from the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics points of view. The obtained results showed that the equilibrium adsorption behavior of Cr 3+ ion onto the N-MCNPs can be applied to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. It indicated that the fabricated N-MCNPs had the homogenous surface for adsorption and all adsorption sites had equal adsorption energies. Furthermore, the adsorption onto N-MCNPs taken place through a chemical process involving the valence forces. According to the thermodynamics, the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature which means that the adsorption capacity increases with increasing temperature due to the enhanced mobility of adsorbate molecules. The effects of the solution pH and the species of heavy metal ion on the adsorption uptake were also studied. The synthesized N-MCNPs exhibited an enhanced adsorption capacity for the heavy metal ions due to the high surface area and large amount of nitrogen contents.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and its Impact on the Sorption of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L.R. van; Glaus, M A

    1998-08-01

    For more than ten years, cellulose degradation has been regarded as an important process which can adversely effect the sorption of radionuclides on cement in a radioactive waste repository. However, so far, it was not possible to quantify this effect. This study reports new experimental data on alkaline degradation of cellulose, together with a re-evaluation of old literature data. For the first time now, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate the potential role of cellulose degradation in performance assessment studies. In the first part of this study, a literature overview of other studies on alkaline degradation of cellulose is given, together with a general discussion on the effect of organic ligands on the sorption of radionuclides. Further, an overview of the important mechanisms of alkaline degradation of cellulose and some kinetic aspects of the main reactions taking place is presented. The relevance of the processes for performance assessment is explained in detail. The discussion forms the starting-point for a detailed experimental program for evaluating the role of alkaline degradation of cellulose in performance assessment. In the second part, experimental studies on alkaline degradation are presented. Different cellulosic materials were degraded in an artificial cement pore water, representing the first stage of cement degradation. The most important degradation products ({alpha}- and {beta}-isosaccharinic acid) were characterised and the results compared with other studies. Kinetic parameters for the main reactions were measured and discussed. A good agreement was found between the measured values and values extrapolated from the literature. The solubility of the sparingly soluble Ca-salt of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was studied as well as the interaction of ISA with cement. Sorption of ISA on cement can keep the ISA concentration in the pore water of a repository at a low level. The effect of pure ISA and degradation products on the

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and its Impact on the Sorption of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. van; Glaus, M.A.

    1998-08-01

    For more than ten years, cellulose degradation has been regarded as an important process which can adversely effect the sorption of radionuclides on cement in a radioactive waste repository. However, so far, it was not possible to quantify this effect. This study reports new experimental data on alkaline degradation of cellulose, together with a re-evaluation of old literature data. For the first time now, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate the potential role of cellulose degradation in performance assessment studies. In the first part of this study, a literature overview of other studies on alkaline degradation of cellulose is given, together with a general discussion on the effect of organic ligands on the sorption of radionuclides. Further, an overview of the important mechanisms of alkaline degradation of cellulose and some kinetic aspects of the main reactions taking place is presented. The relevance of the processes for performance assessment is explained in detail. The discussion forms the starting-point for a detailed experimental program for evaluating the role of alkaline degradation of cellulose in performance assessment. In the second part, experimental studies on alkaline degradation are presented. Different cellulosic materials were degraded in an artificial cement pore water, representing the first stage of cement degradation. The most important degradation products (α- and β-isosaccharinic acid) were characterised and the results compared with other studies. Kinetic parameters for the main reactions were measured and discussed. A good agreement was found between the measured values and values extrapolated from the literature. The solubility of the sparingly soluble Ca-salt of α-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was studied as well as the interaction of ISA with cement. Sorption of ISA on cement can keep the ISA concentration in the pore water of a repository at a low level. The effect of pure ISA and degradation products on the sorption of

  2. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tits, Jan; Laube, Andreas; Wieland, Erich; Gaona, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO 2 was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO 2 R d values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, R d values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the R d values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the R d values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO 2 whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar R d values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion, allows the weaker sorption of the

  3. Effects of sorption and temperature on solute transport in unsaturated steady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    It is known that temperature affects physical and chemical processes and that these processes may alter the transport of solutes in the environment. Laboratory column studies were performed in unsaturated flow conditions with a composite pulse containing iodide, cobalt, cesium and strontium each at 10 -3 M. The experiments were performed with Bandelier Tuff and produced breakthrough curves that indicate significant changes in transport due to a temperature change from 25 0 C to 5 0 C for nonconservative solutes. Also, the interpretation of the temperature and sorption data suggest that the differences in transport between 5 0 C and 25 0 C for nonconservative solutes may be predicted in a qualitative manner from batch equilibrium and nonequilibrium sorption data and the theory of sorption used in deriving the modified Freundlich isotherm equation. These effects should be of concern in modeling and management of spills and waste disposal within this range of environmental temperatures

  4. Simultaneous removal of potent cyanotoxins from water using magnetophoretic nanoparticle of polypyrrole: adsorption kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hena, S; Rozi, R; Tabassum, S; Huda, A

    2016-08-01

    Cyanotoxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, are potent toxins produced by cyanobacteria in potable water supplies. This study investigated the removal of cyanotoxins from aqueous media by magnetophoretic nanoparticle of polypyrrole adsorbent. The adsorption process was pH dependent with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7 for microcystin-LA, LR, and YR and at pH 9 for microcystin-RR and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Kinetic studies and adsorption isotherms reflected better fit for pseudo-second-order rate and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the cyanotoxin adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The regenerated adsorbent can be successfully reused without appreciable loss of its original capacity.

  5. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sorption of vanillin on highly basic anion exchanger under static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholokhova, A. Yu.; Eliseeva, T. V.; Voronyuk, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of vanillin by a granulated anion exchanger is studied under static conditions. A comparison of the kinetic curves of the uptake of hydroxybenzaldehyde by gel and macroporous anion exchanger shows that macroporous sorbent has better kinetic characteristics. The effect temperature has on the capacity of an anion exchanger and the time needed to establish sorption equilibrium is found, and the activation energy of vanillin uptake is determined. Studying the effect experimental factors have on the rate of sorption and using the formal kinetics approach, it is established that in the investigated range of concentrations, the limiting stage of the uptake of vanillin by an anion exchanger with the functional groups of a quaternary ammonium base is that of external diffusion. Vanillin sorption by a highly basic anion exchanger in hydroxyl form is characterized by polymolecular uptake best described by a BET isotherm; at the same time, the uptake of sorbate by a chloride form is of a monomolecular character and can be described by a Freindlich isotherm. Structural changes in the anion exchanger sorbed hydroxybenzaldehyde are identified via FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. Investigation of Acorn fruit Ash Efficiency in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Zarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are known as significant pollutants because of toxicity and nonbiodegradable characteristics. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that have carcinogen potential. So, this study carried out in order to investigate the acorn fruit ash efficiency in cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was done in the batch laboratory conditions. In this study, the effect of different parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial cadmium concentration were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for analysis of the equilibrium isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium by different models were also investigated. The measurement of residual cadmium in the samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 228.8 nm. The SPSS-16 software was used for analysis of data. Results: According to the results, the maximum adsorption capacity of cadmium was 9.29 mg/g at pH=7 and 8 g/L adsorbent dose. The removal efficiency was increased with increasing contact time and decreased with increasing of cadmium initial concentration. Investigation of achieving data showed that the adsorption process followed better by Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it could be concluded that the acorn fruit ash had high ability in cadmium adsorption and could be used as a cheap adsorbent in the removal of cadmium.

  8. Estimation of the isothermal compressibility from event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Maitreyee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first estimation of the isothermal compressibility (kT of matter is presented for a wide range of collision energies from √sNN = 7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV. kT is estimated with the help of event-byevent charged particle multiplicity fluctuations from experiment. Dynamical fluctuations are extracted by removing the statistical fluctuations obtained from the participant model. kT is also estimated from event generators AMPT, UrQMD, EPOS and a hadron resonance gas model. The values of isothermal compressibility are estimated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies with the help of the event generators.

