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Sample records for sorokin trough ne

  1. Lipid Composition of methane-derived Carbonate Crusts and Sediments from Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Baas, M.; Hopmans, E.; van Weering, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the distributions and d13C values of bacterial and archaeal lipids in four carbonate crusts and hosting sediments collected from three mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough during the 11th Training Through Research expedition in 2001. The lipid extract from carbonate crusts contains abundant archaeal and bacterial biomarkers such as pentamethylicosane (PMI), unsaturated PMIs, archaeol, hydroxyarchaeols (sn-2 and sn-3 isomers), diphytanyl glycerol diethers (DGDs). Hosting sediments also contain a diversity of bacterial and archaeal lipids, but their concentrations are significantly lower then those observed in the crusts. The stable isotopic signature of these compounds have established their biosynthesis by consortia of microorganisms performing anaerobic methanotrophy. Quantitatively, the most predominant group of archaeal core membrane lipids in the crusts and in the sediments is the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Besides, two carbonate crusts contained two archaeal core membrane macrocyclic diether lipids which have not been reported previously. These macrocyclic diethers are structurally related to GDGTs with one and two cyclopentane rings. Cyclopentane-bearing GDGTs are well known for different archaeal species thriving in different environments, while a macrocyclic diether was found only in the thermophilic methanogen Methanococcus jannaschi. Therefore, the molecular structure of novel macrocyclic DGDs unites ecologically contrasting archaeal groups. Strongly depleted carbon isotopic values of these diethers indicate that these diethers derived from archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia in cold-water environments.

  2. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments

  3. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, P.O.; Okujeni, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed

  4. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunleye, P O [Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okujeni, C D [Department Of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    1994-12-31

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed.

  5. Paleodepositional environment and age of Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Sedimentological and palynological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abdulkarim H.; Mamman, Y. D.; Abubakar, M. B.; Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Jitong, John Shirputda; Shettima, Bukar

    2017-10-01

    Sedimentogical and palynological investigations of the Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation in the Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria were carried out in order to determine the paleoenvironment and age of the sediments. Three main lithofacies were identified from the measured sedimentary log section, namely; the wave rippled sandstones, the limestones (with ammonites, bivalves and gastropods) and the clay-shale. The facies were interpreted to have been deposited in a marine environment. Based on palynological studies, Kanawa Member consists of two palynozones, namely; Cretacaeiporites scabratus and Triorites africaensis. The Triorites africaensis zone is characterized by species of T. africaensis, Gnetaceaepollenites sp. 1, Cretacaeiporites polygonalis, Monosulcites sp., Cretacaeiporites scabratus, Elaterocolpites castelainii and is dated Late Cenomanian whilst the Cretacaeiporites scabratus zone is characterized by the dominance of C. scabratus, C. mulleri and Tricolporopollenites sp and is dated Early Turonian. The Kanawa Member is therefore, dated Late Cenomanian to early Turonian.

  6. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  7. Development and Validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory for Divorced Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Joseph G.; Faul, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the development and validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory (SPSLI) measuring love actions toward a former spouse. Method: Classical measurement theory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were utilized with an a priori theory and factor model to validate the SPSLI. Results: A 15-item scale…

  8. Trough for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A trough is disclosed for supplying piglets with mineral supplements in the suckling period. The trough is designed to awaken the piglets' curiosity and thus make them root in the bottom of the trough, where the mineral supplements are dispensed in form of a dry powder mixture, and thus reduce...

  9. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  10. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Gravity Anomalies Over The Gongola Arm, Upper Benue Trough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A regional gravity survey of the Gongola Arm of the Benue trough was carried out with the aim of determining structures of interest. The results of the gravity interpretation showed that the area of study is characterized by negative Bouguer anomalies that trend in the NE-SW direction and range in value from -75 to -15 mGal ...

  12. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  13. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae); Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: luciane_modenez@ibest.com.br; Avila, Crebio Jose [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: crebio@cpao.embrapa.br

    2006-12-15

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  14. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar; Avila, Crebio Jose

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  15. Improvement Design of Parabolic Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, S. I.; Safian, M. A. I. M.; Taufek, M. A. M.; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The performance of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) has been evaluated using different heat transfer working fluids; namely water and SAE20 W50 engine oil. New and slightly improved PTSC was developed to run the experimental study. Under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia, authors found that PTSC can operate at a higher temperature than water collector but the performance efficiency of collector using engine oil is much lower than the water collector.

  16. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan, China, Germany, France, the U.S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes, rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic survey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P., the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  17. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃胜

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan,China, Germany, France, the U. S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes,rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic sur-vey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P. , the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  18. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  19. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  20. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  1. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its' related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed

  2. Ionospheric trough Model used for Telecommunication Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Stanislawska, I.

    1999-01-01

    The mid-latitude trough is dynamical phenomena influenced the COST 251 area. Modelled parameters in COST 251 project are critically dependent on its location and magnitude. The particular importance to HF propagation assessments involving off-great-circle modes of incorporating a representation of the position of the trough is noted. ITU-R prediction maps (ITU-R, 1997) which are currently used in most international propagation assessments do not include this fact. (author)

  3. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  4. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  5. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  6. Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichanun Kernasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

  7. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  8. Optical properties of V-trough concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, N. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, G. J.

