Sample records for sorokin trough ne

  1. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Baas, M.K.; Ivanov, M.K.; Weering, T.C.E. van


    A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two

  2. Lipid Composition of methane-derived Carbonate Crusts and Sediments from Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea (United States)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Baas, M.; Hopmans, E.; van Weering, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.


    We investigated the distributions and d13C values of bacterial and archaeal lipids in four carbonate crusts and hosting sediments collected from three mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough during the 11th Training Through Research expedition in 2001. The lipid extract from carbonate crusts contains abundant archaeal and bacterial biomarkers such as pentamethylicosane (PMI), unsaturated PMIs, archaeol, hydroxyarchaeols (sn-2 and sn-3 isomers), diphytanyl glycerol diethers (DGDs). Hosting sediments also contain a diversity of bacterial and archaeal lipids, but their concentrations are significantly lower then those observed in the crusts. The stable isotopic signature of these compounds have established their biosynthesis by consortia of microorganisms performing anaerobic methanotrophy. Quantitatively, the most predominant group of archaeal core membrane lipids in the crusts and in the sediments is the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Besides, two carbonate crusts contained two archaeal core membrane macrocyclic diether lipids which have not been reported previously. These macrocyclic diethers are structurally related to GDGTs with one and two cyclopentane rings. Cyclopentane-bearing GDGTs are well known for different archaeal species thriving in different environments, while a macrocyclic diether was found only in the thermophilic methanogen Methanococcus jannaschi. Therefore, the molecular structure of novel macrocyclic DGDs unites ecologically contrasting archaeal groups. Strongly depleted carbon isotopic values of these diethers indicate that these diethers derived from archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia in cold-water environments.

  3. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Stadnitskaia


    Full Text Available A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two novel macrocyclic diphytanyl glycerol diethers, containing one or two cyclopentane rings, were detected. Their structures were tentatively identified based on the interpretation of mass spectra, comparison with previously reported mass spectral data, and a hydrogenation experiment. This macrocyclic type of archaeal core membrane diether lipid has so far been identified only in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii. Here, we provide the first evidence that these macrocyclic diethers can also contain internal cyclopentane rings. The molecular structure of the novel diethers resembles that of dibiphytanyl tetraethers in which biphytane chains, containing one and two pentacyclic rings, also occur. Such tetraethers were abundant in the crust. Compound-specific isotope measurements revealed δ13C values of –104 to –111‰ for these new archaeal lipids, indicating that they are derived from methanotrophic archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia, which subsequently induce authigenic carbonate formation.

  4. Three-dimensional seismic investigations of the Sevastopol mud volcano in correlation to gas/fluid migration pathways and indications for gas hydrate occurrences in the Sorokin Trough (Black Sea)


    Wagner-Friedrichs, M.; Krastel, Sebastian; Spiess, V.; Ivanov, M.; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Meisner, L.


    New 3-D seismic investigations carried out across the Sevastopol mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough present 3-D seismic data of a mud volcano in the Black Sea for the first time. The studies allow us to image the complex three-dimensional morphology of a collapse structured mud volcano and to propose an evolution model. The Sevastopol mud volcano is located above a buried diapiric structure with two ridges and controlled by fluid migration along a deep fault system, which developed during the ...

  5. Crustal structure of the NE Rockall Trough from wide-angle seismic data modeling (United States)

    KlingelhöFer, F.; Edwards, R. A.; Hobbs, R. W.; England, R. W.


    Two wide-angle seismic lines located in the northern Rockall Trough were acquired in May 2000. One line (line E) crosses the trough from the continental shelf off Lewis to normal oceanic crust west of Lousy Bank in NW-SE direction. The other line (line D) intersects with line E, crosses the Wyville-Thomson Ridge in a SW-NE direction and ends in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin. Sonobuoy data and expanding spread profiles acquired in the same area have been remodeled. Analysis of the seismic data using travel times and amplitudes reveals an up to 5 km thick sedimentary basin including an up to 1.5 km thick basaltic layer which is present in most of the trough. Further conclusions of this study are that the Rockall Trough is underlain by highly stretched continental crust of ˜13 km thickness. The crust thickens to ˜24 km beneath Lousy Bank, which is interpreted to be of continental nature. Beneath the Hebrides continental shelf a three-layer continental crust of 26 km is modeled. An up to 12 km thick high-velocity layer is observed underneath the ocean-continent boundary and is interpreted as magmatic underplating resulting from excess volcanism during rifting. No evidence for an underplate layer could be distinguished beneath the trough area. Modeling of the structure of the Wyville-Thomson Ridge revealed no existing igneous core of the ridge confirming existing theories, that it is a compressional structure.

  6. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin? (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy


    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  7. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, P.O.; Okujeni, C.D.


    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed

  8. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific) (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael


    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Features of methane hydrate-bearing sandy-sediments near NE-Nankai Trough: effect on methane hydrate accumulating mechanisn in turbidite (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Narita, H.


    The gas-hydrate bearing sediments, which were taken by a Pressure Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS), were sampled near North-East Nankai Trough, off central Japan. We analyzed the sediments to clarify the accumulating mechanisms of gas-hydrate in pore space of sandy sediments: i.e. pore-filling type gas-hydrate. The sediments were the sand and mud alternation layer, which were turbidities and hemi-pelagic mud respectively. Their sediment features such as grain size, porosity, and gas hydrate saturation of pore space were analyzed systematically. Relationships among grain size distribution, Bouma’s sequence and hydrocarbon gas-volume produced by gas-hydrate dissociation was confirmed. Based on these results, we had grasped each Bouma's sequence feature of turbidite and tendency of gas hydrate saturation. The tendency indicates that lower sequences of turbidite contain a large amount of gas hydrate but upper sequence of turbidite had a little amount of gas hydrate. Based on gas-hydrate nature, when pores had been filled with gas-saturated water and pressure/temperature condition was enough for gas-hydrate, the gas-hydrate begins to precipitate homogeneously in sandy sediments at the beginning of their accumulation. Precipitation of gas-hydrate in pore would have caused pore volume reduction, which had been making sediments impermeable during gas-hydrate accumulation at the same time. These considerations reach conclusion that only coarser-sandy relative-permeable layer could keep gas-hydrate accumulating of gas-hydrate accumulation. Thus, we consider that lower sequences of turbidite were important for gas-hydrate accumulation system in NE-Nankai Trough. This mechanism does not need any cap rock or some trap system in sediments, and it is quite different mechanism from conventional oil and gas accumulation. Acknowledgment: This study was funded by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium). The authors express great

  10. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.


    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.


    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  12. Development and Validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory for Divorced Individuals (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Joseph G.; Faul, Anna C.


    Objective: This study describes the development and validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory (SPSLI) measuring love actions toward a former spouse. Method: Classical measurement theory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were utilized with an a priori theory and factor model to validate the SPSLI. Results: A 15-item scale…

  13. Trough for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A trough is disclosed for supplying piglets with mineral supplements in the suckling period. The trough is designed to awaken the piglets' curiosity and thus make them root in the bottom of the trough, where the mineral supplements are dispensed in form of a dry powder mixture, and thus reduce...... spillage as compared to placing the mineral supplements on the floor of the pen. During the pre-weaning of the piglets the trough can be converted to serve as a normal trough for solid feed....

  14. Estructuras genéricas y sistemas sociales en Sorokin: una crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Ramírez Osorio


    Full Text Available No por imitación de las ciencias naturales, pero sí por definición de objetos de estudio específicos y concretos, para la sociología es muy importante definir cuál es la unidad más simple donde se halla la sociedad. Tal es el acometido del presente trabajo. Así mismo, uno de los asuntos epistémicos más espinosos para las ciencias sociales ha sido la definición clara y satisfactoria de conceptos como: sociedad, cultura, comunidad, nación, género, sujeto, grupo e institución. El propio Sorokin denuncia los palos de ciego que dan los diferentes teóricos de la cosa social sin manifestar un acuerdo satisfactorio al respecto. Dado que el propio Sorokin remite a los conceptos de “estructura”, “dinámica” y “sistema”, el abordaje, como marco teórico, se hará desde la propia teoría de sistemas a que apela el autor; con fundamento en el análisis comprensivo se requiere de un profundo ejercicio lingüístico en términos metodológicos. La hipótesis de trabajo, sobre la cual se fundamentará el análisis, para rebatir a Sorokin, será específica y concreta, sin ambages: La unidad elemental o más simple donde se halla la sociedad es La institución.

  15. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.


    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  16. Gravity Anomalies Over The Gongola Arm, Upper Benue Trough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A regional gravity survey of the Gongola Arm of the Benue trough was carried out with the aim of determining structures of interest. The results of the gravity interpretation showed that the area of study is characterized by negative Bouguer anomalies that trend in the NE-SW direction and range in value from -75 to -15 mGal ...

  17. Compatibilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae com Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Claúdia Souza


    Abstract. The ecoagrossistemas several biological control agents acting simultane ously on different or the same target insect. The culture of cotton presents a rich complex of natural enemies associated with pests, among which stands out the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the fungus M. anisopliae on the biological aspects of the predator C. externa. The first study evaluated the development of C. externa when treated with the following suspensions of M. anisopliae: T1 water (control; T2- 105 conídios.mL-1 de M. anisopliae (M.a.; T3- 106 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.; T4- 107 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.;T5- 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The second assay measured the duration of the larval and pupal predator and larval mortality in each treatment. For this, C. externa eggswere individualized in Petri dishes and kept under laboratory conditions. When the larvae of C. externa hatched, whitefly nymphs were offered on leaf discs coming from cotton treated with: T1-water (control; T2 - 105 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. e T3 - 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The results suggest that the fungus M. anisopliae at doses of 105 e 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. not interfere with the biological aspects of the predator C. externa.

  18. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi


    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  19. Improvement Design of Parabolic Trough (United States)

    Ihsan, S. I.; Safian, M. A. I. M.; Taufek, M. A. M.; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.


    The performance of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) has been evaluated using different heat transfer working fluids; namely water and SAE20 W50 engine oil. New and slightly improved PTSC was developed to run the experimental study. Under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia, authors found that PTSC can operate at a higher temperature than water collector but the performance efficiency of collector using engine oil is much lower than the water collector.

  20. Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Modenez Saldivar Xavier


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de isolados dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 sob condições de laboratório e em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste de Dourados, MS, durante o ano de 2003. Foram avaliados dez isolados de M. anisopliae e onze de B. bassiana, em laboratório, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições (10 adultos e 5 ninfas/parcela. A patogenicidade de M. anisopliae (Ma69 também foi testada em ninfas e adultos, separadamente, em laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os níveis de mortalidade do percevejo foram maiores com os isolados de M. anisopliae que variaram de 73,3% a 94,7% contra 10,7% a 78,7% para os de B. bassiana. Em casa de vegetação, a porcentagem de mortalidade do percevejo causada pelo fungo Ma69 foi de 57,3% e não foi constatada diferença por este isolado quanto à mortalidade de ninfas e adultos, em laboratório. Todavia, em casa de vegetação, os níveis de mortalidade foram significativamente maiores (pPathogenicity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin to stinkbug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot. The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69 was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stinkbug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%. In greenhouse, stinkbug mortality due to the M. anisopliae

  1. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.


    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  2. Arctic Lena Trough -- NOT a Mid-Ocean Ridge (United States)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; Handt, A. V.; Nauret, F.; Gao, Y.; Feig, S.; Jovanovic, Z.


    The North American-Eurasian plate boundary traverses the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Over most of that length, it is a Mid-Ocean Ridge that spreads between about 23 mm/yr (MAR) and 10 mm/yr (Gakkel Ridge) full rate. The northern MAR and the Gakkel ridge are connected by a deep linear feature called Lena Trough. Until about 10 million years ago, Lena Trough was not an oceanic domain at all, but a continental shear zone through a narrow isthmus of continental crust that connected the American and Eurasian plates. Its opening was, significantly, the most recent and final event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent, and opened the gateway for deep water circulation between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Models for the tectonic configuration of Lena Trough have until now differed only in the number and length of fracture zones and spreading segments thought to be present. Lena Trough is a deep fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor, but these are not traceable to any parallel structures on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55 degrees. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The Northern basalts show strong chemical affinities to those of Gakkel Ridge, and can be considered a part of the Gakkel volcanic system. The rare southernmost basalts, however, are quite unique. They are alkali basalts with K2O up to 2 weight percent, highly incompaitble element enriched and occupy a corner of isotope

  3. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  4. Rare gases in lavas from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Moreira, M.; Snow, J. E.


    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Arctic Ocean have been much less studied than those from the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific due to the difficulty of access related to ice cover. In 2001 and 2004 the Arctic ridges (Gakkel Ridge and Lena Trough) were intensively sampled. In this study we present the first helium, neon, and argon concentrations and isotopic ratios in a suite of samples from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough (˜0.75 cm/yr effective full rate). Central Lena Trough (CLT) lavas display 4He/3He between 89,710 and 97,530 (R/Ra between 7.4 and 8.1), similar to the mean MORB ratio of 90,000 ± 10,000 (R/Ra = 8 ± 1). In a three neon isotope diagram, the samples fall on the MORB line, without showing any excess of nucleogenic 21Ne. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from 349 to 6964. CLT samples have a typical MORB He and Ne isotopic composition. Rare gases do not indicate any mantle heterogeneities or contribution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, although this has been suggested previously on the basis of the Sr-Nd and Pb isotopic systems. Based on noble gas systematics, a DUPAL-like anomaly is not observed in the Arctic Ocean. We propose two possible models which reconcile the rare gases with these previous studies. The first is that the Lena Trough mantle has a marble cake structure with small-scale heterogeneities (<1 km), allowing rapid diffusion and homogenization of rare gases compared to elements such as Sr, Nd, and Pb. The second model proposes that the recycled component identified by other isotopic systems was fully degassed at a recent date. It would therefore have a negligible mass budget of rare gases compared to other isotopic systems. This would suggest that the mantle enrichment beneath Lena Trough was generated by rift-forming processes and not by recycling.

  5. [Anatomical studying of the tear trough area]. (United States)

    Yang, Ningze; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Su, Xiaowei; Jia, Huafeng; Shi, Heng


    To explore the mechanism of the aging deformity of tear trough through the anatomic study of the tear trough region. 13 adult cadaveric heads (26 sides), including 9 male heads (18 sides) and 4 female heads (8 sides), aged 22-78 years old, were used. Anatomic study was performed around the orbital, especially tear trough region, with microsurgery instrument under microscope( x 10 times). The lower orbicularis retaining ligament was dissected and exposed. The anatomic location was recorded and photographed. (1) The anatomic layers of the tear trough region contains skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi muscle, periosteal membrane. There is no subcutaneous fat above the tear trough, while it exists below the tear trough, called malar fat pad. (2) There is a natural boundary between the septal and the orbital portions of the orbicularis oculi muscle of lower eyelid at surface of the orbital bone. The natural boundary, projected on the body surface corresponds to tear trough. The width of boundary is (2.06 +/- 0.15) mm on the vertical line through inner canthus and (3.25 +/- 0.12) mm on the vertical line through the lateral margin of the ala. The septal portion and the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle began to merge in (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm to inner canthus. (3) There is ligament attachment in the medial, upper and lower orbital and no ligament attachment in the lateral orbital. Orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid is divided into two layers. (4) The medial of the upper layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament in lower eyelid originates from orbital margin and from preorbital walls laterally in (16.10 +/- 0.43) mm to the medial of lateral orbital margin, through orbicularis oculi muscle and ends at the skin. The lower layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid originates from preorbital walls through orbicularis oculi muscle and its superficial fat, then ends at the skin. The length of tear trough is (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm

  6. Aerial mulching techniques-trough fire (United States)

    Robert. Faust


    The Trough fire occurred in August 2001 on the Mendocino National Forest of northern California. A burned area emergency rehabilitation team evaluated the fire effects on the watershed. Concerns were soil from the denuded slopes moving into streams affecting fishery values, reservoir sedimentation and storm runoff plugging culverts leading to road wash outs. Past...

  7. Inflammation Is Associated with Voriconazole Trough Concentrations (United States)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Span, Lambert F. R.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Uges, Donald R. A.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.


    Voriconazole concentrations display a large variability, which cannot completely be explained by known factors. Inflammation may be a contributing factor, as inflammatory stimuli can change the activities and expression levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. We explored the correlation between inflammation, reflected by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and voriconazole trough concentrations. A retrospective chart review of patients with at least one steady-state voriconazole trough concentration and a CRP concentration measured on the same day was performed. A total of 128 patients were included. A significantly (P voriconazole trough concentration was observed in patients with severe inflammation (6.2 mg/liter; interquartile range [IQR], 3.4 to 8.7 mg/liter; n = 20) than in patients with moderate inflammation (3.4 mg/liter; IQR, 1.6 to 5.4 mg/liter; n = 60) and in patients with no to mild inflammation (1.6 mg/liter; IQR, 0.8 to 3.0 mg/liter; n = 48). The patients in all three groups received similar voriconazole doses based on mg/kg body weight (P = 0.368). Linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for covariates of gender, age, dose, route of administration, liver enzymes, and interacting coadministered medications, showed a significant association between voriconazole and CRP concentration (P voriconazole trough concentration increased by 0.015 mg/liter (unadjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011 to 0.020 mg/liter; adjusted 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.019 mg/liter). Inflammation, reflected by the C-reactive protein concentration, is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations. Further research is necessary to assess if taking the inflammatory status of a patient into account is helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole to maintain concentrations in the therapeutic window, thereby possibly preventing suboptimal treatment or adverse events. PMID:25223994

  8. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour


    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  9. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan


    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  10. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

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    Chi-Yue Huang


    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  11. Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichanun Kernasa


    Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

  12. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials


    Ghalya Pikra; Agus Salim; Andri Joko Purwanto; Zaidan Eddy


    This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and co...

  13. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria) (United States)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  14. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing? (United States)

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.


    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  15. Photoionization of Ne8+ (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.


    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  16. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin (United States)

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.


    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  17. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang


    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  18. Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Kwak, Young Hoon; Bong, Pil Yoon; Son, Jin Dam; Cheong, Tae Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byeong Kook; Hwang, In Gul; Kwon, Young Ihn; Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Hag Ju; Yi, Sung Soog; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Shin, Chang Soo; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. Abundant marine micro-fossils such as foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and dinocysts were yielded in the sedimentary section of the above wells. Abundant palynomorphs originated from nearby onshore are also encountered. Based on nannofossils, the bio-stratigraphic zones from NN12 (Amaurolithus tricorniculatus Zone) to NN19 (Pseudoemiliania lacunosa Zone) are established. The sedimentary sequences are divided by local unconformity into Lower and Upper Groups, the ages of which are Late Miocene and Pliocene to Pleistocene, respectively. According to the geochemical analysis results, it is hard to expect a source rock that can generate enough hydrocarbons necessary for migration in the drilled intervals. Even though the thermal maturity reached the oil generation zone in the penetrated intervals, the calculation by the program GENEX of BEICIP shows that the amount of the generated hydrocarbons is not enough for the migration. A good source rock may be expected in the depth deeper than 4300 m horizon. Analysis of over 3300 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 2 well data serves to detail the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the western margin of the Okinawa Trough, offshore southern part of Korea peninsula. The overall tectonic style is characterized by a series of half-Graben and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Tectonics of the rift phase have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with titled fault block, fault and roll-over structure exist. (author). 44 refs.

  19. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk


    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  20. Cobbles in Troughs Between Meridiani Ripples (United States)


    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to traverse from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the rover navigates along exposures of bedrock between large, wind-blown ripples. Along the way, scientists have been studying fields of cobbles that sometimes appear on trough floors between ripples. They have also been studying the banding patterns seen in large ripples. This view, obtained by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 802nd Martian day (sol) of exploration (April 27, 2006), is a mosaic spanning about 30 degrees. It shows a field of cobbles nestled among wind-driven ripples that are about 20 centimeters (8 inches) high. The origin of cobble fields like this one is unknown. The cobbles may be a lag of coarser material left behind from one or more soil deposits whose finer particles have blown away. The cobbles may be eroded fragments of meteoritic material, secondary ejecta of Mars rock thrown here from craters elsewhere on the surface, weathering remnants of locally-derived bedrock, or a mixture of these. Scientists will use the panoramic camera's multiple filters to study the rock types, variability and origins of the cobbles. This is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters.

  1. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra


    Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively. 

  2. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.


    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  3. Floor cooler for floor trough of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.J.


    Cooling pipes are situated below the floor trough of a BWR, which are connected to the annular distribution or collection pipes. The distribution and collection pipes are connected by parallel hairpin pipes with involute shape to the centre of the floor trough. These hairpin pipes are situated in a lower plane than the annular distribution pipe to the centre and in a higher plane from the centre to the outer annular collector pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.


    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  5. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

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    M. O'Regan


    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  6. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.


    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  7. Heat Flow Variation along the Nankai Trough Floor Correlated with the Structure of the Shikoku Basin Oceanic Crust (United States)

    Yamano, M.; Kawada, Y.; Gao, X.


    Surface heat flow observed on the floor of the Nankai Trough, near the trench axis, is highly variable and does not well correspond to the seafloor age of the incoming Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin). Recent detailed measurements between 133.5°E and 137°E revealed that heat flow on the trough floor significantly varies along the trough. The most conspicuous variation is found around 136°E. Heat flow is extremely high and variable between 135°E and 136°E, much higher than the value estimated from the age. On the east of 136°E, heat flow gradually decreases eastward over 50 km to the value nearly consistent with the age with no appreciable scatter. Elevated heat flow on the trough floor can be attributed to vigorous fluid circulation in a permeable layer (aquifer) in the subducted oceanic crust, which efficiently transports heat upward along the plate interface (Spinelli and Wang, 2008). The heat flow variation around 136°E may therefore arise from variation in the permeability structure of the crustal aquifer. A probable cause of the heterogeneity in the aquifer permeability is a structure boundary in the incoming Shikoku Basin, the boundary between the younger part on the west formed by spreading in NE-SW direction and the older part on the east formed by E-W spreading. It is located around 136°E, about the same place as the heat flow distribution boundary. A possible additional source of variation in the permeability structure is the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. A prominent bend in the subducted plate between 135°E and 136°E, which corresponds to the high heat flow area on the trough floor, may have fractured the oceanic crust and enhanced the aquifer permeability. We evaluated the influence of variations in the aquifer permeability on the thermal structure through 3D numerical modelling using a high thermal-conductivity proxy for heat transport by fluid flow. A sharp along-strike change in the permeability of the subducted

  8. Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Wang


    Full Text Available Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector was established and three typical regions of solar thermal utilization in China were selected. The performance characteristics of cosine effect, shadowing effect, end loss effect, and optical efficiency were calculated and simulated during a whole year in these three areas by using the mathematical model. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency of PTCs changes from 0.4 to 0.8 in a whole year. The highest optical efficiency of PTCs is in June and the lowest is in December. The optical efficiency of PTCs is mainly influenced by the solar incidence angle. The model is validated by comparing the test results in parabolic trough power plant, with relative error range of 1% to about 5%.

  9. Molten salt parabolic trough system with synthetic oil preheating (United States)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Hino, Koichi


    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT), which can heat the heat transfer fluid (HTF) to 550 °C has a better performance than a synthetic oil parabolic trough system (SOPT), which can heat the HTF to 400 °C or less. The utilization of HTF at higher temperature in the parabolic trough system is able to realize the design of a smaller size of storage tank and higher heat to electricity conversion efficiency. However, with MSPT there is a great amount of heat loss at night so it is necessary to circulate the HTF at a high temperature of about 290 °C in order to prevent solidification. A new MSPT concept with SOPT preheating (MSSOPT) has been developed to reduce the heat loss at night. In this paper, the MSSOPT system, its performance by steady state analysis and annual performance analysis are introduced.

  10. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  11. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.


    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  12. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano


    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  13. Parabolic-trough technology roadmap: A pathway for sustained commercial development and deployment of parabolic-trough technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Kearney; Hank Price


    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop

  14. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.


    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  15. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  16. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.


    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  17. Parabolic troughs to increase the geothermal wells flow enthalpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Engineering Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Building 12, Cuidad Universitaria, Mexico D.F., A.P. 70-472, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)


    This work investigates the feasibility of using parabolic trough solar field to increase the enthalpy from geothermal wells' flow in order to increase the steam tons; in addition, it is possible to prevent silica deposition in the geothermal process. The high levels of irradiance in Northwestern Mexico make it possible to integrate a solar-geothermal hybrid system that uses two energy resources to provide steam for the geothermal cycle, like the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The plant consists of a geothermal well, a parabolic trough solar field in series, flash separator, steam turbine and condenser. Well '408' of Cerro Prieto IV has enthalpy of 1566kJ/kg and its quality must be increased by 10 points, which requires a {delta}h of 194.4kJ/kg. Under these considerations the parabolic troughs area required will be 9250m{sup 2}, with a flow of 92.4tons per hour (25.67kg/s). The solar field orientation is a N-S parabolic trough concentrator. The silica content in the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine causes problems for scaling at the power facility, so scale controls must be considered. (author)

  18. Performance Test of Parabolic Trough Solar Cooker for Indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In the absence of new sustainable, cleaner, more efficient use of energy for cooking the number of people .... the solar cooker. For optimum utilization of the solar energy resource, the orientation of the parabolic trough is ..... Use of solar cooker can replace use of firewood, kerosene, LPG, and electric cooking. Depending on ...

  19. Ostracods from the yola arm, Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of nine genera of ostracods from the Yola Arm in the north-east of Nigeria are described. The various species, though from outcrop sections, supplement the list from the Upper Benue Trough already reported from Ashaka quarry and borehole (BH 2340) of the Gongila and Pindiga Formations respectively.

  20. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.


    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market

  1. Do leading indicators lead peaks more than troughs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); R. Segers (René); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)


    textabstractWe develop a formal statistical approach to investigate the possibility that leading indicator variables have different lead times at business cycle peaks and troughs. For this purpose, we propose a novel Markov switching vector autoregressive model, where economic growth and leading

  2. Development and preliminary testing of a parabolic trough solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for ...

  3. The relationship between trough concentration of vancomycin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in intensive care units in Malaysia is significant. Invasive MRSA infections are commonly treated with vancomycin. In clinical practice, the serum vancomycin trough concentration is used as a surrogate marker of vancomycin efficacy.

  4. The crustal structure along the Mbere trough in South Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mbere Cretaceous trough is located in the southern part of the Adamawa province. A gravity interpretation based on data obtained from three NW-SE profiles on the residual anomaly map has been carried out using a 2.5D modelling program. Spectral analysis has been used to estimate the depth of geological ...

  5. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spreading was, however, arrested by the rotation of the hot spot plumes onto the shoulders of the trough such as unto the Cameroom volcanic line by a sequence of events including crustal thinning and doming, rifting and faulting, grabens and horst formation, volcanism and subsidence, imbricate sedimentation and ...

  6. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat ...

  7. Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mekuannint Mesfin and Abebayehu Assefa. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University ... off design weather conditions as well. Keywords: Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC);. Heat Transfer ... of a conventional Rankine cycle power plant with solar fields that are used to increase the temperature of heat ...

  8. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Benue Trough, an aulacogen at the entrant of the Gulf of Guinea in Nigeria, has been historically studied from the concepts of ortho-mio-eu-geosynclines at outcrops and in the subsurface. Its structural evolution reveals a tectonic scenario compatible with Plate tectonic evolution of the Atlantic Ocean. Spreading was ...

  9. Effect of water trough type on the drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. (United States)

    Coimbra, P A D; Machado Filho, L C P; Nunes, P A; Hötzel, M J; de Oliveira, A G L; Cecato, U


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different trough types on the water consumption and drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. Two trials were implemented with 32 beef heifers to test two different types of water troughs, namely a rectangular concrete trough (RC) and a round polyvinyl chloride water tank (PVC). In Trial 1, both troughs were simultaneously available to groups of four animals within eight paddocks. In Trial 2, the animals were distributed in pairs throughout 16 paddocks and, in a crossover design, were exposed to one type of trough at a time. In both trials, estimated water intake was per four animals. Number of drinking bouts, time spent drinking and amount of water intake from the RC and PVC trough were recorded in both trials. Data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. In Trial 1, group and trough effect were in the model. In Trial 2, stage, pair and trough were tested. In Trial 1, where both types of troughs were available, animals had a higher number of drinking bouts (3.32 v. 0.57 ± 0.09; P PVC water tank, compared to the RC trough. In Trial 2, all groups drank more often (5.10 v. 3.28 ± 0.32; P PVC than from the RC trough. Thus, heifers not only prefer, but also drink more from a PVC water tank in comparison to a RC trough.

  10. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.


    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  11. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.


    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  12. Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Hassani, V.


    This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

  13. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) (United States)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo


    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  14. Mid-Oceanic Troughs and Associated Teleconnection Patterns (United States)

    Lu, Mengmeng; Deng, Kaiqiang; Yang, Song; Zhou, Guojun; Tan, Yaheng


    The mid-oceanic troughs (MOTs) are two prominent circulation systems over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic during the boreal summer, which act as the atmospheric bridges linking their adjacent continental climate. On interannual time scale, the variation of the mid-Atlantic trough (MAT) is significantly associated with the NAO variability and a southeastward propagating stationary wave that originates from the northeastern Pacific. The MAT is significantly correlated with the surface climate including the precipitation and surface temperature over the American-Atlantic-Eurasian sector. On interdecadal time scale, the variation of the MAT is strongly related to the AMO and associated with a dipole structure of anomalous precipitation over the North Atlantic and the Greenland. This study also shows that the most dominant mode of the mid-Pacific trough (MPT) is associated with the eastern Pacific La Niña-like pattern and Atlantic SST variability, while the second mode is related to the central Pacific El Niño-like pattern and Arctic sea ice variability. These two modes of the MPT are linked to the Asian-Pacific-American precipitation and surface temperature differently.

  15. Seafloor Crustal Deformation Close to the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuda, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Ando, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.


    \\ \\ \\ The Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. Major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, repeatedly occur with intervals of 100-150 years at the Nankai Trough. The last large earthquakes occurred in 1944 and 1946. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of next major earthquakes are 80- 90 %. It is necessary to monitor crustal deformation above the source regions for the sake of earthquake prediction and disaster prevention. The source regions of the earthquakes are located beneath the sea bottom, to the south of the Japan Islands. \\ \\ \\ One of the useful tools to monitor seafloor crustal deformation is the observation system composed of the acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. We have installed seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Nankai Trough region. We repeatedly observed at the two sites from 2004. The result of the repeated observation shows that the repeatability of the measurement is +/- 2-3 cm for the horizontal components. Also we detect crustal deformation related to plate convergence using our system. The velocity vectors derived from our repeated observation are (7.0 cm/yr, N78W) and (5.2 cm/yr, N87W), which is consistent to the on-land continuous observations. \\ \\ \\ This study is promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captains and crews of Research Vessels, "Asama"and "Hokuto."

  16. Evidence for a Slow Spreading Ocean Ridge in the Southern Rockall Trough From Satellite Gravity Inversion and Seismic Data (United States)

    Chappell, A. R.; Kusznir, N. J.


    The southern Rockall Trough, located to the west of Ireland and the UK in the NE Atlantic, has been interpreted as both a Mesozoic intra-continental rift basin (O'Reilly 1995) and a mid Cretaceous ocean basin (e.g. Roberts et al. 1980). The continental rift hypothesis (O'Reilly 1995) requires differential stretching of the upper and lower crust and syn-tectonic cooling to mechanically explain the formation of 5-6km thick continental crust and allow serpentinisation of the upper mantle. In this model serpentinisation of the upper mantle is needed to explain low upper mantle seismic velocities. The serpentinisation has also been required to fit gravity modelling of seismic transects to the observed gravity (e.g. Shannon 1999). We use satellite gravity inversion to map Moho depth and crustal thickness (Chappell & Kusznir 2005) for the Rockall Trough area. The satellite gravity inversion is a 3D spectral method incorporating a correction for the residual lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly present in continental rifted margin lithosphere and oceanic lithosphere. The gravity inversion predicts Moho depth and geometry in agreement with wide-angle seismic estimates without invoking the extensive serpentinisation of the upper-mantle needed by the intra-continental rift hypothesis (O'Reilly 1995). Recent seismic modelling (Morewood 2005) suggests that the thin crust in the southern Rockall Trough does not have the seismic layering associated with oceanic crust formed at intermediate or fast spreading rates. Also, wide-angle seismic data shows low upper mantle seismic velocities are present and spatially associated with the thin 5-6km crust (Shannon 1999). These observations are consistent with models and observations of oceanic crust formed at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat 1996, Jokat 2003). Such models are based on a proportion of melt being retained in the upper mantle, producing low seismic velocities, and a reduced supply of melt to the crust, resulting in thin

  17. Seismicity of the 24 May 2014 Mw 7.0 Aegean Sea earthquake sequence along the North Aegean Trough (United States)

    Görgün, Ethem; Görgün, Burçak


    The northern Aegean Sea was hit by a large size (Mw = 7.0) earthquake on 2014 May 24. Centroid moment tensor solutions for 40 events with moment magnitudes (Mw) between 3.3 and 7.0 are computed by applying a waveform inversion method on data from the Turkish and Greek broadband seismic networks. The time span of data covers the period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 June 26. The mainshock is a shallow focus strike-slip event at a depth of 15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 6 to 30 km. The seismic moment (Mo) of the mainshock is estimated as 4.60 × 1019 Nm. The calculated rupture duration of the North Aegean Sea mainshock is 40 s. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly strike-slip faulting with a minor normal component. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the northern Aegean Sea stress field along the North Aegean Trough. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant strike-slip stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum principal compressive stress (σ1). In the development of the North Aegean Trough in Aegean Sea is in good agreement with the resolved stress tensors. With respect the newly determined focal mechanisms, the effect of the propagating of the North Anatolian Fault into Aegean Sea is very clearly pronounced. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the North Aegean Sea seismic sequence, three main clusters are revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 July 31 extends from the mainshock cluster from NE to the SW direction. Seismic cross-sections indicate that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of seventeen segments. The eastern cluster is associated with a fault plane trending mainly ENE-WSW and dipping vertical, while the

  18. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in the Ionospheric Trough Region During Substorms (United States)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.


    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at the subauroral and auroral latitudes, and are categorized into the mid-latitude trough or high-latitude trough, depending on their relative location to the auroral oval. Substorms are one fundamental element of geomagnetic activity, during which structured field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection flows develop in the subauroral and auroral ionosphere. The auroral/trough region is expected to experience severe electron density variations during substorms. Accurate specification of the trough dynamics during substorms and understanding its relationship with the structured FACs and convection flows are of important practical purpose, including providing observational foundations for assessing the attendant impact on navigation and communication. In addition, troughs are important since they map to magnetospheric boundaries allowing the remote sensing of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this talk, we discuss the dynamics of the mid-latitude and high-latitude troughs during substorms based on multi-instrument observations. Using GPS total electron content (TEC) data, we characterize the location and width of the mid-latitude trough through the substorm lifecycle and compare them with existing trough empirical models. Using a combination of incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS TEC, auroral imager and a data assimilative model, we investigate the relationship between the high-latitude trough and FACs as well as convection flows. The high-latitude trough is found to be collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex east of the Harang reversal region, and downward FACs as part of the substorm current system are suggested to be responsible for the high-latitude trough formation. In addition, complex ionospheric electron temperature within the high-latitude trough is found, i.e., increase in the E region while decrease in the F region. We discuss possible

  19. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough (United States)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto


    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  20. Rozvoj cyklotrasy Nežárka


    Vondráčková, Jitka


    The aim of thesis entitled " The Development of Nežárka Cyclotourism" is using auditing methods to map current state of cycle paths and cycle routes around the river Nežárka,to identify the most appropriate line of the cycle route "Nežárka" and to propose The Cycle route "Nežárka" Master Plan. The theoretical part is focused on bicycle traffic and cycle tourism, particularly cycling infrastructure. The practical part of the thesis includes the line proposal of cycle route "Nežárka", the asses...

  1. The F-region trough: seasonal morphology and relation to interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu


    Full Text Available We present here the results of a statistical study of the ionospheric trough observed in 2003 by means of satellite tomography. We focus on the seasonal morphology of the trough occurrence and investigate the trough latitude, width and the horizontal gradients at the edges, at different magnetic local times, as well as their relations to geomagnetic activity and the interplanetary magnetic field. A seasonal effect is noticed in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude, indicating that summer clearly differs from the other seasons. In winter the troughs seem to follow the solar terminator. The width of the trough has a diurnal variation and it depends on the season, as well. The broadest troughs are observed in winter and the narrowest ones in summer. A discontinuity in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude is observed before noon. It is suggested that this is an indication of a difference between the generation mechanisms of morningside and eveningside troughs. The density gradients at the edges have a complex dependence on the latitude of the trough and on geomagnetic activity. The photoionization and the auroral precipitation are competing in the formation of the trough walls at different magnetic local times. An important finding is that the interplanetary magnetic field plays a role in the occurrence of the trough at different levels of geomagnetic activity. This is probably associated with the topology of the polar cap convection pattern, which depends on the directions of the IMF components By and Bz.

  2. Overview of the Kinematics of the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    In the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California, transtensional rifting is leading to full continental plate breakup, as a major continental block is being transferred to an oceanic plate. Since at least 6 Ma this region has taken up most of the plate boundary slip between the Pacific and North America plates at this latitude. We review the structural history of plate separation, as constrained by many recent studies of present and past fault configurations, seismicity, and basin development as seen from geology and geophysics. Modern activity in the USA is dominated by NW-striking strike-slip faults (San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore), and subsidiary NE-striking faults. There is an equally broad zone in Mexico (faults from the Mexicali Valley to the Colorado River Delta and bounding the Laguna Salada basin), including active low-angle detachment faults. In both areas, shifts in fault activity are indicated by buried faults and exhumed or buried earlier basin strata. Seismicity defines 3 basin segments in the N Gulf: Consag-Wagner, Upper Delfin, and Lower Delfin, but localization is incomplete. These basins occupy a broad zone of modern deformation, lacking single transform faults, although major strike-slip faults formed in the surrounding continental area. The off-boundary deformation on the western side of the plate boundary has changed with time, as seen by Holocene and Quaternary faults controlling modern basins in the Gulf Extensional Province of NE Baja California, and stranded Pliocene continental and marine basin strata in subaerial fault blocks. The eastern side of the plate boundary, in the shallow northeastern Gulf, contains major NW-striking faults that may have dominated the earlier (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) kinematics. The Sonoran coastal plain likely buries additional older faults and basin sequences; further studies here are needed to refine models of the earlier structural development of this sector. Despite > 250 km of plate

  3. A trough for improved SFG spectroscopy of lipid monolayers (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Weidner, Tobias


    Lipid monolayers are indispensable model systems for biological membranes. The main advantage over bilayer model systems is that the surface pressure within the layer can be directly and reliably controlled. The sensitive interplay between surface pressure and temperature determines the molecular order within a model membrane and consequently determines the membrane phase behavior. The lipid phase is of crucial importance for a range of membrane functions such as protein interactions and membrane permeability. A very reliable method to probe the structure of lipid monolayers is sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Not only is SFG extremely surface sensitive but it can also directly access critical parameters such as lipid order and orientation, and it can provide valuable information about protein interactions along with interfacial hydration. However, recent studies have shown that temperature gradients caused by high power laser beams perturb the lipid layers and potentially obscure the spectroscopic results. Here we demonstrate how the local heating problem can be effectively reduced by spatially distributing the laser pulses on the sample surface using a translating Langmuir trough for SFG experiments at lipid monolayers. The efficiency of the trough is illustrated by the detection of enhanced molecular order due to reduced heat load.

  4. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.


    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  5. Thermal and optical efficiency investigation of a parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzivanidis


    Full Text Available Solar energy utilization is a promising Renewable Energy source for covering a variety of energy needs of our society. This study presents the most well-known solar concentrating system, the parabolic trough collector, which is operating efficiently in high temperatures. The simulation tool of this analysis is the commercial software Solidworks which simulates complicated problems with an easy way using the finite elements method. A small parabolic trough collector model is designed and simulated for different operating conditions. The goal of this study is to predict the efficiency of this model and to analyze the heat transfer phenomena that take place. The efficiency curve is compared to a one dimensional numerical model in order to make a simple validation. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the absorber and inside the tube is presented while the heat flux distribution in the outer surface of the absorber is given. The heat convection coefficient inside the tube is calculated and compared with the theoretical one according to the literature. Also the angle efficiency modifier is calculated in order to predict the thermal and optical efficiency for different operating conditions. The final results show that the PTC model performs efficiently and all the calculations are validated.

  6. Geomechanical property of gas hydrate sediment in the Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Ikeda, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Well logging data and core samples from the Nankai trough area were used to investigate the geomechanical properties and geological history of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion was used to calculate the mechanical strength of the hydrate sediments. The dynamic Young's modulus was calculated using theoretical and experimental data. The study showed that sediments below the gas hydrate later are mechanically weaker than sediments within the gas hydrate layer. The mechanical strength of the core samples was then measured both before and after dissociation. The study showed that saturated gas hydrates are 4 times stronger than gas hydrate-dissociated cores. It was concluded that hydrate-bearing sediments are mechanically stronger than non-hydrate-bearing sediments. Results of the study will be used to develop methods of predicting risk factors for sea floor deformations and well-bore collapse during gas hydrate extraction processes in hydrate reservoirs. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields (United States)

    Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph


    The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Flow trough a Mechanical Heart Valve (United States)

    Haji-Esmaeili, Farida; Oshkai, Peter


    Turbulent flow trough a model of a mechanical heart valve is investigated using digital particle image velocimetry. The valve leaflets are represented by flat plates mounted in a duct. The emphasis is on the effect of the valve design on the platelet activation state associated with the resulting flow field. Global quantitative images corresponding to multiple planes of data acquisition provide insight into the three-dimensional nature of the flow. Turbulent flow structures including jet-like regions and shed vortices are characterized in terms of patterns of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity, vorticity, and streamline topology. Potential of bileaflet heart valves for being thrombogenic is assessed by quantitative comparison of the associated flow fields in terms of maximum values of turbulent stresses and platelet activation states.

  9. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  10. A numerical analysis of the energy behavior of a parabolic trough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A numerical analysis of the energy behavior of a parabolic trough concentrator. ... Abstract. The solar power is a clean and a durable energy; there are several techniques for using them. When necessary to elevated ... Keywords: Solar energy; parabolic trough concentrator; modelisation; optical efficiency, thermal efficiency ...

  11. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel; Ingalls, Jerrell; Kenter, Keith


    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  12. An experimental study of thermal characterization of parabolic trough receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Dongqiang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Jian; Li, Jianbin


    Highlights: ► A new test stand of heat loss has been developed at IEECAS. ► A correlation between heat loss and absorber temperature is presented, 270 W/m 400 °C. ► The ratio of end loss in total heat loss increases with decreasing the temperature. ► The emittance test stand using a high vacuum system and vacuum gauge is built. ► Emittance first decreases, then rapidly increases with increasing the temperature. - Abstract: The receiver is a key component of the parabolic trough solar station. The receiver requires the most challenging technology and has a decisive influence on the thermal and economic performance of a power plant. The Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy Sciences (IEECAS) and Himin Solar Co., Ltd. (HSC) cooperated to develop solar receivers for the first 50 MW parabolic trough project in Inner Mongolia, China. This paper examines overall heat loss, end loss and thermal emittance of the coating of a newly designed receiver in order to evaluate its thermal characterization. A series of heat loss tests are conducted in a newly developed test stand following the steady state equilibrium method. The tests provide a correlation between heat loss and the absorber temperature. This paper presents a new testing method to accurately test the coating emittance. The method uses a receiver with a high vacuum system and a vacuum gauge to maintain continuous exhaust and high vacuum throughout the heat loss testing. A heat loss comparison between the receiver and other existing receivers provides a reference that enabled further optimization. Theoretical and experimental analysis examines the effects of end loss both with and without a heat insulator and a coil heater. The emittance curves of different coatings are acquired and the reasons for initial emittance decrease and then remarkable increase versus temperature are analyzed

  13. Marlène Mocquet


    Saudrais, Anthony


    Les œuvres (de 2009 à 2011) ici réunies réinterprètent le divorce des idées reçues entre l’art figuratif et l’art abstrait. La retranscription d’une conversation, justement intitulée « Les Gigognes », entre l’artiste et Gaëlle Rageot-Deshayes, aide à cerner les références de Marlène Mocquet, la matérialité de ses œuvres, « le principe de la poupée russe [qui] gouverne [ses] images » (p.12) ou encore le jeu des titres et du récit imaginaire [« La Fraise dans ma bouche » (2009) ; « Lire l’oisea...

  14. The Tethys Rifting of the Valencia Trough Basin (United States)

    Viñas, Marina; Ranero, César R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.