  9. Integration and global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data for studying macromolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Zhao, Huaying; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro; Schuck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful and widely used method to measure the energetics of macromolecular interactions by recording a thermogram of differential heating power during a titration. However, traditional ITC analysis is limited by stochastic thermogram noise and by the limited information content of a single titration experiment. Here we present a protocol for bias-free thermogram integration based on automated shape analysis of the injection peaks, followed by combination of isotherms from different calorimetric titration experiments into a global analysis, statistical analysis of binding parameters and graphical presentation of the results. This is performed using the integrated public-domain software packages NITPIC, SEDPHAT and GUSSI. The recently developed low-noise thermogram integration approach and global analysis allow for more precise parameter estimates and more reliable quantification of multisite and multicomponent cooperative and competitive interactions. Titration experiments typically take 1-2.5 h each, and global analysis usually takes 10-20 min.

  10. Removal of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile wastewater by pomegranate seed powder: Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the evaluation of adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile synthetic wastewater by pomegranate seed powder. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental research, which was performed in laboratory scale. In this study, the parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH and retention time, initial concentration of dye and agitation rate have been investigated. After washing and boiling of pomegranate seeds for 2 h, they dried, milled and finally pulverized by standard ASTM sieves (40-100 mesh. Maximum adsorption wave length (λmax by spectrophotometer ultra violet/visible (model SP-3000 Plus 592 nm was determined. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were analyzed. Results: According to results, the removal efficiency with adsorbent dose, retention time and agitation rate has a direct relation. Maximum adsorption occurred in the first 60 min. The removal efficiency with initial concentration of dye and pH of solution has indirect relation. The Freundlich isotherm fits the experimental data better than the other isotherms. It was recognized that the adsorption followed by pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99. Conclusion: Based on the results, pomegranate seeds as a new natural sorbent can be used in removal of dye and other environmental pollutants with desirable absorption capacity.

  11. Removal of Dye (Blue 56 From Aqueous Solution via Adsorption onto Pistachio Shell: kinetic and isotherm study of removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravanpaykar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, shells of pistachio are used as adsorbents and they have been successfully used for the removal of Blue 56, from water samples. The effect of various parameters such as: pH, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles and contact time on removal processing were investigated. Inthisstudy Freundlichabsorptionisotherms and Langmuir were investigated. The experimental data were correlated reasonably well by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and isotherm parameters were calculated. In order to investigate the efficiency of Blue 56 adsorption on the pistachio shell, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. Themodel that hadgoodcorrelationtoattractFreundlichwas chosenasthemodel. Its kineticsfollowsthepseudosecond order reaction.

  12. Sorption characteristics of pectin isolated from Jerusalem Artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study is the isolation of pectin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. and the analysis of its sorption characteristics Materials and methods. Research was carried out on the pectin content of the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke plants cultivated in Bulgaria. The polyuronide content (PUC was determined via the МсCready method. The static gravimetric method was used for analysis of the sorption characteristics of pectins. Results and discussion. The polysaccharide was extracted. The isolated pectins were analyzed in physical terms: the equilibrium sorption isotherms, belonging to type II in Brunauer’s classification, were obtained experimentally. The entire isotherm length demonstrated statistically significant hysteresis. The Henderson and Chung-Pfost models provided adequate isotherm description. The pectin content of the three Jerusalem artichoke samples is 14.8, 9.2 and 11.9 % a.d.m., respectively. The monomolecular moisture content of pectin was within the 7.42 – 7.92% dry basis range, its corresponding water activity value –within the 0.14 –0.16 range. Conclusion. The resultsof research are advisablefor use indevelop of functional food ingredient which is used pectin as a gelling agent and a stabilizer.

  13. Sorption of different phenol derivatives on functionalized macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite was prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. Nanocomposite was functionalized with diethylene triamine (deta, by ring-opening reaction of the pendant epoxy groups. Functionalization was performed in order to enable phenol derivatives sorption. This new, not sufficiently investigated material, with developed porous structure was denoted CP-SA-deta. In this study, the influence of temperature on 4-nitrophenol (4NP sorption on CP-SA-deta was investigated. The chemisorption was estimated as dominant process since activation energy of sorption of 4NP of 54.8 kJ mol-1 was obtained. After determining the optimal sorption conditions for 4NP, the sorption of 2-nitrophenol (2NP and 2-chloro 4-nitrophenol (2Cl4NP on CP-SA-deta was investigated with respect to pH, initial concentration and contact time. The 2NP sorption was seldom tested, while according to our knowledge, the 2Cl4NP sorption was not investigated. The isotherm data were best fitted with Langmuir model, while the sorption dynamics obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for all derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001 i br. III 43009

  14. Sorption of Atrazine in Tropical Soil by Biochar Prepared from Cassava Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC is a carbonaceous and porous product generated from the incomplete combustion of biomass and has been recognized as an efficient adsorbent. This study evaluated the ability of BC to sorb atrazine pesticide in tropical soil, and explored potential environmental values of BC on mitigating organic micro-pollutants. BC was produced from cassava waste via pyrolyzation under oxygen-limiting conditions at 350, 550, and 750 °C (MS350, MS550, and MS750, respectively. Three biochars were characterized and investigated as sorbents for the removal atrazine from tropical soil. BC pyrolyzed at higher temperatures more quickly reached equilibrium. The pseudo-second-order model perfectly simulated the sorption kinetics for atrazine with the coefficients R2 above 0.996, and the sorption amount at equilibrium (qe was 0.016 mg/g for MS350, 0.025 mg/g for MS550 and 0.050 mg/g for MS750. The isotherms of MS350 displayed relatively linear behavior, whereas the sorption of atrazine on MS550 and MS750 followed a nonlinear isotherm. The sorption data were well described by the Freundlich model with logKF of 0.476 for MS350, 0.771 for MS550, 1.865 for MS750. A thermodynamic study indicated that the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil was a spontaneous and endothermic process and was primarily controlled by physisorption. In addition, lower pH was conducive to the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil.

  15. Parametric Study of an Air Charged Franchot Engine with Novel Hot and Cold Isothermalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. Daoud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that uses heat exchangers to enhance the addition and removal of energy. This makes the engine power-dense but expensive, less efficient and complicated. In this contribution, the Stirling engine based on the Franchot engine has novel cylindrical fins working as isothermalizers to improve heat transfer without the complications of heat exchangers. Enhancing the power density by isothermalizing work spaces is compared to the bare cylinder optimized by varying the phase angle. The theoretical analysis shows that both the adiabatic and isothermal fins increase the power and efficiency, achieving the Curzon and Ahlborn efficiency at the maximum power point. In comparison to the phase angle method, the finned engine resulted in much lower gas mass flow rate, which leads to a reduction in the regenerator pumping and enthalpy losses. Thus, the Stirling engine has the potential to be simple, cheap, efficient and power-dense, and thus can be used effectively for different applications.

  16. Comparative EXAFS study of uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) sorption onto kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, T.; Amayri, S.; Reich, Ta.; Jermolajev, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: We investigated the surface sorption process of U(VI) and Np(V) on kaolinite by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy in the 10 μM concentration range. Batch experiments with kaolinite in CO 2 -equilibrated systems showed that the adsorption edge of U(VI) occurs at pH 5.5, i.e., near the pH PZC of kaolinite. The adsorption edge of Np(V) occurs well above the pH PZC value at pH 8.5. This may indicate that the bonds between Np(V) and the surface functional groups of kaolinite are not as strong as in the case of U(VI). U(VI) and Np(V) have in common that the amount which is adsorbed decreases when the pH is increased beyond the absorption maximum. This behavior can be attributed to the formation of U(VI) and Np(V) carbonato complexes in the aqueous solutions. The aim of this comparative EXAFS study was to investigate the reason for the different affinities of U(VI) and Np(V) for kaolinite by measuring their local environments at the clay surface. Samples were prepared from 4 g/L kaolinite, 0.1 M NaClO 4 , pH 3.0 - 10.5, presence and absence of ambient CO 2 . The U L 3 - and Np L 2 -edge EXAFS spectra of the wet paste samples were measured at room temperature in fluorescence mode at the Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured U-O and U-Al/Si distances indicate inner-sphere sorption of U(VI) on kaolinite. There was no evidence of uranium neighbors in the EXAFS spectra, suggesting that the adsorbed U(VI) complexes were predominantly monomeric. The average distance between uranium and its equatorial oxygen atoms, O eq , increased from 2.32 to 2.38 Angstrom in the presence of atmospheric CO 2 when the pH was increased from 5.0 to 8.5. In the CO 2 -free system, the U-O eq distance was independent from pH and equal to 2.32 Angstrom. The lengthening of the average U-O eq distance in the presence of carbonate (or bicarbonate) suggests the formation of ternary U