    1991-07-01

    A new approach to study the optical behavior of V-trough concentrators is developed, based on the use of three characteristic angles defining the appearance, disappearance and return to the outside space of the cavity of a reflection mode. The probability of occurrence of a given number of reflections for beam radiation is determined as a function of these angles and the optical efficiency calculated. It is shown that the optical efficiency can be approximated by a function of two parameters, the angular acceptance function, T, and the mean number of reflections, n, as T * p{sup n/T}. Deviations between exact and approximate optical efficiency increase as n increases or as p decreases. For troughs with C ≤ 2.5 the maximal error for beam radiation is 3.4% for p ≥ 0.8 (8.3% for p ≥ 0.7). For diffuse radiation the maximal error is less than 2% for configurations whose optical efficiency is above 0.6. A further simplification was introduced to obtain the optical efficiency for diffuse radiation, approximating T by an analytical expression and n by an empirical linear function of the inverse of the vertex angle. Results accurate up to 5% for p = 0.8, were obtained. Increasing the concentration ratio, C, from 1.5 to 2.5 for a vertex angle being one third of the acceptance angle, decreased the optical efficiency from 0.74 to 0.59, for p = 0.8. For a given C, the dependence of the optical efficiency on the vertex angle is rather weak, suggesting that large trough angles might be favoured by cost-benefit analysis. (author)

  9. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  10. The study of the focal trough in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    In the study of the focal trough of panoramic radiograph, using the Moritta company Panex EC a series of 48 exposures were taken with the 6-18 brass pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by 4 observers. The author analyzed the focal trough defined by the sharpness criteria and calculated the vertical and horizontal magnification range in the corrected focal trough. The results were as follows; 1. Continuous focal trough was not defined in the anterior region using a very high degree of sharpness. 2. As degree of sharpness used in the analysis became less, focal trough was continuous in the anterior and posterior regions, symmetrized bilaterally, and the widths of the focal trough increased more in the posterior region. 3. As sharpness criteria were reduced, the percentage range of image magnification increased in both vertical and horizontal magnification, and especially the percentage range of horizontal magnification was greater than that of vertical magnification.

  11. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  12. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  13. Metodologia para produção de Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin em cultivo submerso: esporulação da biomassa, efeito da concentração de açúcar e custo do inoculant Methodology for production of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin in submerged cultivation: biomass sporulation, sugar concentration effect and inoculant cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina de Mello Pereira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se um método de cultivo e um meio de cultura para produção massal do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, com maior pureza e concentração de conídios. Este método envolveu o cultivo submerso da linhagem M-61 do entomopatógeno em meio líquido de arroz parboilizado, extrato de levedura, extrato do percevejo da soja (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, sob seis diferentes níveis de concentração de açúcar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, além do meio convencional sólido de arroz em grão. As biomassas obtidas foram separadas através de tela de nylon (63 mesh e dispostas em estufa para a esporulação. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados pelos parâmetros pesos fresco e seco do micélio, número de conídios por grama de substrato, viabilidade e patogenicidade dos conídios sobre o percevejo. Observou-se que 2.0g l-1 de açúcar em meio de cultura de extrato de N. viridula produziu o dobro do número de conídios por grama de substrato em relação à concentração de 10.0g l-1, a um custo 51 vezes inferior ao obtido no processo convencional de produção do fungo. A viabilidade não foi afetada nos diferentes meios utilizados. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas na patogenicidade em função dos meios de cultura e métodos de cultivo.A method of cultivation and a culture medium were developed aiming at the mass production of fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, with great concentration and purity of conidia. This method involved the M-61 strain of entomopathogenic fungus in liquid medium of rice, yeast extract, soybean bug extract (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, under six differents concentrations of sugar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, and the solid conventional medium of rice grains. The biomasses obtained were filtered and put in an incubator to promote sporulation. The treatments were evaluated through the parameters wet and dry-weight of micelium

  14. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  15. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  16. Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Kwak, Young Hoon; Bong, Pil Yoon; Son, Jin Dam; Cheong, Tae Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byeong Kook; Hwang, In Gul; Kwon, Young Ihn; Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Hag Ju; Yi, Sung Soog; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Shin, Chang Soo; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. Abundant marine micro-fossils such as foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and dinocysts were yielded in the sedimentary section of the above wells. Abundant palynomorphs originated from nearby onshore are also encountered. Based on nannofossils, the bio-stratigraphic zones from NN12 (Amaurolithus tricorniculatus Zone) to NN19 (Pseudoemiliania lacunosa Zone) are established. The sedimentary sequences are divided by local unconformity into Lower and Upper Groups, the ages of which are Late Miocene and Pliocene to Pleistocene, respectively. According to the geochemical analysis results, it is hard to expect a source rock that can generate enough hydrocarbons necessary for migration in the drilled intervals. Even though the thermal maturity reached the oil generation zone in the penetrated intervals, the calculation by the program GENEX of BEICIP shows that the amount of the generated hydrocarbons is not enough for the migration. A good source rock may be expected in the depth deeper than 4300 m horizon. Analysis of over 3300 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 2 well data serves to detail the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the western margin of the Okinawa Trough, offshore southern part of Korea peninsula. The overall tectonic style is characterized by a series of half-Graben and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Tectonics of the rift phase have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with titled fault block, fault and roll-over structure exist. (author). 44 refs.

  17. Accurate relocation of seismicity along the North Aegean Trough and its relation to active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, K. I.

    2017-10-01

    The tectonics of northern Aegean are affected by the westward push of Anatolia and the gravitational spreading of the Aegean lithosphere that promote transtensional deformation in the area. This regime is also responsible for the creation of a series of pull-apart basins, collectively known as the North Aegean Trough. This work accurately relocates a total of 2300 earthquakes that were recorded along the North Aegean Trough during 2011-2016 by stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) and strong-motion sensors. Absolute locations for these events were obtained using a nonlinear probabilistic algorithm and utilizing a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. The hypocentral depth distribution of these events shows a peak at 8 km diminishing gradually down to 20 km. A systematic overestimation of hypocentral depths is observed in the routine locations provided by the National Observatory of Athens where the majority of events appear to be deeper than 15 km. In order to obtain more accurate relative locations these events were relocated using the double-difference method. A total of 1693 events were finally relocated with horizontal and vertical uncertainties that do not exceed 0.11 km and 0.22 km respectively. Well-defined clusters of seismicity can be observed along the Saros and Sporades basins as well as the Kassandra and Sithonia peninsulas. These clusters either occur along the well-known NE-SW strike-slip faults bounding the basins, or along normal faults whose strike is perpendicular to the regional minimum stress axis. Locking depth along the North Aegean Trough is found to be remarkably stable between 13 and 17 km. This is likely a consequence of simultaneous reduction along the SW direction of heat flow (from 89 to 51 mW/m2) and strain rate (from 600 to 50 nstrain/yr) whose opposite effects are canceled out, precluding any sharp changes in locking depth.