    The western Mediterranean submarine realm is composed of several basin inferred to be formed by a common geodynamic process: upper plate extension during slab rollback of a retreating subduction zone. Although the time evolution of the geometry of the trenches is debated, all models assume that basins opened sequentially from NW (Gulf of Lions) towards the SE (Ligurian-Provençal and later Tyrrhenian basins) and SW (Valencia Trough and later Algerian-South Balearic and Alboran Basin) as trenches migrated. Basin opening history is key to reconstruct kinematics of slab retreat preferred in each model. However, the deep structure of basins is inadequately known due to the paucity of modern wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic studies across entire systems, and absence of deep drilling in the deep-water regions of the basins, as a result, much of the opening evolution is inferred from indirect evidence. In the Valencia Trough Basin (VTB), drilling and vintage seismic data provide good knowledge of the shallow geology of the basin. However, crustal-scale information across the entire VTB has been limited to two studies (Figure 1): One in the late 80's (Valsis experiment) with three Expanded Spread Profiles that yielded local 1D velocity/depth models used to constrain 2D gravity modeling, and a few multichannel seismic profiles along the Iberian shelf and across segments of the basin. A second study in the early 90's (ESCI experiment) collected a low-resolution deep-penetration multichannel seismic reflection profile across the basin and a coincident wide-angle seismic line with numerous land stations in Iberia but a handful of widely-spaced Ocean Bottom Seismometers. In the absence of modern detailed crustal structure, the origin and evolution of the VTB is still debated. Industry multichannel seismic reflection profiles cover the SW segment of the VTB. This is a region where the basin sea floor is comparatively shallower and has numerous industry wells

  15. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir


    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  16. MiniBooNE overview and status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 611-614. MiniBooNE overview and status. P KAsPER (for the BooNE Collaboration). Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-0500, USA. Abstract. Recent discoveries in the neutrino sector have opened a new frontier in high- energy physics and cosmology. Evidence from neutrino oscillation experiments from.

  17. Modelling the main ionospheric trough using the Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) with assimilated GPS TEC (United States)

    Parker, James A. D.; Eleri Pryse, S.; Jackson-Booth, Natasha; Buckland, Rachel A.


    The main ionospheric trough is a large-scale spatial depletion in the electron density distribution at the interface between the high- and mid-latitude ionosphere. In western Europe it appears in early evening, progresses equatorward during the night, and retreats rapidly poleward at dawn. It exhibits substantial day-to-day variability and under conditions of increased geomagnetic activity it moves progressively to lower latitudes. Steep gradients on the trough-walls on either side of the trough minimum, and their variability, can cause problems for radio applications. Numerous studies have sought to characterize and quantify the trough behaviour. The Electron Density Assimilative Model (EDAM) models the ionosphere on a global scale. It assimilates observations into a background ionosphere, the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007), to provide a full 3-D representation of the ionospheric plasma distribution at specified times and days. This current investigation studied the capability of EDAM to model the ionosphere in the region of the main trough. Total electron content (TEC) measurements from 46 GPS stations in western Europe from September to December 2002 were assimilated into EDAM to provide a model of the ionosphere in the trough region. Vertical electron content profiles through the model revealed the trough and the detail of its structure. Statistical results are presented of the latitude of the trough minimum, TEC at the minimum and of other defined parameters that characterize the trough structure. The results are compared with previous observations made with the Navy Ionospheric Monitoring System (NIMS), and reveal the potential of EDAM to model the large-scale structure of the ionosphere.

  18. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  19. Parabolic Trough Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors: Design and Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vanoli


    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure and a simulation model of a novel concentrating PVT collector. The layout of the PVT system under investigation was derived from a prototype recently presented in literature and commercially available. The prototype consisted in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. In that prototype, the bottom surfaces of the receiver are equipped with mono-crystalline silicon cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The aperture area of the parabola was covered by a glass in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. In the modified version of the collector considered in this paper, two changes are implemented: the cover glass was eliminated and the mono-crystalline silicon cells were replaced by triple-junction cells. In order to analyze PVT performance, a detailed mathematical model was implemented. This model is based on zero-dimensional energy balances. The simulation model calculates the temperatures of the main components of the system and the main energy flows Results showed that the performance of the system is excellent even when the fluid temperature is very high (>100 °C. Conversely, both electrical and thermal efficiencies dramatically decrease when the incident beam radiation decreases.

  20. A Process Heat Application Using Parabolic Trough Collector (United States)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Söylemez, Mehmet Sait; Hayta, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    A pilot study has been performed based on a heat process application that is designed, installed and tested at Gaziantep University to establish the technical and economic feasibility of high temperature solar-assisted cooking process. The system has been designed to be satisfying the process conditions integrated with parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). It is primarily consists of the PTSC array, auxiliary heater, plate type heat exchanger, cooking system and water heating tanks. In the operation of the process heat application, the energy required to cook wheat (used as cooking material) has been supplied from solar energy which is transferred to heat transfer fluid (HTF) by heat exchanging units and finally discharged to water in order to produce bulgur. The performance parameters of the sub-systems and the process compatibility have been accomplished depending on the system operation. In addition that the system performance of the high temperature solar heat process has been presented and the recommendations on its improvement have been evaluated by performing an experimental study. As a result that the use of solar energy in process heat application has been projected and its contribution to economics view with respect to conventional cooking systems has been conducted.

  1. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation. (United States)

    Scheel, Jennifer; Reber, Sandra; Stoessel, Lisa; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Jank, Sabine; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grundmann, Franziska; Vitinius, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Bertram, Anna; Erim, Yesim


    Different measures of non-adherence to immunosuppressant (IS) medication have been found to be associated with rejection episodes after successful transplantation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables (IS trough level variability and percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels). Patient-reported non-adherence, IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels, and acute biopsy-proven late allograft rejections were assessed in 267 adult renal transplant recipients who were ≥12 months post-transplantation. The rate of rejection was 13.5%. IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels as well as patient-reported non-adherence were all significantly and positively associated with rejection, but not with each other. Logistic regression analyses revealed that only the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels and age at transplantation remained significantly associated with rejection. Particularly, the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels is associated with acute rejections after kidney transplantation whereas IS trough level variability and patient-reported non-adherence seem to be of subordinate importance. Patient-reported non-adherence and IS trough level variables were not correlated; thus, non-adherence should always be measured in a multi-methodological approach. Further research concerning the best combination of non-adherence measures is needed.

  2. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.


    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  3. Report on Radiocarbon Analysis of Surface Sediments from the Fore-Arc Basin of Nankai Trough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohlman, John


    .... Radiocarbon analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) on 30 sediment samples from two multicores and six piston cores was performed to investigate the fate of methane carbon in sediment of the Nankal Trough...

  4. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.


    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Hanoi Trough, Vietnam, 2017 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 52 million barrels of oil and 591 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hanoi Trough of Vietnam.

  6. Determination of Elastic Parameters of Near-Surface Layers Over Subsidence Trough Development During Longwall Exploitation (United States)

    Mendecki, Maciej J.; Jochymczyk, Krzysztof; Zuberek, Wacław M.; Tomaszewska, Radosława


    Seismic and geodetic studies were carried out before, during, and after underground exploitation of a coal bed in Katowice - Kleofas Coal Mine, located in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland. Development of a subsidence trough was completed approximately 3 months after passage of a longwall exploitation in the coal seam. This was the time required for the subsidence trough to appear on the surface, which was confirmed by levelling measurements. Sharp changes in the elastic parameters were observed on each profile during subsidence trough development. This observation can result from changing tension and compression forces caused by increase and/or decrease of the elastic parameters of the rock mass. After completion of subsidence trough development, the rock mass appeared to return to its isotropic state and the observed changes ceased. Some minor fluctuations were noted, but they probably resulted from changes in groundwater levels, which might have affected the measured parameters.

  7. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.


    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  8. Influence of pen area and trough space on feedlot performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two exoeriments were conducted to measure the influence of trough space (170 mm, 350 mm and 700 mm/animal) and pen area (5,5 m2, 11 m2 and 22 mzlanimal) on feedlot performance. There was no advantage in allowing more than 170 mm trough space or more than 5,5 m2 floor area per animal with the conditions ...

  9. Web life: (United States)

    2014-05-01 is the personal blog of John Asher Johnson, an astronomer at Harvard University in the US who began blogging in 2007, when he was about to begin a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Hawaii.

  10. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.


    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  11. Is any awareness necessary for an Ne?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani eShalgi


    Full Text Available The Error-Related Negativity (Ne or ERN is a reliable electrophysiological index of error processing, which has been found to be independent of whether a subject is aware of an error or not. A large Ne was equally seen after errors that were consciously detected (Aware errors and those that were not (Unaware errors, compared to a small negativity for correct responses (CRN. This suggests a dissociation between an automatic, preconscious error processing mechanism and subjective evaluation. A common concern regarding this finding is that subjects could have been somewhat aware of their errors, but did not report them due to lack of confidence. Here we tested this possibility directly using a betting paradigm which allowed us to separate occasions in which the subjects were confident of their response and trials in which they were unsure. In a choice reaction time task, subjects directly judged the accuracy of each response (correct or error and then bet on this judgment using a high, medium or low amount of money. The bets were used to determine the level of confidence the subjects had of their response. The average across all subjects regardless of confidence (betting measure replicated the reported finding of an equal Ne for Aware and Unaware errors which was larger than the CRN. However, when Ne measurement was confined to high confidence (high bet trials in confident subjects, a prominent Ne was seen only for Aware errors, while confident Unaware errors (i.e., error trials on which subjects made high bets that they were correct elicited a response that did not differ from the CRN elicited by truly correct answers. In contrast, for low confidence trials in unconfident subjects, an intermediate and equal Ne/CRN was elicited by Correct responses, Aware and Unaware errors. These results provide direct evidence that the Ne is related to error awareness, and suggest the amplitude of the Ne/CRN depends on individual differences in error reporting

  12. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.


    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  13. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  14. Analysis of a photovoltaic-electrolyser direct-coupling system with a V-trough concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ziyun; Ding, Shuiting; Gan, Zhiwen; Yang, Xiaoyi


    Highlights: • A V-trough concentrator is applied in PVE system. • An analysis model for the CPVE system is established and verified experimentally. • The result shows that the V-trough concentrator increases the system efficiency. • The hydrogen production of the PVE system is doubled in this investigation. - Abstract: Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier for energy storage which is essential to solar system for continuous energy output. A promising method to store solar energy as hydrogen energy is by using photovoltaic-electrolyser (PVE) system. In this investigation, the operation of a PVE system with V-trough concentrator was studied experimentally and numerically. The V-trough concentrator was optimized and the daily average concentration ratio reaches about 1.9. A mathematical model including the sub models for irradiation flux pattern, PV array and electrolyser was established to analyze the characteristics of the system and it was verified experimentally. The results show that the utilization of V-trough concentrator makes PVE system work more efficiently with the same PV array. In this study, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to hydrogen energy was increased from 5.62% to 6.18% and the hydrogen production was doubled.

  15. Comparative analyses of the bacterial community of hydrothermal deposits and seafloor sediments across Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yu, Min; Liu, Yan; Liu, Jiwen; Wu, Yonghua; Li, Li; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hua


    As an ideal place to study back-arc basins and hydrothermal eco-system, Okinawa Trough has attracted the interests of scientists for decades. However, there are still no in-depth studies targeting the bacterial community of the seafloor sediments and hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough. In the present study, we reported the bacterial community of the surface deposits of a newly found hydrothermal field in the southern Okinawa Trough, and the horizontal and vertical variation of bacterial communities in the sediments of the northern Okinawa Trough. The hydrothermal deposits had a relatively high 16S rRNA gene abundance but low bacterial richness and diversity. Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were predominant in hydrothermal deposits whereas Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant across all samples. The bacterial distribution in the seafloor of Okinawa Trough was significantly correlated to the content of total nitrogen, and had consistent relationship with total carbon. Gradual changes of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were found with the distance away from hydrothermal fields, while the hydrothermal activity did not influence the distribution of the major clades of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Higher abundance of the sulfur cycle related genes (aprA and dsrB), and lower abundance of the bacterial ammonia-oxidizing related gene (amoA) were quantified in hydrothermal deposits. In addition, the present study also compared the inter-field variation of Epsilonproteobacteria among multi-types of hydrothermal vents, revealing that the proportion and diversity of this clade were quite various.

  16. The equatorward wall of the subauroral trough in the afternoon/evening sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Prölss


    Full Text Available Although ionospheric troughs are a very important feature of the subauroral ionosphere, many of their properties remain incompletely documented and understood. Here Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite data are used to investigate one specific part of this complex phenomenon, namely its equatorward wall. We find that in the afternoon/evening sector of the Northern Hemisphere the location of this density drop depends primarily on the level of geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time. Longitudinal variations are only of secondary importance. A formula is derived which summarizes these variations. The magnitude of the density drop in the trough wall depends primarily on altitude and longitude, and to a lesser degree on local time and geomagnetic activity. These variations are also described quantitatively. Using a superposed epoch type of averaging procedure, a mean latitudinal profile of the trough wall is derived. No anomalous increase in the density at the equatorward edge of the trough is observed. There is, however, a significant increase in the electron temperature at the location of the density drop. Our results are important for the empirical description and numerical simulation of ionospheric troughs. They also may be used to define the boundary between middle and subauroral latitudes.

  17. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.


    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  18. Outlet glacier trough size-drainage area relationships, Fiordland, New Zealand (United States)

    Augustinus, Paul C.


    This paper examines relationships between the area supplying ice to fiord troughs and various measures of fiord size such as depth. width and length in Fiordland, New Zealand. The size of the outlet troughs was found to be adjusted to the discharge of ice, following a similar relationship to that encountered with fiords developed under essentially cold-based ice sheets in British Columbia. However, the Fiordland outlet troughs were substantially shorter and shallower than their counterparts in British Columbia. This difference may reflect contrast in mode of erosion in each case, although the major dimensions of the fiords undoubtedly reflect the controlling influence of the pre-glacial lanscape upon which ice-caps were superimposed with their rediating outlet glaciers.

  19. A vacuum tube vee-trough collector for solar heating and air conditioning applications (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.


    An analysis is conducted of the performance of a vee-trough vacuum tube collector proposed for use in solar heating and cooling applications. The vee-trough reflector is a triangular sectioned, flat surfaced reflector, whose axis is laid in the East-West direction. A vacuum tube receiver placed at the bottom of the vee-trough collects solar heat most efficiently since convection is completely eliminated. Radiation losses are reduced by use of selective coatings on the absorber. Owing to its high temperature capabilities (300-400 F), the proposed scheme could also be used for power generation applications in combination with an organic Rankine conversion system. It is especially recommended for unattended pumping stations since the reflectors only require reversal once every six months.

  20. Class II Eplet Mismatch Modulates Tacrolimus Trough Levels Required to Prevent Donor-Specific Antibody Development. (United States)

    Wiebe, Chris; Rush, David N; Nevins, Thomas E; Birk, Patricia E; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Gibson, Ian W; Goldberg, Aviva; Ho, Julie; Karpinski, Martin; Pochinco, Denise; Sharma, Atul; Storsley, Leroy; Matas, Arthur J; Nickerson, Peter W


    Despite more than two decades of use, the optimal maintenance dose of tacrolimus for kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We hypothesized that HLA class II de novo donor-specific antibody ( dn DSA) development correlates with tacrolimus trough levels and the recipient's individualized alloimmune risk determined by HLA-DR/DQ epitope mismatch. A cohort of 596 renal transplant recipients with 50,011 serial tacrolimus trough levels had HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch determined using HLAMatchmaker software. We analyzed the frequency of tacrolimus trough levels below a series of thresholds mismatch. HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch was a significant multivariate predictor of dn DSA development. Recipients treated with a cyclosporin regimen had a 2.7-fold higher incidence of dn DSA development than recipients on a tacrolimus regimen. Recipients treated with tacrolimus who developed HLA-DR/DQ dn DSA had a higher proportion of tacrolimus trough levels mismatch. Mean tacrolimus trough levels in the 6 months before dn DSA development were significantly lower than the levels >6 months before dn DSA development in the same patients. Recipients with a high-risk HLA eplet mismatch score were less likely to tolerate low tacrolimus levels without developing dn DSA. We conclude that HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch and tacrolimus trough levels are independent predictors of dn DSA development. Recipients with high HLA alloimmune risk should not target tacrolimus levels <5 ng/ml unless essential, and monitoring for dn DSA may be advisable in this setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhai, Shikui; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei


    The study of hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough can help us to uncover the hydrothermal mineralization characteristics in the back-arc basin during the early expanding stage. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from both the middle and southern trough are studied in this paper. First of all, using optical microscope to confirm the mineral compositions, characteristics of crystal shape, paragenetic relationship and minerals crystallization order. Then the minerals chemical composition were analyzed in virtue of electron microprobe. On these basis, the paragenetic sequence and the mineralization characteristics of the hydrothermal deposits were discussed. The results show that the hydrothermal deposit from the mid-Okinawa Trough belongs to Zn-Cu-rich type, consisting dominantly of sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, etc. The minerals crystallization order is first generation pyrite(PyI)-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-galena-second generation pyrite(PyII)-amorphous silica. While the deposit from the southern Okinawa Trough is Ba-Zn-Pb-rich type mainly composing of barite, sphalerite, galena, etc. The minerals crystallization order is barite-pyrite-sphalerite-tetrahedrite-galena-chalcopyrite-amorphous silica. Hydrothermal fluid temperature in the mid-Okinawa Trough undergoes a process from high to low, which is high up to 350 °C in the early stage, but decreasing gradually with the evolution of hydrothermal fluid. On the contrary, the hydrothermal activity in the southern Okinawa Trough is low temperature dominated, but the mineralization environment is unstable and the fluid temperature changes drastically during the period of hydrothermal activity.

  2. Improving the concentration ratio of parabolic troughs using a second-stage flat mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, David; Rosengarten, Gary


    Highlights: • A secondary flat reflector is added to commercial parabolic troughs. • Theoretical derivations and ray tracing used to size and position the absorber. • Concentration ratio increases up to 80% can be achieved for current collectors. • New flux distributions around the absorber are calculated. • The use of flat secondary reflector will increase the plant efficiency. - Abstract: Increasing the concentration ratio of parabolic troughs is one of the challenges to make this technology economically competitive against fossil fuels. Parabolic troughs with large concentration ratios face several problems such as difficulty capturing all the solar direct radiation and structural issues associated with thermal expansions and wind resistance amongst others. For larger mirrors it may be necessary to use a bigger absorber in order to capture all the radiation, thus increasing the thermal losses. A second stage reflector helps to increase the concentration ratio without increasing the primary mirror size. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a parabolic trough with a secondary flat reflector is developed and ray tracing is conducted in order to validate the equations obtained. A flat reflector will have a minimal economic impact in the cost of a parabolic trough and it allows larger concentration ratios for identical primary mirror areas compared to a standard parabolic trough. Increases of concentration ratio up to 80% are observed when a secondary flat reflector is inserted in a commercial system, while the shadow area introduced in the primary mirror is usually less than 15% of the primary mirror area. The increase in pumping power is offset by the increase in system efficiency.

  3. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess (United States)

    Kaleko, David

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess of electromagnetic events in the MicroBooNE detector. A background primer on the current state of neutrino physics is provided, including a description of the MiniBooNE detector and its published observation of an excess of electromagnetic events at low energies. A description of the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) detector is given, along with a description of the event selection and reconstruction algorithms developed to select electron neutrino charge-current interactions. A MiniBooNE-like signal is simulated in MicroBooNE with assumptions about the origin of the excess, and the sensitivity to observe such a signal above backgrounds in MicroBooNE is computed. An additional analysis is presented which constrains a dominant background in the MicroBooNE low energy excess search: the beam-intrinsic electron neutrino interactions which come from kaon decay in the beam-line. An essential step in this analysis is to reconstruct the energy of muon neutrino charge-current interactions in which the muon produced in the interaction escapes the detector. A publication detailing the algorithm which leverages the phenomenon of multiple Coulomb scattering to reconstruct the energy of escaping muons is provided as an appendix.

  4. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.


    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  5. Tridimensional analysis of gravitational and magnetic fields of Terek-Caspian trough (United States)

    Kerimov, I. A.; Abubakarova, E. A.; Badaev, S. V.


    The results of the tridimensional analysis of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Terek-Caspian trough are presented in this article. Various transformations of the region’s gravitational and magnetic fields (separation into components, calculation of higher derivatives, measurement of statistical characteristics, tracing of the anomaly axes, etc.) were performed. The morphology of the gravitational and magnetic fields was investigated, the characteristics of the anomalous geophysical fields were outlined and the relationship between various field characteristics and the features of the fault-block tectonics of the trough was analyzed.

  6. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.


    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  7. Many play concepts seen over wide area in Erris, Slyne troughs off Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, N.J.; Croker, P.F.


    This paper reports that the Erris and Slyne troughs are underexplored Mesozoic sedimentary basins off Ireland's northwest coast. The Irish Minister for Energy announced on Apr. 19, 1991, a frontier acreage licensing round of 128 blocks covering 29,000 sq km in these basins and the adjacent Rockall trough. Closing date for the round is June 30, 1993, set to allow two seasons for the acquisition of new geophysical and geological data over the area. Ireland has recently announced a new petroleum taxation regime. Revised licensing terms, which will acknowledge the specific circumstances of frontier acreage, will be announced

  8. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.


    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  9. MiniBooNE overview and status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P KAsPER (for the BooNE Collaboration). Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-0500, USA. Abstract. Recent discoveries in the neutrino sector have opened a new frontier in high- energy physics and cosmology. Evidence from neutrino oscillation experiments from around the world indicate that neutrinos oscillate ...

  10. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.


    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an

  11. The DAΦNE cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, M.


    The DAΦNE Project utilises superconductivity technology for a total of six superconducting magnets: the two Experiment magnets (KLOE and FINUDA) and the four Compensator Solenoid magnets needed to compensate the magnetic effect of the Experiment magnets on the electron and positron beams. This effect, on beams of 510 MeV (nominal DAΦNE Energy), is expected to be relevant, especially with the aim of achieving a very high luminosity, which is the main target of the Project. The KLOE superconducting magnet has two possible working positions: the first in the DAΦNE Hall, when the Experiment will be in operation, and the second one in the KLOE Assembly Hall. This second position is the first to be utilised for the KLOE magnet Acceptance Test and magnetic field mapping, prior to the mounting of all the experimental apparatus inside the magnet. This note intends to present the DAΦNE Cryogenic System and how the authors have converged to the definition of a common Cryogenic System compatible with all the six superconducting magnets

  12. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt


    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  13. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  14. A Study Investigating the Association of Dermatological and Infusion Reactions to Infliximab and Infliximab Trough Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wai-Mei Huang


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although infliximab is an effective therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, it is associated with dermatological events and infusion reactions. It is not known whether a relationship between these adverse events (AEs and infliximab trough levels (ITLs exists.

  15. Basinal Structure Of Yola Arm Of The Upper Benue Trough Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic data interpretation of the Yola arm of the Upper Benue Trough has previously been carried out. However, no detail modeling of the Crustal Structures has been undertaken. Two composite reduced Aeromagnetic maps on a scale of 1:250,000 were digitized and processed using computer techniques.

  16. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia: Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Souto


    Full Text Available The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA, 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells.

  17. Altitude variation of the plasmapause signature in the main ionospheric trough

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Benson, R. F.; Webb, P. A.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.


    Roč. 71, č. 16 (2009), s. 1669-1676 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Plasmapause * Ionosphere * Midlatitude Trough Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009

  18. Investigation on the dynamic behaviour of a parabolic trough power plant during strongly cloudy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maliki, Wisam Abed Kattea; Alobaid, Falah; Starkloff, Ralf; Kez, Vitali; Epple, Bernd


    Highlights: • A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant is done. • Simulated results are compared to the experimental data from the real power plant. • Discrepancy between model result and real data is caused by operation strategy. • The model strategy increased the operating hours of power plant by around 2.5–3 h. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the development of a full scale dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant with a thermal storage system, operated by the Actividades de Construcción y Servicios Group in Spain. The model includes solar field, thermal storage system and the power block and describes the heat transfer fluid and steam/water paths in detail. The parabolic trough power plant is modelled using Advanced Process Simulation Software (APROS). To validate the model, the numerical results are compared to the measured data, obtained from “Andasol II” during strongly cloudy periods in the summer days. The comparisons show a qualitative agreement between the dynamic simulation model and the measurements. The results confirm that the thermal storage enables the parabolic trough power plant to provide a constant power rate when the storage energy discharge is available, despite significant oscillations in the solar radiation.

  19. Numerical simulation of tropical-temperate troughs over Southern Africa using the CSU RAMS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Heever, SC


    Full Text Available ) and the wet (1981) late summer case studies has been examined. Model simulations reveal that the tropical-temperate troughs form when an upper westerly wave coincides with an easterly, wave or depression in lower levels. These systems occur preferentially over...

  20. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  1. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de


    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  2. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zeng


    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  3. Radiometric evidence of Middle Devonian inversion of the Hill End Trough, northeast Lachlan Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakham, G.H.


    The publication of a new geological time-scale by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation and radiometric dates from the Hill End goldfield have prompted the re-examination of the timing of deformation of the Hill End Trough to determine whether it occurred in Middle Devonian or Early Carboniferous time. Palaeontological evidence from the western trough margin and the Capertee High dates the end of deposition in the trough as late Emsian or early Eifelian (385-382 Ma). After a mid-Devonian hiatus of at least 15 million years, paralic sedimentation commenced on the Molong and Capertee Highs in late Frasnian or early Famennian time (367-363 Ma). No Upper Devonian sedimentary formations occur in the Hill End Trough. Structural relationships indicate that the oldest mineral veins at Hill End preceded cleavage formation in the deformed trough sedimentary rocks. Early vein muscovites have Middle Devonian 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 380-370 Ma. Regional metamorphic biotites from Hill End have well constrained 40 Ar/ 39 Ar closing ages of 360-358 Ma (mid-Famennian). The metamorphic (thermal) maximum which outlasted penetrative deformation. is estimated here by modelling to have been about 370 Ma (latest Givetian). This clearly places the earlier main deformation in the Middle Devonian. Deformation probably began by terminating trough deposition in latest Emsian to early Eifelian time and ended in early Givetian time at about 375 Ma ago. Published pressure and temperature data from the Hill End goldfield suggest that deformation thickened the 6 km sediment column to around 11 km. The thermal model suggests there was post-deformation erosion of about 4km and little if any further erosion occurred during Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. The shortening accompanying the inversion of the northern Hill End Trough may have been taken up in the region to the south, both east and west of the Copperhannia Thrust, and east of the southern termination of the Capertee High

  4. Geologic evolution of the Kastel trough and its implications on the Adiyaman oil fields, SE Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, Bu. (Univ. of Ankara (Turkey))


    Oil field developments of the Adiyaman area one of the main oil producing zones in southeast Turkey, have been highly influenced by geologic evolution of the Kastel trough which is situated in front of the suture zone between the Arabian and Anatolian plates. The Upper Cretaceous movements created many paleostructural trends in the Kastel trough where important dolomitic and porous reservoirs exist. The most important tectonic event, which appeared during the Upper Cretaceous movements, is the accumulation of the Kocali-Karadut ophiolitic complex, advancing from the north to the south in the Kastel trough, where heavy materials caused formation of a structural model favoring generation and migration and entrapment of oil in the reservoir rocks. Due to the presence of the Kocali-Karadut complex in the Kastel trough the following zones have been distinguished. (1) North Uplift Area. Situated under the allochthonous units, many thrust and reverse faults characterize this zone. The presence of paleohighs, where primary dolomites develop, allows the appearance of some oil fields in the region. This is the main future exploration zone in southeast Turkey. (2) Accumulation Area. Advancing from the north to the south, the allochthonous Kocali-Karadut complex filled the Kastel trough creating a deep graben whose flanks present generally normal faults. (3) Structural Belt. Important paleohighs constitute an exploration trend in this zone where dolomitic and porous carbonates contain actual oil fields. (4) South Accumulation Area. Distant from the Arabian-Anatolian suture zone, regional tectonics and sedimentology show this zone remained deeply buried during geologic time; good source rocks were deposited during the Cretaceous. (5) South Uplift Area. This area corresponds to the northern flank of the huge regional Mardin high in southeast Turkey where new oil fields have been discovered.

  5. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India. (United States)

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K


    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  6. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.


    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  7. GPS/acoustic Seafloor Geodetic Observations Near the Nankai Trough Axis (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Fujii, C.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.


    The GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic observation system, which uses precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques, has been developed as a useful tool for observing seafloor crustal deformations associated with plate convergence and with earthquakes that occurred in ocean area including the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake of Mw 9.0. Our research group installed eight seafloor benchmarks for this observation system in source areas of anticipated major interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. We have performed campaign measurement for 4-8 years until the end of 2012. The error of displacement rate is almost 5 mm/y through the monitoring for more than four years. At the northern-most potion of the Nankai (Suruga) Trough, the observed steady horizontal displacement rate is 45 mm/y toward west. Also no significant velocity difference is observed across the trough, indicating strong interplate locking up to the shallowest segments. On the other hand, site velocities are 40 mm/y in the direction of N75W at the central region of the Nankai trough, 70-90 km landward from the trough axis. Although this result is the strong evidence for interplate locking, with coupling ratios of 60-80% on the basis of the back-slip model, it has no resolution for the interplate locking at the most-shallowest segments whose depths are 0-10 km. In other words, seaward up-dip limit of locked zone is never resolved from the present seafloor benchmark network [Tadokoro et al., 2012] . Large co-seismic slips larger than 40-50 m on the shallowest interplate segment [Ito et al., 2011; Fujii et al., 2011; Iinuma et al., 2012] are the cause of the unexpected high tsunami that has attacked the pacific coasts of the Tohoku region during the Tohoku-oki Earthquake; it is, therefore, essential to understand slip deficit or strain accumulation condition near the trench axis, also for the anticipated mega-thrust earthquake at the Nankai Trough. For this reason, we

  8. A retrospective analysis to estimate target trough concentration of vancomycin for febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancy. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Tokimatsu, Issei; Morinaga, Yuko; Sato, Yuhki; Takano, Kuniko; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Masao; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Itoh, Hiroki; Kadota, Jun-ichi


    The target trough concentration of vancomycin in patients with febrile neutropenia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the target trough concentration for febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancy. In this retrospective, single-center, observational cohort study, 63 hospitalized patients with hematological malignancy who were treated with vancomycin for febrile neutropenia due to bacteriologically documented or presumptive Gram-positive infections were analyzed. A significant difference in the first trough concentration of vancomycin was observed between the response and non-response groups, and between the nephrotoxicity and non-nephrotoxicity groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the first trough concentration as the only independent variable associated with clinical efficacy and nephrotoxicity of vancomycin. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.72 and 0.83 for clinical efficacy and nephrotoxicity, respectively. The cut-off values of the first trough concentration were 11.1 μg/ml for clinical efficacy (sensitivity 60%, specificity 87%) and 11.9 μg/ml for nephrotoxicity (sensitivity 77%, specificity 82%). These results suggest a relationship of trough vancomycin concentration with clinical efficacy and incidence of nephrotoxicity. We propose a target trough vancomycin concentration of around 11.5 μg/ml for febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo


    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  10. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  11. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  12. Tracing subducted sediment inputs to the Ryukyu arc-Okinawa Trough system: Evidence from thallium isotopes (United States)

    Shu, Yunchao; Nielsen, Sune G.; Zeng, Zhigang; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuai


    Sediments are actively subducted in virtually every arc worldwide. However, quantifying their contributions to arc lavas and thereby establishing budgets of how sediments participate in slab-mantle interaction is challenging. In this contribution we use thallium (Tl) abundances and isotopic compositions of lavas from the Ryukyu arc (including south Kyushu) and its back-arc basin, Okinawa Trough, to investigate the influence of sediments from arc to back-arc. We also present extensive geochemical data for sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) outboard of the northern (DSDP Sites 296, 442B, 443 and 444) and central (DSDP Sites 294 and 295) part of the Ryukyu arc. The Tl isotopic compositions of sediments change systematically from lighter outboard of northern Ryukyu arc to heavier outboard of central Ryukyu arc. The feature reflects the dominance of terrigenous material and pelagic sedimentation outboard of the northern and central Ryukyu arc, respectively. Central and northern sections of Ryukyu arc and Okinawa Trough display larger range of Tl isotopic variation than southern section, which is consistent with more pelagic provenance for sediments outboard of central and northern Ryukyu arcs than that of expected sediments outboard of southern Ryukyu arc. Identical Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope variations are found when comparing arc and back arc lavas, which indicates that sediments fluxes also account for the Tl isotopic variations in the Okinawa Trough lavas. Two-end-member mixing models of Tl with Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes require sediment inputs ofOkinawa Trough. Bulk mixing between mantle and sediment end members predict very similar sediment fluxes when using Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, which indicates that fractionation of these elements must have happened after mixing between mantle and sediments. This conclusion is corroborated by model calculations of mixing between sediment melts with fractionated Sr/Nd ratios and mantle wedge, which show that no arc lava

  13. Inhomogeneous Crustal Structure of the Rifting in the Okinawa Trough, a Backarc Basin West of Kyushu, Japan, Deduced from Seismic Reflection and Refraction Data (United States)

    Nishizawa, A.; Kaneda, K.; Oikawa, M.; Horiuchi, D.; Fujioka, Y.; Okada, C.


    Several depressions found under the thick sediments in the East China Sea shelf have been considered as failed rift basins. Their formation age becomes progressively younger from NW to SE and the youngest rift basin is the Okinawa Trough, an active backarc basin of the Ryukyu (Nansei-Shoto) arc-trench system, to the southwest of Kyusyu, Japan. Its rifting is in progress and related hydrothermal activity is present in the trough. The knowledge of the crustal structure of the trough is fundamental to understand the current active tectonics and predict the future of the trough. We, Japan Coast Guard, have conducted extensive seismic reflection and refraction surveys in the Ryukyu region since 2008 and compiled the seismic structures of the Okinawa Trough. We will show the crustal structures along seven along-trough and ten across-trough seismic survey lines. The P-wave velocity models beneath the Okinawa Trough generally show a thinned continental/island arc crust consisting of upper, middle, and lower crusts. Moho depths below the trough were estimated mainly from Moho reflection (PmP) travel times. The crustal thickness of the trough is thinner than those of the East China Sea shelf and of the Ryukyu Islands. The depth of the Moho below the trough decreases from over 30 km in the north to about 13 km in the south, indicating a difference in degree of the rifting process. The position of the shallowest Moho along the across-trough lines in the northern trough does not necessarily correspond to the center of the trough defined as the deepest water depth, but it corresponds to the transition area between the East China Sea shelf and the Okinawa Trough. An M7.1 earthquake occurred at the transition area on Nov. 14, 2015 (JST) and many aftershocks were observed along the transition. This seismic activity demonstrated that the area is under rifting tectonics in the present.

  14. Towards standardization of in-site parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; de Jalón, Alberto García; Leon, Javier; Bernad, Ignacio David


    This paper presents a summary of the testing procedure and a validation of the methodology of parabolic trough collector in solar thermal power plants. The applied testing methodology is the one proposed within the Spanish standardization sub-committee AEN/CTN 206/SC117 working group WG2 related to the components for solar thermal power plants. This methodology is also proposed within the international committee IEC TC 117 (Standard draft IEC 62862-3-2 Ed. 1.0). This study is done at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Almeria within the European project STAGE-STE. This paper presents the results of the optical and thermal efficiency of a large-size parabolic trough collector. The obtained values are similar to the previous analysis on this collector by PSA. The results of the tracking system have a good accuracy compared to the acceptance angle of the concentrator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode


    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  16. Study on a Mid-Temperature Trough Solar Collector with Multisurface Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengliang Li


    Full Text Available A new trough solar concentrator which is composed of multiple reflection surfaces is developed in this paper. The concentrator was analyzed firstly by using optical software. The variation curves of the collecting efficiency affected by tracking error and the deviation angle were given out. It is found that the deviation tolerance for the collector tracking system is about 8 degrees when the receiver is a 90 mm flat. The trough solar concentrators were tested under real weather conditions. The experiment results indicate that, the new solar concentrator was validated to have relative good collecting efficiency, which can be more than 45 percent when it operated in more 145°C. It also has the characteristics of rdust, wind, and snow resistance and low tracking precision requirements.

  17. A biomarker record of temperature and phytoplankton community in Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum (United States)

    Ruan, Jiaping


    A variety of biomarkers were examined from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core 1202B to reconstruct temperature and phytoplankton community structures in the southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 20000 years. Two molecular temperature proxies (Uk37 and TEX86) show 5-6 ℃ warming during the glacial/interglacial transition. Prior to the Holocene, the Uk37-derived temperature was generally 1-4 ℃ higher than TEX86-derived temperature. This difference, however, was reduced to Okinawa Trough, controlled by the sea level and the intensity of Kuroshio Current. The phytoplankton community change may have profound implications on atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during glacial/interglacial cycles since diatoms and dinoflagellates have a higher efficiency of biological pump than coccolithophorids.

  18. Sexual reproduction in three hermaphroditic deep-sea Caryophyllia species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the NE Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Tyler, Paul A.; Gage, John D.


    The reproductive biology and gametogenesis of three species of Caryophyllia were examined using histological techniques. Caryophyllia ambrosia, Alcock 1898, C. cornuformis, Pourtales 1868, and C. sequenzae, Duncan 1873, were collected from the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough in the NE Atlantic Ocean. These three ahermatypic solitary corals inhabit different depth ranges: C. cornuformis - 435-2000 m, C. sequenzae - 960-1900 m, and C. ambrosia - 1100-3000 m. All three species are hermaphroditic. Hermaphroditism in these species was found to be cyclical, with only one sex of gametes viable in any individual at any point in time, although gametes of both sexes were found together within a single mesentery. Once the viable gametes are spawned, the next sex of gametes continues to grow until mature, and so gametogenesis is a continuous cycle. Oocytes and spermacysts in all species increased in density towards the actinopharynx. Maximum fecundity for C. sequenzae was 940 oocytes per polyp, and for C. ambrosia 2900 oocytes per polyp. Fecundity could not be established for C. cornuformis. In all three species, individuals were asynchronous within populations, and production of gametes was quasi-continuous throughout the year. All species are hypothesised to have lecithotrophic larvae owing to their large oocyte sizes ( C. cornuformis max - 350 μm; C. sequenzae max - 430 μm; C. ambrosia max - 700 μm). Both the average oocyte size and fecundity increased in species going down the depth gradient of the NE Atlantic.

  19. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forristall, R.


    This report describes the development, validation, and use of a heat transfer model implemented in Engineering Equation Solver. The model determines the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector's linear receiver, also called a heat collector element. All heat transfer and thermodynamic equations, optical properties, and parameters used in the model are discussed. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

  20. Monitoring of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Eto, S.; Yasuda, K.; Sakata, T.; Sayanagi, K.


    \\ \\ \\ The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, causing major subduction earthquakes. The subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government [2011] estimates the 30-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes at 60-70 %. It is necessary to monitor crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes. The source regions are located beneath the seafloor, and we developed a system for monitoring seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. The system is composed of the precise acoustic ranging with ultrasonic waves and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. \\ \\ \\ We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at five sites altogether along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, three in the Kumano region and two in the Suruga region, with the use of this system. We have repeatedly measured the coordinate of seafloor benchmark installed beforehand every about 2-3 months on the average. The monitoring results, the horizontal site velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate, as of 2010 are approximately 3-4 cm/yr in the direction of N70W at the three sites in the Kumano region, and approximately 2-4 cm/yr in the direction of N85-100W at the two sites in the Suruga region. The observed horizontal seafloor crustal deformations are consistent to the plate convergence along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, showing strain accumulation before the next major subduction earthquakes. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the captain and crews of R/Vs "Hokuto," Tokai University and "Asama," Mie Prefecture Fisheries Research Institute, Japan. This study has been promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japanese Government.

  1. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP): Rift Processes and Earthquake Hazards in the Salton Trough (Invited) (United States)

    Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Murphy, J. M.; Sickler, R. R.; Criley, C. J.; Goldman, M.; Catchings, R. D.; Ricketts, J. W.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Klemperer, S. L.


    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) and coordinated projects will acquire seismic data in and across the Salton Trough in southern California and northern Mexico, including the Coachella, Imperial, and Mexicali Valleys. These projects address both rifting processes at the northern end of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. In the central Salton Trough, North American lithosphere appears to have been rifted completely apart. Based primarily on a 1979 seismic refraction project, the 20-22 km thick crust is apparently composed entirely of new crust added by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. The new data will constrain the style of continental breakup, the role and mode of magmatism, the effects of rapid Colorado River sedimentation upon extension and magmatism, and the partitioning of oblique extension. The southernmost San Andreas Fault is considered at high risk of producing a large damaging earthquake, yet structures of the fault and adjacent basins are poorly constrained. To improve hazard models, SSIP will image the geometry of the San Andreas and Imperial Faults, structure of sedimentary basins in the Salton Trough, and three-dimensional seismic velocity of the crust and uppermost mantle. SSIP and collaborating projects have been funded by several different programs at NSF and the USGS. These projects include seven lines of land refraction and low-fold reflection data, airguns and OBS data in the Salton Sea, coordinated fieldwork for onshore-offshore and 3-D data, and a densely sampled line of broadband stations across the trough. Fieldwork is tentatively scheduled for 2010. Preliminary work in 2009 included calibration shots in the Imperial Valley that quantified strong ground motion and proved lack of harm to agricultural irrigation tile drains from explosive shots. Piggyback and complementary studies are encouraged.

  2. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.


    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  3. Factor Xa inhibition by rivaroxaban in the trough steady state can significantly reduce thrombin generation. (United States)

    Horinaka, Shigeo; Sugawara, Rie; Yonezawa, Yutaka; Ishimitsu, Toshihiko


    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate evidence of reduced thrombin generation at the trough plasma rivaroxaban concentration. A single-centre, prospective, nonrandomized, drug-intervention, self-controlled study was conducted in 51 anticoagulation therapy-naïve patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay. Partial thrombin time (PT), protein C activity, and protein S antigen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), D-dimer, thrombomodulin (TM), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels were also measured at the trough steady state after 4 weeks of rivaroxaban treatment and compared with baseline. Plasma concentrations obtained by the LC-MS/MS and anti-Xa assays were correlated (r = 0.841, P steady state was 23.6 ng ml -1 , at which F1 + 2, TAT and D-dimer had decreased from the baseline values (P steady state in the first to third quartile groups (+0.79 pg ml -1 , P = 0.048). By contrast, PAI-1, protein C activity, protein S antigen and TM remained within the normal range at the trough steady state. Residual plasma rivaroxaban at the trough steady state may explain the antithrombin effect of rivaroxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Evaluation of the shape of a parabolic trough solar collector with flat null-screens (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Peña-Conzuelo, Andrés.; Díaz-Uribe, José Rufino


    We present a method for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) with flat null-screens. We develop a custom algorithm to reconstruct the surface taking into account the differences between the normal vector of the true surface and the reference one. Also, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing controlled systematic errors such as misalignments of the null-screen or the CCD plane.

  5. Sensitive Analysis for the Efficiency of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Based on Orthogonal Experiment


    Xiaoyan Liu; Jing Huang; Qianjun Mao


    A multitude of the researches focus on the factors of the thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough solar collector, that is, the optical-thermal efficiency. However, it is limited to a single or double factors for available system. The aim of this paper is to investigate the multifactors effect on the system’s efficiency in cold climate region. Taking climatic performance into account, an average outlet temperature of LS-2 collector has been simulated successfully by coupling SolTrace softwar...

  6. Mesozoic evolution of the Valencia trough: Implications for the understanding of the Western Mediterranean (United States)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Roca, Eduard; Gorini, Christian; Blanpied, Christian


    The Western Mediterranean records a multi-stage tectonic evolution characterized by a complex succession of rifting to compressive episodes during the Cenozoic. The Valencia through was formed in this geodynamic framework and is classically interpreted as an aborted Tertiary rift related to back-arc extension. Notably, the Tertiary rifting is superimposed to the Jurassic opening of the Tethys basin, the early Cretaceous opening of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenees basins and the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary inversion of these basins (e.g. Iberian range, Catalan Coastal range). Since the last twenty years, many studies contributed to the understanding of the Tertiary history of this area, whereas the pre-Tertiary evolution of the Valencia trough remains poorly investigated. Therefore, we initiated a research project in the Valencia trough benefiting from the acquisition of high quality seismic surveys allowing a better imaging of the Mesozoic sequences. This PhD project aims to understand the mechanisms and the role of structural inheritance that controlled the evolution of the Valencia trough and its impact on the sedimentary infilling since the Mesozoic. The relation between the sedimentary infilling, subsidence and crustal thinning mechanisms during the Cenozoic are investigated aiming to unravel critical information on rifting processes. This study will be based on correlations between onshore and offshore observations. Structural and stratigraphic evolution will be defined on land and compared with seismic sections and well data at sea. Eventually, these data will enable us to propose coherent land-sea interpretations of the area, providing a better understanding of the tectono-stratigraphic context. Our poster show preliminary results obtained from fieldwork on the western margin of the Valencia trough coupled with seismic interpretations. Eventually, results of this study may lead to better constrain the kinematic reconstruction of the western Mediterranean

  7. Infliximab Dosing Strategies and Predicted Trough Exposure in Children with Crohn’s Disease (United States)

    Frymoyer, Adam; Piester, Travis L; Park, KT


    Objectives Standard infliximab maintenance dosing of 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks may be inadequate to consistently achieve sufficient drug exposure to minimize loss of response or treatment failure in pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to determine the predicted infliximab trough concentrations in children with CD during maintenance therapy and the percentage of patients achieving target trough concentration >3 μg/ml. Methods A Monte Carlo simulation analysis was constructed using a published population pharmacokinetic model based on data from 112 children in the REACH trial. We assessed maintenance dosing strategies of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg at dosing intervals of every 4, 6, and 8 weeks for children that differed by age, weight, albumin level, and concomitant immunomodulator therapy. Results Based on the index case of a 10 year old with CD receiving standard infliximab dosing with concomitant immunomodulator therapy, the median (IQR) simulated infliximab trough concentration at week 14 was 1.3 (0.5–2.7) μg/ml, and 2.4 (1.0–4.8) μg/ml for albumin levels of 3 and 4 g/dl, respectively. Among 1000 simulated children in the model, trough concentration >3 μg/ml at week 14 was achieved 21% and 41% of the time for albumin levels of 3 and 4 g/dl, respectively. Conclusions Standard infliximab maintenance dosing in children with CD is predicted to frequently result in inadequate exposure, especially when albumin levels are low. Optimized dosing strategies for individual patients are needed to achieve sufficient drug exposure during infliximab maintenance therapy. PMID:26890885

  8. Rheological considerations for the modelling of submarine sliding at Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Salmanidou, D. M.; Georgiopoulou, A.; Guillas, S.; Dias, F.