  17. Tracer sorption and macroscopic transport in clay nano-pores: a lattice-Boltzmann study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) has been entrusted to find a safe solution for disposing of existing and future nuclear wastes. A prototype site has been considered for the waste disposal in a deep underground sedimentary geological formation. It is composed of clay minerals chosen, among other reasons, for their remarkable ability to limit radionuclide transport. Clay minerals are complex charged porous media characterized by heterogeneities at several length scales. They naturally occur as an assembly of few nano-meter-sized particles connected to form 10 to 100 nm interparticle pores containing water and ions. This intrinsically multi-scale structure, that gives the material its remarkable properties, makes the description of sorption and transport phenomena of transported ions particularly challenging. Experimental studies of water and ion transport through clays mostly consist in evaluating macroscopic effective transport coefficients like permeability or conductivity. They showed that the main transport mechanism is an effective diffusion that not only depends on particle charge but also on its chemical nature, or specificity. The goal of assessing the performance of clays as confinement barriers, particularly in the context of the geological disposal of nuclear waste, requires not only quantitative prediction of the retention and transport of species but also an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms underlying them. A successful approach has been to use numerical simulations via the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LB). It consists in making evolve populations describing the fluid at a level which is consistent with time and length-scales involved in transport properties, while still including a microscopic description of the phenomena. The transport of charged ions at the pore scale has recently been included in LB. In this method, the evolution of a tracer population is

  18. Enhanced sorption of radiocobalt from water by Bi(III) modified montmorillonite: A novel adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhiqiang; Li Yuan; Zhang Shouwei; Niu Haihong; Chen Zhesheng; Xu Jinzhang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi-Mt has higher surface area than Ca-Mt. → The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt is dependent on ionic strength and pH. → The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt is an spontaneous and endothermic process. → Bi-Mt has good practical application potential in wastewater disposal. - Abstract: In this study, Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mt) modified with Bi 3+ was used as a novel adsorbent for the sorption of Co(II) from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-montmorillonite (Bi-Mt) was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, adsorbent content, Co(II) concentrations, fulvic acid (FA) and temperature. Compared to Ca-Mt, Bi-Mt showed a higher affinity to bind Co(II) ions. The sorption percentage of Co(II) on Bi-Mt increased with increasing pH at pH 3.0-8.5, and then maintained the high level at pH 8.5-12. The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt was dependent on ionic strength at low pH, and independent of ionic strength at high pH. The presence of FA enhanced Co(II) sorption at low pH, but suppressed Co(II) sorption at high pH. The thermodynamic data derived from temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt was spontaneous and endothermic process. Outer-sphere surface complexation and/or ion exchange were the main mechanisms of Co(II) sorption on Bi-Mt at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. From the experimental results, it is possible to conclude that Bi-Mt is suitable for application of Co(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

  19. Sorption – desorption of imidacloprid insecticide on Indian soils of five different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorption-desorption processes govern the movement of all chemicals including pesticides in soils. The present investigation was undertaken to study the sorption-desorption of imidacloprid, using a batch method, on soils of five different location of India. Sorption data were fitted to Freundlich isotherm. The log K value was the highest for loam type soil (1.830 and the lowest for clay type soil (1.661. The value of 1/n was the maximum for silt loam soil (0.909 but minimum for loam soil (0.723. Simple correlation analysis indicated that among soil properties only electrical conductivity showed a higher but marginally non-significant negative correlation with log K (r = -0.826 indicating that higher concentration of solutes solutes are conducive to low sorption capacity of soil. The desorption data conformed to two surfaces Freundlich desorption isotherm. The values of 1/n1' corresponding to easily desorbed fraction of imidacloprid showed significant negative correlation with soil pH (r = -0.886, significant at p ≤0.05 but significant positive correlation with clay content (r = 0.980, significant at p ≤0.01. The desorption index for easily desorbed fraction of imidacloprid (n1’/n also had significant negative correlation with soil pH (r = 0.953, significant at p ≤0.05. From cumulative desorption data, it appeared that bioavailability of imidacloprid would be lower in neutral soil than acidic or alkaline soils.

  20. INAA study of sorption U from technological solution by different microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Bekmukhamedova, N.K.; Khamidova, Kh.M.; Rakhimova, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The capacity of microorganisms to accumulate metal ions can be used for the extraction of metals from technological solutions. The aim of this INAA study is to investigate the extraction U from technological solutions by different microorganisms- actinomycetes, Aspergillus niger and Acremonium sp10 cultures and to search more effective biosorbents of U among them. INAA is more available and cheap method for us also it has high enough sensitivity and allows to avoid exposing the bacteria to radioactive metals. Atomic absorptive analyzer is more suitable for the determination of impurities in solutions, but it is expensive and not available for us. Biomasses of microorganisms (1 g of each) were tested for their U sorption capacity from a technological solution of U-production, containing 71.1 mg/l ions U (initial solution diluted 10 times). The interaction between biomass and solutions lasted for 15 min. The flask with the solution was placed on a horizontal shaker (180 rpm) for 15 min and was then centrifuged. Then the amount U not sorted by the microorganisms was measured from the over-sedimentary solution (decantation). After sorption, 0.1 ml aliquots of the decantation were dropped on strips of ash free filter paper. The strips (samples) were dried, wrapped in the aluminum packets and placed in a container for irradiation in nuclear reactor. The U samples were irradiated for 5 at the fission neutron flux density of 5.3·10 13 cm -2 s -1 . The U content was calculated from the gamma-line (228.2 keV, 277.8 keV) intensities of radionuclide 239Np Uncertainty the U determining (relative standard deviation) was 2-3 %. Is shown, that the most effective sorbents of U from technological solutions are some strains of actinomycetes (98,0%) and microscopical fungus Acremonium sp10 (98, 3%).The optimal temperature solution was from of 23.5 o to 42.0 o and optimal pH was 8,3

  1. Sorption of the organic cation metoprolol on silica gel from its aqueous solution considering the competition of inorganic cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Susann; Schaffer, Mario; Börnick, Hilmar; Licha, Tobias; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-05-01

    Systematic batch experiments with the organic monovalent cation metoprolol as sorbate and the synthetic material silica gel as sorbent were conducted with the aim of characterizing the sorption of organic cations onto charged surfaces. Sorption isotherms for metoprolol (>99% protonated in the tested pH of around 6) in competition with mono- and divalent inorganic cations (Na(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were determined in order to assess their influence on cation exchange processes and to identify the role of further sorptive interactions. The obtained sorption isotherms could be described well by an exponential function (Freundlich isotherm model) with consistent exponents (about 0.8). In general, a decreasing sorption of metoprolol with increasing concentrations in inorganic cations was observed. Competing ions of the same valence showed similar effects. A significant sorption affinity of metoprolol with ion type dependent Freundlich coefficients KF,0.77 between 234.42 and 426.58 (L/kg)(0.77) could still be observed even at very high concentrations of competing inorganic cations. Additional column experiments confirm this behavior, which suggests the existence of further relevant interactions beside cation exchange. In subsequent batch experiments, the influence of mixtures with more than one competing ion and the effect of a reduced negative surface charge at a pH below the point of zero charge (pHPZC ≈ 2.5) were also investigated. Finally, the study demonstrates that cation exchange is the most relevant but not the sole mechanism for the sorption of metoprolol on silica gel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption of cobalt in zeolites and natural clays of the clinoptilolite and kaolinite type; Sorcion de cobalto en zeolitas y arcillas naturales del tipo clinoptilolita y caolinita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, J.I.; Solache R, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the sorption of cobalt of aqueous solutions in two natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) and a clay (kaolinite) of origin in the center-north region of Mexico is evaluated. The effect of the pH and the time of contact in the process of sorption were evaluated. The cobalt retained in the aluminosilicates was determined by neutron activation analysis. The cobalt sorption in the materials in a range of pH from 4 to 7 does not present significant variations. The studies of reaction kinetics show a very fast sorption in the first 5 hours of contact, reaching the equilibrium in approximately 24 hours. The kinetics of sorption of the cobalt ions was represented better by the Ritchie reaction model modified of second order. The experimental data for the zeolites obtained at ambient temperature and varying the concentration were adjusted to the models of Freundlich, Langmuir and Freundlich-Langmuir isotherms and it was observed that the cobalt sorption it behaves according to the Freundlich isotherm model. (Author)