  18. Acoustically damped metal oil trough for internal combustion engines. Schallgedaempfte Blech-Oelwanne fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.

    1991-03-28

    The invention refers to an acoustically damped oil trough. As there are strict requirements for reducing the noise emission from internal combustion engines, according to the invention it is proposed that the oil trough should be surrounded by an outer trough, where the outer trough is made of plastic or sheet steel in one or more layers. To avoid noise bridges, the oil trough and outer trough are separated by elastomer elements. The outer trough achieves a reasonably priced increase in sound insulation. It is also possible to backfit an outer trough on engines.

  19. A point focusing double parabolic trough concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphree, Quincy C. [Kentucky Mountain Bible College, Vancleve, KY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This article shows that a point focusing solar concentrator can be made from two reflective parabolic troughs, a primary and a secondary, by orienting their longitudinal axes in perpendicular directions and separating them by the difference of their focal lengths along the optical axis. This offers a new alternative to the conventional 3-D paraboloidal concentrator permitting more flexibility in designs for applications requiring high concentrations. Both advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The intensity concentration ratio distribution is calculated in the focal plane and has elliptically shaped contours due to the inherent compensation of errant rays by the concave secondary. The ratio of the major to minor axes was 2.61 for the case considered, resulting in a concentration {approx}2.61 times that of a comparable concentrator without the compensation afforded by a concave secondary. Still, geometrical constraints limit the concentration to about 2000 suns for mirror quality errors of 5 mr. Optimisation of the compensation effect holds potential for improved performance for other concentrator designs. Finally, the functional dependence of the peak concentration and shading factor upon design parameters are presented. (Author)

  20. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively. 

  1. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  2. Floor cooler for floor trough of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cooling pipes are situated below the floor trough of a BWR, which are connected to the annular distribution or collection pipes. The distribution and collection pipes are connected by parallel hairpin pipes with involute shape to the centre of the floor trough. These hairpin pipes are situated in a lower plane than the annular distribution pipe to the centre and in a higher plane from the centre to the outer annular collector pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  4. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  5. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  6. Movements of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, A.S.; Pinnock, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for monitoring the position and movement of large ionospheric structures is described. The technique uses data from an ionosonde nominally operating at vertical incidence, but relies on there being present a significant gradient in electron concentration. The position and dynamics of the poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough over Halley Bay, Antarctica (L = 4.2) is investigated using this method. Analyses show that the trough moves rapidly equatorward over Halley Bay in the early evening hours, during geomagnetically active periods. For magnetically quiet periods, the trough is not observed till after midnight, when its equatorward motion is comparatively slow. These results showed marked differences from those predicted from published empirical relationships describing variations in trough position with time, particularly before midnight. Changes in the position of the plasma pause with time, determined from two theoretical models and from observations are compared with these results for the trough. Also, one case study is presented in which there is determination of the positions of both the trough and the plasmapause over a 7 h period. Similarities and differences in their relative positions and movements of the two features are identified and their possible causes are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Heat Flow Variation along the Nankai Trough Floor Correlated with the Structure of the Shikoku Basin Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, M.; Kawada, Y.; Gao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Surface heat flow observed on the floor of the Nankai Trough, near the trench axis, is highly variable and does not well correspond to the seafloor age of the incoming Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin). Recent detailed measurements between 133.5°E and 137°E revealed that heat flow on the trough floor significantly varies along the trough. The most conspicuous variation is found around 136°E. Heat flow is extremely high and variable between 135°E and 136°E, much higher than the value estimated from the age. On the east of 136°E, heat flow gradually decreases eastward over 50 km to the value nearly consistent with the age with no appreciable scatter. Elevated heat flow on the trough floor can be attributed to vigorous fluid circulation in a permeable layer (aquifer) in the subducted oceanic crust, which efficiently transports heat upward along the plate interface (Spinelli and Wang, 2008). The heat flow variation around 136°E may therefore arise from variation in the permeability structure of the crustal aquifer. A probable cause of the heterogeneity in the aquifer permeability is a structure boundary in the incoming Shikoku Basin, the boundary between the younger part on the west formed by spreading in NE-SW direction and the older part on the east formed by E-W spreading. It is located around 136°E, about the same place as the heat flow distribution boundary. A possible additional source of variation in the permeability structure is the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. A prominent bend in the subducted plate between 135°E and 136°E, which corresponds to the high heat flow area on the trough floor, may have fractured the oceanic crust and enhanced the aquifer permeability. We evaluated the influence of variations in the aquifer permeability on the thermal structure through 3D numerical modelling using a high thermal-conductivity proxy for heat transport by fluid flow. A sharp along-strike change in the permeability of the subducted

  8. Main ionospheric trough in the daytime sector studied on the basis of vertical sounding data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkova, N.P.; Kozlov, E.F.; Mozhaev, A.M.; Osipov, N.K.; Samorokin, N.I.

    1980-09-01

    Data for 1969-1973 are used to study the displacement of the main ionospheric trough during daytime magnetic storms. The depth of the trough and electron density gradients on the sides of the trough are determined. The trough is found to move in a southeasterly direction during daytime storms. The results agree with theoretical conclusions that explain the formation of the trough by the collective transport of ionospheric plasma in a sunward direction.