    Recent scientific research indicates that the Rockall Bank Slide Complex in the NE Atlantic Ocean has formed as the result of repetitive slope failures that can be distinguished in at least three major phases. These sliding episodes took place during and before the Last Glacial Maximum. This work attempts the modelling of each sliding episode with the incorporation of the landslide's rheological properties. The objective is to study the landslide kinematics and final deposition of each episode under a rheological framework that comes in agreement with the field observations. To do so in the present work, we use different types of rheological models to compute the total retarding stress and simulate submarine failure. The Bingham rheology and the frictional rheology are used to model the flow behavior. The scope of this approach is to understand the effect of the two classical laws in landslide kinematics. A rheological model that combines the two regimes is also used. To account for the hydrodynamic drag, the Voellmy model is employed. The results are validated against the field observations on the seabed of the Rockall Trough. The simulations show that for this particular case the Bingham rheology with a small or negligible basal friction produces the best results. The tsunamigenic potential of the episodes is also briefly examined.

  9. Cascade system using both trough system and dish system for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yanping; Arauzo, Inmaculada; Gao, Wei; Zou, Chongzhe


    Highlights: • A novel solar cascade system using both trough and dish collectors is proposed. • Heat rejected by the Stirling engines is collected by the condensed water. • The directions to increase the efficiency improvement has been pointed out • Influence of flow type of heating/cooling fluids of Stirling engines is considered. - Abstract: This paper represents a novel solar thermal cascade system using both trough and dish systems for power generation. An effective structure using the condensed fluid of Rankine cycle to cool the Stirling engines to use the heat released by Stirling engines was proposed. The cascade system model with different fluid circuits was developed. The models of some important components of the system, such as dish collector, trough collector and Stirling engine array, are presented with detail explanation in this paper. Corresponding stand-alone systems were also developed for comparison. Simulations were conducted with the models to find out efficiency difference between cascade system and corresponding stand-alone systems. The directions to increase the efficiency difference were also considered. Results show that the cascade system can achieve a higher efficiency with a high solar irradiance (>550 W/m 2 ). The flow type of fluids between heating and cooling Stirling engine array is also required to concern on designing a cascade system with Stirling engine array.

  10. Controlled-Source Seismic Imaging of Rift Processes and Earthquake Hazards in the Salton Trough (United States)

    Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.


    The NSF MARGINS program, the NSF EarthScope program, and the U.S. Geological Survey have funded a large seismic refraction and reflection survey of the Salton Trough in southern California and northern Mexico, including the Coachella, Imperial, and Mexicali Valleys. The purpose of this presentation is to communicate plans for the seismic project and encourage synergy with piggyback and complementary studies. Fieldwork is tentatively scheduled for January 2010. The goals of the project include both rifting processes at the northern end of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. In the central Salton Trough, North American lithosphere appears to have been rifted completely apart. The 20-22 km thick crust is apparently composed entirely of new crust added by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. The seismic survey will investigate the style of continental breakup, the role and mode of magmatism, the effects of rapid Colorado River sedimentation upon extension and magmatism, and the partitioning of oblique extension. The southernmost San Andreas Fault is considered at high risk of producing a large damaging earthquake, yet structure of the fault and adjacent basins are not currently well constrained. To improve hazard models, the seismic survey will image the structure of the San Andreas and Imperial Faults, structure of sedimentary basins in the Salton Trough, and three-dimensional seismic velocity of the crust and uppermost mantle.

  11. Use of deep seismic shooting to study graben-like troughs. [Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makalovskiy, V.V.; Silayev, V.A.


    In the Southeast Perm Oblast, in the zone of articulation of the Russian platform and the Cisural trough, in order to study the structure of the graben-like troughs together with deep drilling, well seismic exploration is used by the method of deep seismic shooting (DSS). The DSS method developed by the Kamskiy department of the VNIGNI consists of blasting in the well shaft and recording of the elastic fluctuations on the Earth's surface. The use of the DSS made it possible to pinpoint structural details of the graben-like trough, and to clarify that this is in essence a zone of fracturing, where the lowered blocks alternated with elevated, and to establish the location and amplitude of the tectonic disorders. High geological information content, low labor intensity and rapidity of obtaining the results make it possible to recommend the DSS together with prospecting and exploratory drilling to study complexly constructed objects in order to reduce the number of unproductive wells.

  12. Optical Tests on a Curve Fresnel Lens as Secondary Optics for Solar Troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fontani


    Full Text Available A curve Fresnel lens is developed as secondary concentrator for solar parabolic troughs to reduce the number of photovoltaic cells. Specific measurements and optical tests are used to evaluate the optical features of manufactured samples. The cylindrical Fresnel lens transforms the focal line, produced by the primary mirror, into a series of focal points. The execution of special laboratory tests on some secondary concentrator samples is discussed in detail, illustrating the methodologies tailored to the specific case. Focusing tests are performed, illuminating different areas of the lens with solar divergence light and acquiring images on the plane of the photocell using a CMOS camera. Concentration measurements are carried out to select the best performing samples of curve Fresnel lens. The insertion of the secondary optics within the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV trough doubles the solar concentration of the system. The mean concentration ratio is 1.73, 2.13, and 2.09 for the three tested lenses. The concentration ratio of the solar trough is 140 and approaches 300 after the introduction of the secondary lens.

  13. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.


    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  14. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.


    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  15. V-trough concentrator on a photovoltaic full tracking system in a hot desert climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, M.A.M.; Ghettas, A.; Sabry, M. [National Research Inst., of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt)


    A V-trough concentrator with a two-axis tracker system to increase the performance of photovoltaics was designed by the authors and installed on the roof-top of the building of the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics at Helwan in South Cairo. The V-trough concentrator system comprises two flat mirrors with dimensions 50 cm x 18 cm. They are fixed with the reflecting surfaces facing each other with a separation of about 11 cm, on a wooden table of 50 cm axis length. A sample of polycrystalline amorphous silicon cells were fixed into the system, and similar solar cells of each type were fixed separate to the system, to estimate the electrical gain. The measurements were performed daily at different air masses for one complete year. The temperature of the solar cells in and out of the system were measured for comparison. Also, measurements for beam and global solar radiation and other meteorological conditions were recorded. The optical losses of the system were analyzed and details of collectable energy calculations are presented. The energy gain from the isolated contribution of the V-trough concentrators is also evaluated. (Author)

  16. A common origin for ridge-and-trough terrain on icy satellites by sluggish lid convection (United States)

    Barr, Amy C.; Hammond, Noah P.


    Ridge-and-trough terrain is a common landform on outer Solar System icy satellites. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain, Europa's gray bands, Miranda's coronae, and several terrains on Enceladus. The conditions associated with the formation of each of these terrains are similar: heat flows of order tens to a hundred milliwatts per meter squared, and deformation rates of order 10-16-10-12 s-1. Our prior work shows that the conditions associated with the formation of these terrains on Ganymede and the south pole of Enceladus are consistent with vigorous solid-state ice convection in a shell with a weak surface. We show that sluggish lid convection, an intermediate regime between the isoviscous and stagnant lid regimes, can create the heat flow and deformation rates appropriate for ridge and trough formation on a number of satellites, regardless of the ice shell thickness. For convection to deform their surfaces, the ice shells must have yield stresses similar in magnitude to the daily tidal stresses. Tidal and convective stresses deform the surface, and the spatial pattern of tidal cracking controls the locations of ridge-and-trough terrain.

  17. MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T Sammour


    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

  18. Assessment of IRI-2012, NeQuick-2 and IRI-Plas 2015 models with observed equatorial ionization anomaly in Africa during 2009 sudden stratospheric warming event (United States)

    Bolaji, O. S.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Adewale, A. O.; Wu, Q.; Okoh, D.; Doherty, P. H.; Kaka, R. O.; Abbas, M.; Owolabi, C.; Jidele, P. A.


    In Africa, we assessed the performance of all the three options of International Reference Ionosphere 2012, IRI-2012 (i.e. IRI-2001, IRI-2001COR and IRI-NeQuick), NeQuick-2 and IRI-Plas 2015 models prior to and during 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event to predict equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest locations and their magnitudes using total electron content (TEC) from experimental records of Global Positioning System (GPS). We confirmed that the IRI-Plas 2015 that appeared as the best compared to all of the models as regard prediction of the EIA crest locations in the northern hemisphere of Africa is due to discontinuities in the GPS data between ∼8° N and 22° N. As regard the predictions of EIA crest magnitudes and the location of EIA crests in the southern hemisphere of Africa, they are not present in all the models. The NeQuick-2 model does not have the capability to predict either the EIA crest location in the northern or southern hemisphere. The SSW effect on the low latitude was able to modify a single EIA crest to pre-noon and post noon EIA crests in the northern hemisphere during the SSW peak phase and significantly reduced the GPS TEC magnitudes over the hemispheres as well. These SSW effects and delays of plasma transportation to higher latitudes in GPS TEC were absent in all the models. For future improvements of IRI-2012, NeQuick-2 and IRI-Plas 2015 models, SSW conditions should be included in order to characterize the effect of lower atmosphere on the ionosphere. The EIA trough modeling is only present in IRI-2001COR and IRI-2001NeQuick options. In the middle latitude, all the model could not predict the location of highest TEC magnitudes found at RBAY (Richardsbay, South Africa).

  19. Plasma tenofovir trough concentrations are associated with renal dysfunction in Japanese patients with HIV infection: a retrospective cohort study


    Kunimoto, Yusuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Manabu; Yamazaki, Kieko; Nakata, Hiromasa; Noda, Norimasa; Ishida, Tadao; Miyamoto, Atsushi


    Background Plasma tenofovir (TFV) trough concentrations may be relevant for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-induced renal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between plasma TFV trough concentrations and TDF-induced renal dysfunction in Japanese patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods A 48-week, retrospective cohort study was performed with Japanese patients with HIV infection who started a TDF-containing combination antiretro...

  20. Considerable variation of trough β-lactam concentrations in older adults hospitalized with infection—a prospective observational study


    Hatti, Malini; Solomonidi, Nikolitsa; Odenholt, Inga; Tham, Johan; Resman, Fredrik


    In older adults, few studies confirm that adequate concentrations of antibiotics are achieved using current dosage regimens of intravenous β-lactam antibiotics. Our objective was to investigate trough concentrations of cefotaxime, meropenem, and piperacillin in older adults hospitalized with infection. We included 102 patients above 70 years of age. Total trough antibiotic concentrations were measured and related to suggested target intervals. Information on antibiotic dose, patient character...

  1. On the CFD&HT of the flow around a parabolic trough solar collector under real working conditions


    Amine Hachicha, Ahmed; Rodríguez Pérez, Ivette María; Lehmkuhl Barba, Oriol; Oliva Llena, Asensio


    Parabolic trough solar collector is currently one of the most mature and prominent solar applications for production of electricity. These systems are usually located in open terrain where strong winds may occur and affect their stability and optical performance, as well as, the heat exchange between the solar receiver and the ambient air. In this context, a wind flow analysis around a parabolic trough solar collector under real working conditions is performed. A numerical aerodynamic and ...

  2. Lena Trough MORB: Trace Element and Isotopic Composition of a Very Slow Spreading Ridge (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Weis, D.; Snow, J. E.


    Extreme non-hotspot MORB compositions are less straightforward to explain than comparable OIB's, where all manner of enriched components may be derived from plume material. Here we report a new isotope and trace element study of dredged samples from the ultra-slow (7.5 mm/yr effective full-rate) Lena Trough rift in the Arctic Ocean and the western end of Gakkel Ridge (13mm/yr full rate). The few basalts found in Lena Trough are alkali-MORB with an extreme enrichment of incompatible trace elements, particularly alkalies and Ba (Ba/Th=350±50, Ba/Nb=17±1, Nb/U=69±, (La/Sm)PM=1.39±0.25) and by a garnet-source signature with (Dy/Yb)PM=1.22±0.06. The range of radiogenic isotopic ratios is 87Sr/86Sr=0.7036-0.7044, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51277-0.51230, 206Pb/204Pb=17.75-17.99, 207Pb/204Pb=15.41-15.44 and 208Pb/204Pb=37.54-37.79. In comparison, Western Gakkel Ridge MORB compositions are similar to N-MORB (Ba/Th=143±60, Ba/Nb=11±3, Nb/U=45±6, 87Sr/86Sr=0.7029-0.7030, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51307-0.51310, 206Pb/204Pb=17.97-18.08, 207Pb/204Pb=15.43-15.44, and 208Pb/204Pb=37.73-37.81). The Lena Trough high-precision MC-ICP-MS Pb data define linear Pb-Pb arrays extending to quite unradiogenic values. These arrays extend towards the more radiogenic values of some Gakkel MORBs, which show very limited variations on their own. Together with negative linear correlations between trace element ratios and Nd-Pb isotope systematics, we interpret these Pb linear arrays as reflecting mixing between a DMM component (similar to Gakkel Ridge MORB source) and a highly enriched component, with radiogenic Sr isotopes but low Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. The Lena Trough source contains residual garnet and is preferentially sampled by low degree partial melting. The source of the enriched component of the Lena Trough alkali MORB is interpreted to be olivine-free pyroxenite, taking into account the shallow pressure of partial melting, indicated by major elements. This is a clear indication of a "mantle vein

  3. Real-time dynamic analysis for complete loop of direct steam generation solar trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Su; Liu, Deyou; Chu, Yinghao; Chen, Xingying; Shen, Bingbing; Xu, Chang; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Pei


    Highlights: • A nonlinear distribution parameter dynamic model has been developed. • Real-time local heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient are adopted. • The dynamic behavior of the solar trough collector loop are simulated. • High-frequency chattering of outlet fluid flow are analyzed and modeled. • Irradiance disturbance at subcooled water region generates larger influence. - Abstract: Direct steam generation is a potential approach to further reduce the levelized electricity cost of solar trough. Dynamic modeling of the collector loop is essential for operation and control of direct steam generation solar trough. However, the dynamic behavior of fluid based on direct steam generation is complex because of the two-phase flow in the pipeline. In this work, a nonlinear distribution parameter model has been developed to model the dynamic behaviors of direct steam generation parabolic trough collector loops under either full or partial solar irradiance disturbance. Compared with available dynamic model, the proposed model possesses two advantages: (1) real-time local values of heat transfer coefficient and friction resistance coefficient, and (2) considering of the complete loop of collectors, including subcooled water region, two-phase flow region and superheated steam region. The proposed model has shown superior performance, particularly in case of sensitivity study of fluid parameters when the pipe is partially shaded. The proposed model has been validated using experimental data from Solar Thermal Energy Laboratory of University of New South Wales, with an outlet fluid temperature relative error of only 1.91%. The validation results show that: (1) The proposed model successfully outperforms two reference models in predicting the behavior of direct steam generation solar trough. (2) The model theoretically predicts that, during solar irradiance disturbance, the discontinuities of fluid physical property parameters and the moving back and

  4. Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Vivier, Frédéric; Park, Young-Hyang; Sekma, Hela; Le Sommer, Julien


    The Kerguelen Plateau is a major topographic obstacle to the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). While approximately two-third of the ACC transport is diverted to the North, most of the remaining flow engulfs in the Fawn Trough, the only deep passage across the plateau. As part of the TRACK (TRansport ACross the Kerguelen plateau) project, three mooring lines of current meters were deployed in the Fawn Trough for one year in February 2009, underneath ground-track 94 of the Jason-2 satellite altimeter. Full depth CTD-LADCP casts carried out during the deployment cruise were previously analyzed to provide a comprehensive description of the regional circulation, featuring in particular a volume transport of ~43 Sv across the Fawn Trough (Park et al., 2009). Here we present a time series of the transport in the Fawn Trough estimated from current meter observations, featuring a mean eastward transport of 34 Sv (possibly biased low by at most 5 Sv) and a root mean squared variability of 6 Sv, consistent with LADCP estimates (43 Sv in February 2009 and 38 Sv in January 2010). In addition, we analyze to what extent the transport can be directly monitored from along-track satellite altimeter data, which would enable study of the variability of the Fawn Trough Current from a now 20-year long archive. The ability to reconstruct the flow from a limited set of moored instruments as well as from altimeter-derived surface geostrophic velocity is further assessed from synthetic data extracted from a high-resolution peri-Antarctic simulation. While a canonical method to derive transport from altimetry, previously applied to the Malvinas Current, gives here unsatisfactory comparisons with in situ estimates, an ad hoc approach using only the two northernmost mooring lines yields an estimate well correlated (~0.8) with in situ transport at subseasonal time scales during the one year period of observations. At interannual time scales, however, both methods provide

  5. Modelling the Evolution of a Passive Margin: Application to the Rockall Trough (United States)

    Smithells, R. A.; Egan, S.; Clarke, S.; Kimbell, G.; Johnson, H.


    The Rockall Trough is one of the largest, relatively unexplored basins forming the North-East Atlantic passive margin and many aspects regarding the evolution of this basin remain unresolved. In part, this is due to the Paleocene lavas associated with the opening of the North Atlantic Margin and the Icelandic Hotspot which inhibit high resolution imaging of the underlying sediments and basement structure. The aim of this study is to apply numerical, lithosphere-scale models to the Rockall Trough in order to gain insights into the complex evolution of this passive margin basin. Model cross-sections of the basin have been produced in order to determine the interplay of geological, rheological and geodynamic processes that have controlled the evolution of the Rockall Basin. These models are used to test different hypotheses regarding the timing and nature of extensional and compressional events as well as the influence of thermal anomalies, and spatial and temporal variations in lithospheric rheology. Initial results demonstrate the importance of accurate controls on palaeobathymetry and the need to realistically account for varying basin fill sequences during different stages of the Rockall Trough's evolution. An analysis of available subsurface data has been undertaken to quantify the amount of stretching that has occurred during the evolution of the Rockall Trough. Additionally, analyses of composite well data have been used to generate subsidence curves for the basin, which highlight key episodes of anomalous subsidence. The main event highlighted by the subsidence curves is a major deepening event which occurred during the Eocene Epoch. These curves are compared to modelled subsidence curves in order to test the validity of the structural and geodynamic scenarios that have been modelled. Further validation of the model results has been carried out by comparing regional gravitational anomaly data with theoretical gravity anomalies calculated from the model

  6. Exploring Unconventional Hydrocarbons in the Makó Trough, Pannonian basin, Hungary: Results and Challenges (United States)

    Horvath, Anita; Bada, Gabor; Szafian, Peter; Sztano, Orsolya; Law, Ben; Wallis, Rod


    The latest phase exploration in the Makó Trough, which commenced a few years ago, has focused on the utilization of unconventional hydrocarbons. Accumulations are regarded as "unconventional" when they cannot be produced economically except by means of some sort of stimulation, usually hydraulic fracturing. The model we have developed for the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential indicates a significant gas accumulation in the area of the Makó Trough. The tally of the distinctive attributes of the hydrocarbon system and the combined analysis of the available geological data led to the conclusion that the Makó Trough represents an area of active basin-centered gas accumulation (BCGA), with very significant perspective reserves. In a BCGA, hydrocarbons do not accumulate conventionally, in structural or stratigraphic traps, but rather in cells. Due to the geological setting of the Makó Trough, the hydrocarbon cell here forms a relatively continuous zone marked by considerable internal lithological and petrophysical variability. The most prolific parts, called sweet spots, possess a reservoir potential higher than the average. The identification of these sweet spots constitutes one of the most important, and quite possibly the most challenging task of the entire exploration project. The hemipelagic Endrőd Formation, which acts as the source rock, contains organic-rich marls in a depth delimited by the 170-230 °C isotherms. These marls constitute the still active hydrocarbon "kitchen" of the BCGA in the Makó Trough. The top and bottom boundaries of the cell essentially coincide with the turbidites of the Szolnok Formation and the top of the pre-Neogene basement, respectively. In light of the fact that pressure, temperature, and maturity tests have produced rather similar results in a number of wells in the area, we have reason to believe that the extension of the Makó Trough's BCGA is of regional dimensions (>1000 km2). The thickness and lateral extension of

  7. Study On Seismic Identification And Distribution Characters Of Marine Gas Hydrate In Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Tang, Y.


    The paper studies the formation processes and distribution of marine gas hydrate, through systematically and thoroughly analyzing the geological setting, gas sources and distribution features of the most marine gas hydrate deposits around the world. Based on study of the geologic features in Okinawa Trough and adjacent area, it is showed that there exist favorable geological conditions for the formation of gas hydrate, and the seismic indicator -BSR has also been identified from multi-channel digit seismic data by re-processing and analyzing. This shows that Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area may distribute a mass of gas hydrate sedimentary deposit. Then the paper discusses the prospect of the gas hydrate resource in Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea area, based on the calculating of the hydrate stability zone thickness. Main conclusions of the paper can be summed up as follows: Based on the systematically comparative analysis of the marine gas hydrate deposits in different marine gas hydrate accumulate belts, the paper summarizes the different geologic formation processes and characters of the gas hydrate. And the importance of the continuous supplementation of the gas source, the transporting and accumulating of the gaseous fluid during the formation processes of the gas hydrate, and the preservation conditions of the gas hydrate deposit are discussed. It is thought that the Okinawa Trough (especially the west slope of the Trough) has the favorable conditions for gas hydrate through the analysis of its geologic features. The geologic features of Okinawa Trough, such as water depth, low temperature of bottom water, very thick sediments with high organic matter content, a large amount of gas from deep parts induced by the upward of the high temperature mantle flow under the Trough, very developed fracture system, and lots of pore space in the under-compacted sediment induced by the rapid sedimentation-are beneficial to form gas hydrate. This provided the advantaged

  8. X-ray Ne/O Ratio in Cataclysmic Variables (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Rana, V.; Singh, K.; Girish, V.; Barrett, P.


    The Ne/O ratio has recently become a topic of considerable debate given the difficulties and discrepancies in recent measures of the Ne abundance in the Sun. We describe the results of an analysis of the permitted branches of the X-ray triplet transitions of Ne and O using the available spectra from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's High Energy Transmission Grating observations of cataclysmic variables. We compare our results with those obtained from the Sun and nearby stars.

  9. The hyperfine field on 19Ne in Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, B.; Johansson, K.; Lidbjoerk, P.; Lindgren, B.; Bedi, S.


    The hyperfine field on 19 Ne in iron was measured with the TDPAD method. At 77 K the 19 Ne hyperfine field in iron was found to be -4.48(7) T. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine field in iron was studied between 77 K and 650 K. It was not possible to observe any hyperfine field on 19 Ne in nickel, using the same method. (author)

  10. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.


    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  11. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  12. Lääne-Viru metskonnad osalevad pilootprojektis / Eva Klaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaas, Eva, 1977-


    Riigimetsa majandamise keskuse Kirde regioonis alustati pilootprojektiga, mis seitsme metskonna territooriumil lahutab metsakasutuse ja -kasvatuse. Projektis osalevad Lääne-Virumaalt Triigi, Tudu ja Paasvere metskond

  13. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/L Associated With Increased Attainment of an AUC/MIC ≥ 400 in Patients With Presumed MRSA Infection? (United States)

    Hale, Cory M; Seabury, Robert W; Steele, Jeffrey M; Darko, William; Miller, Christopher D


    To determine whether there is an association between higher vancomycin trough concentrations and attainment of a calculated area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥400. A retrospective analysis was conducted among vancomycin-treated adult patients with a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) culture. Attainment of a calculated AUC/MIC ≥400 was compared between patients with troughs in the reference range of 15 to 20 mg/L and those with troughs in the following ranges: 20 mg/L. Nephrotoxicity was assessed as a secondary outcome based on corrected average vancomycin troughs over 10 days of treatment. Overall, 226 patients were reviewed and 100 included. Relative to troughs ≥10, patients with vancomycin troughs 20 mg/L when compared to patients with troughs of 15 to 20 mg/L. The mean corrected average vancomycin trough was higher in patients developing nephrotoxicity compared to those who did not (19.5 vs 14.5 mg/L, P vancomycin serum trough concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/L did not result in an increased attainment of the AUC/MIC target relative to troughs of 10 to 14.9 mg/L but may increase nephrotoxicity risk.

  14. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.


    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  15. Trough concentration of voriconazole and its relationship with efficacy and safety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Wang, Tiansheng; Falcione, Bonnie A; Olsen, Keith M; Chen, Ken; Tang, Huilin; Hui, John; Zhai, Suodi


    The optimum trough concentration of voriconazole for clinical response and safety is controversial. The objective of this review was to determine the optimum trough concentration of voriconazole and evaluate its relationship with efficacy and safety. MEDLINE, EMBASE,, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese literature databases were searched. Observational studies that compared clinical outcomes below and above the trough concentration cut-off value were included. We set the trough concentration cut-off value for efficacy as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/L and for safety as 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 mg/L. The efficacy outcomes were invasive fungal infection-related mortality, all-cause mortality, rate of successful treatment and rate of prophylaxis failure. The safety outcomes included incidents of hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and visual disorders. A total of 21 studies involving 1158 patients were included. Compared with voriconazole trough concentrations of >0.5 mg/L, levels of 3.0, >4.0, >5.5 and >6.0 mg/L. The incidence of neurotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >4.0 and >5.5 mg/L. A voriconazole level of 0.5 mg/L should be considered the lower threshold associated with efficacy. A trough concentration >3.0 mg/L is associated with increased hepatotoxicity, particularly for the Asian population, and >4.0 mg/L is associated with increased neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  16. Serum cystatin C predicts vancomycin trough levels better than serum creatinine in hospitalized patients: a cohort study. (United States)

    Frazee, Erin N; Rule, Andrew D; Herrmann, Sandra M; Kashani, Kianoush B; Leung, Nelson; Virk, Abinash; Voskoboev, Nikolay; Lieske, John C


    Serum cystatin C can improve glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation over creatinine alone, but whether this translates into clinically relevant improvements in drug dosing is unclear. This prospective cohort study enrolled adults receiving scheduled intravenous vancomycin while hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in 2012. Vancomycin dosing was based on weight, serum creatinine with the Cockcroft-Gault equation, and clinical judgment. Cystatin C was later assayed from the stored serum used for the creatinine-based dosing. Vancomycin trough prediction models were developed by using factors available at therapy initiation. Residuals from each model were used to predict the proportion of patients who would have achieved the target trough with the model compared with that observed with usual care. Of 173 patients enrolled, only 35 (20%) had a trough vancomycin level within their target range (10 to 15 mg/L or 15 to 20 mg/L). Cystatin C-inclusive models better predicted vancomycin troughs than models based upon serum creatinine alone, although both were an improvement over usual care. The optimal model used estimated GFR by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaborative (CKD-EPI) creatinine-cystatin C equation (R(2) = 0.580). This model is expected to yield 54% (95% confidence interval 45% to 61%) target trough attainment (P creatinine clearance yielded poor trough achievement. The developed dosing model with estimated GFR from CKD-EPIcreatinine-cystatin C could yield a 2.5-fold increase in target trough achievement compared with current clinical practice. Although this study is promising, prospective validation of this or similar cystatin C-inclusive dosing models is warranted.

  17. Interaction of Kuroshio Current with Global Oceanic and Atmospheric Circulations: Evidences of Grain Size from Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Wang, J.; Li, A.; Xu, K.; Huang, J.


    Okinawa Trough is an ideal place for the study of paleoceanography and paleoenvironment changes. However, the provenances of the sediments and paleoenvironment evolution of the Okinawa Trough have still not been settled yet. Based on grain size, clay minerals and AMS 14C data of the Core OKI03, the provenances and paleoenvironemnt evolution in the middle Okinawa Trough during the last 8 ka were studied. The results indicate that terrigenous sediments deposited in the middle Okinawa Trough were mainly from Yangtze River and Taiwanese rivers since 8 ka. Kuroshio Current (KC), a Western Pacific Ocean boundary current, flows into Okinawa Trough by eastern Taiwan Island, and influences the sediments delivery and distribution within the trough, and also impact the regional and local marine environment in adjacent seas. Statistics study of high resolution grain size in the trough recognizes a millennial-scale oscillation (center around 1800 yr) and a centennial-scale oscillation (center around 512 yr) for KC evolution since last 8 ka. The millennial-scale oscillation is probably related to the North Atlantic Deep Water production with 1400-yr time lag, via the mixing upwelling and impacts on the sea surface temperature (SST) in equatorial Pacific. Meanwhile, the centennial-scale variation possibly corresponds to the solar irradiation with a 240-yr time uncertainty, through the SST change. KC possible influences the climate and North Atlantic Deep Water formation by transferring heat to the atmosphere in high latitude of Pacific Ocean, and also interacts with the thermohaline circulation by transferring heat to Indian Ocean through North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  18. Thermal and chemical variations of the Nigerian Benue trough lead-zinc-barite-fluorite deposits (United States)

    Ogundipe, Ibukun Emmanuel


    The Benue trough is an intra-continental rift initiated in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lead-zinc-barite-fluorite mineralization occurs along the 600 km axis of the trough in three discrete sub-basins which coincide with the lower, middle and upper mineral districts of the Benue Valley. Lithologically these sub-basins are dominated by black carbonaceous shale in the Lower Benue, platform carbonates in the Middle Benue and sandstones in the Upper Benue. Micro-thermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in sphalerite, fluorite, barite and quartz have shown that each mineral district has its own unique thermal and chemical imprint. For example, the temperature can be bracketed between 109 °C and 160 °C for lower Benue, 89 °C-144 °C for the Middle Benue and 176 °C-254 °C for the Upper Benue. Chemical differentiation also exists between each mineral district with the Lower Benue having 22 wt % equivalent NaCl while the Middle and Upper Benue have 18 and 16 wt % equivalent NaCl respectively. This study shows that inter-district thermal and chemical variations exist between the ore-stage sulfide and post-sulfide gangue minerals of the entire Benue Valley. Similarly, intra-district thermal and chemical variations have also been observed among all the paragenetic minerals of each district. The thermal variations may be as a result of variations in the geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting from one district to the other. The variations in the chemistry between the Lower Benue and the Upper Benue paragenic minerals may be as a result of the distinct lithological differences across the Benue Trough.

  19. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project: Investigating Earthquake Hazards in the Salton Trough, Southern California (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Sickler, R. R.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Rose, E. J.; Murphy, J. M.; Butcher, L. A.; Cotton, J. A.; Criley, C. J.; Croker, D. S.; Emmons, I.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gardner, M. A.; Jensen, E. G.; McClearn, R.; Loughran, C. L.; Slayday-Criley, C. J.; Svitek, J. F.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Skinner, S. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Kent, G.; Kell, A. M.; Harder, S. H.


    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a collaborative effort between academia and the U.S. Geological Survey to provide detailed, subsurface 3-D images of the Salton Trough of southern California and northern Mexico. From both active- and passive-source seismic data that were acquired both onshore and offshore (Salton Sea), the resulting images will provide insights into earthquake hazards, rift processes, and rift-transform interaction at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. The southernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) is considered to be at high-risk of producing a large damaging earthquake, yet the structure of this and other regional faults and that of adjacent sedimentary basins is not currently well understood. Seismic data were acquired from 2 to 18 March 2011. One hundred and twenty-six borehole explosions (10-1400 kg yield) were detonated along seven profiles in the Salton Trough region, extending from area of Palm Springs, California, to the southwestern tip of Arizona. Airguns (1500 and 3500 cc) were fired along two profiles in the Salton Sea and at points in a 2-D array in the southern Salton Sea. Approximately 2800 seismometers were deployed at over 4200 locations throughout the Salton Trough region, and 48 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed at 78 locations beneath the Salton Sea. Many of the onshore explosions were energetic enough to be recorded and located by the Southern California Seismograph Network. The geometry of the SAF has important implications for energy radiation in the next major rupture. Prior potential field, seismicity, and InSAR data indicate that the SAF may dip moderately to the northeast from the Salton Sea to Cajon Pass in the Transverse Ranges. Much of SSIP was designed to test models of this geometry.

  20. LCOE reduction potential of parabolic trough and solar tower CSP technology until 2025 (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Hennecke, Klaus; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), with an installed capacity of 4.9 GW by 2015, is a young technology compared to other renewable power generation technologies. A limited number of plants and installed capacity in a small challenging market environment make reliable and transparent cost data for CSP difficult to obtain. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the DLR German Aerospace Center gathered and evaluated available cost data from various sources for this publication in order to yield transparent, reliable and up-to-date cost data for a set of reference parabolic trough and solar tower plants in the year 2015 [1]. Each component of the power plant is analyzed for future technical innovations and cost reduction potential based on current R&D activities, ongoing commercial developments and growth in market scale. The derived levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 2015 and 2025 are finally contrasted with published power purchase agreements (PPA) of the NOOR II+III power plants in Morocco. At 7.5% weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and 25 years economic life time, the levelized costs of electricity for plants with 7.5 (trough) respectively 9 (tower) full-load hours thermal storage capacity decrease from 14-15 -ct/kWh today to 9-10 -ct/kWh by 2025 for both technologies at direct normal irradiation of 2500 kWh/(m².a). The capacity factor increases from 41.1% to 44.6% for troughs and from 45.5% to 49.0% for towers. Financing conditions are a major cost driver and offer potential for further cost reduction with the maturity of the technology and low interest rates (6-7 - ct/kWh for 2% WACC at 2500 kWh/(m2.a) in 2025).

  1. Multi-Scale Peak and Trough Detection Optimised for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Neuroscience Data. (United States)

    Bishop, Steven M; Ercole, Ari


    The reliable detection of peaks and troughs in physiological signals is essential to many investigative techniques in medicine and computational biology. Analysis of the intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform is a particular challenge due to multi-scale features, a changing morphology over time and signal-to-noise limitations. Here we present an efficient peak and trough detection algorithm that extends the scalogram approach of Scholkmann et al., and results in greatly improved algorithm runtime performance. Our improved algorithm (modified Scholkmann) was developed and analysed in MATLAB R2015b. Synthesised waveforms (periodic, quasi-periodic and chirp sinusoids) were degraded with white Gaussian noise to achieve signal-to-noise ratios down to 5 dB and were used to compare the performance of the original Scholkmann and modified Scholkmann algorithms. The modified Scholkmann algorithm has false-positive (0%) and false-negative (0%) detection rates identical to the original Scholkmann when applied to our test suite. Actual compute time for a 200-run Monte Carlo simulation over a multicomponent noisy test signal was 40.96 ± 0.020 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the original Scholkmann and 1.81 ± 0.003 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the modified Scholkmann, demonstrating the expected improvement in runtime complexity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. The accurate interpretation of waveform data to identify peaks and troughs is crucial in signal parameterisation, feature extraction and waveform identification tasks. Modification of a standard scalogram technique has produced a robust algorithm with linear computational complexity that is particularly suited to the challenges presented by large, noisy physiological datasets. The algorithm is optimised through a single parameter and can identify sub-waveform features with minimal additional overhead, and is easily adapted to run in real time on commodity hardware.

  2. Towards to Resilience Science -Research on the Nankai trough seismogenic zone- (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Fujisawa, Kazuhito; Tokozakura, Eiji


    For the last few decades, many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis occurred in the world. Based on lessons learnt from 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis, 2010 Chilean Earthquake/Tsunami and 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami, we recognized the importance of real time monitoring on Earthquakes and Tsunamis for disaster mitigation. Recently, Kumamoto Earthquake occurred in 2006. This destructive Earthquake indicated that multi strong motions including pre shock and main shock generated severe earthquake damages buildings. Furthermore, we recognize recovers/ revivals are very important and difficult. In Tohoku area damaged by large tsunamis, recovers/revivals have been under progressing after over 5 years passed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Therefore, we have to prepare the pre plan before next destructive disasters such as the Nankai trough mega thrust earthquake. As one of disaster countermeasures, we would like to propose that Disaster Mitigation Science. This disaster mitigation science is including engineering, science, medicine and social science such as sociology, informatics, law, literature, art, psychology etc. For Urgent evacuations, there are some kinds of real time monitoring system such as Dart buoy and ocean floor network. Especially, the real time monitoring system using multi kinds of sensors such as the accelerometer, broadband seismometer, pressure gauge, difference pressure gauge, hydrophone and thermometer is indispensable for Earthquakes/ Tsunamis monitoring. Furthermore, using multi kind of sensors, we can analyze and estimate broadband crustal activities around mega thrust earthquake seismogenic zones. Therefore, we deployed DONET1 and DONET2 which are dense ocean floor networks around the Nankai trough Southwestern Japan. We will explain about Resilience Science and real time monitoring systems around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone.

  3. Object-oriented simulation model of a parabolic trough solar collector: Static and dynamic validation (United States)

    Ubieta, Eduardo; Hoyo, Itzal del; Valenzuela, Loreto; Lopez-Martín, Rafael; Peña, Víctor de la; López, Susana


    A simulation model of a parabolic-trough solar collector developed in Modelica® language is calibrated and validated. The calibration is performed in order to approximate the behavior of the solar collector model to a real one due to the uncertainty in some of the system parameters, i.e. measured data is used during the calibration process. Afterwards, the validation of this calibrated model is done. During the validation, the results obtained from the model are compared to the ones obtained during real operation in a collector from the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA).

  4. Prospecting for a Blind Geothermal System Utilizing Geologic and Geophysical Data, Seven Troughs Range, Northwestern Nevada (United States)

    Forson, Corina

    To aid in the discovery and evaluation of blind resources, it is important to utilize geologic, geophysical, and geochemical techniques to find the required elements (e.g., heat source, fluid to transport the heat, and permeability in a reservoir) for geothermal energy production. Based on a regional low resistivity anomaly discovered through a reconnaissance magnetotelluric (MT) survey, detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and a 2 m temperature survey were conducted to delineate the most likely areas for blind geothermal activity in the Seven Troughs Range, Nevada. The Seven Troughs Range resides in the northwestern Basin and Range province 190 km northeast of Reno and 50 km northwest of Lovelock in western Nevada. There is no known geothermal system in the area. Mesozoic metasedimentary strata and intrusions dominate the northern and southern parts of the range but are nonconformably overlain by a thick sequence (~ 1.5 km) of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and Quaternary sediments in the central part of the range. The southern part of the range consists of a basement horst block bounded by two major range-front faults, with Holocene fault scarps marking the more prominent fault on the east side of the range. In contrast, several gently to moderately west-tilted fault blocks, with good exposures of the Tertiary volcanic strata and bounded by a series of steeply east-dipping normal faults, characterize the central part of the range. Kinematic analysis of faults in the range and regional relations indicate a west-northwest-trending extension direction. Accordingly, slip and dilation tendency analyses suggest that north-northeast striking faults are the most favorably oriented for reactivation and fluid flow under the current stress field. Two areas in the Seven Troughs Range have a favorable structural setting for generating permeability and channeling geothermal fluids to the near surface: 1) A major right step in the range

  5. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.


    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  6. Manic-Like Psychosis Associated with Elevated Trough Tacrolimus Blood Concentrations 17 Years after Kidney Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bersani


    Full Text Available Several neurological side effects induced by tacrolimus are described in the scientific literature, ranging from mild neurological symptoms to delirium and psychosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history who suddenly manifested manic-like psychosis associated with elevated trough tacrolimus blood concentrations 17 years after kidney transplant. The use of antipsychotics may improve the severity of symptoms; but in order to obtain a complete remission, the reduction in the dose of tacrolimus, or its replacement with alternative immunosuppressant therapies, is recommended.

  7. Simultaneous Sea-Level Oscillations in Japanese Bays Induced by the Tsunami of Nankai-Trough Earthquake (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Furumura, T.; Imamura, F.; Yamashita, K.; Sugawara, D.


    In this study, we investigate the response of bays to the tsunami of Nankai-trough earthquake based on tsunami simulations and demonstrate the possibility that sea-level oscillation of each bay, which is induced by an incident tsunami, interacts with those of other bays. Several major cities in Japan, including the capital, are located in the bays near the Nankai trough and it is assumed that these cities will be largely affected by the tsunamis caused by recurring large earthquakes at the trough. Therefore, it is very important for these populated cities to understand the mechanism and properties of the tsunami-induced oscillations that continue for a long time in bays to draw up evacuation plans. To investigate the response of bays for various tsunamis that may occur in the Nankai trough area, we distributed the tsunami sources that have the form of a 2-D Gaussian function around the Nankai trough. From simulations with these sources, it was found that strong oscillations of bay water occur when the source is located in the bay itself or when strong oscillations occur in other bays. For example, when the Tosa bay oscillates, the Tokyo bay that is 600 km away from the Tosa bay also oscillates. Among the bays around the Nankai trough, the Suruga bay, the deepest bay in Japan with a 2500-km depth, oscillates more strongly than other bays for most cases. To check the influence of the strong oscillations in the Suruga bay on other bays, we conducted tsunami simulations using a modified topography model in which the Suruga bay is artificially landfilled. As a consequence, the strength of oscillations in the adjacent bays are reduced by 20-30%, suggesting the large influence of the distinguished oscillation of the Suruga bay on these bays. We finally conducted tsunami simulations using the eleven Nankai-trough earthquake scenarios of the Central Disaster Prevention Council (CDPC) of Japan as tsunami sources, and the mutual relation regarding the strengths of

  8. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Bahaidarah


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  9. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults. (United States)

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y


    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  10. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough (United States)

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine


    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  11. Methane hydrate reservoir model around the eastern Nankai trough area offshore Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Shimoda, N.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Technology Research and Development


    This paper described a modelling study conducted to characterize gas hydrates in the eastern Nankai trough region near the coast of Japan. Two drilling campaigns were conducted in the region, and a total of 39 boreholes were drilled to obtain logging data. Data from exploratory wells drilled in the region were also presented. Methane hydrate-concentrated zones were delineated using seismic sequence analysis and 3-D seismic surveys. Methane hydrate-bearing sediments corresponded with turbidite sands using logging and coring data. A rock physics model was developed using data obtained from the analyses. The study showed that methane hydrate bearing-sediments near the eastern Nankai trough area are heterogenous and both vertically and horizontally complex, as the sediments were composed of turbidite sands with channel-levee and lobe systems. Sandy intervals had higher levels of methane hydrates than silty or muddy intervals. The reservoirs were divided into 3 distinct types: (1) low-saturation; (2) discontinuous high-saturation; and (3) continuous high-saturation. The reservoirs were delineated by selecting the bottom simulating reflector (BSM) as the top of the hydrate-bearing sediments for the turbidite channel-levee or lobe systems. The hydrate rock physics model was used to develop the matrix support model from the relationship between P and S wave velocities and methane hydrate saturation. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  12. 2D multi-component survey over methane hydrate deposits in the Nankai Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.; Asakawa, E.; Allawati, H. [JGI Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Shimoda, N. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center


    A 2D real-time seismic cable system (RSCS) survey was conducted near the edge of the Nankai Trough offshore Japan in December 2006. The objectives were to obtain high quality P-wave seismic sections and S-wave characteristics of a methane hydrate deposit in the Nankai Trough. C-waves (PS converted waves) with multicomponent sensors were used to delineate the elastic properties. The 3 component data was acquired on the sea bed over 2 well locations and part of a conventional streamer 3D survey. Of the 3 receiver lines, the first intersected the 4 well locations with 4 deployments of RSCS, while the second and third lines crossed the first line at each well location with 1 and 2 deployments. A sea-surface airgun system was used as a source with a spacing of 25 m. P-wave OBS pre-stack migration was used to image the vertical component data. C-Wave OBS pre-stack migration was used to image the in-line horizontal component data. Amplitude anomalies at the BSR level were detected in the C-wave sections, which indicates S-wave anomaly. The authors suggested that this information may be useful in estimating the rock physics model of the methane hydrates in this area. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Shifting sources and transport paths for the late Quaternary Escanaba Trough sediment fill (northeast Pacific) (United States)

    Zuffa, G.G.; De Rosa, R.; Normark, W.R.


    Escanaba Trough, which forms the southernmost part of the axial valley of the actively spreading Gorda Ridge, is filled with several hundred meters of sediment of presumed late Quaternary age. Surficial sediment samples from gravity cores, deeper samples (as much as 390 m) from Site 35 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (Leg 5), and the acoustic character of the sediment fill observed on seismic-reflection profiles indicate that much of the sediment fill is of turbidite origin. Gross composition and heavy- mineral analyses of sand samples show that two distinct petrofacies comprise the sediment fill. The lower part of the fill was derived primarily from the Klamath River source of northern California while the younger fill, including the surficial sand beds, are from the Columbia River drainage much farther north. The Escanaba Trough sediment provides an opportunity to evaluate concepts for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions that are based on facies analysis and compositional and textural data for the volcanic components because both intrabasinal and extrabasinal sources are present as well as coeval (neovolcanic) and non coeval (paleovolcanic) sourcre This study of a modern basin shows, that although the sediment sources could be identified, it was useful to have some knowledge of the sediment pathway(s), the effects of diagenesis, and the possible effects of sediment sorting as a result of long transport distances from the source area for some components. Application of these same techniques to ancient deposits without benefit of the additional parameters will face limitations.