  3. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefy, S.A.; Ali, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Reefy, S A; Ali, A [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on a Supercritical CO2 Cycle for Various Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2017-01-01

    In order to accelerate the deployment of cleaner and safer energy sources, further development of such advanced nuclear power systems is necessary. By aiming to have higher efficiency, lower costs, and reduced system size, next-generation nuclear reactors can have greater advantages which will justify their adoption. Many research efforts focus on these objectives to also propose new concepts and technologies to improve the present state of the art. To maximize the benefits of advanced reactor designs, the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) power cycle can be adopted to enhance the performance of the power conversion systems. The potential of replacing the conventional power block with the S-CO 2 power cycle can increase the cycle efficiency and also reduce its overall system size. The potential of using the S-CO 2 power cycles in advanced nuclear reactors can be further improved by adopting an isothermal compressor to the cycle layout. This paper attempts to improve the cycle layout by replacing the conventional compressor with an isothermal compressor, of which its potential in the S-CO 2 power cycle is conceptually being evaluated. An isothermal compressor minimizes compression work and further reduces the system size by having smaller heat exchanger requirements. The study includes cycle optimization maximizing cycle efficiency with respect to different cycle design parameters. The S-CO 2 iso-Brayton cycle layouts have been effective in improving the cycle efficiencies of the next-generation nuclear reactors. By using the isothermal compressor, the net efficiency can be improved by 8% points for the simple recuperated cycle layout, and 5% points for the recompression cycle layout. It is also noted that the estimated UA values required for the iso-Brayton cycle layouts are almost the same or less compared to those of the reference cycle layouts.

  6. Adsorption of hazardous cationic dye onto the combustion derived SrTiO3 nanoparticles: Kinetic and isotherm studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Bhagya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report on solution combustion method to synthesize SrTiO3 nanoparticles (ST-NPs and the removal of malachite green (MG azo dye from the aqueous solution. The synthesized ST-NPs were calcined at 600 °C for 2 h. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET were used to characterize the product. Adsorption experiments were performed with cationic malachite green (MG dye. ∼98% dye was adsorbed onto the ST-NPs at pH 10 for 30 min of the contact time. The optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 0.015 g/L of the dye. To study the adsorption kinetics Langmuir Hinshelwood model was used and the first order kinetic best describes the MG adsorption onto the ST-NPs. The adsorption isotherms data of MG onto ST-NPs obtained were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the results describe the best representation of the Langmuir isotherm model.

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Remazol Black B dye sorption by cocoa pod husk waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ton Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of the activated carbons from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste by physical activation was carried out for the removal of Remazol Black B (RBB) reactive dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of various process parameters i.e., temperature, initial RBB concentration and contact time on the adsorption capacity of activated carbon were investigated in batch system. Langmuir isotherm showed better fit than Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The kinetic model for RBB adsorption follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. (author)

  8. Studies on sorption of plutonium on inorganic exchangers from sodium carbonate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, I C; Charyulu, M M; Sivaramakrishnan, C K [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Venkataramani, B [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using different inorganic exchangers alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these exchangers from sodium carbonate medium were found to be sufficiently high indicating the suitability of these exchangers for the removal of Pu(IV). The presence of uranium and dibutyl phosphate do not have any effect on distribution ratio. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for above exchangers have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml/hour. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Isothermal and isochronal annealing methodology to study post-irradiation temperature activated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrerie, C.; Autran, J.L.; Paillet, P.; Flament, O.; Leray, J.L.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the evolution of the oxide trapped charge has been modeled, to predict post-irradiation behavior for arbitrary anneal conditions (i.e., arbitrary temperature-time profiles). Using experimental data obtained from a single isochronal anneal, the method consists of calculating the evolution of the energy distribution of the oxide trapped charge, in the framework of a thermally activated charge detrapping model. This methodology is illustrated in this paper by the prediction of experimental isothermal data from isochronal measurements. The implications of these results to hardness assurance test methods are discussed

  10. Volatilisation of ruthenium in vitrification. Isothermal calcination studies of 'Magnox' and thermal oxide simulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cains, P.W.; Hay, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    Ru volatilities have been measured for the static, isothermal calcination of ''Magnox'' and Thermal Oxide HAL's (Highly Active Liquors) at temperatures up to 600 0 C. Model solutions containing Ru, HNO 3 , and nitrates of important individual cations have also been investigated. Experimental design was primarily based on the requirements of rotary calcination process development. The results have been interpreted in terms of a reaction model involving competition between the simple degradation of Ru(NO) complexes to RuO 2 and oxidative decomposition to volatile species (e.g. RuO 4 ). (author)

  11. Metallographic Study of the Isothermal Transformation of Beta Phase in Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestberg, G

    1960-06-15

    Observations of the structure of commercial zircaloy-2 have been made in the microscope showing that the high temperature beta phase is transformed isothermally at lower temperatures into alpha plus secondary precipitate. The alpha occurs mainly as Widmanstaetten plates developed by a shear mechanism. The secondary precipitate is formed from the beta - alpha structure at the phase boundary between these phases. This precipitation of particles of secondary phase occurs on account of a eutectoid reaction, alpha also being formed. A time-temperature transformation diagram has been constructed from the observations.

  12. Predicting the uptake of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and U on argillaceous rocks using sorption models for illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Fernandes, Maria; Vér, Nóra; Baeyens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Contaminant retention in argillaceous rocks controlled by sorption on clay minerals. • Cs, Ni, Co, Eu, Th and UO 2 sorption isotherm measurements on Boda and Opalinus Clay. • Boda and Opalinus Clay exhibit different mineralogies and porewater compositions. • Blind predictions using quasi-mechanistic sorption models developed for illite. • Good agreement between measurements and blind predictions. - Abstract: Reliable predictions of radiocontaminant migration are a requirement for the establishment of radioactive waste repositories. Parametrization of the necessary sorption models seems to be, however, extremely challenging given the multi-mineralic composition of the lithosphere. In this study it is shown for two argillaceous rocks – Boda and Opalinus Clay relevant for the Hungarian and Swiss repository concepts, respectively – that this task can be substantially simplified by taking into account only the most sorptive mineral fraction, namely the 2:1 clay minerals illite and illite/smectite mixed layers. Two different models were required to blind predict the sorption isotherms of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and UO 2 measured on the two clay rock samples in a synthetic porewater. Cs sorption was modelled with the generalised Cs (GCs) sorption model and the sorption of the other cations with the 2site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model. The 2SPNE SC/CE model for illite was extended with surface complexation reactions on weak sites for Co, Ni, Eu, UO 2 and on strong sites for Eu-carbonato complexes. Complementary to the sorption measurements and modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to probe the retention mechanism of Ni on illite, Boda and Opalinus Clay at higher loadings. The reliable blind predictions of the selected metal cations, which are representative for monovalent alkaline metals, divalent transition metals, lanthanides, and trivalent

  13. A systematic study of the isothermal crystallization of the mono-alcohol n-butanol monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Hecksher, Tina; Niss, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal crystallization of the mono-hydroxyl alcohol n-butanol was studied with dielectric spectroscopy in real time. The crystallization was carried out using two different sample cells at 15 temperatures between 120 K and 134 K. Crystallization is characterized by a decrease of the dielectric...... intensity. In addition, a shift in relaxation times to shorter times was observed during the crystallization process for all studied temperatures. The two different sample environments induced quite different crystallization behaviors, consistent and reproducible over all studied temperatures...... that a microscopic interpretation of crystallization measurements requires multiple probes, sample cells, and protocols....