  9. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  10. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  11. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  12. Parabolic-trough technology roadmap: A pathway for sustained commercial development and deployment of parabolic-trough technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Kearney; Hank Price

    1999-01-01

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop

  13. Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mekuannint

    Mekuannint Mesfin and Abebayehu Assefa. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University ... off design weather conditions as well. Keywords: Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC);. Heat Transfer ... of a conventional Rankine cycle power plant with solar fields that are used to increase the temperature of heat ...

  14. Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mekuannint

    Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF); TRNSYS power plant model; STEC library; Solar Advisor Model (SAM);. TRNSYS solar field model; Solar Electric. Generation System (SEGS). INTRODUCTION. Parabolic troughs are currently most used means of power generation option of solar sources. Solar electric generation systems (SEGs) ...

  15. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  16. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  17. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market

  18. The crustal structure along the Mbere trough in South Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mbere Cretaceous trough is located in the southern part of the Adamawa province. A gravity interpretation based on data obtained from three NW-SE profiles on the residual anomaly map has been carried out using a 2.5D modelling program. Spectral analysis has been used to estimate the depth of geological ...

  19. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spreading was, however, arrested by the rotation of the hot spot plumes onto the shoulders of the trough such as unto the Cameroom volcanic line by a sequence of events including crustal thinning and doming, rifting and faulting, grabens and horst formation, volcanism and subsidence, imbricate sedimentation and ...

  20. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  1. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  2. Tear trough – Anatomy and treatment by autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung Chia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tear trough is the main irregularity at midface, of which treatment is difficult. There is no agreement in literature about its anatomy and best treatment. The author presented an anatomical study and personal autologous fat grafting technique for tear trough treatment. Anatomical dissections were done on two fresh cadavers to examine the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone layers, spaces, and attachments. Safety and efficacy were evaluated via retrospective analysis of the last 200 consecutive procedures performed by the author. Tear trough is caused by the abrupt transition of the palpebral orbicular oculi muscle (OOM (i.e., thin skin without subcutaneous fat compartment to the orbital OOM (i.e., thicker skin with malar fat compartment. The tear trough region is located at the OOM bony origin at the medial canthus where no specific ligament was found. The grafted fat volume stabilized at two or three months after the procedure, instead of six months as stated in literature, with excellent results and no severe complications. Tear trough is a personal characteristic, a natural anatomical depression caused by subcutaneous irregularity and can worsen with age. The lack of volume is not effectively corrected by surgeries and thus it must be filled. Fat grafting has several advantages over alloplastic fillers, although it may be more difficult. Fat graft is autologous and abundant, and tissue transplantation could enhance skin quality. Fat grafting is a simple, safe, and effective solution for adding extra volume to correct the deflation phenomenon of the midface aging process. There is no specific anatomical plane for volume injection; the fat graft must be evenly distributed in the deep and superficial plane for uniformity.

  3. The F-region trough: seasonal morphology and relation to interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of a statistical study of the ionospheric trough observed in 2003 by means of satellite tomography. We focus on the seasonal morphology of the trough occurrence and investigate the trough latitude, width and the horizontal gradients at the edges, at different magnetic local times, as well as their relations to geomagnetic activity and the interplanetary magnetic field. A seasonal effect is noticed in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude, indicating that summer clearly differs from the other seasons. In winter the troughs seem to follow the solar terminator. The width of the trough has a diurnal variation and it depends on the season, as well. The broadest troughs are observed in winter and the narrowest ones in summer. A discontinuity in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude is observed before noon. It is suggested that this is an indication of a difference between the generation mechanisms of morningside and eveningside troughs. The density gradients at the edges have a complex dependence on the latitude of the trough and on geomagnetic activity. The photoionization and the auroral precipitation are competing in the formation of the trough walls at different magnetic local times. An important finding is that the interplanetary magnetic field plays a role in the occurrence of the trough at different levels of geomagnetic activity. This is probably associated with the topology of the polar cap convection pattern, which depends on the directions of the IMF components By and Bz.

  4. The role of meltwater in high-latitude trough-mouth fan development : the Disko Trough-Mouth Fan, West Greenland.

    OpenAIRE

    Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Hogan, Kelly A.; Jennings, Anne E.; Callard, S. Louise; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    The Disko Trough-Mouth Fan (TMF) is a major submarine sediment fan located along the central west Greenland continental margin offshore of Disko Trough. The location of the TMF at the mouth of a prominent cross-shelf trough indicates that it is a product of repeated glacigenic sediment delivery from former fast-flowing outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, including an ancestral Jakobshavn Isbrae, which expanded to the shelf edge during successive glacial cycles. This study focuses on the upper...

  5. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. Physics at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, I will give a brief description of the φ factory DAΦNE at Frascati, explaining why a φ factory is an interesting place to do new physics, and then discuss the physics that can be done at DAΦNE. I will concentrate on CP violation as it can be studied at DAΦNE. This is, after all, the raison d'etre of DAΦNE. I start with a brief general introduction to CP violation in the KK system, and the distinction between mass-mixing CP violation (ε) and intrinsic CP violation (ε'/ε). After presenting a summary of ε'/ε measurements up to now, and briefly discussing the theory of ε'/ε (the so-called 'penguins'), I will cover the particularities of measuring ε'/ε at a φ factory, such as tagging and interferometry. Finally, I will say a few words about searching for CP violation in modes where it has never before been seen. I will end my talk with a list of other physics topics at DAΦNE, and rare decay branching ratio limits that can be achieved there, just to give a flavor of what else can be done. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  7. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  8. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed; Dr. Hameed J. Khalaf; Tadahmun A. Yassen

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC) without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67)% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03) kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8) without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  9. Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Hassani, V.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

  10. The sharp peak-flat trough pattern and critical speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, B. M.; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    We find empirically a characteristic sharp peak-flat trough pattern in a large set of commodity prices. We argue that the sharp peak structure reflects an endogenous inter-market organization, and that peaks may be seen as local ``singularities'' resulting from imitation and herding. These findings impose a novel stringent constraint on the construction of models. Intermittent amplification is not sufficient and nonlinear effects seem necessary to account for the observations.