  14. Harmonization of standards for parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; Palacin, Luis G.; Leon, Javier; Fischer, Stephan; Bohren, Andreas


    The technology of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is used widely in concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants worldwide. However this type of large-size collectors cannot be officially tested by an accredited laboratory and certified by an accredited certification body so far, as there is no standard adapted to its particularity, and the current published standard for solar thermal collectors are not completely applicable to them. Recently some standardization committees have been working on this technology. This paper aims to give a summary of the standardized testing methodology of large-size PTC for CSP plants, giving the physical model chosen for modeling the thermal performance of the collector in the new revision of standard ISO 9806 and the points still to be improved in the standard draft IEC 62862-3-2. In this paper, a summary of the testing validation performed on one parabolic trough collector installed in one of the test facilities at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) with this new model is also presented.

  15. A model of the perceptual asymmetry between peaks and troughs of frequency modulation. (United States)

    de Cheveigné, A


    Pitch discrimination at peaks of frequency modulation is better than at troughs [L. Demany and K. I. McAnally, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 706-715 (1989)]. A similar asymmetry emerges within a time-domain pitch perception model based on autocorrelation. The model requires the following assumptions: (a) The neural discharge patterns must be temporally sharpened to a single narrow pulse per period (possibly by neural convergence within the cochlear nucleus). (b) Autocorrelation must be implemented as a cross correlation between the neural pulse train and a delayed pulse train convolved with a short kernel function. This kernel function must be asymmetric in time. (c) Pitch discrimination must rely on higher-order modes of the autocorrelation function. This particular implementation of the autocorrelation model produces modes that are sharper for peaks than for troughs, and thus accounts for the pitch discrimination asymmetry observed experimentally. As a by-product it can account for "hyperacute" discrimination observed at peaks of triangular modulation.

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Xu


    Full Text Available Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC. The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  17. NanTroSEIZE: The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Tobin


    Full Text Available The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE will, for the fi rst time ever, attempt to drill into, sample, and instrument the seismogenic portion of a plate-boundary fault or megathrust within a subduction zone. Access to the interior of active faults where in situ processes can be monitored and fresh fault zone materials can be sampled is of fundamental importance to the understanding of earthquake mechanics. As the December 2004 Sumatraearthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami so tragically demonstrated,large subduction earthquakes represent one of the greatest natural hazards on the planet. Accordingly, drilling into and instrumenting an active interplate seismogenic zone is a very high priority in the IODP Initial Science Plan (2001. Through a decade-long series of national and international workshops, a consensus emerged that the Nankai Trough is an ideal place to attempt drilling and monitoring of the seismogenic plate interface. The fi rst phase of NanTroSEIZE drilling operations has now been scheduled for the late summer of 2007. It involves parallel deployment of both the new U.S. Scientifi c Ocean Drilling Vessel (SODV, this volume and the riser drilling vessel Chikyu.

  18. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.


    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  19. Sensitive Analysis for the Efficiency of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Based on Orthogonal Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu


    Full Text Available A multitude of the researches focus on the factors of the thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough solar collector, that is, the optical-thermal efficiency. However, it is limited to a single or double factors for available system. The aim of this paper is to investigate the multifactors effect on the system’s efficiency in cold climate region. Taking climatic performance into account, an average outlet temperature of LS-2 collector has been simulated successfully by coupling SolTrace software with CFD software. Effects of different factors on instantaneous efficiency have been determined by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment. After that, the influence degree of different factors on the collector instantaneous efficiency is obtained clearly. The results show that the order of effect extent for average maximal deviation of each factor is inlet temperature, solar radiation intensity, diameter, flow rate, condensation area, pipe length, and ambient temperature. The encouraging results will provide a reference for the exploitation and utilization of parabolic trough solar collector in cold climate region.

  20. Organic geochemical characterization of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the upper Benue Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Pearson, M. J.; Suh, C. E.; Dada, S. S.


    The Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria is the northeastern most portion of the Benue rift structure that extends from the northern limit of the Niger Delta in the south to the southern limit of the Chad basin int he northeast. this portion of the trough is made up of two arms: the Gongola Arm and the Yola Arm. Stratigraphic sequence in the Gongola Arm comprises the continental Albian Bima Sandstone, the transitional Cenomanian Yolde Formation and the marine Turonian - Santonian Gongila, Pindiga, and Fika Formations. Overlying these are the continental Campane - Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone and the Tertiary Kerri - Kerri Formation. In the Yola Arm, the Turonian - Santonian sequence is replaced by the equally marine Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye Formations, Numanha Shale, and the Lamja Sandstone. Organic geochemical studies have been carried on outcrop sample form the Gongila, Pindiga, Dukul Formations, the Fika shale and the shaly units of the Gombe Sandstone, with the aim of assessing their source rock potential. Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (C - MS), and Rock Eval Pyrolysis were the major organic geochemical tools employed. Biomaker hydrocarbon signatures obtained from the GC - MS and the Rock Eval Pyrolysis results indicate that all he formations studied, except the Dukul formation, are immature and are all lean in organic matter

  1. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu


    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  2. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China. (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Sun, Xiaoxi; Liu, Ning; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun


    With the advantages of high treatment capacity and low operational cost, large-scale trough composting has become one of the mainstream composting patterns in composting plants in China. This study measured concentrations of O 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and NH 3 on-site to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that the temperature in the center of the pile was obviously higher than that in the side of the pile. Pore O 2 concentration rapidly decreased and maintained distribution and promote the composting process during large-scale trough composting when the pile was naturally aerated, which will contribute to improving the current undesirable atmosphere environment in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of middle mesial canals in mandibular molars after guided troughing under high magnification: an in vivo investigation. (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Deutsch, Allan S; Solomon, Charles S


    A limited number of in vivo studies have discussed the prevalence of middle mesial canals in root canal systems of mandibular molars. The reported results have varied between 1% and 25%, with no detailed description of the depth and direction of troughing needed to identify such small canal orifices. The objective of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence of a middle mesial canal before and after troughing by using a standardized troughing technique, (2) the pathway of the middle mesial canal in relation to the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals, and (3) its correlation with the patient's age. Ninety-one mandibular molars from 87 patients were included in this study. The patient's age and tooth number were recorded. After access cavity preparation, a standardized troughing technique was performed between MB and ML canals to search for a middle mesial canal by using a dental operating microscope. If a middle mesial canal was located, it was recorded as separate or as joining the MB or the ML canals. Results were statistically analyzed by using Z test and logistic regression. A middle mesial canal was found in 42 of 91 mandibular molars (46.2%). Six middle mesial canals were located after conventional access preparation (6.6%). The other 36 were located after standardized troughing (39.6%). The results were statistically significant (P magnification, troughing, and patient's age appeared to be determining factors in accessing the middle mesial canal. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the variability and safety of serum trough concentrations of vancomycin in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Qian, Xiaodan; Du, Guantao; Weng, Chunmei; Zhou, Haijun; Zhou, Xianju


    To examine the variability and safety of serum trough concentrations of vancomycin in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to analyze the factors influencing the trough concentration. Data were collected retrospectively from ICU patients receiving vancomycin treatment at a fixed dose of 2g/day due to unobtainable weight data, at Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital, between 2012 and 2015. Vancomycin trough concentrations were compared between groups stratified by sex, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The vancomycin trough concentration varied significantly among ICU patients on a fixed dose of 2g/day. Only 16.9% of ICU patients met the concentration target of 15-20mg/l, while 25% of patients showed supratherapeutic concentrations. A higher proportion of female patients than male patients showed supratherapeutic concentrations (40.4% vs. 15.5%). The trough concentration was positively correlated with age (y=0.279x-2.085; R 2 =0.186) and negatively correlated with eGFR (y=-0.2x+33.776; R 2 =0.366). Vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity occurred at an incidence of 5.9%. These results suggest that the fixed-dose regimen is not appropriate for ICU patients in view of the low incidence of target trough concentrations and the high incidence of supratherapeutic concentrations. The dose should be individualized based on weight, age, and renal function to improve outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Learning MicroBooNE (United States)

    Genty, Victor; Terao, Kazuhiro; Wonjirad, Taritree


    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) technology provides a high resolution image of ionizing particle trajectories raising a need for new event reconstruction techniques based on pattern recognition. The traditional bottoms-up reconstruction approach to extract physics involves a complex sequence of signal waveform processing, 2D and/or 3D geometrical pattern recognition, calorimetry, and finally particle identification before a neutrino interaction can be identified in an event. We present a top-down reconstruction approach using a machine learning algorithm called Deep Learning which uses convolutional neural networks to find a neutrino interaction in a LAr TPC image. We trained our network on images of simulated single particles and neutrinos overlaid on cosmic-ray background data taken from the MicroBooNE detector. In this talk, we present our result that shows convolutional networks can successfully learn LAr TPC images to perform particle identification, neutrino event selection, and localization of a neutrino interaction vertex in a large LAr TPC image.

  7. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.


    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  8. Chemical composition of hydrothermal ores from Mid-Okinawa trough and Suiyo Seamount determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Takuroh; Taira, Naoto; Oomori, Tamotsu; Taira, Hatsuo; Tanahara, Akira; Takada, Jitsuya


    Neutron activation analysis of 13 hydrothermal ore samples (70 subsamples) collected from the Mid-Okinawa Trough and Suiyo Seamount revealed higher contents of precious metal such as Au and Ag, and those of As, Sb, Ga, and Hg than those from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Mid-Okinawa Trough samples were richer in Ag and Sb than those from the Suiyo Seamount. The geochemical differences among these hydrothermal ore deposits are regarded as reflecting both differences in the chemical composition of the hosted magma of hydrothermal system and the abundance of sediments that is reacted with hydrothermal fluids. (author)

  9. Waveform anomaly caused by strong attenuation in the crust and upper mantle in the Okinawa Trough region (United States)

    Padhy, S.; Furumura, T.; Maeda, T.


    The Okinawa Trough is a young continental back-arc basin located behind the Ryukyu subduction zone in southwestern Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate dives beneath the trough, resulting in localized mantle upwelling and crustal thinning of the overriding Eurasian Plate. The attenuation structure of the plates and surrounding mantle in this region associated with such complex tectonic environment are poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for these features based on the high-resolution waveform analyses and 3D finite difference method (FDM) simulation. We analyzed regional broadband waveforms recorded by F-net (NIED) of in-slab events (M>4, H>100 km). Using band-passed (0.5-8 Hz), mean-squared envelopes, we parameterized coda-decay in terms of rise-time (time from P-arrival to maximum amplitude in P-coda), decay-time (time from maximum amplitude to theoretical S-arrival), and energy-ratio defined as the ratio of energy in P-coda to that in direct P wave. The following key features are observed. First, there is a striking difference in S-excitation along paths traversing and not traversing the trough: events from SW Japan not crossing the trough show clear S waves, while those occurring in the trough show very weak S waves at a station close to the volcanic front. Second, some trough events exhibit spindle-shaped seismograms with strong P-coda excitation, obscuring the development of S waves, at back-arc stations; these waveforms are characterized by high decay-time (>10s) and high energy-ratio (>>1.0), suggesting strong forward scattering along ray paths. Third, some trough events show weak S-excitation characterized by low decay-time (<5s) and low energy-ratio (<1.0) at fore-arc stations, suggesting high intrinsic absorption. To investigate the mechanism of the observed anomalies, we will conduct FDM simulation for a suite of models comprising the key subduction features like localized mantle-upwelling and crustal thinning expected in the

  10. Hydrosweep Measurements During the Expedition ARK XX-2 to Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge (United States)

    Gauger, S.; Kohls, T.; Roeber, S.; Snow, J.


    The region of Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was the object of an expedition in the summer of 2004. This region is of particular geoscientific interest because of its extremely slow spreading rates and the variety of morphologic forms that are produced in this tectonic environment. Therefore, the multibeam measurement system was of particular importance to the scientific goals of the cruise. The main characteristic of the Hydrosweep DS-2 deep-water sounding system aboard RV Polarstern is the 90° or 120° coverage angle in which the seafloor is depicted with 59 specific values for water depths perpendicular to the ship's long axis. The accuracy of the measurement is approx. 1% of water depth, the frequency of the acoustic signal is 15.5 kHz. The refraction of the sonar beams was corrected by automatic crossfan calibration. By regular transmission and measurement of a sweep profile in the ship's longitudinal direction and comparison of the slant beams with the vertical beam, the mean sound velocity over the vertical water column is determined and is used for the depth computation. The data collected include depth, sidescan (2048 values per scan), and backscatter information on each of the 59 beams. During this cruise, the Lena Trough was surveyed systematically for the first time by a multibeam sonar system. The recorded area has an expanse of approx. 100000 km2 and connects previously mapped areas of the Eurasian - North-American plate boundary between Fram Strait and Gakkel Ridge. The region of Western Gakkel Ridge, mapped in 2001 (AMOR-Expedition) by RV Polarstern and USCGC Healy (USA), was extended by two more profiles (each 220 km long) along the ridge. In order to produce working maps for the expedition, the multibeam sonar data were gridded with a spacing of 50 m, producing plots with various contour line intervals. For further morphological interpretation of Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge slope magnitude maps, slope direction maps and

  11. Sedimentary response to tectonism in the extensional Chihuahua trough, Cretaceous of Southern North America (United States)

    Budhathoki, P.; Langford, R. P.; Pavlis, T. L.


    During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Chihuahua Trough formed an extensional basin, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to Southern Arizona, along the Present Border of the United States and Mexico. West of the Big Bend of Texas, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are less than 150 m thick, and in many areas are absent. The sedimentary package thickens to over 3km within the trough. The Albian Cox Sandstone is one of the most areally extensive formations and consists of interbedded fluvial coastal and shallow marine sandstones and shales. In this study area, shales (10-70 m) are thicker more than sandstone beds (2-10 m). This unit is overlain by Finlay formation, a fine crystalline gray limestone and underlain by Bluff Mesa formation, a fossiliferous shallow marine limestone. Cross-bedded, brown, fine to medium grained sandstone, interbedded with siltstone, shale and limestone are characteristic lithology of the Cox. The Indio Mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas offer an ideal location to study how this package accommodates the deformation associated with the subsiding Chihuahua trough. A continuous outcrop extends over 30 km oblique to the basin margin and thickens from approximately 375 m on the northern side to 437 m on the southern side of the 10 km section studied so far. One important mechanism is rotation of the strata into the basin, followed by truncation along sequence boundaries. The lower two sequence in the southern Indio mountains are rotated down to the basin relative to Finlay. The lowest sequences thicken from an erosional pinch out towards the South. Shale beds thicken within the rotated strata and accommodate some of the tilting. For example, Thickness of the shale bed varies from 18 m to 70 m within a 2 km distance. However, erosional truncation of the tilted strata accounts for most of the increases in thickness within sequences. The base of the formation has been rotated about 6 degrees south relative to the top of the formation. Another observed

  12. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  13. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec


    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  14. Sensitivity studies for the KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, R.; Kuch, S. [Physics Inst. 1, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)


    KM3NeT is an European deep-sea research infrastructure, which will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The parameters and technical specifications of KM3NeT project will be finalized in the framework of EU-funded Design Study which started in 2006. KM3NeT neutrino telescope will search for the point sources of extra-terrestrial high energy neutrinos as well as for diffuse flux from unidentified sources. The sensitivity for these neutrino fluxes have been studied for the different models of KM3NeT detector, including various geometries and optical modules. The preliminary results of these studies, obtained with Monte Carlo simulations are presented in the talk. (orig.)

  15. Simulation studies for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Erlangen University, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, which will host the world's most sensitive high-energy neutrino telescope. The Design Study for the KM3NeT infrastructure is supported by the EU in FP6 and started in 2006. The KM3NeT consortium, which is formed by the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR collaborations as well as marine science and technology institutes, is currently investigating two design options for the final document of the Design Study, the KM3NeT technical design report (TDR). These options and the results of corresponding Monte Carlo studies are presented and discussed.

  16. Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.


    Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation is considered theoretically, including explicitly the laser oscillator properties. Experiments reported previously by us and other authors are in agreement with our analysis.

  17. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit


    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  18. neXtProt: a knowledge platform for human proteins. (United States)

    Lane, Lydie; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula D; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gaudet, Pascale; Gleizes, Anne; Masselot, Alexandre; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos


    neXtProt ( is a new human protein-centric knowledge platform. Developed at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), it aims to help researchers answer questions relevant to human proteins. To achieve this goal, neXtProt is built on a corpus containing both curated knowledge originating from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and carefully selected and filtered high-throughput data pertinent to human proteins. This article presents an overview of the database and the data integration process. We also lay out the key future directions of neXtProt that we consider the necessary steps to make neXtProt the one-stop-shop for all research projects focusing on human proteins.

  19. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE (United States)


    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  20. Influence of the monsoon trough on air-sea interaction in the head of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon of 1990 (monsoon trough boundary layer experiment - 90)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Seetaramayya, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.

    (-1) respectively. During the depression period the heat loss across the air-sea interface matched well with the heat loss in the upper (approx equal to 100 m) ocean. With the northward movement of the monsoon trough, the momentum and surface heat...

  1. Recent Observational Results of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.


    The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the tough, and major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. The 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are the most recent significant earthquakes along the trough. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes are estimated at 80-90% by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government. It is, therefore, necessary to start monitoring crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes where in the ocean area. We developed a new system composed of the precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques for monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. We had installed seven seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Suruga-Nankai Trough region between 2002 and 2004. The water depths at the benchmarks are about 800 to 2000 m. We installed a new seafloor benchmark at the eastern margin of the Kumano Basin on June 23, 2008. Three seafloor benchmarks had been aligned perpendicular to the trough axis. In contrast, the new benchmark was installed eastward relative to the pre-installed benchmarks, and we can monitor lateral variations in crustal deformation at the region. We started the repeated measurements at four benchmarkes (two at the Kumano Basin named KMN and KMS, and the other two at the Suruga Bay named SNW and SNE) in 2005. The number of times we have measured are seven, eleven, three and nine times at KMN, KMS, SNW and SNE, respectively. Recent results of the repeated measurements show the following horizontal velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate: 6.4 cm/yr, N86W at KMN; 5.3 cm/yr, N71W at KMS; 3.3 cm/yr, N57W at SNE. The errors of the horizontal velocities are 1-3 cm/yr. Unfortunately

  2. Study of a new solar adsorption refrigerator powered by a parabolic trough collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Fadar, A. [Energetic Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan, Abdelmalek Essaadi University (Morocco); Mimet, A. [Energetic Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan, Abdelmalek Essaadi University (Morocco)], E-mail:; Azzabakh, A. [Energetic Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan, Abdelmalek Essaadi University (Morocco); Perez-Garcia, M. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada - Universidad de Almeria (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire Thermique, Energetique et Procedes (LaTEP), Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)


    This paper presents the study of solar adsorption cooling machine, where the reactor is heated by a parabolic trough collector (PTC) and is coupled with a heat pipe (HP). This reactor contains a porous medium constituted of activated carbon, reacting by adsorption with ammonia. We have developed a model, based on the equilibrium equations of the refrigerant, adsorption isotherms, heat and mass transfer within the adsorbent bed and energy balance in the hybrid system components. From real climatic data, the model computes the performances of the machine. In comparison with other systems powered by flat plate or evacuated tube collectors, the predicted results, have illustrated the ability of the proposed system to achieve a high performance due to high efficiency of PTC, and high flux density of heat pipe.

  3. Design and modeling of solar parabolic trough power plant with MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sanan T.


    Full Text Available With the fact that Malaysia is one of the fast- growing countries, demand of energy increment is rapid. Malaysia is able to obtain ample amount of annual solar radiation due to its location at equator. If this is utilized proficiently and effectively, then, it can suffice the domestic needs as well as the industrial needs in terms of energy consumption. This article proposes a parabolic Trough Power Plant which is designed with 1.2 kW net electric output. Consequently, the results of theoretical calculations are detailed in the article, while, ensuring the analysing of design proposed through the MATLAB software. The results showed that by making use of aperture having an area of approximately 80 m2, maximum useful heat gain of 20701W at 13:00 pm was attained in March. The maximum net power is 11.84 kWh/day in February.

  4. Methane hydrate morphology of natural hydrate-bearing sediment from Nankai trough, Japan (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Kida, M.; Nagao, J.


    As a part of MH21, the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan, who initiated Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program (managed by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI)), we developed newly pressured hydrate sediment analyzing apparatus (Pressured Non-destructive Analysis Tools, here after PNATs) including an X-ray computed-tomography (CT) system, gamma-ray density measurement system, an instrumented pressure testing chamber (IPTC). The Japanese IPTC was developed with strong cooperation from Georgia Tech and the U.S. Geological Survey. In this study, we investigated the hydrate morphology in natural gas hydrate-bearing (GH) sediment recovered from eastern Nankai trough area under hydro-pressurized condition using PNATs. In addition to P-wave measurement via the IPTC, we assessed hydrate saturation Sh in sediment sample by using our newly ATR-IR probe for the IPTC. Our analysis reveals that the pressurized sample shows load-bearing GH sediment.

  5. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.


    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  6. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping


    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  7. Potential for using parabolic trough collectors to supplement power cycle boilers (United States)

    Schimmel, W. P., Jr.; Lukens, L. L.


    The advantage of such a system is that solar energy is used to heat the water in a steam Rankine cycle device up to the superheat regime, thus displacing the fossil fuel usually required. The temperature associated with this portion of the power cycle is typically on the order of 320 C or less, which makes it compatible with current parabolic trough collector systems. A system model which lends itself to optimization studies was constructed and exercised over a range of the multiparameter space involved. The collector field, storage, supplementary fossil boiler and superheater, and turbine/generator traded off to obtain a series of economically optimal systems for various years and solar fractions.

  8. Strain Accumulation Estimated from Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Kenji, Y.; Sakata, T.


    Our research has developed an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation composed of the kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging techniques [Tadokoro et al., 2006; Ikuta et al., 2008]. We monitored crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Amurian Plate. The convergence rate is predicted at 60 mm/y in the N59W direction by the Euler vector of REVEL [Sella et al., 2002]. We installed three monitoring sites (named KMN, KMS, and KME) on the seafloor at depths of about 1920-2030 m. The sites KMN and KMS are installed perpendicular to the trough axis with a spacing of 20 km; the site KME is 50 km from KMN and KMS in the direction parallel to the trough axis. The monitoring was started in 2004, 2005, and 2008 at KMS, KMN, and KME, respectively. The numbers of measurements are 16, 20, and 5 times at KMN, KMS, and KME, respectively. We obtained 3-7 years averaged horizontal site velocities within ITRF2000 adopting a robust estimation method with Tukey's biweight function to the time series of site position measured until the end of 2011. Substituting the synthetic rigid block motions of the Amurian Plate from the velocities within ITRF2000, we obtained the following site velocities with respect to the Amurian Plate [Tadokoro et al., 2012]: KMN 41±4 mm/y, N77±7W KMS 43±5 mm/y, N80±6W KME 42±5 mm/y, N80±7W In contrast, the on-land GPS horizontal velocities along the coast is 23-33 mm/y toward N74-80W. The present observational results show: (1) the velocity vectors are all the same length and direction, which indicates no internal deformation in this region; (2) the back-slip model predicts that the plate interface beneath the region is uniformly locked with coupling ratios of 60-80 %, indicating strain accumulation that will be released during the anticipated mega-thrust Tonankai earthquake; and (3) the directions of site velocities differ from that of convergence vector by 20 degrees, which is affected by

  9. Fat transposition with a single subdermal stitch for the treatment of deep tear trough. (United States)

    Medel, Ramón; Hristodulopulos, Vanessa; Vásquez, LuzMaría


    To describe a fixation technique of the medial and central fat pads in the subperiosteal pocket for transconjunctival fat transposition, using a single subdermal, non-removable, non-absorbable stitch. Retrospective study of 19 patients with bilateral deep tear through treated by means of transconjunctival fat transposition. Charts and photographic records were reviewed. Photographical and clinical improvement of the deep tear through and fat prolapse was observed in all patients in variable degrees. There were no intraoperative complications. Significant periocular hematoma occurred in 1 patient and solved without complications. Two patients presented transitory fat pedicle hardening and one patient presented a conjunctival inferior fornix granuloma, surgically removed. All patients were satisfied. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat transposition with single subdermal stitch to fix the medial and central fat pads, for the treatment of deep tear trough and fat prolapse demonstrated high patient satisfaction, good aesthetic results with no significant or permanent complications.

  10. Optical testing of a parabolic trough solar collector by a null screen with stitching (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, V., I.; Campos-Garcia, M.; Granados-Agustin, F.; Arjona-Pérez, M. J.; Díaz-Uribe, R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.


    In this work we report a method for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) based on the null screen principles. For surfaces with symmetry of revolution a cylindrical null screen is used, now, for testing the PTSC we use a flat null screen. The design of the null screen with ellipsoidal spots is described; its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact square array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Any departure from this geometry is indicative of defects on the surface. The flat null screen design and the surface evaluation algorithm are presented. Here the surface is tested in sections and the evaluation of the shape of the surface is performed with stitching method. Results of the evaluation for a square PTSC with 1000 mm by side (F/0.49) are shown.

  11. Analisa Efisiensi Prototype Solar Collector Jenis Parabolic Trough dengan Menggunakan Cover Glass Tube pada Pipa Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartamas Ridho Prasetyo


    Full Text Available Energi tidak dapat diciptakan maupun dimusnahkan, hanya dapat dikonversikan dari satu bentuk ke bentuk lainnya (Hukum Kekekalan Energi. Energi sangat penting dalam kehidupan sehari – hari khususnya energi listrik yang kebutuhan terhadap energi ini sangat besar sedangkan sebagian besar energi listrik dihasilkan dari sumber daya fosil yang mulai menipis jumlahnya. Ketergantungan akan minyak bumi untuk jangka panjang tidak dapat di pertahankan lebih lama jika pemakaian melebihi batas wajar. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini penulis melakukan analisa alat Parabolic Trough Solar Collector dengan memanfaatkan energi radiasi matahari, yang di awali adanya perancangan desain alat PTSC dengan material yang sudah di tentukan sebelumnya. Prototype tersebut hanya bisa dilakukan pengujian dengan posisi steady state atau diam antara jam 11.30 sampai dengan 12.30 siang. Dengan adanya penelitian tentang analisa performa pada alat tersebut, telah di dapatkan beberapa hasil nilai variabel yang signifikan dan berpengaruh besar dengan nilai performa alat tersebut.

  12. Analysis of defects on the slopes on a parabolic trough solar collector with null-screens (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Huerta-Carranza, Oliver; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino; Moreno-Oliva, Víctor I.


    The null-screen method has been used to test aspheric surfaces, among them the surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This geometrical method measures the slope of the test surface and by a numerical integration procedure the shape of the test surface can be obtained. In this work, through some numerical simulations sinusoidal deformations with different amplitudes and spatial periods are introduced on PTSC surfaces. Then, an analysis of the deformations of the reflected images of a null-screen by the PTSC surface due to defects on the surface is performed. This procedure allows to validate the kind and magnitude of the surface deformations that can be measured with the proposed method. Also, an analysis of the advantages and limitations of the null-screen testing method will be discussed.

  13. Heat Flow in the Salton Trough Revisited and Implications for Regional Tectonics (United States)

    Williams, C.; DeAngelo, J.; Galanis, P.


    As part of research into the geothermal energy resources of the Salton Trough, we have assembled a database of 1060 temperature-gradient and heat-flow measurements acquired by the geothermal industry, universities, national labs, and the US Geological Survey (USGS) throughout the region from the early 1970s to the present. In addition to using the data to examine the nature and occurrence of hydrothermal systems, we have estimated the total heat flux through the Trough and investigated relationships between subsurface thermal conditions and the character of faulting and seismicity. Our analysis for the Imperial Valley and other portions of the Salton Trough physiographic province gives an average heat flow of ~160 mW/m2 compared to the 140 mW/m2 average determined by Lachenbruch and others in the last regional study (JGR, v.90, n. B8, 1986). The higher average reflects a larger contribution to the total heat flux from hydrothermal systems that was not recognized in earlier studies due to incomplete spatial coverage. Most of these hydrothermal systems are associated with step-overs and other structural complexities in the fault zones that pass through the region, and the dense coverage of the new heat flow database allows for a detailed examination of the degree to which variations of convective and conductive heat transfer in this region influence, and are influenced by, active tectonic processes. We compared estimated subsurface temperatures from a conductive heat transfer model with the observed depth variation of the upper and lower boundaries of the seismogenic zone along active faults both within and along the margins of the Imperial Valley, and for those areas characterized by average heat flow less than or equal to 150 mW/m2, the base of the seismogenic zone is near the estimated depth of the 400 °C isotherm, a result that is consistent with observations in other seismically active regions. The base of seismicity continues to shallow where heat flow

  14. Evidence for chaotic fault interactions in the seismicity of the San Andreas fault and Nankai trough (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Turcotte, D. L.


    The dynamical behavior introduced by fault interactions is examined here using a simple spring-loaded, slider-block model with velocity-weakening friction. The model consists of two slider blocks coupled to each other and to a constant-velocity driver by elastic springs. For an asymmetric system in which the frictional forces on the two blocks are not equal, the solutions exhibit chaotic behavior. The system's behavior over a range of parameter values seems to be generally analogous to that of weakly coupled segments of an active fault. Similarities between the model simulations and observed patterns of seismicity on the south central San Andreas fault in California and in the Nankai trough along the coast of southwestern Japan.

  15. Inflow of Atlantic-origin waters to the Barents Sea along glacial troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Matishov


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of glacial shelf topography in the formation of general oceanological and biological mechanisms in the Barents Sea. Analysis of geomorphological data and oceanographic observations obtained on board MMBI research vessels in 2001-08 has shown that: fluxes of Atlantic-origin waters pass along glacial troughs; the inflow of Atlantic waters to the Barents Sea from the west increased from 2001 till 2007, although this advection began to weaken in 2008; vertical and horizontal thermohaline gradients intensified during the investigated period; a warm period similar to that of the 1930s was observed in the Barents Sea at the beginning of the 21st century.

  16. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.


    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  17. NESTOR participation in the KM3NeT

    CERN Document Server

    Anassontzis, E


    The NESTOR Collaboration is a leading participant in the Design Study of the KM3NeT, the European Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope. In this report we describe briefly the KM3NeT and the NESTOR experience and contribution towards this objective; the 4500m deep NESTOR site, the star-like detector, the deployment and recovery of telescope modules and the "DELTA-BERENIKE", the specially constructed deployment ship.

  18. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high-intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  19. Relationship between serum trough infliximab levels, pretreatment C reactive protein levels, and clinical response to infliximab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbink, G. J.; Voskuyl, A. E.; Lems, W. F.; de Groot, E.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; Tak, P. P.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; Aarden, L.


    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum trough infliximab levels and clinical response to infliximab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Disease activity and serum trough infliximab levels before and 2, 6, and 14 weeks after initiation of infliximab

  20. Theoretical investigation of solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.I.; El-Minshawy, N.A.


    Highlights: → We evaluated the performance of sea water HDD system powered by solar PTC. → The proposed design to the expected desalination plant performance was introduced. → The collector thermal efficiency was a function of solar radiation value. → The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season. → The production time reaches 42% of the day time in the summer season. - Abstract: This paper deals with the status of solar energy as a clean and renewable energy applications in desalination. The object of this research is to theoretically investigate the principal operating parameters of a proposed desalination system based on air humidification-dehumidification principles. A parabolic trough solar collector is adapted to drive and optimize the considered desalination system. A test set-up of the desalination system was designed and a theoretical simulation model was constructed to evaluate the performance and productivity of the proposed solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system. The theoretical simulation model was developed in which the thermodynamic models of each component of the considered were set up respectively. The study showed that, parabolic trough solar collector is the suitable to drive the proposed desalination system. A comparison study had been presented to show the effect of the different parameters on the performance and the productivity of the system. The productivity of the proposed system showed also an increase with the increase of the day time till an optimum value and then decreased. The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season, when high direct solar radiation and long solar time are always expected. The production time reaches a maximum value in the summer season, which is 42% of the day.

  1. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant in the Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen R. P.


    Full Text Available The Middle East is one among the areas of the world that receive high amounts of direct solar radiation. As such, the region holds a promising potential to leverage clean energy. Owing to rapid urbanization, energy demands in the region are on the rise. Along with the global push to curb undesirable outcomes such as air pollution, emissions of greenhouse gases, and climate change, an urgent need has arisen to explore and exploit the abundant renewable energy sources. This paper presents the design, performance analysis and optimization of a 100 MWe parabolic trough collector Solar Power Plant with thermal energy storage intended for use in the Middle Eastern regions. Two representative sites in the Middle East which offer an annual average direct normal irradiance (DNI of more than 5.5 kWh/m2/day has been chosen for the analysis. The thermodynamic aspect and annual performance of the proposed plant design is also analyzed using the System Advisor Model (SAM version 2017.9.5. Based on the analysis carried out on the initial design, annual power generated from the proposed concentrating solar power (CSP plant design in Abu Dhabi amounts to 333.15 GWh whereas that in Aswan recorded a value of 369.26 GWh, with capacity factors of 38.1% and 42.19% respectively. The mean efficiency of the plants in Abu Dhabi and Aswan are found to be 14.35% and 14.98% respectively. The optimization of the initial plant design is also carried out by varying two main design parameters, namely the solar multiple and full load hours of thermal energy storage (TES. Based on the findings of the study, the proposed 100 MW parabolic trough collector solar power plant with thermal energy storage can contribute to the sustainable energy future of the Middle East with reduced dependency on fossil fuels.

  2. Interaction between Antarctic sea ice and synoptic activity in the circumpolar trough (United States)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth


    Different from conditions in the Arctic, total Antarctic sea ice extent does not show large interannual variability and almost no long-term trend is found. On a regional/monthly scale, however, large differences are observed, depending on winds and oceanic currents, thus on the prevailing synoptic weather situation. At the same time, the sea ice influences atmospheric conditions: presence of sea ice considerably changes the energy exchange between ocean and atmosphere, thus the meridional air temperature gradient, which is usually strongest at the sea ice edge. This leads to high baroclinicity in this area and thus favours cyclogenesis. The position and movement of low pressure systems, in turn, together with the local heat balance, determines sea ice extent and concentration. Divergence and convergence of sea ice also depends on the position of the circumpolar trough relative to the sea ice edge, since its position determines whether the atmospheric flow is predominantly easterly or westerly, which leads to sea ice transport to the southwest or the northeast, respectively. The circumpolar trough is usually situated closer to the coast in spring and autumn and moves north in summer and winter. In this study, meteorological data from the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis as well as sea ice extent and concentration derived from passive microwave data (SSMI/SMMR) are used to investigate the interactions between Antarctic sea ice and synoptic activity in the polar ocean. Special consideration is given to the frequency of regional sea ice minima and warm air advection from lower latitudes. A stable synoptic situation with amplified Rossby waves can lead to regional extrema in sea ice extent. An extreme case was observed in the austral summer of 2001/2002 in the Weddell Sea, when continuous northwesterly winds removed the ice from the northwestern part of the Weddell Sea and drove it to the coast of Coats Land, where usually coastal polynyas are observed in summer.

  3. New Geological Evidence of Past Earthquakes and Tsunami Along the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    De Batist, M. A. O.; Heyvaert, V.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fujiwara, O.; Shishikura, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Brückner, H.; Garrett, E.; Boes, E.; Lamair, L.; Nakamura, A.; Miyairi, Y.; Yamamoto, S.


    The east coast of Japan is prone to tsunamigenic megathrust earthquakes, as tragically demonstrated in 2011 by the Tōhoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) and tsunami. The Nankai Trough subduction zone, to the southwest of the area affected by the Tōhoku disaster and facing the densely populated and heavily industrialized southern coastline of central and west Japan, is expected to generate another megathrust earthquake and tsunami in the near future. This subduction zone is, however, segmented and appears to be characterized by a variable rupture mode, involving single- as well as multi-segment ruptures, which has immediate implications for their tsunamigenic potential, and also renders the collection of sufficiently long time records of past earthquakes and tsunami in this region fundamental for an adequate hazard and risk assessment. Over the past three decades, Japanese researchers have acquired a large amount of geological evidence of past earthquakes and tsunami, in many cases extending back in time for several thousands of years. This evidence includes uplifted marine terraces, turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Despite these efforts, current understanding of the behaviour of the subduction zone still remains limited, due to site-specific evidence creation and preservation thresholds and issues over alternative hypotheses for proposed palaeoseismic evidence and insufficiently precise chronological control. Within the QuakeRecNankai project we are generating a long and coherent time series of megathrust earthquake and tsunami recurrences along the Nankai Trough subduction zone by integrating all existing evidence with new geological records of paleo-tsunami in the Lake Hamana region and of paleo-earthquakes from selected lakes in the Mount Fuji area. We combine extensive fieldwork in coastal plain areas and lakes, with advanced sedimentological and geochemical analyses and innovative dating techniques.

  4. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili


    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  5. Evaluation of Infliximab Therapy in Children with Crohn's Disease Using Trough Levels Predictors. (United States)

    Ohem, Jan; Hradsky, Ondrej; Zarubova, Kristyna; Copova, Ivana; Bukovska, Petra; Prusa, Richard; Malickova, Karin; Bronsky, Jiri


    In adults, infliximab (IFX) levels correlate with disease activity, and antibodies to IFX (ATIs) predict treatment failure. We aimed to determine the association of IFX levels and ATIs with disease activity in a paediatric population. We prospectively collected blood, stool, and clinical data from 65 patients (age 10.5-15.1 years) with Crohn's disease (CD) before IFX administration, and measured IFX trough levels, ATIs, and faecal calprotectin levels (CPT). Samples were collected during maintenance therapy. We used multivariate analysis to identify the predictors of IFX levels. Lower levels of IFX were associated with ATIs positivity (OR 0.027, 95% CI 0.009-0.077). Higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and CPT levels were found in patients with lower IFX levels. The optimal combination of sensitivity (0.5) and specificity (0.74) for disease activity was calculated for IFX levels ≥1.1 µg/mL using CRP level <5 mg/L as a marker of laboratory remission. In a model that used CPT ≤100 µg/g as the definition of remission, the optimal IFX trough level was 3.5 µg/mL. No independent association between remission and ATIs was found in our study population. However, we found an independentz association between IFX levels and serum albumin levels (OR 1.364, 95% CI 1.169-1.593), p < 0.001. Key Messages: The paediatric population was similar to adult populations in terms of the association between IFX and ATIs as well as between IFX and disease activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Mineral chemistry indicates the petrogenesis of rhyolite from the southwestern Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Chen, Zuxing; Zeng, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Yuxiang; Yin, Xuebo; Chen, Shuai; Ma, Yao; Li, Xiaohui; Qi, Hanyan


    To reveal the petrogenesis of rhyolite from the southwestern Okinawa Trough, the mineral chemistry of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, amphibole, quartz and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts were analyzed using an electron microprobe, and in suit Sr and Ba contents of plagioclase analysed by LA-ICPMS were chosen for fingerprinting plagioclases of different provenances. Results indicate an overall homogeneous composition for each of the mineral phases except for plagioclase phenocrysts which have a wide range of composition (An=39 88). Plagioclase crystals characterized by An contents of >70 are not in equilibrium with their whole-rock compositions, and coarse-sieved plagioclase phenocryst interiors record high An contents (>70) and Sr/Ba ratios (>7), which are similar to the those of plagioclase crystals in basalt. Therefore, these crystals must have been introduced to the rhyolitic magma from a more mafic source. Equilibrium temperatures estimated using orthopyroxene-liquid, iron-titanium oxide, titanium-in-quartz and amphibole geothermometers show consistent values ranging from 792 to 869°C. The equilibrium pressure calculated using amphibole compositions is close to 121 MPa which corresponds to an approximate depth of 4 km. The fO2 conditions estimated from Fe-Ti oxides and amphiboles plot slightly above the NNO buffer, which indicates that the rock formed under more oxidized conditions. Our results suggests that petrogenesis of the rhyolite due to basaltic magma ascend with the high An and Sr/Ba plaigoclases from deep magma chamber into the shallow chamber where the fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation happened. It also indicates that a two-layer magma chamber structure may occur under the southwestern Okinawa Trough.

  7. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margiotta, A


    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed

  8. Comparison of electromagnetic and nuclear dissociation of 17Ne (United States)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lehr, C.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.


    The Borromean drip-line nucleus 17Ne has been suggested to possess a two-proton halo structure in its ground state. In the astrophysical r p -process, where the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne plays an important role, the calculated reaction rate differs by several orders of magnitude between different theoretical approaches. To add to the understanding of the 17Ne structure we have studied nuclear and electromagnetic dissociation. A 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam was directed toward lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets. Oxygen isotopes in the final state were measured in coincidence with one or two protons. Different reaction branches in the dissociation of 17Ne were disentangled. The relative populations of s and d states in 16F were determined for light and heavy targets. The differential cross section for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) shows a continuous internal energy spectrum in the three-body system 15O+2 p . The 17Ne EMD data were compared to current theoretical models. None of them, however, yields satisfactory agreement with the experimental data presented here. These new data may facilitate future development of adequate models for description of the fragmentation process.

  9. Prospective, Observational Study of Voriconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring among Lung Transplant Recipients Receiving Prophylaxis: Factors Impacting Levels of and Associations between Serum Troughs, Efficacy, and Toxicity (United States)

    Mitsani, Dimitra; Shields, Ryan K.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Kwak, Eun J.; Silveira, Fernanda P.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Crespo, Maria M.; Bermudez, Christian; Bhama, Jay K.; Clancy, Cornelius J.


    Voriconazole prophylaxis is common following lung transplantation, but the value of therapeutic drug monitoring is unknown. A prospective, observational study of lung transplant recipients (n = 93) receiving voriconazole prophylaxis was performed. Serum voriconazole troughs (n = 331) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The median initial and subsequent troughs were 1.91 and 1.46 μg/ml, respectively. The age of the patient directly correlated with initial troughs (P = 0.005). Patients that were ≥60 years old and cystic fibrosis patients were significantly more likely to have higher and lower initial troughs, respectively. In 95% (88/93) of patients, ≥2 troughs were measured. In 28% (25/88) and 32% (28/88) of these patients, all troughs were ≤1.5 μg/ml or >1.5 μg/ml, respectively. Ten percent (10/93) and 27% (25/93) of the patients developed invasive fungal infection (tracheobronchitis) and fungal colonization, respectively. The median troughs at the times of positive and negative fungal cultures were 0.92 and 1.72 μg/ml (P = 0.07). Invasive fungal infections or colonization were more likely with troughs of ≤1.5 μg/ml (P = 0.01) and among patients with no trough of >1.5 μg/ml (P = 0.007). Other cutoff troughs correlated less strongly with microbiologic outcomes. Troughs correlated directly with aspartate transferase levels (P = 0.003), but not with other liver enzymes. Voriconazole was discontinued due to suspected toxicity in 27% (25/93) of the patients. The troughs did not differ at the times of suspected drug-induced hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, or nausea/vomiting and in the absence of toxicity. Voriconazole prophylaxis was most effective at troughs of >1.5 μg/ml. A cutoff for toxicity was not identified, but troughs of >4 μg/ml were rare. The data support a target range of >1.5 to 4 μg/ml. PMID:22330924

  10. On the high heat flow in the Nankai Trough area—a simulation study on a heat rebound process (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Kinoshita, H.; Yamano, M.


    A concentration of high heat flow (as high as 120-160 mW/m 2) has been observed in the Nankai Trough, off southwest Japan, where the Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin) is subducting beneath the Japanese landmass. We interpret this high heat flow in the subduction zone as being caused by the recovery of conductive heat flow to the theoretically expected value for the young Shikoku Basin lithosphere after cessation of hydrothermal heat exchange through sediment. The thickening sedimentary cover suppresses the rapid heat exchange between basement and sea water, whereas the topmost part of the basement allows a hydrothermal circulation within it to pump up heat from the hot plate to the sediment cover. We propose to call this process "heat rebound". Numerical simulation shows that significant heat flow recovery can occur and is largely influenced by the sedimentation rate. We believe that the high heat flow in the Nankai Trough is one of the heat rebound cases. However, rapid sedimentation in the trough also indicates that heat flow recovery expected by the simulation is not large enough to explain the trough high heat flow by the heat rebound process only.

  11. Detectability of Middle Mesial Root Canal Orifices by Troughing Technique in Mandibular Molars: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study. (United States)

    Keleş, Ali; Keskin, Cangül


    The objective of the present study was to measure the orifice depth of middle mesial canals (MMCs) and evaluate the detectability of orifices using troughing preparation. For this study, 85 mandibular molar teeth with MMCs were selected from the scanned micro-computed tomographic images. The MMCs were categorized, and the distances between the MMC orifices and the cementoenamel junctions (CEJ) were recorded as the depth of the orifice. Data were evaluated with frequency analysis and a chi-square test using SPSS (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and the results indicated a 5% significance level. It was found that 77.41% of the MMC orifices were at the CEJ level, whereas 5.38% and 9.69% of the MMC orifices were detectable within 1-mm and 2-mm depths from the CEJ, respectively. Of the specimens, 7.52% had MMC orifices deeper than 2 mm from the CEJ. Confluent anatomy was the most frequent configuration. No significant relation was detected between the orifice depth and MMC configuration (P > .05). It was concluded that 77.41% of the specimens did not require troughing preparation, the remaining 15.07% would require troughing, and 7.52% could not be accessed even with the troughing preparation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of parabolic trough collector design for varying manufacturing tolerances using a closed-form expression for intercept factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueven, H.M. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)


    In this paper, a closed-form expression for intercept factor is used to carry out the optimization of parabolic trough collector geometry (rim angle and concentration ratio). It is shown that the presented closed-form expression eliminates the need for a detailed ray-trace computer code and facilitates optimization of the collector optical design parameters.