  14. Equilibrium Sorption studies of Fe, Cu and Co ions in aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recinius Communis Linn a commonly found herbal plant was used to prepare activated carbon by physicochemical activation method. The sorption capacity of this bio-resource material to remove Fe(III), Cu(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions was determined by batch tests. The influences of important parameters such as ...

  15. Study of sorption and desorption characteristics of natural and chemically modified ionexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesova, M.; Dillinger, P.; Lukac, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was give information for scientific community about not-traditionally, simply, high precise and effective radio-indicator method and possibilities its use for determination of sorption characteristics of naturals and chemically adjusted ionexes. These materials are suitable as barrier materials for water, soil and air cleaning

  16. Fundamental Study of Sorption of Pure Liquids and Liquid Mixtures into Polymeric Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Izák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 64-71 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquids * gravimetric sorption * flat polymer membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  17. Response to the comments of Y. S. Ho to the paper 'Sorption of radionickel to goethite. Effect of water quality parameters and temperature'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baowei Hu; ShaoXing University, ShaoXing, Zhejiang; Wen Cheng; Hui Zhang; Guodong Sheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei

    2011-01-01

    In our published paper entitled 'Sorption of radionickel to goethite: effect of water quality parameters and temperature' published in JRNC 285 (2010) 389-398 [1], the sorption of radionickel to goethite as affected by various environmental conditions such as pH, humic substances, ionic strength and temperature on radionickel sorption has been investigated by using batch technique. The sorption mechanism of radionickel on goethite was discussed according to the experimental data and the fitting results of sorption isotherms by Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models. Kinetic sorption data was fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Ho et al. firstly reported the pseudo-second-order rate equation [2, 3], and then further developed this frame work in their following works [4, 5]. In our previous research, we had ever cited the original paper about the sorption isotherms such as Langmuir or Freundlich models. However, the reviewers gave the comments that the models had been widely used and it was not necessary for us to cite the original paper about the sorption isotherm. Similar condition can be also observed for carbon nanotubes that there are a lot of papers about carbon nanotubes not citing the original paper reported by Iijima [6]. In our published paper [1], we think that the pseudo-second-order rate equation has been widely applied and the equation is now a famous model to fit the sorption kinetic data. However, it is essential for us to cite all the relative references accurately so as to transmit scientific knowledge more effectively. We are so sorry to the fact that the original papers [2, 3] were not cited in our published paper [1], but it is not meant to show the disrespect to the author Ho [2]. In our future work, we wish to cite the papers published by Ho whose work are interesting and useful to simulate the sorption kinetic data of metal ions at solid-water interfaces. The physicochemical behavior of radionickel in environment is quite important to

  18. Sorption Properties of Some Romanian Gingerbread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure Anca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of gingerbread is very important for keeping the product freshness and shelf life. Water activity is influenced by composition, water content and temperature. The water content of gingerbread could vary according with storage condition. i.e. rH. 11 gingerbread samples were analysed. The water content and water activity lies between 7.0 and 12.6% and respectively 0.590 and 0.715. The sorption isotherms were determined at 30°C by gravimetric method. The moisture sorption is influenced by composition, especially sweeteners and humectants. Honey and invert sugar have the same impact on gingerbread higroscopicity.

  19. Sorption of natural uranium by algerian bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megouda, N.; Kadi, H.; Hamla, M.S.; Brahimi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Batch sorption experiments have been used to assess the sorption behaviour of uranium onto natural and drilling bentonites. The operating parameters (pH, aolis-liquid ratio, particle size, time and initial uranium concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption. The distribution coefficient (Kd) range values at equilibrium time are 45.95-1079.26 ml/g and 32.81-463053 ml/g for the drilling and natural bentonites respectively. The equilibrium isotherms show that the data correlate with both Freundlich and Langmuir models

  20. Thermodynamic study of uranyl sorption onto lanthanum monophosphate (LaPO4) and magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The migration of radio-toxic elements in the geosphere is mainly regulated by chemical parameters which control the partitioning of the elements between mineral phases and aqueous solutions. Variation in temperature may affect the retention properties of a mineral surface and requires a careful investigation in order to understand the radionuclides behavior in the geosphere. In this way, the interaction mechanisms between uranium(VI) and two minerals (LaPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 ) have been studied. In a first step, the monazite (LaPO 4 ) has been chosen as methodological solid in order to clearly define all the different stages needed to completely characterize the influence of temperature on the sorption phenomena. To reach that goal, three media, more or less complexants towards aqueous uranyl and the mineral surface, have been considered. Physico-chemical as well as surface acid-base properties of the solid surface have been studied by considering three electrolytes (NaClO 4 , NaNO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 ) and temperatures ranged from 25 C to 95 C. The point of zero charge has been found to be identical for perchlorate and nitrate media (pH PZC =2.1) but it was found to be one pK unit higher for the sulfate medium indicating a sorption of the background electrolyte ions. The reaction heats associated to the hydration of the solid have been measured by using microcalorimetry and the nature of the reactive surface sites has been determined by carrying out Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). On the basis of these experimental constraints, the titration curves obtained for the monazite suspensions were fitted by using the Constant Capacitance Model and the 1-pK model was preferred to characterize the surface charge evolution, due to the limited number of adjustable parameters. The surface protonation constants being determined, the behavior of U(VI) towards the monazite surface in the three electrolytes has been investigated. On the basis of both U

  1. Sorption of cesium in young till soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusa, Merja; Lempinen, Janne; Ahola, Hanna; Soederlund, Mervi; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry; Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    Soil samples from three forest soil pits were examined down to a depth of approximately three metres using 1 M ammonium acetate extraction and microwave-assisted extraction with concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), to study the binding of cesium (Cs) at Olkiluoto Island, southern Finland. Ammonium acetate was used to extract the readily exchangeable Cs fractions roughly representing the Cs fraction in soil which is available for plants. Microwave-assisted HNO{sub 3} extraction dissolves various minerals, e.g. carbonates, most sulphides, arsenides, selenides, phosphates, molybdates, sulphates, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides and some silicates (olivine, biotite, zeolite), and reflects the total Cs concentrations. Cs was mostly found in the strongly bound fraction obtained through HNO{sub 3} extraction. The average Cs concentrations found in this fraction were 3.53 ± 0.30 mg/kg (d.w.), 3.06 ± 1.86 mg/kg (d.w.) and 1.83 ± 0.42 mg/kg (d.w.) in the three soil pits, respectively. The average exchangeable Cs found in the ammonium acetate extraction in all three sampling pits was 0.015 ± 0.008 mg/kg (d.w.). In addition, Cs concentrations in the soil solution were determined and in situ distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cs were calculated. Furthermore, the in situ K{sub d} data was compared with the Cs K{sub d} data obtained using the model batch experiments. The in situ K{sub d} values were observed to fairly well follow the trend of batch sorption data with respect to soil depth, but on average the batch distribution coefficients were almost an order of magnitude higher than the in situ K{sub d} data. In situ Cs sorption data could be satisfactory fitted with the Langmuir sorption isotherm, but the Freundlich isotherm failed to fit the data. Finally, distribution coefficients were calculated by an ion exchange approach using soil solution data, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as Cs to sodium (Na) and Cs to potassium (K) ion exchange selectivity

  2. Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics study of humic acid removal process from aquatic environment by chitosan nano particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghafoori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Humic substances include natural organic polyelectrolyte materials that formed most of the dissolved organic carbon in aquatic environments. Reaction between humic substances and chlorine leading to formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs those are toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. The aim of this study was investigation of isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of humic acid removal process by nano chitosan from aquatic environment. Materials and Methods: This practical research was an experimental study that performed in a batch system. The effect of various parameters such as pH, humic acid concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage, isotherms, thermodynamics and Kinetics of humic acid adsorption process were investigated. Humic acid concentration measured using spectrophotometer at wave length of 254 nm. Results: The results of this research showed that maximum adsorption capacity of nanochitosan that fall out in concentration of 50 mg/l and contact time of 90 minutes was 52.34 mg/g. Also, the maximum adsorption was observed in pH = 4 and adsorbent dosage 0.02 g. Laboratory data show that adsorption of humic acid by nanochitosan follow the Langmuir isotherm model. According to result of thermodynamic study, entropy changes (ΔS was equal to 2.24 J/mol°k, enthalpy changes (ΔH was equal to 870 kJ/mol and Gibbs free energy (ΔG was negative that represent the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics of adsorption has a good compliant with pseudo second order model. Conclusion: Regarding to results of this study, nano chitosan can be suggested as a good adsorbent for the removal of humic acids from aqueous solutions.