  11. Analysis of Earthquake Source Spectra in Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Shearer, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies of the source spectra of small earthquakes in southern California show that average Brune-type stress drops vary among different regions, with particularly low stress drops observed in the Salton Trough (Shearer et al., 2006). The Salton Trough marks the southern end of the San Andreas Fault and is prone to earthquake swarms, some of which are driven by aseismic creep events (Lohman and McGuire, 2007). In order to learn the stress state and understand the physical mechanisms of swarms and slow slip events, we analyze the source spectra of earthquakes in this region. We obtain Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) waveforms for earthquakes from 1977 to 2009 archived at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) data center, which includes over 17,000 events. After resampling the data to a uniform 100 Hz sample rate, we compute spectra for both signal and noise windows for each seismogram, and select traces with a P-wave signal-to-noise ratio greater than 5 between 5 Hz and 15 Hz. Using selected displacement spectra, we isolate the source spectra from station terms and path effects using an empirical Green’s function approach. From the corrected source spectra, we compute corner frequencies and estimate moments and stress drops. Finally we analyze spatial and temporal variations in stress drop in the Salton Trough and compare them with studies of swarms and creep events to assess the evolution of faulting and stress in the region. References: Lohman, R. B., and J. J. McGuire (2007), Earthquake swarms driven by aseismic creep in the Salton Trough, California, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B04405, doi:10.1029/2006JB004596 Shearer, P. M., G. A. Prieto, and E. Hauksson (2006), Comprehensive analysis of earthquake source spectra in southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B06303, doi:10.1029/2005JB003979.

  12. Holocene tephra deposits in the northern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of sediments of Core CSH1, which was collected from the northern Okinawa Trough, indicate that large amounts of volcanic materials have deposited in the northern Okinawa Trough during the Holocene. On the basis of down-core variations in mineral and element contents of sediments, two layers in the uppermost section of Core CSH1 characterized by high quartz, Na2O, MnO, K2O, uranium contents and low contents of clay minerals, volatiles, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO and strontium, have been identified as the tephra deposits. Systematic grain-size measurements also suggest that sediments from the northern Okinawa Trough are made up of terrigenous materials and volcanic ashes with different proportion during the Holocene. The sediments of tephra layers in Core CSH1 show bi-modal patterns in grain-size distribution with modal grain-sizes of 74.3 and 7.81 μm,respectively. According to the radiocarbon dating on shells of zooplankton foraminifera, two tephra layers in Core CSH1, formed at 7 250 and 10 870 a BP (cal), approximately correspond to the K-Ah tephra [7 300 a BP (cal)] and the eruption of Kuju Volcano (12~10 ka BP), respectively.

  13. Chronostratigraphy and deposition rates in the Okinawa Trough region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 王永吉; 刘振夏

    1999-01-01

    Six representative cores from Okinawa Trough have been dated using AMS 14C, Standard 14C and ESR methods, and comparatively analysed. Systematic measurements of the oriented samples taken from the cores were conducted for obtaining their remnant magnetic polarity. With the aid of the dates obtained, particularly the AMS 14C ages of planktonic foraminiferal tests, two polarity events and two polar wanderings of the earth magnetic field have been defined. Calculations of the deposition rates for all the six core sites indicate rather high values in the trough plain, at least equivalent to those rates reported for the region of the East China Sea. They commonly range from 10 to 30 cm/ka, and even greater than 40 cm/ka in some localities. The deposition rate varied widely with topography and periods of time. In general, it is greater during the postglacial period than during the last glaciation. The chronostratigraphy in the Okinawa Trough region established through this study argues against the pr

  14. Full parabolic trough qualification from prototype to demonstration loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janotte, Nicole; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Pottler, Klaus; Schmitz, Mark

    2017-06-01

    On the example of the HelioTrough® collector development the full accompanying and supporting qualification program for large-scale parabolic trough collectors for solar thermal power plants is described from prototype to demonstration loop scale. In the evaluation process the actual state and the optimization potential are assessed. This includes the optical and geometrical performance determined by concentrator shape, deformation, assembly quality and local intercept factor values. Furthermore, its mechanical performance in terms of tracking accuracy and torsional stiffness and its thermal system performance on the basis of the overall thermal output and heat loss are evaluated. Demonstration loop tests deliver results of collector modules statistical slope deviation of 1.9 to 2.6 mrad, intercept factor above 98%, peak optical performance of 81.6% and heat loss coefficients from field tests. The benefit of such a closely monitored development lies in prompt feedback on strengths, weaknesses and potential improvements on the new product at any development stage from first module tests until demonstration loop evaluation. The product developer takes advantage of the achieved technical maturity, already before the implementation in a commercial power plant. The well-understood performance characteristics allow the reduction of safety margins making the new HelioTrough collector competitive from the start.