  13. Evaluation of the variability and safety of serum trough concentrations of vancomycin in patients admitted to the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Qian


    Conclusions: These results suggest that the fixed-dose regimen is not appropriate for ICU patients in view of the low incidence of target trough concentrations and the high incidence of supratherapeutic concentrations. The dose should be individualized based on weight, age, and renal function to improve outcomes and patient safety.

  14. Survey of Thermal Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants; Period of Performance: September 13, 1999 - June 12, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington Solar International GmbH


    The purpose of this report is to identify and selectively review previous work done on the evaluation and use of thermal energy storage systems applied to parabolic trough power plants. Appropriate storage concepts and technical options are first discussed, followed by a review of previous work.

  15. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios


    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  16. Interplate locking derived from seafloor crustal deformation using GPS/acoustic technique at the Suruga trough, Japan (United States)

    Kenji, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Nagai, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuda, T.; Sayanagi, K.


    Observation of seafloor crustal deformation using the GPS/acoustic technique started from the study by Spiess et al. (1998). In Japan, this type of observation has been carried out at the subduction margins, e.g., Japan trench, Suruga trough, and Nankai trough. At the present, the accuracy of seafloor positioning is 1 to several centimeters for each epoch. Velocity vectors at seafloor point are estimated through repeating observations. Sato et al. (2011) and Kido et al. (2011) observed clear crustal deformations during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, at the seafloor. Ito et al. (2011) and Iinuma et al. (2012) derived coseismic slip distributions using GPS/acoustic data and on-land GPS data. To observe seafloor crustal deformation is crucial because great subduction earthquakes, such as Tokai and Tonankai earthquakes, often have hypocenter under the seafloor. We observed seafloor crustal deformation at two observation points across the Suruga trough from 2005 to 2011 to investigate interplate locking condition at the source area of the anticipated great subduction, Tokai, earthquake. An east point of the Suruga trough (SNE) was observed 13 times, and an west point of the Suruga trough (SNW) was observed 14 times. We reanalyzed all previous observation data to improve the data quality through the following three processes: 1) Muting reflected waves from the sea surface or vessel body in the acoustic data. 2) Removing the acoustic data during the vessel's attitude data exceed a criteria. 3) Removing the acoustic data during the GPS satellite tracking condition was unstable. The travel-time residual RMS in one epoch improved by 0.27 ms through the improvement of data quality. We estimated the displacement velocity vectors with relative to the Amurian plate on the basis of the result of repeated observation. The estimated displacement velocity vectors at SNE and SNW are 42±8 mm/y to N94±3W direction and 54±17 mm/y to N94±4W direction, respectively. Taking the error

  17. Ne2 encodes protein(s) and the altered RuBisCO could be the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si Rui Pan


    Jun 17, 2017 ... Wheat hybrid necrosis is caused by the interaction of two dominant complementary genes, Ne1 and Ne2, located on ... hypothetical model presents the RuBisCO pathway of hybrid necrosis in wheat and explains how Ne1 and Ne2 interact ... were rinsed with distilled water, then cut/wrapped/labelled.

  18. Linnadisaini lõpp(eesmärgid) / Michael Sorokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sorokin, Michael


    Autori arvates on linnadisain (urban design) jõudnud tupikusse. Ta on järjest vähem võimeline leidma leidlikke lahendusi linnade ja linnakodanike morfoloogilistele, funktsionaalsetele ja inimlikele vajadustele. Samal ajal kui ülesanded muutuvad keerukamaks ja pakilisemaks, on eriala peavoolustunud, muutudes potensiaalselt laiast ja lootusrikkast kontseptuaalsest kategooriast järjest enam paindumatuks, piiravaks ja igavaks vanade tavade järgimiseks

  19. Letter of Intent to Build a MiniBooNE Near Detector: BooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancu, I. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, D. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States); Ford, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marsh, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, C. D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grange, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Osmanov, B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). et al.


    There is accumulating evidence for a difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations at the {approx}1 eV{sup 2} scale. The MiniBooNE experiment observes an unexplained excess of electron-like events at low energies in neutrino mode, which may be due, for example, to either a neutral current radiative interaction, sterile neutrino decay, or to neutrino oscillations involving sterile neutrinos and which may be related to the LSND signal. No excess of electron-like events (-0.5 {+-} 7.8 {+-} 8.7), however, is observed so far at low energies in antineutrino mode. Furthermore, global 3+1 and 3+2 sterile neutrino fits to the world neutrino and antineutrino data suggest a difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos with significant (sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub {mu}{mu}} {approx} 35%) {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance. In order to test whether the low-energy excess is due to neutrino oscillations and whether there is a difference between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance, we propose building a second MiniBooNE detector at (or moving the existing MiniBooNE detector to) a distance of {approx}200 m from the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) production target. With identical detectors at different distances, most of the systematic errors will cancel when taking a ratio of events in the two detectors, as the neutrino flux varies as 1/r{sup 2} to a calculable approximation. This will allow sensitive tests of oscillations for both {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}} appearance and {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance. Furthermore, a comparison between oscillations in neutrino mode and antineutrino mode will allow a sensitive search for CP and CPT violation in the lepton sector at short baseline ({Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.1 eV{sup 2}). Finally, by comparing the rates for a neutral current (NC) reaction, such as NC {pi}{sup 0} scattering or NC elastic scattering, a direct search for sterile neutrinos will be made. The initial amount of running time

  20. Clinical Use of Infliximab Trough Levels and Antibodies to Infliximab in Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (United States)

    Merras-Salmio, Laura; Kolho, Kaija-Leena


    Optimizing infliximab (IFX) treatment in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using serum infliximab (S-IFX) trough levels and antibodies to IFX is recommended. There is need for studies assessing this strategy in clinical practice. We retrospectively identified all pediatric patients with IBD (n = 146, median age 14.8 years) treated with IFX at our tertiary referral center from 2003 to 2014. All were analyzed for IFX trough levels (S-IFX, n = 475), and IFX antibody (IFX-Ab, n = 219) titers were included. Both were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We correlated these parameters with concurrently analyzed fecal calprotectin levels and the treatment outcome. If IFX had no efficacy, or a loss of response occurred, 40 of 64 (63%) had trough levels <2.0 mg/L, with negative IFX-Ab in 37 of 59 (63%). If the S-IFX was very low (<0.2 mg/L), 4 of 36 still had negative IFX-Ab. Concurrent azathioprine therapy did not relate to IFX-Ab. Fecal calprotectin was significantly lower in patients with clinical remission or ongoing therapy compared with those with subsequent loss of efficacy: medians 95 μg/g (33-308) and 670 μg/g (264-1473), P < 0.0001. The S-IFX median was substantially higher in patients with either remission or ongoing therapy, compared with those with no or loss of efficacy: 3.7 mg/L (1.8-5.4) and 1.2 mg/L (0.03-4.4, P = 0.01), respectively. Measuring IFX trough levels and fecal calprotectin has a potential impact on the treatment strategies and should be included in clinical routine. Low IFX trough levels associate with increased antibodies to IFX in most, but not in all cases.

  1. Shape evolution of Ne isotopes and Ne hypernuclei: The interplay of pairing and tensor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li A.


    Full Text Available We study tensor and pairing effects on the quadruple deformation of neon isotopes based on a deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model with BCS approximation for the pairing channel. We extend the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock formalism for the description of hypernuclei adopting the recently-proposed ESC08b hyperon-nucleon interaction. It is found that the interplay of pairing and tensor interactions is crucial to derive the deformations in several neon isotopes. Especially, the shapes of 26,30Ne are studied in details in comparisons with experimentally observed shapes. Furthermore the deformations of the hypernuclei are compared with the corresponding neon isotopic cores in the presence of tensor force. We find the same shapes with somewhat smaller deformations for single Λ-hypernuclei compared with their core deformations.

  2. Active spreading processes at ultraslow mid-ocean ridges: Unusual seismicity at the amagmatic Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Läderach, Christine; Schlindwein, Vera; Riedel, Carsten


    Lena Trough is the southern continuation of the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge and with its position in the Fram Strait between Greenland and Spitsbergen it is the only deep-sea gateway to the Arctic Ocean. DFG funded Emmy Noether group 'Mid-Ocean Volcanoes and Earthquakes' located at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research is focusing on the seismicity of ultraslow spreading ridges and is especially interested in Lena Trough as an ultraslow spreading ridge in a developing stage. The southern Lena Trough shows similarities to the northern Red Sea spreading centre which is in the early stage of development from continental to oceanic rift. Cochran postulated in 2003 that the continental crust within the water-covered Red Sea is less than 10 km thick and that the northern part of the Red Sea rift spreads ultraslow as well. At Lena Trough an actively spreading mid-ocean ridge with a narrow rift valley has already developed but continental crust lies within a short distance. Lena Trough is extending from 83°N/5°W to 80.3°N/2°W where it passes into the transform fault of the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. The geometry of Lena Trough and certain asymmetric structures in the rift valley indicate oblique spreading and mostly tectonic and amagmatic rifting. There are several topographic highs west of the ridge axis which could be bounded by deep faults with normal faulting or detachment character exposing mantle material at the surface. Seismicity at the Lena Trough shows apparently the same asymmetric character with epicenters of teleseismically recorded earthquakes concentrating predominantly west of the ridge axis. The most frequent focal mechanism of the earthquakes within the rift valley is normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faults occur in the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. We relocalized teleseismic earthquakes recorded from May 1973 to April 2009 in the region using a refined localization algorithm and could confirm systematic asymmetry in the

  3. Topography and distribution of central graben in Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section (United States)

    Luan, X.; Qin, Y.


    Based on geophysical data obtained by R/V "Science 1¡± of Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) and R/V "Xiangyanghong 9¡± of State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in a 200 km long area of Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section recent years, we show the topography and distribution of central graben in great detail for the first time. Central graben within Miyoko Section is separated into 9 discontinuous segments by strike slip faults, from north to south namely Laoshan, Huangdao, Jiaonan, Jiaozhou, Pingdu, Jimo, Laixi, Chengyang and Licang Segment respectively, and shows a dextral echelon pattern in general. By cross shapes, three types of central graben can be distinguished, namely U type, V type and half graben. U type is the most common central graben among those found in our study area. The depth of central graben is from 40 m to 250 m, wide from 6 km to 14 km, length from 17 km to 33 km. The largest water depth of Miyoko Section is 2244.4 m, found at the east side of north end bottom of Chengyang Segment (125°19.3'E, 25°49.8'N). Within the dextral echelon pattern, Huangdao, Chengyang, Licang Segment moves to the west relatively to Laoshan, Laixi and Chengyang Segment respectively, showing a local sinistral echelon pattern. The striking direction of central graben is N60°E roughly, that is 15° more to the east comparing to the striking of the Okinawa Trough. There is 6 km long overlap distance between Laixi Segment and Chengyang Segments, simile with an overlap spreading center in the Mid-Ocean Ridge. Two volcanic chains, the central axis volcanic chain which located within the central graben and the island arc volcanic chain which located at the west side of Ryukyu Island Arc are clearly found in this section. The island volcanic chain has a good continuity, but the axis volcanic chain is sporadic comparatively. From seismic profile, we understand that the development of central axis volcanic chain is after the development of central graben

  4. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions (United States)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.


    A synthetic study was carried out based on sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and mineralogical data of the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian carbonate platform of the Preafrican Trough (eastern Morocco) in order to (1) propose a 3D representation of the platform and constrain the temporal framework of the dysoxic/anoxic episodes recorded during the OAE2, (2) define and discuss the prevailing climate on the platform during this period, and (3) make comparisons with other Cenomanian-Turonian platforms. During the late Cenomanian, both before and during the CCIE (Cenomanian Carbon Isotope Excursion), the platform displayed an east-west polarity. Three third-order sequences of transgression-regression can be defined. Dysoxic conditions were developed in the sediments and the bottom waters of the deepest environment (mid- to outer-ramp setting), in the western part of the platform. Well-oxygenated waters were present in the eastern part of the platform (peritidal zone to mid-ramp environment). The climate was arid before the CCIE, becoming warm with contrasted seasons during the CCIE. This climate is associated with a low palaeoproductivity over the entire platform, along with the presence of photozoan followed by heterozoan carbonate-producers, as found also in other parts of the Saharan platform. However, such conditions are not in accordance with many studies which suggest a wet climate during the CCIE, leading to intense chemical weathering of the continent favouring the appearance of high palaeoproductivity at a global scale and the establishment of dysoxic/anoxic conditions. In the Preafrican Trough, poorly-oxygenated waters spread outwards from the deep basins and covered the platform in response to sea-level rise. Many disturbances are recorded in the platform succession during the early Turonian, after the CCIE. Indeed, just after the C/T boundary, the development of an outer-ramp environment over the entire Preafrican Trough reflects flooding of

  5. Sedimentological Properties of Natural Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sands in the Nankai Trough and Mallik Areas (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Tsuji, T.; Waseda, A.


    The Nankai Trough parallels the Japanese Island, where extensive BSRs have been interpreted from seismic reflection records. High resolution seismic surveys have definitely indicated gas hydrate distributions, and drilling the MITI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 and the METI Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada wells in 2004 have revealed subsurface gas hydrate in the eastern part of Nankai Trough. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that also clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. During the field operations, the LWD and wire-line well log data were continuously obtained and plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand cores were recovered. Subsequence sedimentological and geochemical analyses performed on those core samples revealed the crucial geologic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrate in sediments. Pore-space gas hydrates reside in sandy sediments mostly filling intergranular porosity. Pore waters chloride anomalies, core temperature depression and core observations on visible gas hydrates confirm the presence of pore-space gas hydrates within moderate to thick sandy layers, typically 10 cm to a meter thick. Sediment porosities and pore-size distributions were obtained by mercury porosimetry, which indicate that porosities of gas hydrate-bearing sandy strata are approximately 45 %. According to grain size distribution curves, gas hydrate is dominant in fine- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Gas hydrate saturations are typically up to 80 % in pore volume throughout most of the hydrate-dominant sandy layers, which are estimated by well log analyses as well as pore water chloride anomalies. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicated that highly saturated

  6. Flaking and blistering on He and Ne bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Naramoto, H.


    Large scale exfoliation formed by 300 keV He + bombardment of niobium without any preceding blistering is investigated, in comparison with the blistering due to 450 and 850 keV Ne + bombardments. In-situ observations of the erosion processes were performed in a scanning electron microscope connected to the Van de Graaff. Critical doses of 7.2 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 , 2.4 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 and 4.0 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 were obtained for the 300 keV He flaking, 450 keV Ne blistering and 850 keV Ne blistering, respectively. The He flaking was presumed to be due to brittle fashion peeling-off of the surface layer by the bending moment driven by the internal gas pressure. The blistering, on the other hand, was presumed to be the result of the ductile fashion spreading of the lenticular bubble in the sub-surface layer. The necessary pressure for the peeling-off of the cover was calculated, and was speculated to be able to work as the driving force for the flaking from its unexpectedly low values. Fractographies under the exfoliations were discussed for both flaking and blistering. (author)

  7. Tsunami Scenario in the Nankai Trough, Japan, Based on the GPS-A and GNSS Velocities (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Watanabe, S. I.; Melgar, D.; Tadokoro, K.


    We present two local tsunami scenarios for the Nankai trough, Japan, an area of significant seismic risk, using GPS-A and GNSS velocities and two different plate interface geometries to better assess the slip deficit rate. We expand on the work of Yokota et al. [2016, Nature] by: (1) Adding seafloor data collected by Nagoya University [Tadokoro et al., 2012 GRL] at the Kumano basin, (2) Aligning the geodetic data to the Nankai block (forearc sliver) to the tectonic model of Loveless and Meade [2010 JGR] - the earlier work ignored block boundaries such as the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and may have overestimated the slip deficit rate, (3) Considering two different plate interface geometries - it is essential to use the accurate depth of the plate interface, especially for the offshore region where the faults are located near the observation sites, (4) Estimating and correcting for the postseismic displacements of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4). Based upon the refined model, we calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation assuming that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation is released instantaneously. We used the open source software GeoClaw v5.3.1, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations with the finite volume technique [LeVeque, 2002 Cambridge University Press], for the local tsunami scenarios. We present the expected tsunami propagation models and wave profiles based on the geodetically-derived distribution of slip, stressing the importance of identifying fault locations and geometries. The location of the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture is essential to assess whether the coastal area would subside or not. The sensitivity to the plate interface geometries is increased in the near-trough region. From the point of view of disaster prevention, subsidence at the southern coast would heighten the tsunami runup distance (e.g., at gauges in Shimotsu and Irago). Further

  8. Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Munoz, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.


    Highlights: → Solar hybridization improves the performance of CCGT in a very hot and dry weather. → The scheme analyzed is a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the Rankine cycle. → An annual simulation has been carried out for two locations: Almeria and Las Vegas. → Economical analysis shows that this scheme is a cheaper way to exploit solar energy. → For that, solar hybridization must be limited to a small fraction of the CCGT power. - Abstract: The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant proposed consists of a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the bottoming steam cycle of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power plant. For this analysis, the solar thermal power plant performs in a solar dispatching mode: the gas turbine always operates at full load, only depending on ambient conditions, whereas the steam turbine is somewhat boosted to accommodate the thermal hybridization from the solar field. Although the analysis is aimed to studying such complementary effects in the widest perspective, two relevant examples are given, corresponding to two well-known sites: Almeria (Spain), with a mediterranean climate, and Las Vegas (USA), with a hot and dry climate. The annual simulations show that, although the conventional CCGT power plant works worse in Las Vegas, owing to the higher temperatures, the ISCC system operates better in Las Vegas than in Almeria, because of solar hybridization is especially well coupled to the CCGT power plant in the frequent days with great solar radiation and high temperatures in Las Vegas. The complementary effect will be clearly seen in these cases, because the thermal

  9. Marine sedimentary record of the Greenpeace Trough, Larsen A embayment, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Crawford, A.; Leventer, A.; Domack, E. W.; Brachfeld, S. A.


    During research cruise NBP0003 of the Nathaniel B. Palmer, a suite of sediment cores were recovered from the Greenpeace Trough, an inner shelf feature reaching depths > 1000 meters. The trough is located within the northernmost embayment along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, a region that developed into an open marine setting following the 1995 disintegration of the Larsen A Ice Shelf. Two kasten cores have been studied, NBP0003 KC20 and KC23. Kasten core 20 has a complementary jumbo gravity core, JGC20, which over-penetrated the surface, but recovered deeper sediments and added to the stratigraphic record. The two kasten cores share a common stratigraphy that records the progression from grounded ice, to ice liftoff, to a subaqueous setting. This uppermost unit, a silty-clay, is characterized by moderately high, but variable, diatom abundance (~1-10 million valves/gram dry sediment), and episodically high abundance of fragile valves and girdle bands of the diatom species Corethron. The diatom assemblage is dominated by species from the genera Chaetoceros and Fragilariopsis. These data are indicative of productive, open marine conditions with seasonal sea ice cover, during the mid-Holocene. Recent ice shelf breakout also is documented, by increased diatom abundance in the uppermost sediments. Lower absolute diatom abundance during both the early and late Holocene suggests a sub-ice shelf setting. Within the diamict, diatom abundance is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than in the overlying sediments, and includes the occurrence of diatom fragments. Diatom and lithologic data from the sedimentary section from the jumbo gravity core indicate an overlap with the lowermost section of the kasten cores and an extension of the stratigraphy into a section characterized by the complete absence of diatom valves or fragments. In addition, the lithology of the sediments, very fine-grained and laminated, differs from the overlying sediments. The observations support

  10. Clouds and troughs of total electron content detected with the ionospheric weather index (United States)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara


    The ionospheric weather W index has been developed with the different thresholds of change in the F2 layer peak electron density NmF2 (proportional to foF2 critical frequency) or total electron content TEC relative their quiet reference for quantifying the ionosphere variability. The thresholds of DTEC=log(TEC/TECq) are selected for the positive and negative logarithm of TEC ratio to the quiet reference median, TECq, at any given location on the Earth. The global W-index maps are produced from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, and provided online at and Based on W-index maps, Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms are produced available for the users. The second generation of the ionospheric weather indices, designated V index, is recently introduced and applied for the retrospective study of GIM-TEC variability during 1999-2015. Using sliding-window statistical analysis, moving daily-hourly TEC median TECq for 15 preceding days with estimated variance bounds are obtained at cells of GIM-TEC. The ionosphere variability index, V, is expressed in terms of ΔTEC deviation from the median normalized by the standard deviation STD. V index segmentation is introduced from Vn=-4 in step of 1 to Vp=4 specifying TEC storm if an instant TEC is outside of TECq+-1STD. The global maps of V index allow distinguish the clouds of enhanced TEC (positive storm signatures) and troughs of TEC depletion (negative storm signatures) as compared to the background quiet reference TECq map. It is found that the large-scale TEC clouds and troughs are observed in space all over the world constituting up to 20-50 percent of cells of GIM-TEC. The time variation of these plasma patches is partly following to geomagnetic SSC storm onset. As concerns the interplanetary and the solar wind, SW, sources of the ionospheric storms the TEC storms are observed both with IMF and SW precursors and

  11. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.


    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  12. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.


    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  13. High H2O/Ce of K-rich MORB from Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Snow, J. E.; Feig, S. T.


    Lena Trough in the Arctic ocean is the oblique spreading continuation of Gakkel Ridge through the Fram Strait (eg Snow et al. 2011). Extreme trace element and isotopic compositions seen in Lena Trough basalt appear to be the enriched end member dominating the geochemistry of the Western Volcanic Zone of the Western Gakkel Ridge as traced by Pb isotopes, K2O/TiO2, Ba/Nb and other isotopic, major and trace element indicators of mixing (Nauret et al., 2011). This is in contrast to neighboring Gakkel Ridge which has been spreading for 50-60 million years. Basalts from Lena Trough also show a pure MORB noble gas signature (Nauret et al., 2010) and peridotites show no evidence of ancient components in their Os isotopes (Lassiter, et al., in press). The major and trace element compositions of the basalts, however are very distinct from MORB, being far more potassic than all but a single locality on the SW Indian Ridge. We determined H2O and trace element composiitions of a suite of 17 basalt glasses from the Central Lena Trough (CLT) and the Gakkel Western Volcanic Zone, including many of those previously analyzed by Nauret et al. (2012). The Western Gakkel glasses have high H2O/Ce for MORB (>300) suggesting a water rich source consistent with the idea that the northernmost Atlantic mantle is enriched in water (Michael et al., 1995). They are within the range of Eastern Gakkel host glasses determined by Wanless et al, 2013. The Lena Trough (CLT) glasses are very rich in water for MORB (>1% H2O) and are among the highest H2O/Ce (>400) ever measured in MORB aside from melt inclusions in olivine. Mantle melting dynamics and melt evolution cannot account for the H2O/Ce variations in MORB, as these elements have similar behavior during melting and crustal evolution. Interestingly, the H2O/K2O ratios in the basalts are only around 1. This is because the K2O levels in the CLT glasses are very high as well relative to REE. The absolutely linear relationship between H2O and K2O

  14. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  15. Identifying the "Foot of the Continental Slope" of high-latitude continental margins influenced by trough mouth fans (United States)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan


    The continental slope of high-latitude margins often include trough mouth fans, which are sediment fans situated in front of large troughs crossing the continental shelf. The troughs acted as corridors for paleo-ice streams, sectors of fast-flowing ice within the large ice sheets of the last glacial maximum as well as previous glacials. The paleo-ice streams were highly efficient erosional agents, eroding and transporting large volumes of sediments to the continental shelf edge. Here, these sediments were released to move downslope as large debris flows, the "building blocks" of these fans. Due to the very large sediment volume included within these fans, they represent prominent depocenters forming low-gradient sectors (axial gradient often being as low as 1 degree or less) with no clear morphological distinction of the continental slope including its lower limit. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the criteria provided in Article 76 includes the lower limit or "foot" of the continental slope as one important parameter in the extended Continental Shelf delineation (i.e. beyond the 200 M exclusive economic zone). Because of this, the Norwegian submission regarding the outer limits of the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean argued that the origin of the sub-sea floor sediments on the slope needed to be considered when identifying the location of the foot of the continental slope. This was done by mapping the outer limits of the large debris flow deposits of the trough mouth fans, deposits that without doubt have their origin from the continental shelf. Thus, in these cases, the foot of the continental slope coincide with the downslope termination of the large debris flow deposits and the outer limit of the continental shelf lies 60 M beyond this point. The data used for mapping includes swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and short sediment samples (< 10 m), and we present and discuss examples from the Bear Island Trough Mouth

  16. Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki M


    Full Text Available Masafumi Seki,1,* Kaori Yabuno,1,2,* Koji Miyawaki,1,2 Yoshihiro Miwa,2 Kazunori Tomono11Division of Infection Control and Prevention, 2Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.Method: A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1, 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2, and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3 of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28 with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27 of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively.Results: The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively. However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively.Conclusion: These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L. However, 15–20

  17. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.


    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  18. The KM3NeT project: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Margiotta


    Full Text Available KM3NeT is an international consortium involving more than 300 scientists from 10 EU countries. Its main objective is the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea that will also host an interdisciplinary observatory for marine sciences. KM3NeT has been included in the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI. Very high energy neutrinos are important messengers to study non-thermal phenomena in the Universe. The pioneering ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope projects include the extensive R&D knowledge base behind the KM3NeT project. A Technical Design Report has been published that describes the technological solutions chosen for the detector. The present status of the project is presented.

  19. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  20. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.


    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  1. Level-resolved R-matrix calculations for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, J. A.; Lee, T. G.; Ballance, C. P.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.


    Large-scale R-matrix calculations are carried out for the electron-impact excitation of Ne 3+ and Ne 6+ . For Ne 3+ , a 581-LSJ-level R-matrix intermediate coupling frame transformation calculation is made for excitations up to the n=4 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 23-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 22-LSJ-level R-matrix jj omega (JAJOM) calculations. For Ne 6+ , a 171-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation is made for excitations up to the n=5 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 46-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 46-LSJ-level R-matrix JAJOM calculations. Together with existing R-matrix calculations for other ion stages, high-quality excitation data are now available for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling along the entire Ne isonuclear sequence.

  2. Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Román


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, the climatic conditions of the city of Queretaro (Mexico are considered. Two periods were taken into account: from July 2006 to June 2007 and on 6 January 2011. The prototype, located at CICATA-IPN, Qro, was analyzed in two different scenarios i.e., with 100% of electricity and 100% of solar energy. The results showed that thermoeconomic costs for the heating process with electricity, inside the chamber, are less than those using solar heating. This may be ascribed to the high cost of the materials, fittings, and manufacturing of the solar equipment. Also, the influence of the mass flow, aperture area, length and diameter of the receiver of the solar prototype is a parameter for increasing the efficiency of the prototype in addition to the price of manufacturing. The optimum design parameters are: length is 3 to 5 m, mass flow rate is 0.03 kg/s, diameter of the receiver is around 10 to 30 mm and aperture area is 3 m2.

  3. Shallow hydrothermal regime of the East Brawley and Glamis known geothermal resource areas, Salton Trough, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Sass, J.H.; Brook, C.A.; Munroe, R.J.


    Thermal gradients and thermal conductivities were obtained in real time using an in situ heat-flow technique in 15 shallow (90 to 150 m) wells drilled between Brawley and Glamis in the Imperial Valley, Southern California. The in situ measurements were supplemented by follow-up conventional temperature logs in seven of the wells and by laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity on drill cuttings. The deltaic sedimentary material comprising the upper approx. 100 m of the Salton Trough generally is poorly sorted and high in quartz resulting in quite high thermal conductivities (averaging 2.0 Wm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ as opposed to 1.2 to 1.7 for typical alluvium). A broad heat-flow anomaly with maximum of about 200 mWm/sup -2/ (approx. 5 HFU) is centered between Glamis and East Brawley and is superimposed on a regional heat-flow high in excess of 100 mWm/sup -2/ (> 2.5 HFU). The heat-flow high corresponds with a gravity maximum and partially with a minimum in electrical resistivity, suggesting the presence of a hydrothermal system at depth in this area.

  4. Velocity profiles from borehole seismic in a methane hydrate bearing interval in the eastern Nankai Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Katayama, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Armstrong, P. [Schlumberger, Sagamihara (Japan); Murray, D. [Schlumberger Oilfield Services, Beijing (China); Fukuhara, M. [Schlumberger Moscow Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Inamori, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan)


    In this study, offset vertical seismic profile (OVSP) surveys were conducted to determine seismic velocity profiles for a gas hydrate-bearing interval in the eastern Nankai trough. The survey was used to acquire converted shear waves as well as a 0 offset (ZVSP) survey. The velocity profiles were used to identify and characterize the hydrate deposits in the interval. The study also evaluated the performance of a borehole seismic and sonic measuring tool. An analysis of the OVSP data demonstrated the presence of mode conversion points at the top of the interval as well as at the top and the bottom of a hydrate-concentrated zone. A travel time inversion and parametric inversion process was then used to estimate compressional and shear wave velocities from the shear and direct waves obtained from the ZVSP. Interval velocities from the VSP were then compared with velocities obtained from a sonic log. Results of the comparison indicated that interval velocity profiles increased in the hydrate-bearing zone and decreased at the base of the zone. Seismic and sonic velocities obtained using the tools showed good agreement with each other. However, significant differences were observed in compressional velocities. Velocity discrepancies in the seismic and sonic surveys were attributed to sensitivities related to existing free gas in the area. The borehole seismic tool also acquired additional information in the presence of low saturation gases. It was concluded that a combination of compressional and shear wave data can be used to characterize formation properties. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Delineation of methane hydrate concentrated zone using 3D seismic data in the eastern Nankai Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T.; Fujii, T.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nagakubo, S.; Takano, O. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology Research and Development Dept.


    Methane hydrates are ice-like material compounds consisting of methane and water molecules that are stable under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions. Underground storage of methane hydrate in deepwater and permafrost regions has been investigated as a future energy resource. The Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan has been conducting an exploration study in the eastern Nankai Trough since 2001. Seismic surveys, multi-well drilling campaigns and other geological surveys have shown that methane hydrate reserves were created by turbidite sand layers. The methane hydrate bearing zones have been categorized into (1) methane hydrate concentrated zones, and (2) methane hydrate bearing zones other than concentrated zones. An optimal interpretation workflow was developed to delineate methane hydrate concentrated zones. The workflow involved an evaluation and integration of 4 indicators, notably (1) a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), (2) a turbidite sequence, (3) a strong seismic reflector, and (4) a relatively higher interval velocity. More than 10 methane hydrate concentrated zones were identified and their rock volume was successfully evaluated. The results were used for the resource assessment of the study area. The authors noted that the methods introduced in this study could correspond to prospect extraction in conventional oil and gas exploration. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Nagakubo, S.; Nakamizu, M.; Yokoi, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology and Research Center


    This study investigated the methane hydrate (MH) in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan as a potential natural gas resource. The resource assessment of MH was determined from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) exploratory test wells Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) campaigns were launched at 16 sites, coring at 4 sites and wirelogging at 2 sites. This study used high resolution 2D/3D seismic data and introduced a new concept for the MH concentrated zone and applied it to resource assessment. MH bearing layers in the survey area were classified into 2 categories, notably MH concentrated zones and MH bearing layers other than relatively thin, low saturated MH layers. The total amount of methane gas in place was estimated to be 40 tcf as Pmean value (10 tcf as P90, 82 tcf as P10). More than 10 prospective MH concentrated zones were extracted. They were characterized by high resistivity well logs, strong seismic reflectors, high p-wave interval velocity and turbidite deposits delineated by sedimentary facies analysis. The total gas in place for MH concentrated zones was estimated to be 20 tcf (half of the total amount) as Pmean value. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the net-to-gross ratio and methane pore saturation have higher sensitivity than other parameters. As such, they are important for further detail analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.


    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  8. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  9. Fresh water seepage and pore water recycling on the seafloor: Sagami Trough subduction zone, Japan (United States)

    Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Wakita, H.; Gamo, T.; Masuzawa, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Nakamura, T.


    We collected 19 samples of bottom sea water (including 8 samples of shimmering fluid), using the Japanese submersible Shinkai 2000, in the bathyal Calyptogena community area (the Hatsushima area) along Sagami Trough, at the northern end of the Philippine Sea plate, in order to clarify the source of fluid seepage. Shimmering fluid samples showed a maximum temperature of 11.6°C, which is about 9°C higher than the ambient sea water. The fluid chemistry of these samples is summarized as follows: (1) alkalinity, H 2S, SiO 2, NH 4, ΣCO 2 and CH 4 show enrichment and Cl, SO 4, K, Na, Mg and Ca show depletion compared with ambient sea water; (2) Cl depletion is about 20%; and (3) the content and 3He/4He ratio of dissolved helium show little anomaly compared with ambient sea water. The observed chemical composition and temperature of the fluid is well explained by mixing of sea water, pore water and land-derived groundwater with a temperature of about 40°C and a seeping flux of about 400 m 3 per day. A preliminary estimation of the global chemical flux implies that groundwater discharge to the ocean (including pore water recycling) is an important factor in controlling ocean chemistry.

  10. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); McBride, Troy O. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Brambles, Oliver J. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Cashin, Emil A. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)


    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  11. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.


    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. [Survival of VTEC O157 and non-O157 in water troughs and bovine feces]. (United States)

    Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L


    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomarkers, carbon isotopic composition and source rock potentials of Awgu coals, middle Benue trough, Nigeria (United States)

    Adedosu, Taofik A.; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O.; Tuo, Jincai; Ekundayo, Olusegun


    Coal and carbonaceous shale samples were collected from two boreholes (BH 94 and BH 120) in Awgu formation of Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Source rock potentials of the samples were studied using biomarkers and carbon isotopic composition. Biomarkers in the aliphatic fractions in the samples were studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Carbon isotope analysis of individual n-alkanes in the aliphatic fraction was performed using Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GC-IRMS). The abundance of hopanes, homohopanes (C31-C35), and C29 steranes in the samples indicate terrestrial plant, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria contributions to the organic matter that formed the coal. High (Pr/Ph) ratio (3.04-11.07) and isotopic distribution of individual alkanes showed that the samples consisted of mixed terrestrial/marine organic matter deposited under oxic condition in lacustrine-fluvial/deltaic depositional environment. The maturity parameters derived from biomarker distributions showed that the samples are in the main phase of oil window.

  14. The magma plumbing system in the Mariana Trough back-arc basin at 18° N (United States)

    Lai, Zhiqing; Zhao, Guangtao; Han, Zongzhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Min; Tian, Liyan; Liu, Bo; Bu, Xuejiao


    Mafic magmas are common in back-arc basin, once stalled in the crust, these magmas may undergo different evolution. In this paper, compositional and textural variations of plagioclase as well as mineral-melt geothermobarometry are presented for basalts erupted from the central Mariana Trough (CMT). These data reveal crystallization conditions and we attempt a reconstruction of the magma plumbing system of the CMT. Plagioclase megacrysts, phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, microlites, olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene have been recognized in basalt samples, using BSE images and compositional features. The last three minerals are homogeneous as microphenocrysts. Mineral-melt barometry indicates that plagioclase crystals crystallized and eventually grew into phenocrysts and megacrysts in mush zone with depth of 5-9 km, in which the normal zoning plagioclases crystallized in the interval of various batches of basic magma recharging. Plagioclase megacrysts and phenocrysts were dissolved and/or resorbed, when new basic magmas injected into the mush zone near Moho depth. It is inferred that magma extracted from the mush zone, and adiabatically ascended via different pathways. Some basaltic magmas underwent plagioclase and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts crystallization in low-pressure before eruption. Plagioclase microlites and outermost rims probably crystallized after eruption.

  15. Thermal Energy Recovery through Optimal Salt concentration in a Parabolic Trough Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsurn Rikesh


    Full Text Available Making a PVT system hybrid is to support the use of thermal and electrical energy simultaneously or independently, to control the thermal effect to improve electrical efficiency or vice-versa. This project makes use of the Parabolic Trough design with emphasis on making the system to be sustainable and also increasing the thermal efficiency of the system. Polystyrene and acrylic foam is utilized to maximize the heat retention capability of the system. To power, the pump that moves the heat transfer fluid (tested with salt water proportions within the copper tube, a set of solar PV panel is to support its power demand making it sustainable. The closed loop setup designed achieved an improved thermal efficiency level of 66.2%, which contributes to having a reliable heat energy source for applications such as hot showers. The novel setup design also makes use of PV cells to support other energy demands through power electronic control designs. Using a similar heat dissipation technique, a novel setup has been designed to improve the voltage supply by making use of liquid cooling and translucent glass PV panels. Cooling the PV panel restored up to 11.7% of its rated voltage supply. This is achieved by keeping the PV panels within its best thermal operating conditions using an energy efficient electronically controlled cooling system.

  16. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun


    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  17. Fault zone characteristics and basin complexity in the southern Salton Trough, California (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Ma, Yiran; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Fuis, Gary S.; Han, Liang


    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley (California, USA), a seismically active area with deformation distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project to construct a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model down to 8 km depth and a velocity profile to 15 km depth, both at 1 km grid spacing. A VP = 5.65–5.85 km/s layer of possibly metamorphosed sediments within, and crystalline basement outside, the valley is locally as thick as 5 km, but is thickest and deepest in fault zones and near seismicity lineaments, suggesting a causative relationship between the low velocities and faulting. Both seismicity lineaments and surface faults control the structural architecture of the western part of the larger wedge-shaped basin, where two deep subbasins are located. We estimate basement depths, and show that high velocities at shallow depths and possible basement highs characterize the geothermal areas.

  18. A study of panoramic focal trough for the six-year-old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yeon; Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Lee, Sul Mi


    To make a focal trough (image layer) for an average maxillary dental arch of 6-year-old Korean in panoramic radiography. Phantom for the maxillary dental arch was designed using intercanine width, intermolar width, tooth size, and interdental spacing to record the data of 6-year-old child. The characteristics of pre-corrected panoramic machine (for adult) was evaluated using the phantom, resolution test pattern for margin of the image layer, and metal ball for the center of the image layer. Panoramic image layer of the child was developed by means of decreasing the speed of film-cassette and positioning the phantom backwards, and then the characteristics of post-corrected panoramic machine (for child) were reevaluated. At post-corrected panoramic image layer, beam projection angles at all interdental areas increased for about 2.6 - 3.8 .deg., the position of the image layer was shifted toward the rotation center for about 2.5 mm at the deciduous central incisior area. The width of image layer decreased at all areas. Increased beam projection angle will reduce the disadvantage of tooth overlap, and the same form between the center of the image layer and dental arch will improve image resolution.

  19. The Characteristics of Fluid Potential in Mud Diapirs Associated with Gas Hydrates in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu


    Full Text Available Many mud diapirs have been identified in the southern Okinawa Trough from a seismic survey using R/V KEXUE I in 2001. The movement and accumulation of free gas related to mud diapirs are discussed in detail by an analysis of fluid potential which is based upon velocity data. It can be found that free gas moves from the higher fluid potential strata to the lower ones and the gas hydrate comes into being during free gas movement meeting the proper criteria of temperature and pressure. In fact, gas hydrates have been found in the upper layers above the mud diapirs and in host rocks exhibiting other geophysical characteristics. As the result of the formation of the gas hydrate, the free gas bearing strata are enclosed by the gas hydrate bearing strata. Due to the high pressure anomalies of the free gas bearing strata the fluid potential increases noticeably. It can then be concluded that the high fluid potential anomaly on the low fluid potential background may be caused by the presence of the free gas below the gas hydrate bearing strata.

  20. Small-Sized Parabolic Trough Collector System for Solar Dehumidification Application: Design, Development, and Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadar Chaudhary


    Full Text Available The current study presents a numerical and real-time performance analysis of a parabolic trough collector (PTC system designed for solar air-conditioning applications. Initially, a thermodynamic model of PTC is developed using engineering equation solver (EES having a capacity of around 3 kW. Then, an experimental PTC system setup is established with a concentration ratio of 9.93 using evacuated tube receivers. The experimental study is conducted under the climate of Taxila, Pakistan in accordance with ASHRAE 93-1986 standard. Furthermore, PTC system is integrated with a solid desiccant dehumidifier (SDD to study the effect of various operating parameters such as direct solar radiation and inlet fluid temperature and its impact on dehumidification share. The experimental maximum temperature gain is around 5.2°C, with the peak efficiency of 62% on a sunny day. Similarly, maximum thermal energy gain on sunny and cloudy days is 3.07 kW and 2.33 kW, respectively. Afterwards, same comprehensive EES model of PTC with some modifications is used for annual transient analysis in TRNSYS for five different climates of Pakistan. Quetta revealed peak solar insolation of 656 W/m2 and peak thermal energy 1139 MJ with 46% efficiency. The comparison shows good agreement between simulated and experimental results with root mean square error of around 9%.

  1. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.


    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  2. Optimization of a Solar-Driven Trigeneration System with Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bellos


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is powered by the rejected heat of the ORC. Toluene, n-octane, Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM and cyclohexane are the examined working fluids in the ORC. The use of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Syltherm 800 (base fluid is investigated in the solar field loop. The analysis is performed with Engineering Equation Solver (EES under steady state conditions in order to give the emphasis in the exergetic optimization of the system. Except for the different working fluid investigation, the system is optimized by examining three basic operating parameters in all the cases. The pressure in the turbine inlet, the temperature in the ORC condenser and the nanofluid concentration are the optimization variables. According to the final results, the combination of toluene in the ORC with the CuO nanofluid is the optimum choice. The global maximum exergetic efficiency is 24.66% with pressure ratio is equal to 0.7605, heat rejection temperature 113.7 °C and CuO concentration 4.35%.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Dual-axis Tracking System of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (United States)

    Ullah, Fahim; Min, Kang


    A parabolic trough solar collector with the concentration ratio of 24 was developed in the College of Engineering; Nanjing Agricultural University, China with the using of the TracePro software an optical model built. Effects of single-axis and dual-axis tracking modes, azimuth and elevating angle tracking errors on the optical performance were investigated and the thermal performance of the solar collector was experimentally measured. The results showed that the optical efficiency of the dual-axis tracking was 0.813% and its year average value was 14.3% and 40.9% higher than that of the eat-west tracking mode and north-south tracking mode respectively. Further, form the results of the experiment, it was concluded that the optical efficiency was affected significantly by the elevation angle tracking errors which should be kept below 0.6o. High optical efficiency could be attained by using dual-tracking mode even though the tracking precision of one axis was degraded. The real-time instantaneous thermal efficiency of the collector reached to 0.775%. In addition, the linearity of the normalized efficiency was favorable. The curve of the calculated thermal efficiency agreed well with the normalized instantaneous efficiency curve derived from the experimental data and the maximum difference between them was 10.3%. This type of solar collector should be applied in middle-scale thermal collection systems.

  4. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín


    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  5. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia


    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  6. The Pyramid Trough Wetland: environmental and biological diversity in a newly created Antarctic protected area. (United States)

    Jungblut, Anne D; Wood, Susanna A; Hawes, Ian; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Harris, Colin


    The Pyramid Trough (Lat 78°S) has recently gained protection under the Antarctic Treaty system, owing to its wetland values. Here, we describe the microbial diversity of this system, with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and evaluate environment-biota relationships. Geochemistry separates ponds along hydrological gradients receiving recent inflows of dilute meltwater, from a second group that is rarely inundated and where chemistry is dominated by evaporation. Cyanobacteria-based microbial mats dominated the biota throughout. Mats were characterized by light-microscopy, pigment analysis, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. A total of 17 morphotypes and 21 ribotypes were identified, mostly Oscillatoriales and several taxa that are usually rare in continental Antarctica, including Chroococcales and scytomin-rich Calothrix/Dichothrix, were abundant. There was a general decline in cyanobacterial diversity with increasing conductivity, but weak support for either differences in community composition between the two groups of ponds or sorting of taxa along the hydrological gradients with the pond groups. This implies a broad environmental tolerance and a prevalence of neutral assembly mechanisms in cyanobacterial communities of Antarctic wetland ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua


    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C 16 and C 18 . The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Keith


    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  9. DAΦNE Control System status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Milardi, C.; Sannibale, F.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.


    The DAΦNE Control System allowed the step by step commissioning of the major subsystems as they were installed, proving to be modular and extensible. Recently the guidelines of the Control System evolution concerned the development of machine operational procedures and the integration of diagnostic tools. Particular attention has been reserved to the problem of saving and restoring element data sts as well as to the DAΦNE general data handling. A system overview including installation status, features, and operation results is presented

  10. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT (United States)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.


    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Luigi Antonio


    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  13. Near-threshold electron impact ionization of Ne and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, B R; Khakoo, M A; Keane, K


    Doubly differential cross-sections for the single electron impact ionization of Ne and Xe have been measured at several energies below the second ionization energy. The results indicate that the ionization of Ne is strongly influenced by the polarization of the ionized 2 2 P 3/2,1/2 core, where as this influence is significantly reduced for Xe. Single differential cross-sections are derived from the doubly differential cross-sections and for Xenon these show profiles similar to Helium ('smile'), whereas for Neon they show a dissimilar profile ('frown').