  3. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drot, Romuald

    1998-01-01

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 which allow to study the effect of PO 4 and P 2 O 7 groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP 2 O 7 presents only one single site (P 2 O 7 groups) whereas Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 and Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 admit two types of sites (PO 4 /P 2 O 7 and PO 4 /oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO 3 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO 2+ 2 et de UO 2 NO + 3 species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO 2+ 3 ). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid suspension using FITEQL code (CCM). As sorption equilibria were defined, experimental retention data simulation was performed with respect to structural

  4. Sorption studies of strontium on carbon nanotubes using the Box-Behnken design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Ceren Kuetahyali; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Belloni, Fabio; Rondinella, Vincenzo V.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Sr on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated to explore their possible use as an efficient adsorbent for nuclear waste streams. MWCNTs were purified and oxidized with HNO3 prior to testing adsorption. Oxidized MWCNTs were then employed in batch experiments as sorbent of Sr from aqueous solutions. The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to suitably vary the parameters of interest, i.e., temperature, initial Sr 2+ concentration, and shaking time. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were applied to fit the adsorption isotherms. The Dubinin-Radushkevich model exhibited the best agreement. Adsorption kinetics was also studied; it was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model. Adsorption thermodynamics was investigated in the temperature range 293-333 K; the variations of the standard free energy (ΔG circle ), standard enthalpy (ΔH circle ) and standard entropy (ΔS circle ) were obtained. Oxidized MWCNTs show the potential to be a promising candidate for the pre-concentration and solidification of Sr from large volumes of aqueous solution.

  5. Sorption studies of strontium on carbon nanotubes using the Box-Behnken design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslani, Ceren Kuetahyali; Cetinkaya, Berkan [Ege Univ. (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Belloni, Fabio; Rondinella, Vincenzo V. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2014-07-01

    Adsorption of Sr on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated to explore their possible use as an efficient adsorbent for nuclear waste streams. MWCNTs were purified and oxidized with HNO3 prior to testing adsorption. Oxidized MWCNTs were then employed in batch experiments as sorbent of Sr from aqueous solutions. The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to suitably vary the parameters of interest, i.e., temperature, initial Sr{sup 2+} concentration, and shaking time. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were applied to fit the adsorption isotherms. The Dubinin-Radushkevich model exhibited the best agreement. Adsorption kinetics was also studied; it was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model. Adsorption thermodynamics was investigated in the temperature range 293-333 K; the variations of the standard free energy (ΔG {sup circle}), standard enthalpy (ΔH {sup circle}) and standard entropy (ΔS {sup circle}) were obtained. Oxidized MWCNTs show the potential to be a promising candidate for the pre-concentration and solidification of Sr from large volumes of aqueous solution.

  6. Radionuclide sorption in Yucca Mountain tuffs with J-13 well water: Neptunium, uranium, and plutonium. Yucca Mountain site characterization program milestone 3338

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Cotter, C.R.; Kraus, S.M.; Huddleston, M.H.

    1996-08-01

    We studied the retardation of actinides (neptunium, uranium, and plutonium) by sorption as a function of radionuclide concentration in water from Well J-13 and of tuffs from Yucca Mountain. Three major tuff types were examined: devitrified, vitric, and zeolitic. To identify the sorbing minerals in the tuffs, we conducted batch sorption experiments with pure mineral separates. These experiments were performed with water from Well J-13 (a sodium bicarbonate groundwater) under oxidizing conditions in the pH range from 7 to 8.5. The results indicate that all actinides studied sorb strongly to synthetic hematite and also that Np(V) and U(VI) do not sorb appreciably to devitrified or vitric tuffs, albite, or quartz. The sorption of neptunium onto clinoptilolite-rich tuffs and pure clinoptilolite can be fitted with a sorption distribution coefficient in the concentration range from 1 X 10 -7 to 3 X 10 -5 M. The sorption of uranium onto clinoptilolite-rich tuffs and pure clinoptilolite is not linear in the concentration range from 8 X 10 -8 to 1 X 10 -4 M, and it can be fitted with nonlinear isotherm models (such as the Langmuir or the Freundlich Isotherms). The sorption of neptunium and uranium onto clinoptilolite in J-13 well water increases with decreasing pH in the range from 7 to 8.5. The sorption of plutonium (initially in the Pu(V) oxidation state) onto tuffs and pure mineral separates in J-13 well water at pH 7 is significant. Plutonium sorption decreases as a function of tuff type in the order: zeolitic > vitric > devitrified; and as a function of mineralogy in the order: hematite > clinoptilolite > albite > quartz

  7. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. II: natural coals" IJCG, 2010, 84, 115-124 Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, D. Charriére, D. Li, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter

  8. Adsorption of ammonium ion by coconut shell-activated carbon from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Ramasamy; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Mandal, Asit Baran; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium ions are one of the most encountered nitrogen species in polluted water bodies. High level of ammonium ion in aqueous solution imparts unpleasant taste and odor problems, which can interfere with the life of aquatics and human population when discharged. Many chemical methods are developed and being used for removal of ammonium ion from aqueous solution. Among various techniques, adsorption was found to be the most feasible and environmentally friendly with the use of natural-activated adsorbents. Hence, in this study, coconut shell-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared and used for the removal of ammonium ion by adsorption techniques. Ammonium chloride (analytical grade) was purchased from Merck Chemicals for adsorption studies. The CSAC was used to adsorb ammonium ions under stirring at 100 rpm, using orbital shaker in batch experiments. The concentration of ammonium ion was estimated by ammonia distillate, using a Buchi distillation unit. The influence of process parameters such as pH, temperature, and contact time was studied for adsorption of ammonium ion, and kinetic, isotherm models were validated to understand the mechanism of adsorption of ammonium ion by CSAC. Thermodynamic properties such as ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S were determined for the ammonium adsorption, using van't Hoff equation. Further, the adsorption of ammonium ion was confirmed through instrumental analyses such as SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The optimum conditions for the effective adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC were found to be pH 9.0, temperature 283 K, and contact time 120 min. The experimental data was best followed by pseudosecond order equation, and the adsorption isotherm model obeyed the Freundlich isotherm. This explains the ammonium ion adsorption onto CSAC which was a multilayer adsorption with intraparticle diffusion. Negative enthalpy confirmed that this adsorption process was exothermic. The instrumental analyses confirmed the adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC.

  9. Adsorption Studies of Radish Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish leaves (Raphanus sativus powder fractions was subjected to moisture adsorption isotherms at different isothermal temperature conditions from 15-45°C with an equal interval of 10°C. The sorption data obtained in gravimetric static method under 0.11–0.90 water activity conditions were subjected for sorption isotherms and found to be typical sigmoid trend. Experimental data were assessed for the applicability in the prediction through sorption models fitting and found that Polynomial and GAB equations performed well over all fitted models in describing equilibrium moisture content – equilibrium relative humidity (EMC–ERH relationships for shelf stable dehydrated radish leaf powder, over the entire range of temperatures condition under study. The net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy and free energy were determined at different temperatures and their dependence was seen with respect to equilibrium moisture content.