  15. Humidification dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough solar air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Zubair, M. Ifras; Atif, Maimoon; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Antar, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a detailed thermodynamic analysis to assess the performance of an HDH system with an integrated parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). The HDH system considered is an open air, open water, air heated system that uses a PTSC as an air heater. Two different configurations were considered of the HDH system. In the first configuration, the solar air heater was placed before the humidifier whereas in the second configuration the solar air heater was placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier. The current study revealed that PTSCs are well suited for air heated HDH systems for high radiation location, such as Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The comparison between the two HDH configurations demonstrates that the gained output ratio (GOR) of the first configuration is, on average, about 1.5 whereas for the second configuration the GOR increases up to an average value of 4.7. The study demonstrates that the HDH configuration with the air heater placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier has a better performance and a higher productivity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of an HDH system driven by a parabolic trough solar collector was conducted. • The first configuration reveals a GOR of 1.5 while the second configuration reveals a GOR of 4.7. • Effective heating of the HDH system was obtained through parabolic trough solar collector

  16. The sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough during the Late Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating, sedimentation rates of 11 cores collected from the northern to southern Okinawa Trough are discussed. The sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough roughly range from 11 to 39 cm/ka, and the average is 23.0 cm/ka. China's continental matter is the main sediment source of the middle Okinawa Trough and has important contribution to the northern and southern Okinawa Trough. The sedimentation rates during the marine oxygen isotope (MIS)2 are uniformly higher than those during MIS 1 in the northern and middle Okinawa Trough while they are on the contrary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Sedimentation rates in the Okinawa Trough can be one of the proxies of sediment source and an indicator of cooling events.

  17. Linear magnetic anomalies and tectonic development of the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    -By analyzing the magnetic anomalies, the linear magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are identified. It means that the crust along the spreading axis is broken, and new oceanic crust is formed. Geophysical data have revealed that a model of three extensive episodes occurs in the Okinawa Trough, which can be named as "doming episode" from the Middle to Late Miocene (Phase I), the episode from the Pliocence to Early Pleistocene (Phase Ⅱ ), and the recent "spreading episode" (Phase Ⅲ ). The magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are very similar to those found in the middle Red Sea, indicating that the Okinawa Trough is developing towards the "Red Sea stage". Similar to the Red Sea, there are a "main trough" and a "axial trough" in the Okinawa Trough.

  18. Isotopic feature and uranium dating of the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the northern and middle Okinawa Trough were dated by uranium-series dating method. Differential fractions using magnetic procedure were designed to separate samples. New report on the ages and isotopic data of rocks in the northern trough (especially black pumice) was discussed. Based on the uranium dates and Sr-Nd isotopic ratio, magmatic evolution process of the Okinawa Trough was noted. Firstly, there have been wide silicic volcanic activities in the Okinawa Trough from late Pleistocene to present, and the volcanic rocks can be divided into three subgroups. Secondly, magma generally came from PREMA source area under the Okinawa Trough. Magmatic evolution in the northern trough was similar to the middle, but different to the south. Finally, volcanic activities indicated that opening of the southern Okinawa Trough did not happen due to the collision between Luson Arc and Eurasian Plate until the early Pleistocene.

  19. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  20. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Alyenik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough between about 56 and 58° N has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that mesoscale features such as eddies and large scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. A five month glider mission in the Trough showed that much of this energy comes from features that are located over 1000 m below the surface in the deep cold waters of the Trough (possibly from eddies associated the North Atlantic Current). The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner they may also be quasi-trapped by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the Trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the Trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side and a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite

  1. Seismicity of the 24 May 2014 Mw 7.0 Aegean Sea earthquake sequence along the North Aegean Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Ethem; Görgün, Burçak

    2015-11-01

    The northern Aegean Sea was hit by a large size (Mw = 7.0) earthquake on 2014 May 24. Centroid moment tensor solutions for 40 events with moment magnitudes (Mw) between 3.3 and 7.0 are computed by applying a waveform inversion method on data from the Turkish and Greek broadband seismic networks. The time span of data covers the period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 June 26. The mainshock is a shallow focus strike-slip event at a depth of 15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 6 to 30 km. The seismic moment (Mo) of the mainshock is estimated as 4.60 × 1019 Nm. The calculated rupture duration of the North Aegean Sea mainshock is 40 s. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly strike-slip faulting with a minor normal component. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the northern Aegean Sea stress field along the North Aegean Trough. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant strike-slip stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum principal compressive stress (σ1). In the development of the North Aegean Trough in Aegean Sea is in good agreement with the resolved stress tensors. With respect the newly determined focal mechanisms, the effect of the propagating of the North Anatolian Fault into Aegean Sea is very clearly pronounced. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the North Aegean Sea seismic sequence, three main clusters are revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 July 31 extends from the mainshock cluster from NE to the SW direction. Seismic cross-sections indicate that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of seventeen segments. The eastern cluster is associated with a fault plane trending mainly ENE-WSW and dipping vertical, while the

  2. Active normal faults and submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hui Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The westernmost Okinawa Trough back-arc basin is located to the north of the Ryukyu islands and is situated above the northward dipping Ryukyu subducted slab. In the northern continental margin of the Okinawa Trough, the continental slope between the Keelung Valley and the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon shows a steep angle and future slope failures are expected. The question is how slope failures will proceed? A sudden deep-seated slump or landslide would probably cause local tsunami and hit northern coast of Taiwan. To understand the probable submarine landslides, we conducted multi-channel seismic reflection, sub-bottom profilers, and multi-beam bathymetry surveys off NE Taiwan. Two general trends of shallow crustal faults are observed. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the main structural trend of the Taiwan mountain belt. These faults are products of inversion tectonics of reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to post-collisional normal faults. Another trend of roughly E-W faults is consistent with the current N-S extension of the southern Okinawa Trough. The fault offsets in the eastern portion of the study area are more pronounced. No obvious basal surface of sliding is found beneath the continental margin. We conclude that the movement of the submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off northeastern Taiwan could be in a spread type. The submarine landslides mainly occur in the continental slope area and it is more obvious in the east than in the west of the Keelung Shelf.