  14. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ne-N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, A.F.V.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.


    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors, such as the ALICE TPC or in the NEXT experiment. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Ne-N 2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two peaks for different gas ratios of Ne-N 2 , low reduced electric fields, E / N , 10–20 Td (2.4–4.8 kV·cm −1 ·bar −1 ), low pressures 6–8 Torr (8–10.6 mbar) and at room temperature.

  15. Plastic scintillator response to relativistic Ne, Ar, Fe IONS (United States)

    Salamon, M. H.; Ahlen, S. P.


    The response to relativistic (0-600 MeV/amu) Ne, Ar, and Fe ions and to cosmic ray muons of four widely used commercial plastic scintillators, NE110, Pilot Y, Pilot F, and Pilot B, is discussed. Fitted expressions for scintillation efficiency for each scintillator and charge are given, and these are compared with the predictions of both the Voltz model and a modification of the Birks model. Resolution measurements demonstrate the relative roles of the halo and quenched core in heavy ion response, and point to a novel use for plastic scintillators.



    Kirn, Andrej


    Sve veći ekološki problemi zahtijevaju širenje etičke regulacije čovjekova odnosa spram prirode. Tome se suprotstavlja cijela antropocentrično zasnovana europska kultura, a osobito njezina antropocentrično ograničena, agresivna ekonomija i etika. Europski etički antropocentrizam ima dva izvora: grčku kulturu i židovsko-kršćansku misao. U okviru antropocentrične etike moralnost se ograničava na ljudsku zajednicu, na zajednicu slobodnih i razumnih ljudi. Bitna ograničenost antropocentrične etik...

  17. Particle Directional Conveyance under Longitudinal Vibration by considering the Trough Surface Texture: Numerical Simulation Based on the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhi Chen


    Full Text Available Particles can move directionally in a trough with finlike asperities under longitudinal vibrations. Here, we present an analysis of the particle conveyance mechanism and the influence of the asperity shape on the particle conveyance capacity by employing a numerical simulation based on the discrete element method (DEM. A dynamic-static matching method is proposed to characterize the three microcontact parameters in the simulation: the restitution coefficient, static friction coefficient, and rolling friction coefficient. The simulation shows that the asymmetric force induced by the finlike asperities and its cumulative effect over time lead to the particle directional conveyance. The conveyance velocity increases with increasing vibration time and is related to the median coordination number. The asperity height and slope inclination angles determine the trough shape and distance between two asperities directly. An undersized or oversized distance reduces the steady conveyance velocity. We find the optimal distance to be between one and two particle diameters.

  18. Suitability analysis of waste rock application in hydric reclamation in the natural water-bearing subsidence troughs in OKR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertile, E.


    The paper deals with a suitability analysis of waste rock application in hydric reclamation on the basis of studying its impact on water quality in the natural water-bearing subsidence troughs. The evaluation was carried out in sixteen localities where waste rock had been used in the past for the purposes of bank system improvement. Within the evaluation of waste rock impact on the hydrochemical character of water in the subsidence troughs the values of geochemical background were identified. In order to compare the impact of waste rock on the quality of water, changes in the hydrochemical parameters were monitored in the localities without waste rock banking, with partial (maximum 1/2 circumference) and complete waste rock banking. (author)

  19. Back-Arc Opening in the Western End of the Okinawa Trough Revealed From GNSS/Acoustic Measurements (United States)

    Chen, Horng-Yue; Ikuta, Ryoya; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Kohmi, Takeru; Wang, Chau-Chang; Yu, Shui-Beih; Tu, Yoko; Tsujii, Toshiaki; Ando, Masataka


    We measured seafloor movement using a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/Acoustic technique at the south of the rifting valley in the western end of the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin, 60 km east of northeastern corner of Taiwan. The horizontal position of the seafloor benchmark, measured eight times between July 2012 and May 2016, showed a southeastward movement suggesting a back-arc opening of the Okinawa Trough. The average velocity of the seafloor benchmark shows a block motion together with Yonaguni Island. The westernmost part of the Ryukyu Arc rotates clockwise and is pulled apart from the Taiwan Island, which should cause the expansion of the Yilan Plain, Taiwan. Comparing the motion of the seafloor benchmark with adjacent seismicity, we suggest a gentle episodic opening of the rifting valley accompanying a moderate seismic activation, which differs from the case in the segment north off-Yonaguni Island where a rapid dyke intrusion occurs with a significant seismic activity.

  20. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  1. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones


    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  2. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: Numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios (United States)

    Kim, S.; Saito, T.; Fukuyama, E.; Kang, T. S.


    Historical documents in Korea and China report abnormal waves in the sea and rivers close to the date of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which occurred in the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. This indicates that the tsunami caused by the Hoei earthquake might have reached Korea and China, which suggests a potential hazard in Korea from large earthquakes in the Nankai Trough. We conducted tsunami simulations to study the details of tsunamis in Korea caused by large earthquakes. We employed the 1707 Hoei earthquake source model and physics-based scenarios of anticipated earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone. We also considered the effect of horizontal displacement on tsunami generation. Our simulation results from the Hoei earthquake model and the anticipated earthquake models showed that the maximum tsunami height along the Korean coast was less than 0.5 m. Even though the tsunami is not life-threatening, the effect of larger earthquakes should be still considered.

  3. Second Generation Novel High Temperature Commercial Receiver & Low Cost High Performance Mirror Collector for Parabolic Solar Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)


    Norwich Technologies (NT) is developing a disruptively superior solar field for trough concentrating solar power (CSP). Troughs are the leading CSP technology (85% of installed capacity), being highly deployable and similar to photovoltaic (PV) systems for siting. NT has developed the SunTrap receiver, a disruptive alternative to vacuum-tube concentrating solar power (CSP) receivers, a market currently dominated by the Schott PTR-70. The SunTrap receiver will (1) operate at higher temperature (T) by using an insulated, recessed radiation-collection system to overcome the energy losses that plague vacuum-tube receivers at high T, (2) decrease acquisition costs via simpler structure, and (3) dramatically increase reliability by eliminating vacuum. It offers comparable optical efficiency with thermal loss reduction from ≥ 26% (at presently standard T) to ≥ 55% (at high T), lower acquisition costs, and near-zero O&M costs.

  4. Analysis of fine ELF wave structures observed poleward from the ionospheric trough by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Nĕmec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej


    Roč. 119, č. 3 (2014), s. 2052-2060 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : trough * EMIC * substorm Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014

  5. Constraints on mantle melt geometries from body wave attenuation in the Salton Trough and Snake River Plain (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Bezada, M.


    Melt can be retained in the mantle at triple junctions between grain boundaries, be spread in thin films along two-grain boundaries, or be organized by shear into elongate melt-rich bands. Which of these geometries is most prevalent is unknown. This ambiguity makes the interpretation of anomalous seismic velocities and quality factors difficult, since different geometries would result in different mechanical effects. Here, we compare observations of seismic attenuation beneath the Salton Trough and the Snake River Plain; two regions where the presence of melt has been inferred. The results suggest that seismic attenuation is diagnostic of melt geometry. We measure the relative attenuation of P waves from deep focus earthquakes using a time-domain method. Even though the two regions are underlain by comparably strong low-velocity anomalies, their attenuation signature is very different. The upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough is sufficiently attenuating that the presence of melt must lower Qp, while attenuation beneath the Snake River Plain is not anomalous with respect to surrounding regions. These seemingly contradictory results can be reconciled if different melt geometries characterize each region. SKS splitting from the Salton Trough suggests that melt is organized into melt-rich bands, while this is not the case for the Snake River Plain. We infer that beneath the Snake River Plain melt is retained at triple junctions between grain boundaries, a geometry that is not predicted to cause seismic attenuation. More elongate geometries beneath the Salton Trough may cause seismic attenuation via the melt-squirt mechanism. In light of these results, we conclude that prior observations of low seismic velocities with somewhat high quality factors beneath the East Pacific Rise and Southern California suggest that melt does not organize into elongate bands across much of the asthenosphere.

  6. Mirror-Image Structural Relationship Between Western Taiwan and Nankai Trough Region, Southwest Japan, and its Significance for Earthquake Forecast (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.


    Western Taiwan is characterized by west-facing imbricate structure. The westernmost sheet in Taichung area contains a depositional basin (Taichung Basin), structural high (Pleistocene uplands) and frontal thrust (e.g., Changhua Fault) from east to west. Another older sheet underlain by the Chelungpu Fault, a causative fault of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, has nearly the same tectonic components. The northern tip of each underlying thrust curves eastwards and branches out into several faults. These geologic structures are a mirror image of the structure characterizing the source areas of great earthquakes along the Nankai Trough. This fact indicates that the two regions are controlled by the same tectonics, low-angle oblique subduction, and their mirror-image relationship reflects a left oblique subduction (western Taiwan) and a right oblique one (Nankai Trough). Based on this correlation, eastward bending structure of the northernmost Chelungpu Fault near Houli can be regarded as a segment boundary. In western Taiwan, there are three other eastward bending structures correlative to the segment boundary. They are distributed near Hsihchu, near Minhsiung, and on the north of Tainan. Western Taiwan is divided into five segments 60 to 80 km long by the eastward bending structures. This segment size is nearly a half of the Nankai Trough region (120 to 150 km long) and may regulate the size of future earthquakes resulting from ruptures of these segments. In the Nankai Trough region, faults at the segment boundaries are not likely to rupture independently of reactivation of the main thrusts. In western Taiwan, however, faults at the segment boundaries may have ruptured independently of the faulting of main thrusts during the 1906 Minhsiung, 1935 Hsihchu-Taichung and 1946 Hsinhua earthquakes. This difference between the two regions remains a problem to be solved.

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Optical Evaluation and Comparison of Symmetric 2D CPC and V-Trough Collector for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul


    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental optical evaluation and comparison of symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC and V-trough collector. For direct optical properties comparison, both concentrators were deliberately designed to have the same geometrical concentration ratio (1.96, aperture area, absorber area, and maximum concentrator length. The theoretical optical evaluation of the CPC and V-trough collector was carried out using a ray-trace technique while the experimental optical efficiency and solar energy flux distributions were analysed using an isolated cell PV module method. Results by simulation analysis showed that for the CPC, the highest optical efficiency was 95% achieved in the interval range of 0° to ±20° whereas the highest outdoor experimental optical efficiency was 94% in the interval range of 0° to ±20°. For the V-tough collector, the highest optical efficiency for simulation and outdoor experiments was about 96% and 93%, respectively, both in the interval range of 0° to ±5°. Simulation results also showed that the CPC and V-trough exhibit higher variation in non-illumination intensity distributions over the PV module surface for larger incidence angles than lower incidence angles. On the other hand, the maximum power output for the cells with concentrators varied depending on the location of the cell in the PV module.

  8. PV systems with passive solar tracking and V-trough concentrators; Photovoltaikanlagen mit passiver Nachfuehrung und V-Trog Konzentratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, F.H. [Fachgebiet Photovoltaische Anlagentechnik, Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)


    Passive tracking and V-trough concentration (PV V-trough) can enhance the array yield (energy yield per installed power) of photovoltaic systems in Europe by 60% to 100% (dependent on site and configuration). By the use of simple techniques, energy costs can be decreased by 20% to 30% relative to conventional fixed-tilt PV systems. This contribution presents the passively tracked PV V-trough concentrator concept. The state-of-the-art of this technology will be demonstrated by results from two systems in Widderstall/Schwaebische Alb and Manfredonia/Apulien. The technical and economic potential of this system concept will be discussed for different climates and system configurations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Passive Nachfuehrung und V-Trog Konzentration koennen die spezifische Energieausbeute (Energieertrag pro installierter Leistung) von Photovoltaikanlagen in Europa etwa 60% bis 100% (je nach Standort und Anlagenkonfiguration) steigern. Durch den Einsatz besonders einfacher Technik koennen damit die Energiegestehungskosten gegenueber konventionellen, festorientierten Photovoltaikanlagen um ca. 20% bis 30% gesenkt werden. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Konzept der passiv nachgefuehrten Photovoltaikanlage mit V-Trog Konzentrator (PV V-Trog) vor. Der Stand der Technik wird anhand der Betriebsergebnisse von realisierten Anlagen in Widderstall/Schwaebische Alb und in Manfredonia/Apulien dargestellt. Das technische und wirtschaftliche Potential dieser Anlagentechnik wird fuer verschiedene Standorte und Systemvarianten aufgezeigt und diskutiert. (orig.)

  9. Standing and Travelling Wave Contributions to the Persistent Ridge-Trough Over North America During Winter 2013/14 (United States)

    Watt-Meyer, O.; Kushner, P. J.


    The winter season over North America during 2013/14 was dominated by a persistent ridge-trough that brought warm and dry conditions to the southwestern U.S., and markedly cold temperatures to central and eastern North America [Wang et al., 2014; Hartmann, 2015]. In addition, several cold air outbreaks occurred during the winter season, the strongest of which was around 7 January 2014 and led to minimum daily temperature records being set at many weather stations including Atlanta, Austin, Chicago and New York [Screen et al., in press]. This study uses a novel decomposition of wave variability into standing and travelling components [Watt-Meyer and Kushner, 2015] to diagnose the anomalous circulation of the 2013/14 winter season. This spectral decomposition is an improvement on previous methods because it explicitly accounts for the covariance between standing and travelling waves, and because the real-space components of the signal can be easily reconstructed. An index representing the ridge-trough dipole is computed using mid-tropospheric heights and shown to be well correlated with surface temperatures over central and eastern North America. The contributions to this dipole index from standing waves, westward travelling waves, and eastward travelling waves are calculated. The analysis demonstrates that the cold air outbreak of 7 January 2014 was driven by a synoptic wave of record breaking amplitude intensifying a persistent background amplification of the typical ridge-trough structure seen during North American winter.

  10. A Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Summer Trough Formation in the Australian Subtropical Easterlies. (United States)

    Fandry, C. B.; Leslie, L. M.


    C.B. FandryCSIRO Division of Oceanography, G.P.O. Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 7001 L.M. LeslieAustralian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre, G.P.O. Box 5089AA, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3001A dominant feature of the low-level easterly wind flow in the Australian subtropics during summer is the trough development that occurs on both the western and eastern sides of the continent. This phenomenon is investigated analytically with a two-level model. A generalized solution is derived from the steady-state quasi-geostrophic equations governing uniform flow over arbitrarily shaped orography. The model solutions indicate that orography acting alone is of only marginal importance in producing the western trough. However, the high east coast orography is of significance in the formation of the eastern trough.Land-sea temperature contrast is parameterized in terms of equivalent orography with localized surface heating being mathematically equivalent to an orographic depression. The solutions including orography and surface heating acting together simulate well the lower layer flow over the Australian subtropics.

  11. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.


    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  12. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.


    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  13. Stress tolerant plant species spread in the road-ne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena


    Roč. 14, Vol.14 (2011), s. 45-46 ISSN 1644-7298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : weed * invasive * road -ne * salinity * Poaceae Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  14. "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." : [luuletused] / Georgi Kirillov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirillov, Georgi, 1952-2016


    Autorist lk. 187. Sisu: "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." ; "Za molitvoi molitva..." ; "Zaklannõi prezhde veka Agnets..." ; "Ja zhdal tebja i tõ voshol..." ; "Nepodrazhajemoje solntse..." ; "Tshto obshtshego mezh mnoju i toboi..." ; "Pogruzhenije v odinotshestvo..." ; "Shag za shagom - k stupenjam svjatõm..." ; "Nedvizhnõ dveri sozertsanja..." ; "Vessenni vozduh..." ; "Jesli mozhno - bud miloserdnõm..."

  15. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE (United States)


    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  16. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.


    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  17. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-


    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  18. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ


    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  19. Wiiralti kaasaegsed lääne graafikas / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-


    Adamson-Ericu muuseumis näitus "Wiiralti kaasaegsed lääne graafikas", mis on koostatud Nina Poomi (sünd. 1909, H. Radevalli ema) kogusse kuulunud töödest. Näitus tutvustab E. Wiiralti sõjajärgse loomingu tausta, jäädvustab kunstikogu olemasolu

  20. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.


    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  1. Deformation effects in the 20Ne+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gupta, D.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharya, S.


    The present work has been performed with the aim to investigate the possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations of the 32 S di-nuclear systems which may be formed in the 20 Ne+ 12 C reaction by studying the properties of emitted light charged particles

  2. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy


    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  3. Sidescan Sonar Imagery of the Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge, Offshore Northern California (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Zierenberg, Robert A.


    This map features sidescan imagery of the northern Escanaba (NESCA) site at the Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge, offshore northern California. The Escanaba Trough, a largely sediment-covered seafloor spreading center, contains at least six large massive sulfide deposits. It is a slow spreading center (2.5 cm/yr) with axial depths locally exceeding 3,300 m. Discrete igneous centers occur at 5- to 10-km intervals along this slow-spreading ridge. Basaltic magma intrudes the sediment fill of the axial valley, creating uplifted sediment hills, and, in some areas, erupts onto the sea floor. Large massive sulfide deposits occur along the margins of the uplifted sediment hills. The only active hydrothermal system is located on Central Hill where 220 deg C fluids construct anhydrite chimneys on pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide mounds (Campbell and others, 1994). Central Hill is bounded by both ridge-parallel basement faults and a concentric set of faults that rim the top of the hill and may be associated with sill intrusion. Central Hill was one of the primary drill sites for Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 169. The sidescan sonar data (mosaics A, B, C, D) were collected aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) research vessel Discoverer in the summer of 1996 with a 60-kHz system towed 100 to 200 m above the sea floor. Major faults and contacts are interpreted from the sidescan mosaics and 4.5-kHz seismic profiles collected simultaneously, as well as from previously conducted camera transects and submersible dives. The seismic profiles (lines 9, 11, 13) provide high-resolution subbottom structure and stratigraphy to a depth of about 50 m. In the sidescan images (mosaics A, B, C, D), bright areas denote high-energy returns from hard reflectors such as volcanic flows, sulfide deposits, or seafloor scarps. Dark areas denote low-energy returns and generally signify relatively undisturbed surface sediment. The grid lines mark one-minute intervals

  4. Decline of a Hydrothermal Vent Field - Escanaba Trough 12 Years Later (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Lilley, M. D.; McClain, J. S.; Olson, E. S.; Ross, S. L.; Von Damm, K. L.


    Hydrothermal venting was discovered in Escanaba Trough, the southern sediment-covered portion of the Gorda Ridge, in 1988. Large pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide mounds are abundant at each of the volcanic/intrusive centers that have been investigated in Escanaba Trough, but the only area of known hydrothermal venting is the NESCA site along the ridge axis at 41\\deg N. Hydrothermal fluids venting at 217\\deg C and 108\\deg C were sampled in 1988 on two sulfide mounds separated by about 275 m. The end-member fluid compositions were indistinguishable within analytical errors. Several sulfide mounds were observed in 1988 which had diffusely venting low temperature (holes were drilled in the NESCA area in 1996 on ODP Leg 169, including Hole 1036I that penetrated to basaltic basement at 405 m below sea floor (mbsf). Surveys of the area using the drill string camera located only one area of active venting at the same mound where 217\\deg C vent fluids were sampled from two active vents in 1988. Drill hole 1036A was spudded between the two active vents on this sulfide mound (approximately 4 and 8 m away) and penetrated to 115 mbsf. The NESCA site was revisited in 2000 using MBARI's R/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon. The hydrothermal vents appeared essentially identical to observations made from the drill string camera in 1996 despite the presence of a drill hole within meters of the two vents. The maximum vent temperature measured in 2000 was 212\\deg C. Fluid samples have major element and isotopic compositions very similar to those collected in 1988. The vent fluids have higher methane ( ~19 mmol/kg) than those from the geologically similar Middle Valley vent field, but lower values than those at Guaymas Basin. Drill hole 1036A was weakly venting, but the diffuse hydrothermal fluids could not be sampled with the equipment available. The walls of the drill hole were colonized by palm worms, limpets, and snails. Four other drill holes showed no hydrothermal flow nor

  5. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited) (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  6. Environmental risks of the gas hydrate field development in the Eastern Nankai Trough (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Nagakubo, S.


    To establish any kinds of new energy resources, environmental impacts of the technology should be well understood before full industrial implementation. Methane hydrate (MH), a relatively clean fossil energy with low CO2 and no SOx emission, is not an exception. Because methane gas itself has strong greenhouse gas effect, and methane hydrate is not stable under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature, public image of MH field development is very risky game and potentially disastrous to the global climate. However, the real physics of the MH bearing sediments is far different from such images. MH21 Research Consortium in Japan has studied about the resource assessment and production techniques to develop MH since 2001. As the results, we found several gas hydrate concentrated zones with pore filling type hydrate in sandy layers of turbidite sediment in the Eastern Nankai Trough area off coasts of the Central Japan. The depressurization technique, in the other word, in-situ MH dissociation by water production and natural heat supply from surrounding formation, will be used as the basic method to produce methane gas from MH. Under the conditions, we have evaluated realistic environmental risk of the MH production. Because the most MH found in the Eastern Nankai Trough are composed of biogenic and almost pure methane, there is no concern of sea water contamination by oil releases that is the most common environmental disaster caused by misconducts of the oil industry. Also MH reservoirs there are not pressurized, and blowout of wells during drilling is very unlikely. Endothermic MH dissociation process decreases formation temperature with depressurization, and give negative feedback, then, there is no chance of chain reaction. Heat supply from surrounding formations is necessary for continuous dissociation, but heat transfer in the formations is relatively slow, and the dissociation rate is limited. Once the operation to pump water in boreholes for

  7. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others


    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  8. Diagenetic evaluation of Pannonian lacustrine deposits in the Makó Trough, southeastern Hungary (United States)

    Szőcs, Emese; Milovský, Rastislav; Gier, Susanne; Hips, Kinga; Sztanó, Orsolya


    The Makó Trough is the deepest sub-basin of the Pannonian Basin. As a possible shale gas and tight gas accumulation the area was explored by several hydrocarbon companies. In this study, we present the preliminary results on the diagenetic history and the porosity evolution of sandstones and shales. Petrographic (optical microscopy, CL, blue light microscopy) and geochemical methods (SEM-EDX, WDX, O and C stable isotopes) were applied on core samples of Makó-7 well (3408- 5479 m). Processes which influenced the porosity evolution of the sandstones were compaction, cementation, mineral replacement and dissolution. The most common diagenetic minerals are carbonates (non-ferroan and Fe-bearing calcite, dolomite and ankerite), clay minerals (kaolinite, mixed layer illite-smectite and chlorite) and other silicates (quartz and feldspar). Initial clay mineral and ductile grain content also influences reservoir quality. The volumetrically most significant diagenetic minerals are calcite and clay minerals. The petrography of calcite is variable (bright orange to dull red luminescence color, pore-filling cement, replacive phases which are occasionally scattered in the matrix). The δ13 C-PDB values of calcite range from 1.7 ‰ to -5.5 ‰, while δ18 O-PDB values range from 0.5 ‰ to -9.1 ‰, no depth related trend was observed. These data suggest that calcite occurs in more generations, i.e. eogenetic pre-compactional and mesogenetic post-compactional. Kaolinite is present in mottles in size similar to detrital grains, where remnants of feldspars can be seen. This indicates feldspar alteration via influx of water rich in organic derived carbon dioxide. Secondary porosity can be observed in carbonates and feldspars at some levels, causing the improvement of the reservoir quality.

  9. Micrinite maceral evidence of hydrocarbon generation in cretaceous coal measures of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Ukpabio, E. J.; Funtua, I. I.


    Maceral analysis on samples from the coal and coal-bearing strata of the Awgu Formation in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria allows the subdivision of the coal beds and inter seam sediments into three different petrographic/coal facies, namely: a vitrinite-fusinite coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, poor in liptinite, with variable amounts of inertinite and low mineral matter content; a trimaceritic coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite with low mineral matter content; and a shaley coal facies which, expectedly, is dominated by mineral matter and has variable amounts of vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Micrinite macerals constitute 8.2% and 4.5 on mineral matter-counted basis in samples from the trimaceritic and shaley coal facies respectively. These amounts, in both cases, are considered to be very high. They occur as finely particulate, rounded grains approximately I um in diameter. Most of the micrinite are closely associated with highly reflecting, almost unrecognizable liptinite. The nature and origin of micrinite and its significance to oil and gas generation have been studied extensively. As secondary macerals, they are generally believed to be relics of oil generation from oil-prone macerals, mainly liptinitic and vitrinitic macerals with which they are closely associated. Reflectance measurements on the associated vitrinite macerals indicate a thermal maturity range of 0.74 - 1.25 % Rm. This range corresponds to the zone of oil generation in most minerogenic oil source rocks. In the study area, however, only the trimaceritic coal facies and some parts of the shaley coal facies that are rich in liptinite alongside the associated micrinite macerals are considered to have generated oil. The vitrinite-fusinite coal facies with its high content of humic organic matter (vitrinite + Inertinite) can only generate gas (wet + dry) within the given thermal maturity range

  10. Evidence of displacement-driven maturation along the San Cristobal Trough transform plate boundary (United States)

    Neely, James S.; Furlong, Kevin P.


    The San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon Islands, provides an opportunity to study the transform boundary development process. Recent seismicity (2013-2016) along the 280 km long SCT, known as a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault, highlights the tearing process and ongoing development of the plate boundary. The region's earthquakes reveal two key characteristics. First, earthquakes at the western terminus of the SCT, which we interpret to indicate the Australia plate tearing, display disparate fault geometries. These events demonstrate that plate tearing is accommodated via multiple intersecting planes rather than a single through-going fault. Second, the SCT hosts sequences of Mw ∼7 strike-slip earthquakes that migrate westward through a rapid succession of events. Sequences in 1993 and 2015 both began along the eastern SCT and propagated west, but neither progression ruptured into or nucleated a large earthquake within the region near the tear. Utilizing b-value and Coulomb Failure Stress analyses, we examine these along-strike variations in the SCT's seismicity. b-Values are highest along the youngest, western end of the SCT and decrease with increasing distance from the tear. This trend may reflect increasing strain localization with increasing displacement. Coulomb Failure Stress analyses indicate that the stress conditions were conducive to continued western propagation of the 1993 and 2015 sequences suggesting that the unruptured western SCT may have fault geometries or properties that inhibit continued rupture. Our results indicate a displacement-driven fault maturation process. The multi-plane Australia plate tearing likely creates a western SCT with diffuse strain accommodated along a network of disorganized faults. After ∼90 km of cumulative displacement (∼900,000 yr of plate motion), strain localizes and faults align, allowing the SCT to host

  11. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  12. Development of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Low Latency Salton Trough Radio Network (United States)

    Walls, C.; Miller, S.; Wilson, B.; Lawrence, S.; Arnitz, E.


    UNAVCO is developing a 20 GPS station low latency radio network that spans the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in the region of highest strain in southern California and the narrowest part of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The Salton Trough Radio Network (STRN) is instrumented with Ethernet bridge Intuicom EB6+ (900 MHz) radios to transmit a high rate low latency data stream from each permanent GPS site for the purpose of the following: 1) telemeter 15 second data (1 MB/day/station) to the Plate Boundary Observatory archive, 2) accommodate the timely download of 1 and 5 sample per second data following large earthquakes (4 MB/hour/station), and 3) test the UStream of 1Hz BINEX and RTCM data. Three of four phases have been completed. Office radio testing yielded transfer rates of 30-50 KB/s with subsecond latency while streaming 1 Hz data. Latency climbed to ~1.8 seconds while simultaneously streaming 1 Hz and downloading hourly 1 and 5 sample per second data files. Field testing demonstrated rates on the order of 30 KB/s. At present the radios are installed and have transfer rates of 10-40 KB/s between sites that span 10-32 km. The final phase will be the installation of the main telemetry relay where master radios will be connected to a high speed ISP near the town of Brawley. The high-rate low latency UStream data will be available to researchers who are developing prototype earthquake early warning systems in Southern California. A goal of the STRN is to make the data available rapidly enough for GPS-derived coseismic and dynamic displacements to be integrated into early warning system earthquake models. The improved earthquake models will better assist emergency response. UStream data will also aid surveyors who wish to use PBO GPS stations as permanent, high-quality base stations in real-time kinematic surveys.

  13. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej


    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  14. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.


    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  15. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants (United States)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim; Laumert, Björn; Haglind, Fredrik


    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential. In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated with a control strategy to account for the start-up limitations of both the turbine and steam generator. The models have been introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results indicated that for each application, an optimal heating rates range can be identified. For the specific case presented in the paper, an optimal range of 7-10 K/min of evaporator heating rate can result in a 1.7-2.1% increase in electricity production compared to a slower component (4 K/min).

  16. Controls on Submarine Canyon Development Along the Eastern Margin of the Rockall Trough (United States)

    O'Reilly, B. M.; Readman, P. W.; Shannon, P. M.; Jacob, A. B.


    Deep towed sidescan sonar data from the Rockall Trough, west of Ireland, provides an example of how shallow sedimentary facies architecture and slope morphology, related to major submarine canyons, evolve in a deep-water basin straddling the transition from a glaciated to a non-glaciated basin margin. In the north (54° to 56° N), glacial influences were overwhelming and a stacked sequence of flow slides is developed on the upper to mid-slope. In steeper regions of the slope, cauliform gully systems are likely to have been produced by gravitational collapse of Quaternary glaciomarine and older sediments close to the steeper headwall regions of incised pre- Quaternary canyons. The input of glacial sediment and the frequency of slope failure events was probably pulsed and forced by palaeoclimatic variations in the North Atlantic during the Pleistocene epoch. A difference in the morphology of the canyons south of 54° N (notably the absence of gully complexes) marks an important change in sedimentological processes and is related to a severe reduction in the supply of glaciomarine sediments southwards along the margin. Channels along this part of the basin margin are deeply incised into consolidated sediments or rock along the lower part of the slope. These channels may be part of geologically ancient system of canyons, which were active during a period of basin margin uplift and later drowned by rapid Tertiary subsidence. Subsequently, they acted as a transport pathway for late Tertiary and Quaternary sediments and for those remobilized by strong Holocene contour currents.

  17. Higher infliximab trough levels are associated with perianal fistula healing in patients with Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Yarur, A J; Kanagala, V; Stein, D J; Czul, F; Quintero, M A; Agrawal, D; Patel, A; Best, K; Fox, C; Idstein, K; Abreu, M T


    Infliximab has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of fistulas in the setting of Crohn's disease, even though some patients do not benefit from therapy. To assess the correlation between perianal fistula healing and trough levels of infliximab. In this cross-sectional study, we identified patients with Crohn's disease who had perianal fistulas and were treated with infliximab for at least 24 weeks. We excluded patients who underwent a faecal diversion procedure or proctectomy. Predictive variables included demographics, disease phenotype, disease activity, infliximab levels, anti-infliximab antibodies. The primary outcome was fistula healing defined as the absence of drainage. The secondary outcome was complete fistula closure and mucosal healing. 117 patients were included. Patients with fistula healing had significantly higher median serum infliximab levels when compared to those with active fistulas [15.8 vs. 4.4 μg/mL, respectively (P infliximab levels. The AUC for the association between fistula healing and infliximab levels was 0.82 (P infliximab levels and fistula closure was 0.69 (P = 0.014). Patients with anti-infliximab antibodies had a lower chance of achieving fistula healing (OR: 0.04 [95%CI: 0.005-0.3], P infliximab levels and rates of fistula healing. Achieving infliximab levels ≥10.1 mcg/mL in patients with Crohn's disease and perianal fistulas may improve outcomes as part of a treat-to-target strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Deepest and hottest hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough: the Yokosuka site at Yaeyama Knoll (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junichi; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Ayu; Kitada, Kazuya; Torimoto, Junji; Matsui, Yohei; Tasumi, Eiji; Shibuya, Takazo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Horai, Shunsuke; Sato, Shun; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kanzaki, Hayato; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Okino, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiromi Kayama; Kumagai, Hidenori; Chen, Chong


    Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these `extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved. Here, the Yokosuka site (2190 m), the first OT vent exceeding 2000 m depth is reported. A highly active hydrothermal vent site centred around four active vent chimneys reaching 364°C in temperature, it is the hottest in the OT. Notable Cl depletion (130 mM) and both high H2 and CH4 concentrations (approx. 10 mM) probably result from subcritical phase separation and thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter. Microbiota and fauna were generally similar to other sites in the OT, although with some different characteristics. In terms of microbiota, the H2-rich vent fluids in Neuschwanstein chimney resulted in the dominance of hydrogenotrophic chemolithoautotrophs such as Thioreductor and Desulfobacterium. For fauna, the dominance of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus aduloides is surprising given other nearby vent sites are usually dominated by B. platifrons and/or B. japonicus, and a sponge field in the periphery dominated by Poecilosclerida is unusual for OT vents. Our insights from the Yokosuka site implies that although the distribution of animal species may be linked to depth, the constraint is perhaps not water pressure and resulting chemical properties of the vent fluid but instead physical properties of the surrounding seawater. The potential significance of these preliminary results and prospect for future research on this unique site are discussed.

  19. Deepest and hottest hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough: the Yokosuka site at Yaeyama Knoll. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junichi; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Ayu; Kitada, Kazuya; Torimoto, Junji; Matsui, Yohei; Tasumi, Eiji; Shibuya, Takazo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Horai, Shunsuke; Sato, Shun; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Kanzaki, Hayato; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Okino, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiromi Kayama; Kumagai, Hidenori; Chen, Chong


    Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these 'extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved. Here, the Yokosuka site (2190 m), the first OT vent exceeding 2000 m depth is reported. A highly active hydrothermal vent site centred around four active vent chimneys reaching 364°C in temperature, it is the hottest in the OT. Notable Cl depletion (130 mM) and both high H 2 and CH 4 concentrations (approx. 10 mM) probably result from subcritical phase separation and thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter. Microbiota and fauna were generally similar to other sites in the OT, although with some different characteristics. In terms of microbiota, the H 2 -rich vent fluids in Neuschwanstein chimney resulted in the dominance of hydrogenotrophic chemolithoautotrophs such as Thioreductor and Desulfobacterium . For fauna, the dominance of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus aduloides is surprising given other nearby vent sites are usually dominated by B. platifrons and/or B. japonicus , and a sponge field in the periphery dominated by Poecilosclerida is unusual for OT vents. Our insights from the Yokosuka site implies that although the distribution of animal species may be linked to depth, the constraint is perhaps not water pressure and resulting chemical properties of the vent fluid but instead physical properties of the surrounding seawater. The potential significance of these preliminary results and prospect for future research on this unique site are discussed.

  20. Extremely magnetized abyssal lavas erupted in active back-arc of the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Sato, H.; Okino, K.


    Although high-amplitude of marine magnetic anomalies have been utilized for understanding for seafloor dynamics, the causal link between intensity of natural remanent magnetization and physical and chemical processes of extrusive rocks are still unclear. In addition, we essentially lack rock magnetic data of arc-back-arc lavas, which potentially provide strong constraints for understanding time- and spatial-dependent diversity of lava magnetization including mid-ocean ridge basalts. Here, we present new rock magnetic data of strongly magnetized basaltic rocks, which rank among the most magnetized in known oceanic basaltic rocks, from active back-arc region of the Okinawa Trough. We analyzed 27 non-oxidized (fresh) basaltic rock samples obtained from the active back-arc volcanoes, located at the segment boundary along back-arc rift. Their natural remanent magnetization ranges 7 A/m to >200 A/m, and has clear nonlinear relationship with both magnetic hysteresis signatures and titanomagnetite amount. The strongly magnetized lavas show large contribution of appropriate amount of SD titanomagnetite grains formed in proper crystal growth environments. The high-temperature thermomagnetic experiments demonstrate reversible curves in both heating and cooling with single Curie temperature. The Curie temperature shows up to 480°C for strongly magnetized lavas, which is much higher than that of mid-ocean ridge basalts mainly containing TM60, indicating that rich Fe and low Ti contents of titanomagnetite grains are main magnetic carrier. These observations clearly demonstrate that intensity of natural remanent magnetization is primarily controlled by cooling rate of lavas and ratio of Fe to Ti of titanomagnetite grains as well as bulk iron contents, with important implications towards marine magnetic anomalies and arc-back-arc volcanism.

  1. Crustal Structure in the Southern Rockall Trough from Satellite Gravity Data: Evidence for Sea-floor Spreading (United States)

    Chappell, A.; Kusznir, N. J.


    The southern Rockall Trough south of 57 N has previously been interpreted as either an intra-continental rift floored with highly extended continental crust, or a failed oceanic rift formed by Cretaceous sea floor spreading. Satellite gravity, bathymetry data and seismic estimates of sediment thickness are used to derive crustal basement thickness for the southern Rockall Trough and adjacent regions using a gravity inversion method incorporating a correction for the large negative thermal gravity component present in oceanic and stretched continental lithosphere. The marine Bouguer anomaly, derived from satellite free air gravity (Sandwell & Smith 1997) and Gebco 2003 bathymetry data, is inverted using the method of Oldenberg (1974), incorporating an iteratively applied thermal anomaly correction, to give Moho depth. For oceanic crust the thermal anomaly correction is calculated using isochron ages (Muller et al. 1997) and for continental crust from the beta stretching factors resulting from gravity derived crustal basement thickness and an assumed rift age. When sediment thickness and volcanic addition are assumed to be zero, the resulting upper bound of crustal thickness from the gravity inversion is as little as 10 km in the southern Rockall Trough. A segmented axial thickening of the crust at the centre of the Rockall Trough is predicted, between the Barra volcanic ridge and the Anton Dohrn seamount and is interpreted as having a volcanic origin. Inclusion of a sediment thickness correction in the gravity inversion further reduces predicted crustal thickness. A pseudo-sediment-thickness map has been constructed from the available wide-angle data and incorporated in the gravity inversion. The addition of up to 5.5 km of sediment in the gravity inversion reduces the upper bound of crustal thickness to less than 3 km in some locations. The segmented axial thickening and thin crust shown by the gravity inversion, the lack of intra-basinal faulting, and the volcanic

  2. Localization of inner-shell photoelectron emission and ICD in Ne{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreidi, K; Jahnke, T; Havermeier, T; Grisenti, R E; Schoessler, S; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schoeffler, M; Odenweller, M; Neumann, N; Foucar, L; Titze, J; Ulrich, B; Sturm, F; Stuck, C; Wallauer, R; Voss, S; Lauter, I [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Weber, T H [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Liu, X [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Morisita, Y, E-mail: kreidi@atom.uni-frankfurt.d [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)


    With photon energies 10 eV above the K-edge the 1s photoionization of neon dimers was measured by using COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy. All decay channels resulting in the breakup Ne{sup +} + Ne{sup +} and Ne{sup 2+} + Ne{sup +}were identified. The latter was used to investigate the localization or delocalization of vacancies in the homonuclear diatomic system.

  3. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail:


    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  4. An Optimal Design for Placements of Tsunami Observing Systems Around the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Mulia, I. E.; Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.


    Presently, there are numerous tsunami observing systems deployed in several major tsunamigenic regions throughout the world. However, documentations on how and where to optimally place such measurement devices are limited. This study presents a methodological approach to select the best and fewest observation points for the purpose of tsunami source characterizations, particularly in the form of fault slip distributions. We apply the method to design a new tsunami observation network around the Nankai Trough, Japan. In brief, our method can be divided into two stages: initialization and optimization. The initialization stage aims to identify favorable locations of observation points, as well as to determine the initial number of observations. These points are generated based on extrema of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spatial modes derived from 11 hypothetical tsunami events in the region. In order to further improve the accuracy, we apply an optimization algorithm called a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) to remove redundant measurements from the initially generated points by the first stage. A combinatorial search by the MADS will improve the accuracy and reduce the number of observations simultaneously. The EOF analysis of the hypothetical tsunamis using first 2 leading modes with 4 extrema on each mode results in 30 observation points spread along the trench. This is obtained after replacing some clustered points within the radius of 30 km with only one representative. Furthermore, the MADS optimization can improve the accuracy of the EOF-generated points by approximately 10-20% with fewer observations (23 points). Finally, we compare our result with the existing observation points (68 stations) in the region. The result shows that the optimized design with fewer number of observations can produce better source characterizations with approximately 20-60% improvement of accuracies at all the 11 hypothetical cases. It should be note, however, that our

  5. Flux and seasonality of planktonic foraminifera in the Xisha Trough, South China Sea (United States)

    Xiang, R.; Chen, M.; Wang, D.; Chen, Z.; Yan, W.


    The modern correlation between planktonic foraminiferal community dynamics and environmental conditions may provide a basis for establishing paleoclimatic proxies. We studied planktic foraminiferal shell fluxes and assemblages in samples collected in a time-series sediment trap deployments in the Xisha Trough, South China Sea (SCS), from June 2009 to August 2011. The general flux shows a unimodal pattern, with high planktonic foraminiferal flux (900-1000 tests m-2 day-1) occurs during the period from late September/October to February, and low flux (200-300 tests m-2 day-1)during the rest period of the year. This flux pattern is contrast to the bimodal pattern of planktonic foraminiferal flux obtained from the central and southern SCS. Ten species, Globigeroides sacculifer, Globigerinoides ruber, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina calida, Globigerinella aequilateralis, Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata, Orbulina univera and Globorotalia menardii, contributed about 96% of the total flux in each year. Among them, the monsoonal driven seasonality is most prominent for P. obliquiloculata, N. dutertrei and G. bulloides, with more than 70% of their species-specific total fluxes (93% for G. bulloides) occur from late September/October to February. This suggests G. bulloides can be used as a winter proxy-species. On the contrary, Globigeroides conglobatus, mostly appeared during June to August. G. sacculifer, G. ruber and G. aequilateralis generally follow the trend of the total flux of planktonic foraminifer, with about 50-60% of their total fluxes occur from late September/October to February. We also compared the size distribution of the dominant foraminiferal species in the > 250 micrometer fraction and 250-154 micrometer fraction, we found that most shells of G. aequilateralis, O. univera and G. menardii, and G. conglobatus mainly occur in the >250 micrometer fraction, and about 40% of G. sacculifer, 35% of P

  6. Morphology and Sediment Transport Dynamics of a Trough-Blowout Dune, Bodega Marine Reserve, Northern California (United States)

    Jorgenson, D.; Dunleavy, C. J.; Smith, M. E.


    Blowout dunes are a primary mechanism for transporting sand within vegetated coastal dune systems. Understanding the fine-scale variation in sediment transport within these systems is critical to predicting their formation and migration. Previous investigations of a coastal dune system located at the Bodega Marine Reserve, on the Sonoma Coast of Northern California have indicated that aeolian sand flux in unvegetated sand is ~450x greater than in vegetated areas. To better understand sand flux and its relationship with wind speed, direction and precipitation, we deployed an array of 12 sand traps within a single blowout area adjacent to the BOON marine climatology station. The blowout is trough- shaped, approximately 50 meters long and 15 meters wide. Its main 'fairway' is 5-10 meters below the surrounding beach grass (Ammophila)-covered land surface. Surface sediment within the blowout is fine-grained to granule-sized lithic to sub-lithic sand, and is coarsest in the center. Dune sediment in the Bodega Marine Reserve has been transported by aeolian processes from Salmon Creek Beach to the NW. Within the blowout, typical bedforms include 15-25 cm-wavelength, ~10 cm high sinuous to lingoid ripples arranged perpendicularly to the dominant wind direction (~280 degrees). An 8-10 meter-high mound at the downwind end has accumulated due to the trapping of sand flux by vegetation. Sediment flux across the studied blowout was sampled monthly over a 10-month period of 2013-2014. Sand traps were constructed using modified PVC cylinders, and are 0.5 meter high and 0.3 meter in diameter, with a 0.74-micron mesh screen. Based on measured sand flux, the sites can be categorized into three groups-axial, medial, and peripheral. Rates increase downwind within the blowout. Inter-site sand flux variability within unvegetated locations of the blowout is greater than two orders of magnitude. Axial sites, which experience the greatest sand flux, occur on the edge of the blowout adjacent

  7. Paleoseismic events inferred from marine seismogenic turbidites of the eastern Nankai Trough (United States)

    Okutsu, N.; Ashi, J.; Omura, A.; Yamaguchi, A.; Suganuma, Y.; Kanamatsu, T.; Murayama, M.


    Paleoseismology using marine seismogenic turbidites is a developing field especially in subduction margins. However, very fine-grained turbidites are difficult to distinguish from hemipelagic mud. The primary focus of this study is to understand the characteristics of the muddy turbidites. The second focus is to discuss the muddy turbidites distributions and their ages from a longer sediment core, and understand the paleoseismic records of eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The samples used in this study include multiple cores and a piston core which were collected from the sedimentary basin southwest off Kii Peninsula during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-14-8 cruise. The sampling site is located at the ENE-WSW elongated basin between the accretionary prism and the forearc basin off Kumano without terrestrial sediment supply. The basin exhibits a terminal basin that captures all sediments supplied from outside. From the multiple core samples, the Cs-137 and Pb- 210 concentration distribution indicates that the muddy sediment layer in the upper 17 cm was formed from the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquake. Visual observation and X-ray CT scans were conducted alongside other measurements for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, electrical resistivity, and X-ray fluorescence core scanning (XRF). Muddy seismogenic turbidites associated with the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquake have thick homogeneous clay layer above the silty lamination. The magnetic susceptibility decreases upwards in the lamination. This specific feature is thought to have formed as the muddy turbiditity current slowly decelerated and slowly settled down the slope. From the results of XRF core scanning, Ca and Fe have a peak at basement of turbidites, and decrease upwards. Ca is thought to correspond to amount of the foraminiferas. In piston core, we observed the same sedimentary and magnetic characteristics as the multiple cores. Based on stratigraphic information

  8. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere. (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L


    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  9. Observations of Beach-Dune Interaction in Man-Made Trough Blowouts (United States)

    Ruessink, G.; Arens, B.; Kuipers, M.; Van Onselen, E.; Donker, J.