  10. Behaviors and mechanism of acid dyes sorption onto diethylenetriamine-modified native and enzymatic hydrolysis starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuohua; Xiang Bo; Cheng Rumei; Li Yijiu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, different starches were modified by diethylenetriamine. The native starch reacted with diethylenetriamine giving CAS, whereas the enzymatic hydrolysis starch was modified by diethylenetriamine producing CAES. Adsorption capacities of CAES for four acid dyes, namely, Acid orange 7 (AO7), Acid orange 10 (AO10), Acid green 25 (AG25) and Acid red 18 (AR18) have been determined to be 2.521, 1.242, 1.798 and 1.570 mmol g -1 , respectively. In all cases, CAES has exhibited higher sorption ability than CAS, and the increment for these dyes took the sequence of AO7 (0.944 mmol g -1 ) > AO10 (0.592 mmol g -1 ) > AR18 (0.411 mmol g -1 ) > AG25 (0.047 mmol g -1 ). Sorption kinetics and isotherms analysis showed that these sorption processes were better fitted to pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir equation. Chemical sorption mechanisms were confirmed by studying the effects of pH, ionic strength and hydrogen bonding. Thermodynamic parameters of these dyes onto CAES and CAS were also observed and it indicated that these sorption processes were exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  11. Sorption of cesium on montmorillonite and effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Bilgin, B.; Mardinli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cesium on montmorillonite type[e clay was studied by using radioactivity measurements. Concentrations of Cs + ions ranged from 10 -6 to 10 -2 M. Cesium retention reduced with increasing salt concentration which was varied between 10 -4 and 10 -1 M. Selectivity coefficients K CsNa for the exchange between Cs and Na were calculated for different equivalent fractions of Cs on the solid phase. Using the K CsNa values, free energy change was found to be 7.8 kJ/mol. The data could be fitted to a Freundlich isotherm, and empirical Freundlich parameters enabled the generation of a site distribution function. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, a mean energy of sorption of 8.6kJ/mole was calculated which corresponds to the energy of ion exchange reactions. The values of energy changes calculated by using two different methods were in good agreement. (author)

  12. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study Of Asphaltene Self-Association In Toluene And Interaction With A Model Resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Daniel Merino; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2002-01-01

    This article collects the work performed by Isothermal Titration Caloritnetry (ITC) in the study of the self-association of asphaltenes in toluene solutions. Calorimetric experiments show that asphaltenes, start self-associating at very low concentrations and that the existence of a Critical...... with the results of the titration of three model molecules: nonylphenol, which associates by means of hydrogen bond formation, and coronene and pyrene, which associates by stacking. The results obtained leave open the question about the model-stacking molecules, as it was not possible to elucidate whether they do...

  13. Kinetics study of hydrochlorothiazide lactose liquid state interaction using conventional isothermal arrhenius method under basic and neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Ghaderi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Maillard reaction of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ and lactose has been previously demonstrated in pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the activation energy of - hydrohlorothiazide and lactose interaction in the liquid state was ascertained under basic and neutral conditions. Conventional isothermal High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC technique was employed to ascertain the kinetic parameters using Arrhenius method. Results: The activation energy obtained was 82.43 and 100.28 kJ/mol under basic and neutral conditions, respectively. Consequently, it can be inferred that Maillard reaction is significantly affected by pH, which can be used as a control factor whenever the reaction potentially occurs.

  14. Biosorption of the Copper and Cadmium Ions - a Study through Adsorption Isotherms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia T. Veit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biosorption process of copper-cadmium ions binary mixture by using marine algae Sargassum filipendula was investigated. A set of experiments was performed to obtain equilibrium data for the given batch operational conditions - T=30°C, pH=5. The interpretation of equilibrium data was based on the binary adsorption isotherms models in the Langmuir and Freundlich forms. To evaluate the models parameters, nonlinear identification procedure was used based on the Least Square statistical method and SIMPLEX local optimizer. An analysis of the obtained results showed that the marine algae biomass has higher affinity to copper ions than to cadmium ones. The biomass maximum adsorption capacity for the binary system was about 1.16 meq/g.

  15. Studies of isothermal annealing of fission fragment and alpha particle tracks in Cr-39 polymer detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaky, M.F.; Youssef, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Two groups of CR-39 detectors samples are exposed to two types of charged particle radiation. The first group are severe damaged with fission fragment tracks from 2 52C f source. The second accepted alpha particles resulting from the interaction of highly energetic 1 9F -ions and a copper disk with thickness 1 cm, which are of less damage tracks than fission fragments. , The isothermal annealing of tracks in the temperature range from 175 to 300 degree C in step 25 degree C for annealing time of 10,15,20,25 and 30 minutes has been investigated. The changes introduced in the track density and track diameter for two types of irradiation in the detector have been observed and compared between them. The results indicate that the track density and the size of the tracks are considerably changed due to annealing

  16. Moessbauer study of isothermally annealed amorphous Fe-Nb-Cu-Si-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Toth, I.; Miglierini, M.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Fe 73.5 Nb 3 Cu 1 Si 13.5 B 9 have been annealed above the crystallization temperature. Annealed samples consisted of crystalline and amorphous phases in a wide temperature range. Two samples of different thicknesses of 33 μm and 27 μm were isothermally annealed at a temperature of 545 C from 0.5 to 5 h in a vacuum furnace. The amount of crystalline phase increases rapidly in the ticker sample. The crystalline part of the Moessbauer spectrum consists of four sharp sextets which can be assigned to a DO 3 -structure FeSi alloy. After 700 C annealing the amorphous phase was not observed and the crystalline phase consisted of the DO 3 -structure FeSi alloy, paramagnetic FeNbB and presumably Fe 23 B 6 and Fe 3 SiB 2 . (orig.)

  17. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, M.

    2002-11-01

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  18. The effect of carbonate on neptunium sorption by hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.; Holt, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , is a common mineral, the main inorganic compound in bone and exhibits strong sorptive properties for many radionuclides. It has been widely studied and proposed as a backfill material for nuclear waste repositories. Neptunium is one the radionuclides sorbed by hydroxyapatite. Neptunium is of particular importance to nuclear waste repository performance because of its relatively high aqueous solubility, high mobility in the environment and long half-life. In this work, we report on the effects of carbonate on sorption of neptunium by hydroxyapatite. Batch sorption and desorption studies for neptunium were performed as a function of carbonate concentration in water using a synthetic hydroxyapatite. The results indicate even low concentrations of carbonate significantly reduce neptunium sorption and enhance desorption. The data were fit to several simple isotherm equations with the Langmuir equation giving the best results. The results of the work are discussed with respect to nuclear waste repository performance. (authors)

  19. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. p-Nitrophenol, phenol and aniline sorption by organo-clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Fan Chihhao; Chiang, P.N.; Wang, M.K.; Lin, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to make use of organo-clays (i.e., Cloisite-10A, Cloisite-15A, Cloisite-30B and Cloisite-93A), to remove p-nitrophenol, phenol and aniline of organic pollutants. The organo-clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sorption isotherm, kinetic and pH effect of p-nitrophenol, phenol and aniline sorbed by four organo-clays were evaluated. The d-spacings (0 0 1) of the XRD peak of Cloisite-10A, Cloisite-15A, Cloisite-30B and Cloisite-93A are 1.98, 2.76, 1.93 and 2.64 nm, respectively. The d(0 0 1)-spacings of XRD indicated that these p-nitropheno, phenol and aniline could penetrate into the interlayer of clays and expand the d(0 0 1)-spacings. The linear sorption isotherm of constant partition was employed to describe the sorption isotherms of phenols sorbed by organo-clays through hydrophobic-hydrophobic chemical reactions. The parabolic diffusion and power-function of kinetic models were employed to describe properly the kinetic experiments. The rate limiting step of the p-nitrophenol sorption reactions on organo-clays were diffusion-controlled processes (i.e., 15A, 30B, 93A) and chemical-controlled process for 10A organo-clays. The pre-exponential factor of the p-nitrophenol sorbed by four organo-clays showed the trend as follows: 10A > 30B > 93A > 15A. The efficiency of these organo-clays in removing phenol compounds in water treatments merit further study

  1. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23 0 C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  2. Effects of sorption hysteresis on radionuclide releases from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Reed, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    A one-dimensional, numerical transport model was used to calculate radionuclide releases from waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The model incorporates both sorption and desorption isotherm parameters measured previously for sorption of key radionuclides on the packing material component of the waste package. Sorption hysteresis as described by these isotherms lowered releases of some radionuclides by as much as two orders of magnitude. Radionuclides that have low molar inventories (relative to uranium), high solubility, and strongly sorbed, are most affected by sorption hysteresis. In these cases, almost the entire radionuclide inventory is sorbed on the packing material. The model can be used to help optimize the thickness of the packing material layer by comparing release rate versus packing material thickness curves with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits

  3. Improved understanding of tributyltin sorption on natural and biochar-amended sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoyu; Sheng, G Daniel; Qiu, Yuping

    2011-12-01

    A poor understanding of tributyltin (TBT) sorption on sediments has hindered an accurate evaluation of its environmental fate. The present study determined TBT sorption by a freshwater sediment (BH) and a coastal marine sediment (TZ) as influenced by pH, salinity, and biochar (BC) amendment into TZ. The isotherms were essentially linear, with K(OC) values in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) L/kg. Tributyltin sorption at pH 3.56 and 8.00 occurred mainly via partitioning. It reached maxima at pH equal to its pK(a) (=6.25) because of added ion exchange. A salinity increase from 5 to 35 practical salinity units enhanced TBT sorption at pH 3.56 and 8.00 on TZ by approximately 30% and on BH by approximately 80%, ascribed to the salting-out effect that reduced the solubilities of tributyltin hydroxide (TBTOH) and tributyltin chloride (TBTCl). At pH 6.25, the same salinity increase reduced TBT sorption on TZ by approximately 20% but enhanced TBT sorption on BH by approximately 35%. This was attributed to the enhancing role of salting out and the reducing role of metal competition for ion exchange. Tributyltin was two orders of magnitude more effectively sorbed by BC than by total organic carbon of TZ, mainly because of the high level of surface area of the BC. Although BC affinity for TBT may be significantly diminished when present in TZ, it was considered to be the primary contributor to TBT sorption from water. Biochar may thus be used to immobilize TBT in sediment for potential remediation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Behavior of Cs in Grimsel granodiorite. Sorption on main minerals and crushed rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muuri, Eveliina; Ikonen, Jussi; Matara-aho, Minja; Voutilainen, Mikko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Holgersson, Stellan [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry; Martin, Andrew [Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    In this study the sorption of cesium was investigated on four different minerals; quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and biotite as well as granodiorite obtained from the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The experiments were conducted in the presence of the weakly saline Grimsel groundwater simulant by determining the distribution coefficients using batch sorption experiments and PHREEQC-modelling across a large concentration range. In addition, the purity of the minerals was measured by XRD and the specific surface areas by BET method using krypton. The distribution coefficients of cesium were largest on biotite (0.304±0.005 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M). Furthermore, the sorption of cesium on quartz was found to be negligibly small in all investigated concentrations and the sorption of cesium on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar behavior against a concentration isotherm with distribution coefficients of 0.0368±0.0004 m{sup 3}/kg and 0.18±0.04 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. Finally, cesium sorption behavior on crushed granodiorite followed the trend of one of its most abundant mineral, plagioclase with distribution coefficient values of 0.107±0.003 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. At low concentrations (<1.0.10{sup -6} M) cesium was sorbed on the frayed edge sites of biotite and once these sites are fully occupied cesium sorbs additionally to the Type II and Planar sites. As a consequence, the sorption of cesium on biotite is decreased at concentrations >1.0.10{sup -6} M. Secondly cesium sorption on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar non-linear behavior with varying concentration. The results were used to assist the interpretation of cesium diffusion process in the 2.5 year in-situ experiment carried out in the underground laboratory at Grimsel test site in Switzerland (2007-2009).

  5. Parametric study of the sorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on mixture of bentonite and magnetite using SCM + IEXM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipska, H.; Stamberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The behaviour and subsequent fate of released radionuclides in bentonite barrier surrounding the degraded canister is influenced mainly by sorption. We studied sorption processes in such system experimentally and we modelled and simulated them using surface-complexation (SCM) and ion exchange (IExM) models. Our experimental system consisted of: (1) synthetic granitic water with a given ionic strength (0.1 or 0.01 NaNO 3 ), (2) radionuclides studied (10 -6 mol/l CsCl or SrCl 2 .6H 2 O spiked with 137 Cs or 85 Sr), (3) bentonite pre-treated with the aim to remove carbonates, and magnetite as a representative of corrosion products of steel canister. The alkali-metric and acidimetric titrations under exclusion of CO 2 and the percentage of sorption as a function of pH under oxic conditions at room temperature for bentonite, magnetite and their mixtures under different conditions were determined. The resulting data were modelled and appropriate mathematical description was found: SCM non-electrostatic so called Chemical Model (CEM) for the description of sorption on edge sites and ion exchange model (IExM) for sorption on layer sites. Component Additivity Approach (CA) composed of weighted combination of models describing sorption on bentonite and magnetite was verified. In the course of evaluation procedures, the protonation constants, total concentrations of edge sites and layer sites, cation exchange constants and sorption constants for present Cs and Sr forms were obtained by fitting corresponding experimental data. Consequently, CEM+IExM models and the calculated model parameters were used for predictive (simulation) calculations and parametric study of the sorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on bentonite, magnetite and their mixtures. The parametric study covered the influence of pH, solid to liquid ratio, bentonite to magnetite ratio, initial concentrations of Cs and Sr, pCO 2 and ionic strength on the values of selectivity coefficients

  6. Enriched fluoride sorption using alumina/chitosan composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy, E-mail: natrayasamy_viswanathan@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Tiruchirappalli - Dindigul Campus, Dindigul 624 622, Tamil Nadu (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-06-15

    Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566 mg F{sup -}/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809 mg F{sup -}/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52 mg F{sup -}/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology.

  7. Hollow fiber adsorbents for CO2 capture: Kinetic sorption performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a CO 2 capture platform based on hollow polymeric fibers with sorbent particles embedded in the porous fiber wall for post-combustion CO 2 capture. These fibers are intended for use in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) process. The RTSA system utilizes the hollow fiber morphology by flowing cooling water on the bore-side of the fibers during sorption to prevent temperature rise associated with the sorption enthalpy. Steam or hot water is flowed through the bores during desorption to desorb CO 2 rapidly. To minimize material transfer between the bore and the fiber wall, a dense Neoprene ® lumen layer is cast on the bore-side of the fiber wall. In this paper, the key sorption step and associated kinetic resistances for the uncooled fibers are examined and evaluated for this portion of the RTSA process. Chopped fibers in a packed bed, as well as fibers assembled into a parallel flow module, have been tested in a simulated flue gas stream. Kinetic limitations in the hollow fiber modules are largely overcome by increasing the superficial gas velocity and the fiber packing in the module-indicating that film diffusion is the controlling mass transfer limitation in the fiber system. The un-cooled fiber modules lose apparent capacity as superficial velocities are increased, likely indicating non-isothermal operation, whereas the actively-cooled fibers in the packed bed maintain apparent capacity at all flowrates studied. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  9. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  10. Sorption and pertechnetate by salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. Distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 ml/g were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts. A saturation capacity of proportional 0,19 mmol/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was found from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase is supposed. (orig.)

  11. Adsorption of an anionic dye on a novel low-cost mesoporous adsorbent: kinetic, thermodynamic and isotherm studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaad, Asmaa; Belbahloul, Mounir; Zouhri, Abdeljalil

    2018-05-01

    Our activated carbon was prepared successfully using phosphoric acid as an activated agent. The activated carbon was characterized by Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The aim of our study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Methyl Orange (MO) on Ziziphus lotus activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms were studied according to Langmuir and Freundlich Model, and adsorption kinetics according to pseudo-first and second-order. Results show that the maximum adsorption was reached in the first 10min at ambient temperature with a yield of 96.31%. The Langmuir isotherm shows a correlation coefficient of 99.4 % higher than Freundlich model and the adsorption kinetic model follow a pseudo-second-order with a maximum adsorption capacity of 769.23 mg/g. FTIR and X-Ray spectroscopy indicate that our activated carbon has an amorphous structure with the presence of functional groups, where BET analysis revealed a high surface area of 553 mg/g, which facilitate the adsorption process

  12. Pb sorption on montmo