  3. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  4. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  5. The F-region trough: seasonal morphology and relation to interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of a statistical study of the ionospheric trough observed in 2003 by means of satellite tomography. We focus on the seasonal morphology of the trough occurrence and investigate the trough latitude, width and the horizontal gradients at the edges, at different magnetic local times, as well as their relations to geomagnetic activity and the interplanetary magnetic field. A seasonal effect is noticed in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude, indicating that summer clearly differs from the other seasons. In winter the troughs seem to follow the solar terminator. The width of the trough has a diurnal variation and it depends on the season, as well. The broadest troughs are observed in winter and the narrowest ones in summer. A discontinuity in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude is observed before noon. It is suggested that this is an indication of a difference between the generation mechanisms of morningside and eveningside troughs. The density gradients at the edges have a complex dependence on the latitude of the trough and on geomagnetic activity. The photoionization and the auroral precipitation are competing in the formation of the trough walls at different magnetic local times. An important finding is that the interplanetary magnetic field plays a role in the occurrence of the trough at different levels of geomagnetic activity. This is probably associated with the topology of the polar cap convection pattern, which depends on the directions of the IMF components By and Bz.

  6. Overview of the Kinematics of the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    In the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California, transtensional rifting is leading to full continental plate breakup, as a major continental block is being transferred to an oceanic plate. Since at least 6 Ma this region has taken up most of the plate boundary slip between the Pacific and North America plates at this latitude. We review the structural history of plate separation, as constrained by many recent studies of present and past fault configurations, seismicity, and basin development as seen from geology and geophysics. Modern activity in the USA is dominated by NW-striking strike-slip faults (San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore), and subsidiary NE-striking faults. There is an equally broad zone in Mexico (faults from the Mexicali Valley to the Colorado River Delta and bounding the Laguna Salada basin), including active low-angle detachment faults. In both areas, shifts in fault activity are indicated by buried faults and exhumed or buried earlier basin strata. Seismicity defines 3 basin segments in the N Gulf: Consag-Wagner, Upper Delfin, and Lower Delfin, but localization is incomplete. These basins occupy a broad zone of modern deformation, lacking single transform faults, although major strike-slip faults formed in the surrounding continental area. The off-boundary deformation on the western side of the plate boundary has changed with time, as seen by Holocene and Quaternary faults controlling modern basins in the Gulf Extensional Province of NE Baja California, and stranded Pliocene continental and marine basin strata in subaerial fault blocks. The eastern side of the plate boundary, in the shallow northeastern Gulf, contains major NW-striking faults that may have dominated the earlier (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) kinematics. The Sonoran coastal plain likely buries additional older faults and basin sequences; further studies here are needed to refine models of the earlier structural development of this sector. Despite > 250 km of plate

  7. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  8. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Hideharu; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Korenaga, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    In the area in front of Nankai trough, tsunami wave height may increase if tsunamis attacking from some wave sources overlap because of time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough. To evaluation tsunami risk of the important facilities located in front of Nankai trough, we proposed the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering uncertainty on time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough and we evaluated the influence that the time-lag gave to tsunami hazard at the some representative points. (author)

  9. A trough for improved SFG spectroscopy of lipid monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Weidner, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Lipid monolayers are indispensable model systems for biological membranes. The main advantage over bilayer model systems is that the surface pressure within the layer can be directly and reliably controlled. The sensitive interplay between surface pressure and temperature determines the molecular order within a model membrane and consequently determines the membrane phase behavior. The lipid phase is of crucial importance for a range of membrane functions such as protein interactions and membrane permeability. A very reliable method to probe the structure of lipid monolayers is sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Not only is SFG extremely surface sensitive but it can also directly access critical parameters such as lipid order and orientation, and it can provide valuable information about protein interactions along with interfacial hydration. However, recent studies have shown that temperature gradients caused by high power laser beams perturb the lipid layers and potentially obscure the spectroscopic results. Here we demonstrate how the local heating problem can be effectively reduced by spatially distributing the laser pulses on the sample surface using a translating Langmuir trough for SFG experiments at lipid monolayers. The efficiency of the trough is illustrated by the detection of enhanced molecular order due to reduced heat load.

  10. Multi-parameter optimization design of parabolic trough solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiangfeng; Huai, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal condition can be obtained by multi-parameter optimization. • Exergy and thermal efficiencies are employed as objective function. • Exergy efficiency increases at the expense of heat losses. • The heat obtained by working fluid increases as thermal efficiency grows. - Abstract: The design parameters of parabolic trough solar receiver are interrelated and interact with one another, so the optimal performance of solar receiver cannot be obtained by the convectional single-parameter optimization. To overcome the shortcoming of single-parameter optimization, a multi-parameter optimization of parabolic trough solar receiver is employed based on genetic algorithm in the present work. When the thermal efficiency is taken as the objective function, the heat obtained by working fluid increases while the average temperature of working fluid and wall temperatures of solar receiver decrease. The average temperature of working fluid and the wall temperatures of solar receiver increase while the heat obtained by working fluid decreases generally by taking the exergy efficiency as an objective function. Assuming that the solar radiation intensity remains constant, the exergy obtained by working fluid increases by taking exergy efficiency as the objective function, which comes at the expense of heat losses of solar receiver.