    Dunes act as an indispensable natural safety barrier against marine flooding, are valuable natural environments, serve for the production of drinking water, and offer recreational opportunities. The safety function has dominated dune management in the Netherlands, as well as on other developed shores, for decades. Measures to minimize the seaward loss of foredune sand under storm wave attack have resulted in over-stabilized foredunes and, accordingly, have impoverished natural beauty and degraded biodiversity. Stabilized foredunes are nowadays increasingly reactivated by removing vegetation and by digging trenches that resemble natural trough blowouts as corridors for aeolian transport from the beach into the backdunes. Crucially, such measures see the beach-dune system as an integrated landscape, reconnecting the beach, foredune and backdunes through aeolian transport. This raises questions on how much sand is actually blown into the dunes, which factors affect this amount, and how effective the large-scale dune-restoration measures are. This contribution addresses the evolution of five trenches that were dug through the 20-m high foredune at the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland. The width of the trenches was 50 - 100 m, their cross-dune length was 60 - 100 m, and the heighest part of the valley floor was 9 m above mean sea level. Since their construction in the 2012/2013 winter the trenches have been surveyed approximately 3 times per year using airborne laser scanning or UAV photography, resulting in a multi-temporal data set of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with a 1x1 m resolution. Difference maps illustrate that the sidewalls of the trenches have steepened during the first two years after construction, but that their width and the height of the valley floor have remained largely unaltered. Landward of the trenches large sedimentation lobes have formed, which with time have grown both laterally and vertically. Locally, the lobe thickness now exceeds 5 m

  10. A study investigating the association of dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab and infliximab trough levels. (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Dhami, Neil; Fedorak, Darryl; Prosser, Connie; Shalapay, Carol; Kroeker, Karen I; Halloran, Brendan P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Fedorak, Richard N


    Although infliximab is an effective therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is associated with dermatological events and infusion reactions. It is not known whether a relationship between these adverse events (AEs) and infliximab trough levels (ITLs) exists. To report the prevalence of infliximab-associated AEs in IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy, and to correlate ITLs with dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. Adult IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy were recruited from the University of Alberta Infusion Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta). ITLs were measured in blood samples collected before infusion, and the patients' records were reviewed for dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. One-quarter (18 of 71 [25.4%]) of patients experienced dermatological or infusion reactions to infliximab: nine (12.7%) dermatological events and nine (12.7%) infusion reactions. The median ITL was similar among patients with and without these AEs (7.2 μg⁄mL [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0 μg⁄mL to 13.3 μg⁄mL] versus 6.6 μg⁄mL [IQR 3.2 μg⁄mL to 12.7 μg⁄mL]; P=0.648). The median ITL of patients who experienced infusion reactions (2.0 μg⁄mL [IQR 0.1 μg⁄mL to 5.7 μg⁄mL]) was lower than that of patients who experienced no such AEs (6.6 μg⁄mL [IQR 3.2 μg⁄mL to 12.7 μg⁄mL]; P=0.008]) and lower than that of patients who experienced dermatological AEs (13.3 μg⁄mL [IQR 8.8 μg⁄mL to 17.4 μg⁄mL]; P<0.001). One-quarter of IBD outpatients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy experienced dermatological and infusion reactions. Low ITLs were correlated with infusion reactions, and normal or high ITLs with dermatological events.

  11. Biogeochemical processes controlling authigenic carbonate formation within the sediment column from the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Bai, Shijie; Chen, Zhiyan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.


    Authigenic carbonates are one type of conspicuous manifestation in seep environments that can provide long-term archives of past seepage activity and methane cycling in the oceans. Comprehensive investigations of the microbial community functional structure and their roles in the process of carbonate formation are, however, lacking. In this study, the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial functional composition were examined in seep carbonate deposits collected from the west slope of the northern section of the Okinawa Trough (OT). The aim of this work was to explore the correspondence between the mineralogical phases and microbial metabolism during carbonate deposit formation. The mineralogical analyses indicated that authigenic carbonate minerals (aragonite, magnesium-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite) and iron-bearing minerals (limonite, chlorite, and biotite) were present in these carbonate samples. The carbon and oxygen isotopic values of the carbonate samples varied between -51.1‰ to -4.7‰ and -4.8‰ to 3.7‰, respectively. A negative linear correlation between carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions was found, indicating a mixture of methane-derived diagenetic (low δ13C/high 18O) carbonates and detrital origin (high δ13C/low 18O) carbonates at the OT. GeoChip analyses suggested that various metabolic activities of microorganisms, including methanogenesis, methane oxidation, sulfite oxidation, sulfate reduction, and metal biotransformations, all occurred during the formation process. On the basis of these findings, the following model for the methane cycle and seep carbonate deposit formation in the sediment column at the OT is proposed: (1) in the upper oxidizing zone, aerobic methane oxidation was the main way of methane consumption; (2) in the sulfate methane transition zone, sulfate-dependent AOM (anaerobic oxidation of methane) consumes methane, and authigenic minerals such as aragonite, magnesium-calcite, and sulfide minerals

  12. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.


    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  13. Pore-Water Freshening in the Nankai Trough, Japan: Implications for Lateral Fluid Flow (United States)

    McKiernan, A. W.; Saffer, D. M.


    Pore-water freshening has been observed in ocean sediments cored along the Muroto Transect in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan during ODP Legs 190/196. Chloride concentrations up to ˜11% below normal seawater values ([Cl-] ˜555 mM) were documented at drill site 1173, 13 km seaward of the trench. Updip, lateral fluid flow from depth, and in situ clay dehydration have been proposed as freshening sources. Placing realistic bounds on the relative contributions of these potential sources has importance for quantifying fluid and chemical fluxes in subduction zones. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that freshening is due solely to in situ clay dehydration. We simulate the general shape and magnitude of the down hole [Cl-] anomaly observed at site 1173 using a one-dimensional model which combines sedimentation, thermal history, clay dehydration, and Cl- diffusion. Sediment accumulation during arcward transport and high heat flow for the area ( ˜180 mW/m2), result in temperatures sufficient to transform smectite to illite + H20. The volume of released water scales with initial smectite abundance (here we assume 50% by weight based on mineralogy at site 1177, where heat flow is low and clays are less reacted). In the model, released water is added at each time step creating unstable [Cl-] profiles. Chloride diffusion is modeled implicitly in a reference frame fixed to the interstitial water column, through which consolidating sediment nodes move. Basal boundary conditions used in the model are: constant [Cl-], no-flow, and the inclusion of oceanic crust in diffusion. Simulated reaction progress matches observed clay mineralogy for site 1173. Minimum simulated [Cl-] scales with initial smectite content, ranging from 4% freshening for 20% initial smectite, to 14% freshening for 70% initial smectite. Simulated [Cl-] profiles for all boundary conditions mimic the general [Cl-] profile for site 1173, but no single boundary matches observed data exactly. A no-flow basal

  14. A study investigating the association of dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab and infliximab trough levels (United States)

    Huang, Vivian Wai-Mei; Dhami, Neil; Fedorak, Darryl; Prosser, Connie; Shalapay, Carol; Kroeker, Karen Ivy; Halloran, Brendan Phillip; Dieleman, Levinus Albert; Fedorak, Richard Neil


    BACKGROUND: Although infliximab is an effective therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is associated with dermatological events and infusion reactions. It is not known whether a relationship between these adverse events (AEs) and infliximab trough levels (ITLs) exists. OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence of infliximab-associated AEs in IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy, and to correlate ITLs with dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. METHODS: Adult IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy were recruited from the University of Alberta Infusion Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta). ITLs were measured in blood samples collected before infusion, and the patients’ records were reviewed for dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. RESULTS: One-quarter (18 of 71 [25.4%]) of patients experienced dermatological or infusion reactions to infliximab: nine (12.7%) dermatological events and nine (12.7%) infusion reactions. The median ITL was similar among patients with and without these AEs (7.2 μg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0 μg/mL to 13.3 μg/mL] versus 6.6 μg/mL [IQR 3.2 μg/mL to 12.7 μg/mL]; P=0.648). The median ITL of patients who experienced infusion reactions (2.0 μg/mL [IQR 0.1 μg/mL to 5.7 μg/mL]) was lower than that of patients who experienced no such AEs (6.6 μg/mL [IQR 3.2 μg/mL to 12.7 μg/mL]; P=0.008]) and lower than that of patients who experienced dermatological AEs (13.3 μg/mL [IQR 8.8 μg/mL to 17.4 μg/mL]; Pinfliximab therapy experienced dermatological and infusion reactions. Low ITLs were correlated with infusion reactions, and normal or high ITLs with dermatological events. PMID:25706572

  15. New insights into the origin of the felsic volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zeng, Z.


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a nascent back arc basin developing in the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate. The middle segment of the OT (MOT) is featured by bimodal volcanism with dominant basalts and rhyolites and scarce intermediate volcanic rocks. The MOT rhyolites are divided into two types: type 1 rhyolites have lower heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents while type 2 rhyolites feature higher HREE contents and have slightly more enriched Sr-Nd isotopic ratios than type 1 rhyolites. The MOT rhyolites share similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with the MOT basalts and thus they have been typically considered as products of crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the evidence is insufficient. This paper compared chemical trends of volcanic rocks from the MOT with fractional crystallization simulation models and experimental results and utilized trace element modeling (e.g., Th vs. Rb, Rb/Nd vs. Rb, Rb vs. Rb/V, 1/V vs. Rb/V) combined with quantitative calculations to re-examine the magmatic processes in generating the rhyolites. The trace element discriminant models show that the andesites indicate a fractional crystallization trend, type 1 rhyolites present a partial melting trend, and type 2 rhyolites define a mixing trend. Further, by establishing Rayleigh fractionation and batch melting models, we found that the andesites originated by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma while the rhyolites were the products of remelting of andesites. Type 2 rhyolites have higher Dy/Yb and Nb/Ta ratios than type 1 rhyolites, implying that the former might be influenced by a greater contribution of amphibole. Quantitative models suggest that type 1 rhyolites could have formed via the remelting of andesites when amphiboles remain in the source, whereas type 2 rhyolites could have formed without residual amphiboles. Quasi-linear correlations between some major oxides, trace element ratios and Sr-Nd isotopic ratios for type 2 rhyolites suggest that

  16. Neutral pion production measurements at SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catala-Perez, J.


    Neutrino-induced neutral pion production is an important measurement for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutral current (NC) neutral pion production is a direct background for electron neutrino appearance experiments, while charged current (CC) neutral pion production affects experiments looking for muon neutrino disappearance. Located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment designed to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon near 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this talk I will present recent SciBooNE results on neutral pion production, including the total cross section measurement for both channels relative to the CC inclusive cross section, the separation of the coherent and incoherent contributions to the NC channel, and details on neutral pion production kinematics.

  17. MicroBooNE and its Cross Section Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [SLAC


    MicroBooNE (the Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment) is a short-baseline neutrino experiment based on the technology of a liquid-argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC), and has recently completed its first year of data-taking in the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. It aims to address the anomalous excess of events with an electromagnetic final state in MiniBooNE, to measure neutrino-argon interaction cross sections, and to provide relevant R\\&D for the future LArTPC experiments, such as DUNE. In these proceedings, we present the first reconstructed energy spectrum of Michel electrons from cosmic muon decays, the first kinematic distributions of the candidate muon tracks from $\

  18. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.


    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years......, over 20° of latitude and regardless of basalt type and chemistry. This low-Li province and the increasing Li contents of ocean-ridge tholeiites into the S Atlantic are believed to monitor Li heterogeneity in the underlying mantle. Li, like Na, increases gently during the differentiation of several...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  19. Application of MASW method in studies on changes of soil elastic parameters over subsidence trough development during longwall exploitation (United States)

    Mendecki, Maciej; Jochymczyk, Krzysztof


    The MASW method interpretation was applied to analyze 37 measurements which had been carried out to investigate spatial and temporal changes of elastic parameters in subsurface layers during extracting the coal bed. The seismic measurements were performed using the Terraloc apparatus containing 12 channels connected with 10 Hz geophones. 5 survey profiles were formed into a rosette with arms arranged relative about 45 degrees to each other. The research area was located in the Main Anticline, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Southern Poland. The rosette was placed over the 201 longwall belonged to "Katowice - Kleofas" Coal Mine. Shallow geological structure consisted of subsurface soft layer (several meters) covered consolidated Carboniferous complex. Data interpretation were executed in winMASW software using the genetic algorithms to invert observed Rayleigh dispersion curve into S-wave velocity vertical profiles. In addition, the inversion allowed to determine parameters such as: density, thickness, shear modulus. The seismic study were carried out during total exploitation of the coal bed and for next 8 month after completion of mining works. Longer seismic observations than the mining works were due to a subsidence trough development over coal bed because the longwall face passage and subsidence trough development were shifted in time and it reached about 3 month. This time was needed to appear the subsidence trough on surface what was confirmed by leveling measurements. The longwall face had passed beneath the rosette in December, 1999 and in March, 2000 a sharp velocity drop on each profile was noticed. Next, a sudden velocity increase appeared in subsurface layer after the velocity drop. The changes of density and shear modulus was also remarked during the same period. At the beginning the sudden drop in velocity and other elastic parameters was associated with tension appeared on borders of subsidence trough. Then the geophysical profiles were in the compressive


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    Full Text Available Universal jurisdiction was defined as “the assertion of jurisdiction to prescribe in the absence of any other accepted jurisdictional nexus at the time of the relevant conduct.” Professor Randall, in his seminal work on universal jurisdiction, opined that the theory of universality “provides every state with jurisdiction over a limitedcategory of offenses generally recognized as of universal concern, regardless of the situs of the offence and the nationalities of the offender and the offended. ”Universal jurisdiction is considered a tool for promoting greater justice, but the rights of the accused must be protected. One of the most important guarantees is the principle of ne bis in idem, which protected persons against multiple prosecutions for the same crime. The main legal consequence of the application of ne bis in idem in most systems is the prohibition and inadmissibility of subsequent prosecutions on the same facts blocking effect.The national ne bis in idem principle is established asan individual right in international human rights legal instruments, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966, in Article 14(7. At the regional level, Article 8(4 of the American Convention of Human Rights (1969 and Article 4 (I of the Seventh Protocol of the European Convention of Human Rights merit mention. In Europe, the ne bis in idem principle is enshrined in Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985, which prohibits the initiation of a second trial for the same offence when final judgment has been imposed upon a person by a court of a contracting party.

  1. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivolo Daniele


    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2, weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  2. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez Martinez, J.; Butragueno Casado, J. L.


    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs

  3. U,Th-21Ne dating and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Murty, S.V.S.; Anil Kumar


    The potential of radiogenic and fissiogenic noble gas isotopes as dating tools has been well exploited. U, Th- 4 He , K- 40 Ar and U- fission Xe pairs as well as their variants like 39 Ar- 40 Ar and induced fission Xe- spontaneous fission Xe pairs have been extensively used as geochronological tools. A new dating method that utilizes the nucleogenic isotope 21 Ne and demonstrate its application for an apatite separate from a carbonatite is proposed

  4. Modeling Ne-21 NMR parameters for carbon nanosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupka, T.; Nieradka, M.; Kaminský, Jakub; Stobinski, L.


    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2013), s. 676-681 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ne-21 NMR * GIAO NMR * molecular modeling * carbon nanostructures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2013

  5. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process (United States)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia


    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  6. Monte Carlo studies for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [ECAP, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)


    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, which will host a high energy neutrino telescope with a multi-km{sup 3} instrumented volume. Recently, the KM3NeT consortium, which is formed by the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR collaborations as well as marine science and technology institutes, released the KM3NeT technical design report (TDR) document. The KM3NeT design options presented in the KM3NeT TDR and the results of corresponding Monte Carlo studies are discussed in the talk.

  7. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.


    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  8. Investigation of severe slugging under flow conditions of a parabolic trough power plant with direct steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety


    The DISS test facility at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain, produces high pressure steam directly within the parabolic trough collectors. Two collectors are connected with a U-shaped connection pipe which can suffer under the flow phenomenon of severe slugging at low mass flow operation. The objective is to investigate numerically the flow situations with ATHLET and state the relevance of severe slugging in the installed U-shaped pipes. The simulation results reveal that normal operation conditions are uncritical and no severe slugging can be expected.

  9. Tectonic and volcanic history of Rhea as inferred from studies of scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.


    The 13 geomorphic feature types presently defined through the analysis of landforms on Rhea are with only one exception interpretable as of tectonic or volcanic-tectonic origin. The troughs, grabens, grooves, pit chains, scarps, and other lineaments are purely extensional in nature, while the ridges are volcanic features formed in an extensional stress field; this extension was followed by a global compression era generating megaridges and megascarps. The extensional landforms seem to form a global grid pattern that is directionally similar to the theoretically projected pattern of a tidally distorted planet. 17 references

  10. Estimation of the effective population size (Ne) and its application in the management of small populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Mena, Belen


    Effective population size (Ne) is an important concept to understand the evolution of a population. In conservation, Ne is used to assess the threat status of a population, evaluate its genetic viability in the future and set conservation priorities. An accurate estimation of Ne is thus essential....... The main objective of this thesis was to better understand how the estimation of Ne using molecular markers can be improved for use in conservation genetics. As a first step, we undertook a simulation study where three different methods to estimate Ne were investigated. We explored how well these three...... methods performed under different scenarios. This study showed that all three methods performed better when the number of unlinked loci used to make the estimation increased and the minimum number of loci need for an accurate estimation of Ne was 100 SNPs. A general assumption in the estimation of Ne...

  11. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy; Calibracion de un detector de NE213 para espectroscopia de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Martinez, J.; Butragueno Casado, J. L.


    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl


    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.

    Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  13. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl


    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  14. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji


    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  15. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole helps to decrease the percentage of patients with off-target trough serum levels. (United States)

    Guinea, Jesús; Escribano, Pilar; Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Peláez, Teresa; Kestler, Marta; Muñoz, Patricia; Vena, Antonio; López-Fabal, Fátima; Bouza, Emilio


    We monitored trough voriconazole serum concentrations from 107 patients (n = 258 samples) at 6 hospitals in Madrid. Most of the patients were male (67%) and had the following underlying conditions: hematological cancer (42%), solid organ transplantation (15%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14%), human immunodeficiency virus infection (8.4%), solid cancer (5.6%), and other (29%). The indication for voriconazole administration was aspergillosis treatment (74.6%) and prophylaxis (14%). The main reasons for voriconazole trough drug monitoring were initiation of treatment/prophylaxis (33%), patient monitoring (47%), and suspected toxicity (3.5%). Levels (μg/ml) were subtherapeutic (5.5; 10.5%). The samples percentage with on-target levels was significantly lower for the first sample than for subsequent samples (62.6% vs. 77.5%). "Subsequent samples," "admission in nonpediatric wards," "voriconazole used for treatment of invasive aspergillosis," and "use of proton pump inhibitors" were predictors of voriconazole therapeutic levels (≥1 μg/ml). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Different effects of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on the plasma voriconazole trough levels in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. (United States)

    Yasu, Takeo; Konuma, Takaaki; Kato, Seiko; Kurokawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tojo, Arinobu


    Voriconazole (VRC) is widely used as prophylaxis and in the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We retrospectively examined the results of VRC therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in allogeneic HCT recipients. A total of 474 samples were obtained from 59 adult patients who received VRC during the first 100 days following HCT between 2009 and 2014 in our institute. Seventeen patients received VRC for prophylaxis of IFD, and 42 received VRC for the empirical or preemptive therapy for IFD. A total of 299 samples (63 %) were obtained during the administration of the intravenous form of VRC. The median VRC daily dose based on the actual body weight was 6.68 mg/kg/day (range, 1.92-10.41 mg/kg/day). The median VRC trough level was 0.99 mg/l (range, lansoprazole as compared to rabeprazole (P lansoprazole and rabeprazole have different effects on the plasma VRC trough levels in the allogeneic HCT recipients.

  17. Distribution of bacterioplankton with active metabolism in waters of the St. Anna Trough, Kara Sea, in autumn 2011 (United States)

    Mosharova, I. V.; Mosharov, S. A.; Ilinskiy, V. V.


    The distribution of bacterioplankton with active electron transport chains, as well as bacteria with intact cell membranes, was investigated for the first time in the region of St. Anna Trough in the Kara Sea. The average number of bacteria with active electron transport chains in the waters of the St. Anna Trough was 15.55 × 103 cells mL-1 (the limits of variation were 1.06-92.17 × 103 cells mL-1). The average number of bacteria with intact membranes was 33.46 × 103 cells mL-1 (the limits of variation were 6.78 to 103.18 × 103 cells mL-1). Almost all bacterioplankton microorganisms in the studied area were potentially viable, and the average share of bacteria with intact membranes was 92.1% of the total number of bacterioplankton (TNB) (the limits of variation were 76.2 to 98.4%). The share of bacteria with active metabolisms was 38.2% of the TNB (the limits of variation were 5.6-93.4%). The shares of the bacteria with active metabolisms were maximum in areas with the most stable environmental conditions (on the shelf and in deep water), whereas on the slope, where the gradients of water temperature and salinity were maximum, these values were lower.

  18. Available Energy and Cumulative Frequency Curves for Parabolic Trough Concentrators with Alignment North–South, in the Northwest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Lentz–Herrea


    Full Text Available The Northwest of Mexico is a well known region with the highest ambient temperatures along the summer and the highest levels of irradiance, which make it feasible to install solar field concentrators. This work provides beam irradiance data that can be used to design a solar north–south parabolic trough system. The variation between the value of beam solar irradiance estimated by a pyranometer and the direct irradiance received by the aperture area of a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC is well–known as cosθ. This variation was evaluated every day of the year, obtaining values of average irradiance for Cerro Prieto (CP lat. 32°39', long. 115° 21', and San Luis Rio Colorado (SLR lat. 32°30', long. 114°46', with which they were elaborated the available energy and cumulative frequency curves (CFC. These are useful to know the number of hours of field solar concentrators which can operate at different levels of energy, as well as the steam production of a solar–geothermal hybrid system to produce electricity.

  19. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon


    in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...... the district heating network to about 70 °C and then the parabolic trough collectors would heat the preheated water to the required supply temperature of the district heating network. Annual measured and simulated thermal performances of both the parabolic trough collector field and the flat plate collector...... field are presented in this paper. The thermal performance of both collector fields with weather data of a Design Reference Year was simulated to have a whole understanding of the application of both collectors under Danish climate conditions as well. These results not only can provide a design basis...

  20. Decadal Modulation of Repeating Slow Slip Event Activity in the Southwestern Ryukyu Arc Possibly Driven by Rifting Episodes at the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Tu, Yoko; Heki, Kosuke


    We studied 38 slow slip events (SSEs) in 1997-2016 beneath the Iriomote Island, southwestern Ryukyu Arc, Japan, using continuous Global Navigation Satellite Systems data. These SSEs occur biannually on the same fault patch at a depth of 30 km on the subducting Philippine Sea Plate slab with average moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.6. Here we show that the slip accumulation rate (cumulative slip/lapse time) of these SSEs fluctuated over a decadal time scale. The rate increased twice around 2002 and 2013 concurrently with earthquake swarms in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that episodic activations of the back-arc spreading at the Okinawa Trough caused extra southward movement of the block south of the trough and accelerated convergence at the Ryukyu Trench.

  1. Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Evidence for reverse vancomycin creep and impact of vancomycin trough levels on outcome (United States)

    McNeil, J Chase; Kok, Eric Y; Forbes, Andrea; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Vallejo, Jesus G; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L


    Introduction Elevated vancomycin MICs in S. aureus have been associated with worse clinical outcomes in adults. For invasive MRSA infections in adults, the IDSA recommends targeting vancomycin serum trough concentrations between 15–20 μg/ml. We evaluated trends in vancomycin MICs from healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteremia isolates in children in addition to correlating vancomycin serum trough levels with clinical outcomes. Methods Patients and isolates were identified from a prospective S. aureus surveillance study at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). Healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteremia isolates from 2003–2013 were selected. Vancomycin MICs by E-test were determined and medical records were reviewed. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined as doubling of the baseline serum creatinine. Results 341 isolates met inclusion criteria. We observed a reverse vancomycin creep among MRSA isolates in the study period with a decline in the proportion of isolates with vancomycin MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml (from 32.7% to 5.6%, pvancomycin troughs performed, there was no difference in duration of bacteremia or fever with vancomycin trough >15 μg/ml vs. vancomycin trough > 15 μg/ml was, however, an independent risk factor for AKI. Conclusions Vancomycin MICs are shifting among healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteremia isolates with significant differences between MRSA and MSSA at TCH. Higher vancomycin troughs did not improve outcomes in pediatric healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteremia but were associated with increased nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to better understand optimal management of children with S. aureus bacteremia. PMID:26646549

  2. Clinical relevance and inter-test reliability of anti-infliximab antibodies and infliximab trough levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Guiotto, Cristina; Daperno, Marco; Frigerio, Francesco; Vizzini, Margherita; Cerruti, Roberta; Ercole, Elena; Cosimato, Maurizio; Lavagna, Alessandro; Germano, Laura; Migliardi, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo


    Treatment with infliximab is a common option for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring could improve treatment management. To test inter-test reliability of two commercially available diagnostic kits for infliximab trough levels and infliximab antibodies, and their association with treatment outcomes. 86 IBD outpatients on infliximab maintenance treatment were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study, 115 samples were available for inter-test reliability. Inter-test agreement was good both for trough levels (concordance correlation coefficient 0.78, weighted κ 0.60, Sperman's ρ 0.937) and for infliximab antibodies (weighted κ 0.79) measurement, when comparing Promonitor and ImmunDiagnostik kits. According to manufacturers' cut-off values, trough levels were classified as undetectable (17%), low (21%) or in range (63%). The only significant associations were: mucosal healing (p=0.026; OR 6.50), infliximab antibody status (p=0.0015; OR 0.031) and adverse events (p=0.009; OR 0.115). Higher trough levels were observed among patients on concomitant steroid/immunosuppressive therapy and among patients with dose-intensification. Infliximab antibodies were significantly associated to treatment-related adverse events (p=0.0003, OR 30.42), and to lower trough levels, but not to other clinical variables. The two tests performed equally well. Infliximab antibodies were associated to adverse events, while trough levels were not associated to treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoshiaki


    The performance of a transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser system, developed for a wavelength-optical frequency standard according to the 1983 Comite Consultatif pour la Definition du Metier, is discussed. An offset-locked laser system using a phase comparison technique is described which is used to evaluate the stabilized laser system. A frequency stability of 2.5 x 10 to the -12th tau exp -1/2, and a resettability of 1 x 10 to the -11th, are estimated for the stabilized laser system.

  4. The relational database system of KM3NeT (United States)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano


    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  5. II Lääne-Eesti turismi aastakonverents

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    MTÜ Lääne-Eesti Turismi ja EASi turismiarenduskeskuse poolt 28. novembril Pärnus Strand SPA & Konverentsihotellis korraldatud aastakonverentsist. Ettekannetega esinesid Kaubandustalituse spetsialist Martti Kalvik, EASi turismiarenduskeskuse direktor Tarmo Mutso, riigikogulane Annely Akkermann, Statistikaameti osakonnajuhataja Ene Saareoja, Mainegrupp OÜ müügijuht Tanel Lips, EAS turismiarenduskeskuse Vene sihtturu juht Agnia Nast, Reisibüroo Pilgrim direktor Igor Paschuk Peterburist, N&A Communications direktor Andrei Petrov Peterburist, Hotell Jurmala SPA väikeaktsionär Antti Aru, Tervis Spaa Grupp juhatuse liige Jaan Ratnik ning konverentsi modereeris Piret Hallik-Sass

  6. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    surface de relevé avant de délimiter l'aire du relevé qui est supérieure ou égale à l'aire minimale. Identification et nomenclature des espèces. Les identifications des espèces ont été ...... des espèces de milieu humide, car les champs sont parfois inondés en plaine saison des pluies tandis que les zones de pâturages ne le.

  7. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.


    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  8. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.


    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and double......-phosgene surfaces were found to have absolute minima of -72.1, -140.4, and -326.6 cm -1 at distances between the rare-gas atom and the phosgene center of mass of 3.184, 3.254, and 3.516 Å, respectively. The potentials were further used in the evaluation of rovibrational states and the rotational constants...

  9. Retrouvailles avec Hélène Lenoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Montaner Sánchez


    Full Text Available The goal of this interview is to establish a first approach to the work of Hélène Lenoir, a contemporary and relatively unknown to the public at large author. We will explain her first steps as a writer, go through her work amongst the French literary scenario and provide an overview of the more foremost influences received from other authors. The main topical and stylistic features of her literary work are equally reflected, putting special stress on the problematics of tortuous relationships as the orga¬nizing thread of her narrative work.



    Trstenjak, Simona


    Namen diplomskega dela Plesna vzgoja in različne glasbene zvrsti je s pomočjo teoretičnih izhodišč, ob opazovanju plesnega izražanja otrok, ugotoviti vpliv posamezne glasbene zvrsti na otroka pri plesni vzgoji. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz dveh delov, teoretičnega in empiričnega. V teoretičnem delu smo predstavili teorijo plesne vzgoje v predšolskem obdobju, kjer smo podrobneje opisali sam pomen in vpliv plesne vzgoje na predšolskega otroka, vsebine, cilje in načela ter metode plesne vzgo...

  11. Mass distribution in 20Ne+232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.


    Mass distribution was measured in 20 Ne+ 232 Th reaction at E lab =145 MeV using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Significant contribution from transfer fission was observed in the yield of comparatively neutron rich fission products. The variance of mass distribution for complete fusion fission, obtained by excluding neutron rich fission products, was observed to be consistent with the values reported in literature for similar reaction systems which showed a deviation from the systematics obtained using random neck rupture and liquid drop model. (author)

  12. Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.


    Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported

  13. Biological and geological characteristics of the R1 and R2 coral mounds, Rockall Trough, west of Ireland. (United States)

    Unnithan, V.; Grehan, A.; van Weering, T.; Olu-Leroy, K.


    The carbonate mounds discovered in the mid-1990s on the Irish Continental Margin are unique. It is not only their size (up to 300 m in height and 2-3 km in diameter), distribution (along the margins of the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough), abundance (> 250 individual mounds) but also their association with deep-water coral species that has generated a great deal of interest in the scientific community. During the past 10 years a number of European Union funded projects concentrated their efforts on studying these deep-sea features. However, there is still a great deal to be learnt regarding mound structure, dynamics and genesis. The basic question why and how carbonate mounds are formed is still largely unanswered. The CARACOLE (CARbonate And COLD water Ecosystems) Cruise in August 2001, was an Irish-French-EU inter-disciplinary co-operation program with participation of ACES, ECOMOUND and GEOMOUND related scientists from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium to study carbonate mounds and deep-coral reefs in the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough, west of Ireland. The IFREMER led cruise aboard the French Research Vessel Atalante deployed the 'state of the art' remotely operated vehicle, Victor 6000 at a total of 5 mound locations selected on the basis of previous extensive seismic, acoustic and bottom sampling studies, mainly carried out by RV 'Pelagia' of the Royal NIOZ. High-resolution geo-referenced video and digital still photography was used for detailed observation and mapping. This poster presents preliminary results and work in progress from the R1 and R2 Rockall Trough mound sites based on video and bathymetric analysis carried out by the authors in March 2002 at IFREMER. The focus of the analysis was two fold: 1) Biological, encompassing the identification and mapping of coral habitats and associated species, and 2) geological which includes mapping of the morphology and nature (character) of the seabed. From the observations and analysis

  14. Shallow Crustal Structure in the Northern Salton Trough, California: Insights from a Detailed 3-D Velocity Model (United States)

    Ajala, R.; Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.


    The Coachella Valley is the northern extent of the Gulf of California-Salton Trough. It contains the southernmost segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) for which a magnitude 7.8 earthquake rupture was modeled to help produce earthquake planning scenarios. However, discrepancies in ground motion and travel-time estimates from the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) velocity model of the Salton Trough highlight inaccuracies in its shallow velocity structure. An improved 3-D velocity model that better defines the shallow basin structure and enables the more accurate location of earthquakes and identification of faults is therefore essential for seismic hazard studies in this area. We used recordings of 126 explosive shots from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) to SSIP receivers and Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) stations. A set of 48,105 P-wave travel time picks constituted the highest-quality input to a 3-D tomographic velocity inversion. To improve the ray coverage, we added network-determined first arrivals at SCSN stations from 39,998 recently relocated local earthquakes, selected to a maximum focal depth of 10 km, to develop a detailed 3-D P-wave velocity model for the Coachella Valley with 1-km grid spacing. Our velocity model shows good resolution ( 50 rays/cubic km) down to a minimum depth of 7 km. Depth slices from the velocity model reveal several interesting features. At shallow depths ( 3 km), we observe an elongated trough of low velocity, attributed to sediments, located subparallel to and a few km SW of the SAF, and a general velocity structure that mimics the surface geology of the area. The persistence of the low-velocity sediments to 5-km depth just north of the Salton Sea suggests that the underlying basement surface, shallower to the NW, dips SE, consistent with interpretation from gravity studies (Langenheim et al., 2005). On the western side of the Coachella Valley, we detect depth-restricted regions of

  15. The influence of a subduction component on magmatism in the Okinawa Trough: Evidence from thorium and related trace element ratios (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Qi, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yao


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc, initial continental marginal sea basin located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. Formation and evolution of the OT have been intimately related to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since the late Miocene; thus, the magma source of the trough has been affected by subduction components, as in the case of other active back-arc basins, including the Lau Basin (LB) and Mariana Trough (MT). We review all the available geochemical data relating to basaltic lavas from the OT and the middle Ryukyu Arc (RA) in this paper in order to determine the influence of the subduction components on the formation of arc and back-arc magmas within this subduction system. The results of this study reveal that the abundances of Th in OT basalts (OTBs) are higher than that in LB (LBBs) and MT basalts (MTBs) due to the mixing of subducted sediments and EMI-like enriched materials. The geochemical characteristics of Th and other trace element ratios indicate that the OTB originated from a more enriched mantle source (compared to N-mid-ocean ridge basalt, N-MORB) and was augmented by subducted sediments. Data show that the magma sources of the south OT (SOT) and middle Ryukyu Arc (MRA) basalts were principally influenced by subducted aqueous fluids and bulk sediments, which were potentially added into magma sources by accretion and underplating. At the same time, the magma sources of the middle OT (MOT) and Kobi-syo and Sekibi-Syo (KBS+SBS) basalts were impacted by subducted aqueous fluids from both altered oceanic crust (AOC) and sediment. The variable geochemical characteristics of these basalts are due to different Wadati-Benioff depths and tectonic environments of formation, while the addition of subducted bulk sediment to SOT and MRA basalts may be due to accretion and underplating, and subsequent to form mélange formation, which would occur partial melting after aqueous fluids are added. The addition of AOC and sediment aqueous fluid

  16. The 20Ne(d,p)21Ne Transfer Reaction in Relation to the s-Process Abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsangu, C. T. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Laird, A. M. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Parikh, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalana, Spain & Inst. d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain; Adsley, P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Birch, M. D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Chen, A. A, [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Faestermann, T. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Fox, S. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Fulton, B. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Hertenberger, R. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Irvine, D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Kay, B. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Longland, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalana, Barcelona, Spain; Manwell, S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Murphy, A. St. J. [University of Edinburgh, UK; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay & Université Paris Sud 11, Orsay,France; Tomlinson, J. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Wirth, H.-F. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany


    A study of the Ne-20(d,p)Ne-21 transfer reaction was performed using the Quadrupole Dipole Dipole Dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph in Garching, Germany. The experiment probed excitation energies in Ne-21 ranging from 6.9 MeV to 8.5 MeV. The aim was to investigate the spectroscopic information of Ne-21 within the Gamow window of core helium burning in massive stars. Further information in this region will help reduce the uncertainties on the extrapolation down to Gamow window cross sections of the O-17(alpha,gamma)Ne-21 reaction. In low metallicity stars, this reaction has a direct impact on s-process abundances by determining the fate of O-16 as either a neutron poison or a neutron absorber. The experiment used a 22-MeV deuteron beam, with intensities varying from 0.5-1 mu A, and an implanted target of Ne-20 of 7 mu g/cm(2) in 40 mu g/cm(2) carbon foils. Sixteen Ne-21 peaks have been identified in the E-x = 6.9-8.5 MeV range, of which only thirteen peaks correspond to known states. Only the previously-known E-x = 7.960 MeV state was observed within the Gamow window.

  17. Absorbed dose to water comparison between NE 2561 and NE 2671 chambers using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols for gamma ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Noriah Mod Ali; Taiman Kadni


    The aim of this study to evaluate the performance of NE 2571 chamber in comparison with NE 2561 chamber in determination of the absorbed dose to water in gamma ray beam. In this study NE 2561 is taking as a reference standard chamber while NE 2571 as a working standard. Irradiation of chamber (alternately) was performed at a reference depth, 5 cm, inside the IAEA water phantom. Both chambers were exposed to 13 difference exposures of gamma rays. The values of absorbed dose to water were then determined using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols. Deviations of absorbed dose determined by NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calculated for each protocol. result obtained in terms of [protocol, μ (mean deviation) ± σ s e (standard error)] were (IAEA, 1.12 ± 0.04], [HPA, 0.09 ± 0.04], and [NCP, 0.09 ± 0.04]. It can be concluded that NE 2571 shown acceptable performance as it is within acceptable limit ± 3%. (Author)

  18. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP aastal 2004

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tabelid: Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Vt. samas: Viktor Sepp, Merike Lees. Lääne-Virumaal üllatavad uued tegijad

  19. Le facteur temps ne sonne jamais deux fois

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne


    Chose déroutante, décidément, que le temps. Nous en parlons comme d'une notion familière, évidente, voire domestique, "gérable". Nous parlons même d'un "temps réel" pour évoquer l'instantanéité, c'est-à-dire le temps sur lequel nous n'avons aucune prise. Les physiciens, eux, l'ont couplé à l'espace, en ont fait une variable mathématique, abstraite, qu'ils intègrent dans des théories audacieuses, spectaculaires, si complexes qu'elles sont difficiles à traduire en langage courant. Certains disent même avoir identifié le moteur du temps. Quant aux philosophes, ils ne cessent depuis plus de deux millénaires de soumettre le temps au questionnement : est-il une sorte d'entité primitive, originaire, qui ne dériverait que d'elle-même? Ou procéderait-il au contraire d'une ou plusieurs autres entités, plus fondamentales: la relation de cause à effet, par exemple? Le temps s'écoule-t-il de lui-même ou a-t-il besoin des événements qui s'y déroulent pour passer? S'apparente-t-il au devenir,...

  20. Radiometric ages of the Akashima Formation, Oga Peninsula, NE Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Kazuhiko; Ishizuka, Osamu; Tani, Kenichiro; Iwano, Hideki; Danhara, Tohru; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Dunkley, Daniel J.


    U-Pb and fission-track dating of zircons and Ar-Ar dating of plagioclase were conducted to estimate the eruption age of the welded dacite lapilli-tuff of the Akashima Formation, Oga Peninsula, NE Japan, yielding ages of 72 Ma, 65-63 Ma and 34 Ma, respectively. The zircon grains are mainly euhedral with zonal structures concordant with their external form, and are set in a welded matrix and in dense lenses of pumice; thus, they are likely to be juvenile. The Standard deviation of U-Pb ages of different zircon grains is small (1-2 Ma) and their age likely represents the eruption age of the magma. Fission-track ages are significantly younger than U-Pb ages, and are thought to represent thermally rejuvenation as suggested by shortening of fission tracks. The Ar-Ar age of the plagioclase remains fairly stable at almost all stages of heating; the plateau age, however, falls within the time range of the Late Eocene Monzen Formation and could represent almost complete albitization ages by associated volcanic activity. The U-Pb ages provide reliable evidence for presence of late Late Cretaceous acidic volcanism in NE Japan. (author)

  1. Monte Carlo studies of the KM3NeT physics performance (United States)

    Shanidze, Rezo; Kuch, Sebastian; Katz, Ulrich


    KM3NeT neutrino telescope configurations with different detector components and geometry have been simulated and studied with modified ANTARES software. The physics performance of KM3NeT is characterised by two parameters: neutrino effective area and angular resolution of the reconstructed muons. These two benchmark parameters are determined and compared for the different KM3NeT options simulated. The physics performance of the KM3NeT configuration is evaluated by calculating achievable average upper limits for cosmic neutrino fluxes.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of the KM3NeT physics performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanidze, Rezo [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Street 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail:; Kuch, Sebastian; Katz, Ulrich [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Street 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    KM3NeT neutrino telescope configurations with different detector components and geometry have been simulated and studied with modified ANTARES software. The physics performance of KM3NeT is characterised by two parameters: neutrino effective area and angular resolution of the reconstructed muons. These two benchmark parameters are determined and compared for the different KM3NeT options simulated. The physics performance of the KM3NeT configuration is evaluated by calculating achievable average upper limits for cosmic neutrino fluxes.

  3. Room temperature wafer direct bonding of smooth Si surfaces recovered by Ne beam surface treatments (United States)

    Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki


    We examined the applicability of a Ne fast atom beam (FAB) to surface activated bonding of Si wafers at room temperature. With etching depth more than 1.5 nm, the bonding strength comparable to Si bulk strength was attained. Moreover, we found the improvement of the bonding strength by surface smoothing effect of the Ne FAB. Silicon surface roughness decreased from 0.40 to 0.17 nm rms by applying a Ne FAB of 30 nm etching depth. The bonding strength between surfaces recovered by Ne FAB surface smoothing was largely improved and finally became equivalent to Si bulk strength.

  4. UV luminescence of NeD in solid neon-deuterium mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Gürtler, P.


    Solid samples of neon-deuterium mixtures were irradiated by keV electrons, and the luminescence was measured between 100 and 300 nm. For concentrations between 0.1% D-2 in Ne and 1% Ne in D-2 an intense emission band was observed. The maximum intensity was observed for 10% D-2 in Ne. Comparisons...... with results from gas phase measurements indicate that the dominant component of the band originates from a bound-free transition from the A(2) Sigma(+) state of NeD to the repulsive ground state....

  5. Simulation of thermal fluid dynamics in parabolic trough receiver tubes with direct steam generation using the computer code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Merk, Bruno [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung


    In the present feasibility study the system code ATHLET, which originates from nuclear engineering, is applied to a parabolic trough test facility. A model of the DISS (DIrect Solar Steam) test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almeria in Spain is assembled and the results of the simulations are compared to measured data and the simulation results of the Modelica library 'DissDyn'. A profound comparison between ATHLET Mod 3.0 Cycle A and the 'DissDyn' library reveals the capabilities of these codes. The calculated mass and energy balance in the ATHLET simulations are in good agreement with the results of the measurements and confirm the applicability for thermodynamic simulations of DSG processes in principle. Supplementary, the capabilities of the 6-equation model with transient momentum balances in ATHLET are used to study the slip between liquid and gas phases and to investigate pressure wave oscillations after a sudden valve closure. (orig.)

  6. Energetic and exergetic analysis of Rankine cycles for solar power plants with parabolic trough and thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenuşă Victor-Eduard


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the “secondary” circuit (for thermodynamic conversion of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP plant with thermodynamic cycle, whose mirrors field supplies a thermal power, averaged over a sunny day, of about 100 MW heat. We study the case of parabolic trough solar collector using silicone oil in the “primary” circuit, which limits the peak temperature below 400 °C. The “primary” circuit uses thermal storage, allowing a delay between the power generation in rapport with the solar energy capture. We choose a water-steam cycle, type Hirn. For increasing its efficiency, it has regenerative feed water preheating and steam reheating. We compared, energetic and exergetic, two types of cycles, using a numerical model with iterative structure, developed by the authors. The results showed that the simplified design achieves practically the same thermodynamic performances with the advanced one.

  7. Sensitivity analysis in the test of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) with flat null-screens (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Huerta-Carranza, Oliver; Díaz-Uribe, José Rufino; Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Peña-Conzueloa, Andrés.


    In this work we proposed a flat null-screen method to test parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSC). The null-screen testing method measures the slope of the test surface and by a numerical integration procedure the shape of the test surface can be obtained. In this work, we show that the test can be sensitive to small surface deformations, such as those caused by sinusoidal deformations with different amplitudes and spatial periods introduced on the PTSC surface. These calculations also show that the attainable theoretical slope accuracy in the rms sense is about 0.34 mrad. This value was obtained under the assumption that is possible to achieve a 1-pixel resolution on the measurement of the position departures of the centroids of the targets of the null-screen.

  8. Low infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab in daily clinical practice: results of an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, A.; van den Bemt, B.J.; Wolbink, G.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; van Riel, P.L.; Broeder, A. den


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To get insight in the prevalence of high, or low/no serum infliximab trough levels in patients with low disease activity and if serum trough levels are stable and reliable longitudinally we conducted a prospective cohort study METHODS: In a longitudinal, observational cohort of

  9. Amplitude versus offset analysis to marine seismic data acquired in Nankai Trough, offshore Japan where methane hydrate exists (United States)

    Hato, M.; Inamori, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Shimizu, S.


    Occurrence of methane hydrates in the Nankai Trough, located off the south-eastern coast of Japan, was confirmed by the exploratory test well drilling conducted by Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1999. Confirmation of methane hydrate has given so big impact to the Japan's future energy strategy and scientific and technological interest was derived from the information of the coring and logging results at the well. Following the above results, Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC) launched the national project, named as MH21, for establishing the technology of methane hydrate exploration and related technologies such as production and development. As one of the research project for evaluating the total amount of the methane hydrate, Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) was applied to the seismic data acquired in the Nankai Trough area. The main purpose of the AVO application is to evaluate the validity of delineation of methane hydrate-bearing zones. Since methane hydrate is thought to accompany with free-gas in general just below the methane hydrate-bearing zones, the AVO has a possibility of describing the presence of free-gas. The free-gas is thought to be located just below the base of methane hydrate stability zone which is characterized by the Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on the seismic section. In this sense, AVO technology, which was developed as gas delineation tools, can be utilized for methane hydrate exploration. The result of AVO analysis clearly shows gas-related anomaly below the BSRs. Appearance of the AVO anomaly has so wide variety. Some of the anomalies might not correspond to the free-gas existence, however, some of them may show free-gas. We are now going to develop methodology to clearly discriminate free-gas from non-gas zone by integrating various types of seismic methods such as seismic inversion and seismic attribute analysis.

  10. Microplastic pollution identified in deep-sea water and ingested by benthic invertebrates in the Rockall Trough, North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Quinn, Brian; Gary, Stefan F; Mogg, Andrew O M; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E


    Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Despite the remote location, microplastic fibres were identified in deep-sea water at a concentration of 70.8 particles m -3 , comparable to that in surface waters. Of the invertebrates examined (n = 66), 48% ingested microplastics with quantities enumerated comparable to coastal species. The number of ingested microplastics differed significantly between species and generalized linear modelling identified that the number of microplastics ingested for a given tissue mass was related to species and not organism feeding mode or the length or overall weight of the individual. Deep-sea microplastics were visually highly degraded with surface areas more than double that of pristine particles. The identification of synthetic polymers with densities greater and less than seawater along with comparable quantities to the upper ocean indicates processes of vertical re-distribution. This study presents the first snapshot of deep ocean microplastics and the quantification of microplastic pollution in the Rockall Trough. Additional sampling throughout the deep-sea is required to assess levels of microplastic pollution, vertical transportation and sequestration, which have the potential to impact the largest global ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of infliximab dose increase in rheumatoid arthritis at different trough concentrations: a cohort study in clinical practice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamaida ePlasencia


    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence supporting treatment intensification in rheumatoid arthritis is limited and controversial. We explored outcomes of infliximab dose increases and accounted for pre-existing trough levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsThis study was a retrospective study of 42 RA patients who received increased infliximab following an insufficient response (DAS28 > 3.2. Serum concentrations of infliximab and antibodies to infliximab (ATI and DAS28 and EULAR clinical response parameters were recorded for one year. Analyses were performed in three patient groups that were defined by infliximab serum concentration prior to treatment enhancement: No detectable, Low (< 1.1 µg/mL or High (≥ 1.1 µg/mL drug levels. Results No circulating infliximab was detected in 20 patients (47.6 %, but 13 (30.9 % and 9 (21.4 % patients exhibited Low and High levels, respectively. ATI were only detected in patients with No detectable drug levels because the drug interferes with ELISA. DAS28 disease activity globally showed a modest improvement after dose escalation, but this improvement did not persist after 6 and 12 months. Infliximab serum levels increased significantly in the High group (p=0.016, but no increase was achieved in the Low and No detectable groups. The three study groups exhibited similar disease activity over time, and no improvement was observed in the non-responder EULAR rates. ConclusionsThese results suggest that the efficacy of an infliximab dose increase is limited, and the response is independent of the infliximab trough serum concentration that is achieved prior to escalation.

  12. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.


    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  13. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  14. A Novel Volume CT With X-Ray on a Trough-Like Surface and Point Detectors on Circle-Plus-Arc Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, H


    A novel imaging mode of cone-beam volume CT is proposed in this paper. It adopts a raster scanning x-ray source on a trough-like surface, and a group of point detectors distributing on a large circle plus an orthogonal arc...

  15. The relationship between the vortical structure and the wall shear stress in a blind trough cavity subject to a jet impingement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knob, Martin; Uruba, Václav


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 10621-10622 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : blind trough cavity * jet impingement * dynamics * Time Resolved PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren


    and AUC by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and pairs of correlation coefficients were compared by an asymptotic Wald-type test. RESULTS: AUC varied five-fold despite near-equal dosing. Pearson's correlation coefficient for trough level, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h were 0.84, 0.60, 0.81, 0.95, 0.95, and 0...

  17. Economic analysis of power generation from parabolic trough solar thermal plants for the Mediterranean region. A case study for the island of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas


    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the Mediterranean region is economically feasible. The case study takes into account the available solar potential for Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources policy of the Cyprus Government, including the relevant feed-in tariff. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the parabolic trough solar thermal plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters, such as, parabolic trough solar thermal plant capacity, parabolic trough solar thermal capital investment, operating hours, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that under certain conditions such projects can be profitable. (author)

  18. Efficient Sensor Integration on Platforms (NeXOS) (United States)

    Memè, S.; Delory, E.; Del Rio, J.; Jirka, S.; Toma, D. M.; Martinez, E.; Frommhold, L.; Barrera, C.; Pearlman, J.


    In-situ ocean observing platforms provide power and information transmission capability to sensors. Ocean observing platforms can be mobile, such as ships, autonomous underwater vehicles, drifters and profilers, or fixed, such as buoys, moorings and cabled observatories. The process of integrating sensors on platforms can imply substantial engineering time and resources. Constraints range from stringent mechanical constraints to proprietary communication and control firmware. In NeXOS, the implementation of a PUCK plug and play capability is being done with applications to multiple sensors and platforms. This is complemented with a sensor web enablement that addresses the flow of information from sensor to user. Open standards are being tested in order to assess their costs and benefits in existing and future observing systems. Part of the testing implied open-source coding and hardware prototyping of specific control devices in particular for closed commercial platforms where firmware upgrading is not straightforward or possible without prior agreements or service fees. Some platform manufacturers such as European companies ALSEAMAR[1] and NKE Instruments [2] are currently upgrading their control and communication firmware as part of their activities in NeXOS. The sensor development companies Sensorlab[3] SMID[4] and TRIOS [5]upgraded their firmware with this plug and play functionality. Other industrial players in Europe and the US have been sent NeXOS sensors emulators to test the new protocol on their platforms. We are currently demonstrating that with little effort, it is also possible to have such middleware implemented on very low-cost compact computers such as the open Raspberry Pi[6], and have a full end-to-end interoperable communication path from sensor to user with sensor plug and play capability. The result is an increase in sensor integration cost-efficiency and the demonstration will be used to highlight the benefit to users and ocean observatory

  19. Distinct control mechanism of fine-grained sediments from Yellow River and Kyushu supply in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial (United States)

    Zhao, Debo; Wan, Shiming; Toucanne, Samuel; Clift, Peter D.; Tada, Ryuji; Révillon, Sidonie; Kubota, Yoshimi; Zheng, Xufeng; Yu, Zhaojie; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Hanchao; Xu, Zhaokai; Shi, Xuefa; Li, Anchun


    High-resolution multiproxy records, including clay minerals and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the clay-sized silicate fraction of sediments from IODP Site U1429 in the northern Okinawa Trough, provide reliable evidence for distinct control mechanism on fine-grained sediments input from the Yellow River and the southern Japanese Islands to the northern Okinawa Trough since 34 ka BP. Provenance analysis indicates that the sediments were mainly derived from the Yellow River and the island of Kyushu. Since the last glacial, clay-sized sediments transported from the Yellow River to the study site were strongly influenced by sea-level fluctuation. During low sea-level stage (˜34-14 ka BP), the paleo-Yellow River mouth was positioned closer to the northern Okinawa Trough, favoring large fluvial discharge or even direct input of detrital sediments, which resulted about four times more flux of clay-sized sediments supply to the study area as during the relatively high sea-level stage (˜14-0 ka BP). The input of Kyushu-derived clay-sized sediments to the study site was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current intensity, with increased input in phase with weakened Kuroshio Current/Tsushima Warm Current. Our study suggests that the Kuroshio Current was very likely flowed into the Okinawa Trough and thus influenced the fine-grained sediment transport in the area throughout the last glacial and deglacial. During ˜34-11 ka BP, the Kyushu clay-sized sediment input was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current. Since ˜11 ka BP, the occurrence of Tsushima Warm Current became important in influencing the Kyushu fine-grained sediment input to the northern Okinawa Trough.

  20. ‘Transnationalising’ Ne Bis In Idem: How the Rule of Ne Bis In Idem Reveals the Principle of Personal Legal Certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Lelieur


    Full Text Available Since Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement gave the rule of ne bis in idem a transnational dimension, talk of the ‘transnational ne bis in idem principle’ has been commonplace. Thus, when looking for general principles of transnational criminal law, scholars refer to the principle of ‘transnational ne bis in idem’. It is doubtful, however, that ne bis in idem qualifies as a principle of law. It should be regarded, rather, as a rule of criminal procedure, traditionally based on the principle of res judicata. Giving the rule of ne bis in idem a transnational dimension therefore requires either transnationalising the principle of res judicata, or giving the rule of ne bis in idem a new foundation.The principle of res judicata principally serves the credibility of the justice system in a given jurisdiction by prohibiting several tribunals, all acting within the parameters of their jurisdiction, from contradicting each other’s interpretation of the same facts. For this reason, the principle of res judicata does not provide an adequate basis for a transnationalised rule of ne bis in idem.From a human rights perspective, multiple prosecutions against the same person for the same facts collides with protecting individuals against arbitrary judicial treatment. This is true whether the multiple prosecutions all take place in one country or in several different countries. The rule of ne bis in idem could therefore be regarded as a manifestation of the (new ‘principle of personal legal certainty’.

  1. COOLC, Ne-213 Liquid Scintillation Detector Neutron Spectra Unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: COOLC is designed to calculate a neutron energy spectrum from a pulse-height spectrum produced by a detector system using the liquid scintillator NE-213. 2 - Method of solution: The program estimates the counts which would be observed in an ideal detector system having a response which is specified by the user. The solution implicitly takes into account the non-negativity of the desired neutron spectrum. The solution is obtained by finding a nearly optimal combination of slices through the spectrometer response functions such that their sum approximates the response of a channel of the ideal analyzer, and then uses the coefficients so determined to obtain an estimate of the desired neutron spectrum. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are none noted

  2. NE seeks to sell power directly to customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Nuclear Electric, the state-owned company that operates nuclear power stations in England and Wales, has applied to compete directly with privatized electricity generating companies in the sale of electricity to major customers. Since its formation in 1990, NE has had to sell all of its electrical output through the so-called pool operated by the National Grid Company, and then to 12 regional distribution companies that have franchises for about 75 percent of electricity consumption in their regions. On the other hand, the two large companies that took over the fossil-fuel power stations at the time of privatization, and other new independent companies that are building combined-cycle gas-turbine plants, are allowed to conclude supply contracts directly with large industrial customers

  3. Calibration of NE213 detector in neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I


    Organic scintillator is one of the widely used materials in neutron measurement as they have good timing properties and a high hydrogen content. Calibration of the detector system is an important part of the experimental study for interpretation of the results. As the neutron uncharged, the pulse from the detector is not directly used to determine neutron kinetic energy but the detection threshold for recoil charged particles (p,d,□ etc) has to be known in order to calculate the neutron detection efficiency. In this work calibration procedure of a NE213 detector array used in neutron measurements at MaxLab (Lund,Sweden ), is described.This includes both pulse height and neutron flight time which is important in neutron energy determinations

  4. Restaurant closure for the Jeûne genevois

    CERN Multimedia


    Restaurant 1 will be closed on Thursday 6th September (Jeûne Genevois) as well as Friday 7th, Saturday 8th and Sunday 9th September for technical reasons. During this time, Restaurant 2 will be open at the following times: –\tThursday 6th September: 9:00 – 20:00 –\tFriday 7th September: 8:00 – 20:00 –\tSaturday 8th and Sunday 9th September: 9:00–20:00 Hot meals will be served on all 4 days from 12:00 to 14:00 and from 18:00 to 19:30. For more information please see Thank you for your understanding.

  5. La chaîne du froid en agroalimentaire


    Rosset , Philippe; Beaufort , Annie; Cornu , Marie; Poumeyrol , Gérard


    Le recours au froid constitue une pratique courante pour assurer une conservation prolongée des aliments, de quelques jours à quelques semaines. Limitant notre propos aux denrées réfrigérées et au risque sanitaire d'origine microbiologique, après un rappel de la définition de la chaîne du froid et des modalités générales de mise en oeuvre, nous aborderons dans un premier temps les particularités technologiques de son application. Celle-ci sera étudiée tout d'abord selon le type d'aliments con...

  6. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  7. First Measurement of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Pip [Fermilab


    The MicroBooNE detector has recently completed its first year of neutrino beam data-taking in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, having collected approximately half of its intended data ($3.4\\times10^{20}$ of $6.6\\times10^{20}$ protons on target). We present kinematic distributions of neutrino interactions observed from a small subset of this data (equivalent to $5\\times10^{19}$ protons on target), both as a first step towards a charged-current muon neutrino cross-section on argon, and as an exploration of the capabilities and operational challenges of large liquid argon time projection chambers as neutrino detectors. These distributions have been assessed using fully automated event selection and reconstruction.

  8. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne (United States)

    Otani, Reiji; Iwasaki, Masataka; Ito, Makoto


    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He-O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) + (5He+14O) are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  9. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Reiji


    Full Text Available Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O + (α+15O is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He–O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O + (α+15O + (5He+14O are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  10. Measurement of 17F(d ,n )18Ne and the impact on the 17F(p ,γ )18Ne reaction rate for astrophysics (United States)

    Kuvin, S. A.; Belarge, J.; Baby, L. T.; Baker, J.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Höflich, P.; Volya, A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Gardiner, H. E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L. E.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Quails, N.; Colbert, K.; Gay, D. L.; Keeley, N.


    Background: The 17F(p ,γ )18Ne reaction is part of the astrophysical "hot CNO" cycles that are important in astrophysical environments like novas. Its thermal reaction rate is low owing to the relatively high energy of the resonances and therefore is dominated by direct, nonresonant capture in stellar environments at temperatures below 0.4 GK. Purpose: An experimental method is established to extract the proton strength to bound and unbound states in experiments with radioactive ion beams and to determine the parameters of direct and resonant capture in the 17F(p ,γ )18Ne reaction. Method: The 17F(d ,n )18Ne reaction is measured in inverse kinematics using a beam of the short-lived isotope 17F and a compact setup of neutron, proton, γ -ray, and heavy-ion detectors called resoneut. Results: The spectroscopic factors for the lowest l =0 proton resonances at Ec .m .=0.60 and 1.17 MeV are determined, yielding results consistent within 1.4 σ of previous proton elastic-scattering measurements. The asymptotic normalization coefficients of the bound 21+ and 22+ states in 18Ne are determined and the resulting direct-capture reaction rates are extracted. Conclusions: The direct-capture component of the 17F(p ,γ )18Ne reaction is determined for the first time from experimental data on 18Ne.

  11. 77 FR 4713 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE (United States)


    ...-0426; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-7] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Red Cloud Municipal Airport. The FAA is...

  12. 77 FR 29871 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE (United States)


    ...-0426; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-7] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Red Cloud, NE AGENCY: Federal... at Red Cloud, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Red Cloud Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the...

  13. Ne bis in idem põhimõte Euroopa Liidu õiguses / Uno Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Uno, 1952-


    Ne bis in idem põhimõtte ehk teistkordse kohtumõistmise ja karistamise keelu territoriaalsest kohaldamisest. Schengeni rakenduskonventsiooni artiklis 54 sisalduva ne bis in idem põhimõtte tõlgendustest. Mõistetest "sama tegu" ja "lõplik kohtuotsus"

  14. Desktop Video: Multi-Media on the NeXT Computer. (United States)

    Stammen, Ronald M.; Richardson, Jolene

    A new course, Independent Study Research and Writing via Telecommunications, is being developed by the Division of Independent Study (DIS) of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction to teach telepublishing skills utilizing the NeXT telecommunicating (interpersonal computing) techniques, i.e., NeXT Mail. This multimedia electronic-mail…

  15. Using ICD for structural analysis of clusters: a case study on NeAr clusters (United States)

    Fasshauer, E.; Förstel, M.; Pallmann, S.; Pernpointner, M.; Hergenhahn, U.


    We present a method to utilize interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) to retrieve information about the mean geometric structures of heteronuclear clusters. It is based on observation and modelling of competing ICD channels, which involve the same initial vacancy, but energetically different final states with vacancies in different components of the cluster. Using binary rare gas clusters of Ne and Ar as an example, we measure the relative intensity of ICD into (Ne+)2 and Ne+Ar+ final states with spectroscopically well separated ICD peaks. We compare in detail the experimental ratios of the Ne-Ne and Ne-Ar ICD contributions and their positions and widths to values calculated for a diverse set of possible structures. We conclude that NeAr clusters exhibit a core-shell structure with an argon core surrounded by complete neon shells and, possibly, further an incomplete shell of neon atoms for the experimental conditions investigated. Our analysis allows one to differentiate between clusters of similar size and stochiometric Ar content, but different internal structure. We find evidence for ICD of Ne 2s-1, producing Ar+ vacancies in the second coordination shell of the initial site.

  16. 1 1) Pourquoi est-ce que je ne parviens pas à ouvrir les formulaires ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Faites vos calculs avec soin car votre demande pourrait ne pas être admissible.) 6) Existe-t-il une liste de pays admissibles dans lesquels mon établissement ou organisme est autorisé à travailler ou à avoir des partenaires ? Non, le CRDI n'a rien de tel; cependant, il ne soutient des travaux que dans les pays à faible.

  17. The neXtProt knowledgebase on human proteins: 2017 update. (United States)

    Gaudet, Pascale; Michel, Pierre-André; Zahn-Zabal, Monique; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Domagalski, Marcin; Duek, Paula D; Gateau, Alain; Gleizes, Anne; Hinard, Valérie; Rech de Laval, Valentine; Lin, JinJin; Nikitin, Frederic; Schaeffer, Mathieu; Teixeira, Daniel; Lane, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos


    The neXtProt human protein knowledgebase ( continues to add new content and tools, with a focus on proteomics and genetic variation data. neXtProt now has proteomics data for over 85% of the human proteins, as well as new tools tailored to the proteomics community.Moreover, the neXtProt release 2016-08-25 includes over 8000 phenotypic observations for over 4000 variations in a number of genes involved in hereditary cancers and channelopathies. These changes are presented in the current neXtProt update. All of the neXtProt data are available via our user interface and FTP site. We also provide an API access and a SPARQL endpoint for more technical applications. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Great earthquakes and slow slip events along the Sagami trough and outline of the Kanto Asperity Project (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Ito, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kawamura, K.; Shibazaki, B.


    The Kanto region is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the world. Complicated plate configurations are due to T-T-T type triple junction, island arc-island arc collision zone, and very shallow angle between axis of the Sagami trough and subducting direction. Great earthquakes along the Sagami trough have repeatedly occurred. The 1703 Genroku and 1923 (Taisho) Kanto earthquakes caused severe damages in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Intriguingly slow slip events have also repeatedly occurred in an area adjacent to the asperities of the great earthquakes, off Boso peninsula (e.g., Ozawa et al 2007). In the cases of the Nankai and Cascadia subduction zones, slow slip events occur at deeper levels than the asperity, in a transition zone between the asperity and a region of steady slip. In contrast, slow slip events in the Kanto region have occurred at relatively shallow depths, at the same level as the asperity, raising the possibility of friction controlled by different conditions to those (temperature and pressure) encountered at Nankai and Cascadia. We focus on three different types of seismic events occurring repeatedly at the almost same depth of the seismogenic zone along the Sagami trough (5-20 km) (1) The 1923 M~7.9 Taisho earthquake, located in Sagami Bay. Maximum slip is about 6 m, the recurrence interval is 200-400 yr, and the coupling rate is 80-100% (“coupling rates” = “slip amounts during earthquakes or slow-slip events” / [“rate of motion of the Philippine Sea Plate” - “recurrence interval”]) . (2) The 1703 M~8.2 Genroku earthquake, located in Sagami Bay, but also extending to the southern part of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 m, the recurrence interval is ~2000 yr, and the coupling rate at the southern part of the Boso Peninsula is 10-30%. (3) Boso slow-slip events, located southeast of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 cm over ~10 days, the recurrence interval is 5-6 yr, and the coupling rate is 70

  19. Search of fission products in 20Ne-ion beam interaction with 165Ho at 8 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.


    In the present work, during the study complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) in 20 Ne-induced reactions, the production cross-sections for several fission products in 20 Ne + 165 Ho system have been measured

  20. Aqueous prostaglandin E(2) of cataract patients at trough ketorolac and bromfenac levels after 2 days dosing. (United States)

    Bucci, Frank A; Waterbury, L David


    Ketorolac 0.4% administered four times daily (q.i.d.) has long been used safely and effectively for the alleviation of ocular inflamation and pain and the prevention of intraoperative miosis in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09% was recently developed as an ocular anti-inflammatory drug with a twice-daily (b.i.d.) dosing regimen. This study was designed to evaluate if b.i.d. dosing with bromfenac 0.09%, in comparison with q.i.d. dosing with ketorolac 0.4%, provides adequate trough nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug levels that were effective enough to reduce aqueous prostaglandin (PG) E(2) levels of patients after cataract surgery toward the end of its dosing cycle. In this single-center, investigator-masked trial, patients undergoing cataract surgery were randomized to receive either ketorolac 0.4% q.i.d. or bromfenac 0.09% b.i.d. for 2 days preoperatively. Aqueous humor was collected at the start of surgery 6 hours after the last dose of ketorolac 0.4% and 12 hours after the last dose of bromfenac 0.09%. Aqueous PGE(2) levels and drug concentrations were evaluated by a competitive enzyme immunoassay and reverse-phase HPLC-mass spectroscopy, respectively. A total of 61 patients received ketorolac 0.4% (n=30) or bromfenac 0.09% (n=31). The mean (+/-SD) aqueous PGE(2) level was 285.6+/-141.9 pg/mL in patients treated with ketorolac 0.4% and 386.2+/-131.0 pg/mL in patients treated with bromfenac 0.09% (P=0.006). The mean (+/-SD) aqueous concentrations of ketorolac and bromfenac were 83.6+/-73.8 ng/mL and 9.2+/-6.6 ng/mL, respectively (P<0.001). Ketorolac 0.4% maintained significantly higher aqueous concentrations and lowered aqueous PGE(2) levels significantly more than bromfenac 0.09% at trough levels. Ketorolac 0.4% administered q.i.d. may provide a more sustained control of intraocular inflammation and pain than bromfenac 0.09% administered b.i.d.

  1. Detailed magnetic and gravity surveys around the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Kasaya, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Nogi, Y.


    The Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc basin formed by the rifting associated with extension of the continental margin behind the Ryukyu trench. New hydrothermal sites were recently discovered off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough and the hydrothermal mineral deposits were identified by seafloor surveys and rock samplings by ROV (e.g., JOGMEC, 2015). In order to characterize the sub-seafloor structures and the spatial distribution of the magmatic activity around the sites, we conducted the dense magnetic, gravity and bathymetric surveys with a line spacing of 0.5 nmi aboard the R/Vs Yokosuka and Kairei, operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) in 2016. The geophysical data collected during the previous cruises in the area by JAMSTEC were additionally used for this study. Magnetic anomaly was calculated by subtracting the IGRF model and the magnetization intensity was estimated by the method of Parker and Huestis (1974). Free-air gravity anomaly was calculated with subtracting the normal gravity field and with corrections of the drift and of the Eötvös effect. Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated based on the method of Parker (1972). The magnetization intensity and the Bouguer gravity anomaly reveal three characteristics of the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island: 1) The distribution of magnetization around the hydrothermal sites shows two different types of sub-seafloor magnetic features. One is corresponded to the submarine knolls with a relatively high magnetization of 4 A/M. The other is an ENE-WSW trending magnetization distribution with relatively high and low intensities, which is consistent with the trend of the bathymetric lineament. These features are considered to be formed by magmatism associated with submarine volcanoes and back-arc rifting. 2) The reduced magnetization zone corresponding to the hydrothermal area probably attributes to hydrothermal alteration of the host rock. 3) The hydrothermal

  2. Interaction of Structure and Physical Properties in Accretionary Wedges: Examples from the Cascadia and Nankai Trough Subduction Zones (United States)

    Webb, Susanna I.

    Subduction zones are capable of producing large, megathrust earthquakes that are sometimes tsunamigenic. Structure and physical properties in the accretionary wedge play a role in how far rupture can propagate and how the wedge deforms coseismically. In this dissertation, I use seismic reflection data and velocity models from the Cascadia subduction zone and logging data from the Nankai Trough, Japan, to interpret structure, link structure to the broader wedge deformation history, and investigate the material properties at depth. I present a full structural interpretation of newly acquired seismic reflection data in the central Cascadia margin, which is characterized by dominantly landward vergent faulting in the outer wedge, a very low wedge taper angle, and a broad, lightly deformed lower slope terrace. Two decollements are active: an upper decollement within the sedimentary section, and a basal decollement at the sediment-basement interface. These interpretations help delineate the spatial extent of decollements and suggest that supra-wedge sedimentation may influence the development of the wedge, including the formation of the lower slope terrace and out of sequence fault activity. I use velocity models from central Cascadia to estimate excess pore fluid pressure and overpressure ratio at depth, which do not exceed 5 MPa and 0.15, respectively. No excess pore pressure is documented in the underthrust sediment section, but modest overpressure is likely present in the incoming sediment section and the footwalls of thrust sheets. The analysis of pore pressure shows that (1) if the base of the wedge is weak, it is due to mechanical properties of the sediments or a relatively thin underthrust layer and (2) the Cascadia wedge is relatively well-drained, and thus potentially strong, which can lead to a low wedge taper angle. In the Nankai Trough, Japan, I reprocessed sonic log data to obtain P-wave and S-wave velocity values and estimate elastic moduli. The logs

  3. Southern San Andreas Fault Slip History Refined Using Pliocene Colorado River Deposits in the Western Salton Trough (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Housen, B. A.


    Tectonic reconstructions of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Salton Trough region (Bennett et al., 2016) are constrained by: (1) late Miocene volcanic rocks that record 255 +/-10 km of transform offset across the northern Gulf of California since 6 Ma (average 42 mm/yr; Oskin and Stock, 2003); and (2) GPS data that show modern rates of 50-52 mm/yr between Pacific and North America plates, and 46-48 mm/yr between Baja California (BC) and North America (NAM) (Plattner et al., 2007). New data from Pliocene Colorado River deposits in the Salton Trough provide an important additional constraint on the geologic history of slip on the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF). The Arroyo Diablo Formation (ADF) in the San Felipe Hills SW of the Salton Sea contains abundant cross-bedded channel sandstones deformed in the dextral Clark fault zone. The ADF ranges in age from 4.3 to 2.8 Ma in the Fish Creek-Vallecito basin, and in the Borrego Badlands its upper contact with the Borrego Formation is 2.9 Ma based on our new magnetostratigraphy. ADF paleocurrent data from a 20-km wide, NW-oriented belt near Salton City record overall transport to the SW (corrected for bedding dip, N=165), with directions ranging from NW to SE. Spatial domain analysis reveals radial divergence of paleoflow to the: W and NW in the NW domain; SW in the central domain; and S in the SE domain. Data near Borrego Sink, which restores to south of Salton City after removing offset on the San Jacinto fault zone, show overall transport to the SE. Pliocene patterns of radial paleoflow divergence strongly resemble downstream bifurcation of fluvial distributary channels on the modern Colorado River delta SW of Yuma, and indicate that Salton City has translated 120-130 km NW along the SAF since 3 Ma. We propose a model in which post-6 Ma BC-NAM relative motion gradually accelerated to 50 mm/yr by 4 Ma, continued at 50 mm/yr from 4-1 Ma, and decreased to 46 mm/yr from 1-0 Ma (split equally between the SAF and

  4. Hyaluronic acid filler injections for tear-trough deformity: injection technique and high-frequency ultrasound follow-up evaluation. (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonino; Russa, Giuseppina; Pulvirenti, Manuela; Di Rosa, Luigi


    This study aimed to describe the technique used by the authors in treating tear-trough deformity and to illustrate the effectiveness of high-frequency diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of dermal filler longevity. In this consecutive interventional nonrandomized case series, 22 patients (18 women and 4 men) were evaluated. They ranged in age from 29 to 65 years (mean, 46.59 years ± 10.0 years). The patients were given multiple hyaluronic acid injections in the tear-trough area between 2009 and 2011. The injected areas then were evaluated with sonographic scans during the follow-up period. All the patients were examined preoperatively, 7 days after injection, then after 1, 6, and 12 months, and finally once a year. Pre- and postoperative photographs using standard positioning and lighting were taken as well as high-frequency ultrasound scans using a 15-MHz scanner with an axial resolution of 15 mm. The injection technique consisted of three to five injections perpendicular to the skin. These were administered just under the orbital rim, creating three column-shaped hyaluronic acid deposits deep in the orbicularis oculi muscle, from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm below the orbital rim. Approximately 0.1 ml-0.3 ml was injected at a time. This technique creates a deep scaffolding that can fill the orbital hollow. The amount of filler used in each area ranged from 0.1 ml to 0.3 ml (mean, 0.267 ml ± 0.128 ml), whereas the mean filler quantity in each eyelid was 0.45 ml ± 0.14 ml. During the follow-up visit 1 week after the treatment, 21 patients (90 %) required a second series of injections either in the exact same areas or right next to the injected area to obtain a smoother appearance of the skin surface. During the sonographer examination, it was always possible to identify and measure the filler at the site of the injection. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please

  5. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  6. Ne bis in idem põhimõte Eesti karistusõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Natalja Mogiljova ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Elina Elkind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mogiljova, Natalja


    Ne bis in idem põhimõtte olemusest ja ajaloolisest arengust, horisontaalsest riigisisesest ne bis in idem-ist, rahvusvahelistest konventsioonidest, EIÕK praktikast, Riigikohtu praktikast, ne bis in idem Ameerika Ühendriikide õiguskorras

  7. Interaction of Ne(2p54p), Ar(3p54p) and Kr(4p55p) excited atoms with He and Ne atoms. Processes of collisional depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebin, A.L.; Lednev, M.G.


    Quasimolecular terms Ne(2p 5 4p)+He, Ar(3p 5 4p)+He,Ne and Kr(4p 5 5p)+He,Ne are calculated within the framework of one-configuration method of effective Hamiltonian. The results of calculations agree with the experimental data

  8. The MiniBooNE detector technical design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Stancu et al.


    The MiniBooNE experiment [1] is motivated by the LSND observation, [2] which has been interpreted as {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, and by the atmospheric neutrino deficit, [3,4,5] which may be ascribed to {nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations into another type of neutrino. MiniBooNE is a single-detector experiment designed to: obtain {approx} 1000 {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} events if the LSND signal is due to {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, establishing the oscillation signal at the > 5{sigma} level as shown in Fig. 1.1; extend the search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations significantly beyond what has been studied previously if no signal is observed; search for {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance to address the atmospheric neutrino deficit with a signal that is a suppression of the rate of {nu}{sub {mu}}C {yields} {mu}N events from the expected 600,000 per year; measure the oscillation parameters as shown in Fig. 1.2 if oscillations are observed; and test CP conservation in the lepton sector if oscillations are observed by running with separate {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beams. The detector will consist of a spherical tank 6.1 m (20 feet) in radius, as shown in Fig. 1.3, that stands in a 45-foot diameter cylindrical vault. An inner tank structure at 5.75 m radius will support 1280 8-inch phototubes (10% coverage) pointed inward and optically isolated from the outer region of the tank. The tank will be filled with 807 t of mineral oil, resulting in a 445 t fiducial volume. The outer tank volume will serve as a veto shield for identifying particles both entering and leaving the detector with 240 phototubes mounted on the tank wall. Above the detector tank will be an electronics enclosure that houses the fast electronics and data acquisition system and a utilities enclosure that houses the plumbing, overflow tank, and calibration laser. The detector will be located {approx} 550 m from the Booster neutrino

  9. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza


    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal mechanisms together with data from the permanent networks of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) and the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), based in Tehran. Microseismicity is focused primarily on the Shahrud fault system, which bounds the east Alborz range to the south. Relatively few earthquakes are associated with the Khazar thrust fault, which bounds the north side of the range. A cluster of shallow microseismicity (Khazar fault (within the South Caspian Lowlands; SCL), an area typically thought to be non-deforming. This area coincides with the location of three relatively deep thrust earthquakes (Mw 5.3-5.5) which occurred in 1999, 2004 and 2005. Inversion of teleseismic body waveforms allows us to constrain the depth of these earthquakes at 26-29 km. Although significant sedimentation throughout the SCL obscures any expression of recent fault activity at the surface, focal mechanisms of well-located events from the shallow cluster of micro-seismicity show a significant component of left-lateral strike-slip motion (assuming slip occurs on NE-SW fault planes, typical of active faults in the region), as well as a small normal component. Inversion of traveltimes for well-located events in our network yields a velocity structure for the region, and a Moho depth of 41 km. The pattern of deep thrust and shallow normal seismicity could be explained by bending of the rigid South Caspian crust as it underthrusts the East

  10. Effects of Al on the splenic immune function and NE in rats. (United States)

    Hu, Chongwei; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yanzhu; Bai, Chongsheng; Zhang, Jihong; Xia, Shiliang; Li, Yanfei


    Norepinephrine (NE) regulates the splenic immune function and it may be related to the effects of Aluminum (Al) on the splenic immune function. Here, the aim of this study was to further explore the effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) on the splenic immune function and its relationship with NE. Forty male Wistar rats were orally exposed to AlCl3 (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg BW) through drinking water for 120 days. The CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes, the T and B lymphocytes proliferation rates and serum NE concentration were examined. The correlation analysis between splenic immune function and NE were done. The results showed that the CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the T and B lymphocytes proliferation rates decreased and NE concentration increased in AlCl3-treated rats. NE was negatively correlated with proportions of CD3(+), CD4(+) T lymphocytes and T and B lymphocytes proliferation rates, but not correlated with CD8(+) T lymphocytes. The results suggest that AlCl3 suppresses the splenic immune function and NE plays important role in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental validation of energy parameters in parabolic trough collector with plain absorber and analysis of heat transfer enhancement techniques (United States)

    Bilal, F. R.; Arunachala, U. C.; Sandeep, H. M.


    The quantum of heat loss from the receiver of the Parabolic Trough Collector is considerable which results in lower thermal efficiency of the system. Hence heat transfer augmentation is essential which can be attained by various techniques. An analytical model to evaluate the system with bare receiver performance was developed using MATLAB. The experimental validation of the model resulted in less than 5.5% error in exit temperature using both water and thermic oil as heat transfer fluid. Further, heat transfer enhancement techniques were incorporated in the model which included the use of twisted tape inserts, nanofluid, and a combination of both for further enhancement. It was observed that the use of evacuated glass cover in the existing setup would increase the useful heat gain up to 5.3%. Fe3O4/H2O nanofluid showed a maximum enhancement of 56% in the Nusselt number for the volume concentration of 0.6% at highest Reynolds number. Similarly, twisted tape turbulators (with twist ratio of 2) taken alone with water exhibited 59% improvement in Nusselt number. Combining both the heat transfer augmentation techniques at their best values revealed the Nusselt number enhancement up to 87%. It is concluded that, use of twisted tape with water is the best method for heat transfer augmentation since it gives the maximum effective thermal efficiency amongst all for the range of Re considered. The first section in your paper

  12. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.


    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  13. Relation between methane hydrate-bearing formations and geological phenomena on the seafloor in the eastern Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakubo, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.; Shimoda, N.; Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center; Morita, S.; Tanahashi, M. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. for Geo-Resources and Environment


    Bathymetric and sea floor amplitude maps of the Tokai-Oki area, Daini-Atsumi Knoll, and Kumao-Nada areas were constructed using data obtained from 3-D seismic surveys. The study examined the control factors of fluid migration between methane hydrate formations and the sea floor. The aim of the study was to understand the relationship between methane hydrate-bearing formation and geological phenomena in the eastern Nankai trough. Sea floor geological features in the region include canyons, pockmarks, landslides, and undulations. The study identified methane seeps with biological colonies, bacteria mats and methane-enriched pore water. Strong sea floor amplitudes corresponded with distributions of carbonate outcrops and methane-bearing fluids around the BSR. The study showed that the principle geological control factors for fluid migration between methane hydrate-bearing formations and the sea floor are permeable sandy sediments; shallow faults; and natural hydraulic fractures. Significant shallow anomalies were observed in the Daini-Atsumi Knoll area. Sandy sediments derived from turbidites control the distributions of bottom simulating reflectors. It was concluded that permeable sandy sediments may play an important role in fluid migration between methane hydrate-bearing formations and the sea floor. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Dust emissions in the West African heat trough. The role of the diurnal cycle and of extratropical disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippertz, P. [Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)


    The summertime West African heat trough (HT) is one of the most active dust sources in the world. A detailed case study during May/June 2006 based upon analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and a new Meteosat dust product illustrates two important mechanisms of dust emissions in this region: (1) The dry continental-scale HT circulation exhibits a strong diurnal cycle characterized by nocturnal low-level jets and downward mixing of momentum to the surface during the build-up of the planetary boundary layer in the morning. This leads to strong gusty surface winds and dust emission, mostly along the northern side of the HT, but also within the southerly monsoon flow. Transports lead to an accumulation of dust near the axis of the HT. (2) Triggered by a lee cyclogenesis south of the Atlas Mountains, the Intertropical Discontinuity that separates dry Saharan and moist monsoonal air shifts northward and allows deep moist convection to penetrate into the Sahara. The evaporation of precipitation in the dry desert air also generates strong gusty winds and dust emissions. This study helps to clarify the physical mechanisms for a previously discovered relation between the annual cycles of dustiness on one hand and near-surface convergence and gustiness on the other hand. (orig.)

  15. Development of aluminium free castable for blast furnace trough materials. Koro toiyo Al mutenka nagashikomizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, H.; Tsutsui, N.; Suzuki, T. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yoshino, H.; Sugiyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Ninomiya, H.; Itose, S. (Harima Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))


    In recent years a densification of castable materials is being developed in order to elongate a life of the blast furnace trough. As a risk of dry expansion in the drying process becomes to be higher due to it, the castable materials added the metallic Al are being used as a countermeasure against it. Since the metallic Al generates the hydrogen gas by a reaction with the water and forms the vent holes, it is superior in an explosion resistance. When the hydrogen gas generated by a reaction of this metallic Al retains during a period from the execution to the curing, there is a danger to generate an explosion by catching a fire. Accordingly in this repost, the organic foaming agent was added as the castable materials free from the metallic Al. As a result, an explosion resistance could be raised substantially. This is thought due to generation of N2 gas because the hydrolysis occurs in an alumina cement-water system. The microporess caused by a generation of N2 gas are a size of about 10[mu]m, or many of them are bigger than it. Although the effect of the added organic foaming agent on the various material property values is a little, an appropriate quantity is thought to be within 0.2%. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A finite-volume model of a parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal collector: Energetic and exergetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura


    This paper presents a detailed finite-volume model of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector. The PVT solar collector consists in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. The bottom surfaces of the triangular receiver are equipped with triple-junction cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The cooling fluid (water) flows inside a channel along the longitudinal direction of the PVT collector. The system was discretized along its axis and, for each slice of the discretized computational domain, mass and energy balances were considered. The model allows one to evaluate both thermodynamic and electrical parameters along the axis of the PVT collector. Then, for each slice of the computational domain, exergy balances were also considered in order to evaluate the corresponding exergy destruction rate and exergetic efficiency. Therefore, the model also calculates the magnitude of the irreversibilities inside the collector and it allows one to detect where these irreversibilities occur. A sensitivity analysis is also performed with the scope to evaluate the effect of the variation of the main design/environmental parameters on the energetic and exergetic performance of the PVT collector. -- Highlights: ► The paper investigates an innovative concentrating photovoltaic thermal solar collector. ► The collector is equipped with triple-junction photovoltaic layers. ► A local exergetic analysis is performed in order to detect sources of irreversibilities. ► Irreversibilities are mainly due to the heat transfer between sun and PVT collector.

  17. Results from shallow research drilling at Inyo Domes, Long Valley Caldera, California and Salton Sea geothermal field, Salton Trough, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.W.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Vogel, T.A.


    This report reviews the results from two shallow drilling programs recently completed as part of the United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The purpose is to provide a broad overview of the objectives and results of the projects, and to analyze these results in the context of the promise and potential of research drilling in crustal thermal regimes. The Inyo Domes drilling project has involved drilling 4 shallow research holes into the 600-year-old Inyo Domes chain, the youngest rhyolitic event in the coterminous United States and the youngest volcanic event in Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the drilling at Inyo was to understand the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of silicic magma as it intrudes the upper crust. This behavior, which involves the response of magma to decompression and cooling, is closely related to both eruptive phenomena and the establishment of hydrothermal circulation. The Salton Sea shallow research drilling project involved drilling 19 shallow research holes into the Salton Sea geothermal field, California. The purpose of this drilling was to bound the thermal anomaly, constrain hydrothermal flow pathways, and assess the thermal budget of the field. Constraints on the thermal budget links the local hydrothermal system to the general processes of crustal rifting in the Salton Trough.

  18. Study on the Instability of Two-Phase Flow in the Heat-Absorbing Tube of Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang


    Full Text Available The Marangoni effect and Rayleigh-Benard effect in the two-phase region of solar trough heat-absorbing tube are simulated by FTM (front tracking method. Considering the Marangoni effect alone, although surface tension gradient and surface tension affect the interface wave, the two effects have different characteristics. The surface tension gradient caused by the temperature gradient is one of the factors that swing the interface. The amplitude attenuation of the interface wave decreases with the increase of the Marangoni number (Ma. In general, the surface tension gradient enhances the convection opposite to the temperature gradient. Under the gravity field, the Rayleigh-Benard effect influences the development of the vortex structure in the flow field, which in turn affects the velocity gradient near the interface to influence the evolution of the interface fluctuation. In a small Rayleigh number (Ra, the buoyancy convection reduces the velocity gradient, thus suppressing the evolution of the interfacial wave. In the range of Ra  4.0E4, the situation is just the opposite. The larger the Ra is, the stronger the promoting effect is.

  19. Elemental compositions of crab and snail shells from the Kueishantao hydrothermal field in the southwestern Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Zeng, Zhigang; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yin, Xuebo; Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Junlong; Jiang, Wei


    To reveal differences in the behavior of benthic vent animals, and the sources and sinks of biogeochemical and fluid circulations, it is necessary to constrain the chemical characteristics of benthic animals from seafloor hydrothermal fields. We measured the abundances of 27 elements in shells of the crab Xenograpsus testudinatus and the snail Anachis sp., collected from the Kueishantao hydrothermal field (KHF) in the southwestern Okinawa Trough, with the aim of improving our understanding of the compositional variations between individual vent organisms, and the sources of the rare earth elements (REEs) in their shells. The Mn, Hg, and K concentrations in the male X. testudinatus shells are found to be higher than those in female crab shells, whereas the reverse is true for the accumulation of B, implying that the accumulation of K, Mn, Hg, and B in the crab shells is influenced by sex. This is inferred to be a result of the asynchronous molting of the male and female crab shells. Snail shells are found to have higher Ca, Al, Fe, Ni, and Co concentrations than crab shells. This may be attributed to different metal accumulation times. The majority of the light rare earth element (LREE) distribution patterns in the crab and snail shells are similar to those of Kueishantao vent fluids, with the crab and snail shells also exhibiting LREE enrichment, implying that the LREEs contained in crab and snail shells in the KHF are derived from vent fluids.

  20. Spectrum-splitting hybrid CSP-CPV solar energy system with standalone and parabolic trough plant retrofit applications (United States)

    Orosz, Matthew; Zweibaum, Nicolas; Lance, Tamir; Ruiz, Maritza; Morad, Ratson


    Sunlight to electricity efficiencies of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) plants are typically on the order of 15%, while commercial solar Photovoltaic (PV) technologies routinely achieve efficiencies of greater than 20%, albeit with much higher conversion efficiencies of photons at the band gap. Hybridizing concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies can lead to higher aggregate efficiencies due to the matching of photons to the appropriate converter based on wavelength. This can be accomplished through spectral filtering whereby photons unusable or poorly utilitized by PV (IR and UV) are passed through to a heat collection element, while useful photons (VIS) are reflected onto a concentrating PV (CPV) receiver. The mechanical design and experimental validation of spectral splitting optics is described in conjunction with system level modeling and economic analysis. The implications of this architecture include higher efficiency, lower cost hybrid CSP-PV power systems, as well as the potential to retrofit existing PTC plants to boost their output by ~ 10% at a projected investment cost of less than 1 per additional net Watt and an IRR of 18%, while preserving the dispatchability of the CSP plant's thermal energy storage.