  11. Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Jin Park

    Full Text Available To investigate the appropriateness of the current vancomycin dosing strategy in adult patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, between March 2013 and November 2013, patients who were treated with vancomycin while on ECMO were enrolled. Control group consisted of 60 patients on vancomycin without ECMO, stayed in medical intensive care unit during the same study period and with the same exclusion criteria. Early trough levels were obtained within the fourth dosing, and maintenance levels were measured at steady state. A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis in ECMO group. Sixteen patients received an initial intravenous dose of 1.0 g vancomycin followed by 1.0 g every 12 hours. The non-steady state trough level of vancomycin after starting administration was subtherapeutic in 19 patients (95.00% in ECMO group as compared with 40 patients (66.67% in the control group (p = 0.013. Vancomycin clearance was 1.27±0.51 mL/min/kg, vancomycin clearance/creatinine clearance ratio was 0.90 ± 0.37, and elimination rate constant was 0.12 ± 0.04 h-1. Vancomycin dosingfrequency and total daily dose were significantly increased after clinical pharmacokinetic services of the pharmacist based on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters (from 2.10 ± 0.72 to 2.90 ± 0.97 times/day, p = 0.002 and from 32.54 ± 8.43 to 42.24 ± 14.62mg/kg, p = 0.014 in ECMO group in contrast with those (from 2.11 ± 0.69 to 2.37 ± 0.86 times/day, p = 0.071 and from 33.91 ± 11.85 to 31.61 ± 17.50 mg/kg, p = 0.350 in the control group.Although the elimination rate for vancomycin was similar with population parameter of non ECMO patients, the current dosing strategy of our institution for vancomycinin our ICU was not sufficient to achieve the target trough in the initial period in most patients receiving ECMO.

  12. Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.

  13. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  14. Early to middle Jurassic salt in Baltimore Canyon trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, B. Ann; Lee, Myung W.; Agena, Warren F.; Poag, C. Wylie

    2005-01-01

    A pervasive, moderately deep (5-6 s two-way traveltime), high-amplitude reflection is traced on multichannel seismic sections over an approximately 7500 km² area of Baltimore Canyon Trough. The layer associated with the reflection is about 25 km wide, about 60 m thick in the center, and thins monotonically laterally, though asymmetrically, at the edges. Geophysical characteristics are compatible with an interpretation of this negative-polarity reflector as a salt lens deposited on the top of a synrift evaporite sequence. However, alternative interpretations of the layer as gas-saturated sediments, an overpressured shale, or a weathered igneous intrusion are also worthy of consideration.Geophysical analyses were made on three wavelet- and true-amplitude processed multichannel seismic dip lines. The lens-shaped layer demarked by the reflection has a velocity of 4.4 km/s; the lens lies within strata having velocities of 5.3 to 5.7 km/s. A trough marking the onset of the lens has an amplitude that is 10 to 20 db greater than reflections from the encasing layers and an apparent reflection coefficient of -0.24. Using amplitude versus offset analysis methods, we determined that observed reflection coefficients, though variable, decrease consistently with respect to increasing offset. Linear inversion yields a low density, about 2.2 g/cc. Integration of one of the true-amplitude-processed lines and one-dimensional modeling of the layer provide data on the impedance contrast and interference patterns that further reinforce the salt lens interpretation.The thin, horizontal salt lens was probably deposited or precipitated during the Jurassic in a shallow, narrow (peripheral) rift basin, as rifting progressed down the North Atlantic margin. Unlike thicker deposits in other areas that deformed and flowed, often into diapir structures, this thin lens has remained relatively undisturbed since deposition.

  15. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel; Ingalls, Jerrell; Kenter, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  16. An experimental study of thermal characterization of parabolic trough receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Dongqiang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Jian; Li, Jianbin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new test stand of heat loss has been developed at IEECAS. ► A correlation between heat loss and absorber temperature is presented, 270 W/m 400 °C. ► The ratio of end loss in total heat loss increases with decreasing the temperature. ► The emittance test stand using a high vacuum system and vacuum gauge is built. ► Emittance first decreases, then rapidly increases with increasing the temperature. - Abstract: The receiver is a key component of the parabolic trough solar station. The receiver requires the most challenging technology and has a decisive influence on the thermal and economic performance of a power plant. The Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy Sciences (IEECAS) and Himin Solar Co., Ltd. (HSC) cooperated to develop solar receivers for the first 50 MW parabolic trough project in Inner Mongolia, China. This paper examines overall heat loss, end loss and thermal emittance of the coating of a newly designed receiver in order to evaluate its thermal characterization. A series of heat loss tests are conducted in a newly developed test stand following the steady state equilibrium method. The tests provide a correlation between heat loss and the absorber temperature. This paper presents a new testing method to accurately test the coating emittance. The method uses a receiver with a high vacuum system and a vacuum gauge to maintain continuous exhaust and high vacuum throughout the heat loss testing. A heat loss comparison between the receiver and other existing receivers provides a reference that enabled further optimization. Theoretical and experimental analysis examines the effects of end loss both with and without a heat insulator and a coil heater. The emittance curves of different coatings are acquired and the reasons for initial emittance decrease and then remarkable increase versus temperature are analyzed

  17. New sidescan sonar and gravity evidence that the Nova-Canton Trough is a fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Devorah; Taylor, Brian; Shor, Alexander N.

    1992-05-01

    A 1990 sidescan sonar survey in the eastern region of the Nova-Canton Trough mapped 138°-striking abyssal-hill fabric trending into 70°-striking trough structures. The location and angle of intersection of the abyssal hills with the eastern Nova-Canton Trough effectively disprove a spreading-center origin of this feature. Free-air gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry data show continuity, across the Line Islands, of the Nova-Canton Trough with the Clipperton Fracture Zone. The Canton-Clipperton trend is copolar, about a pole at 30°S, 152°W, with other coeval Pacific-Farallon fracture-zone segments, from the Pau to Marquesas fracture zones. This copolarity leads us to postulate a Pacific-Farallon spreading pattern for the magnetic quiet zone region north and east of the Manihiki Plateau, with the Nova-Canton Trough originating as a transform fault in this system.

  18. Concurrent immunomodulator therapy is associated with higher adalimumab trough levels during scheduled maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Dodd, Susanna; Fisher, Gareth; Skouras, Thomas; Subramanian, Sreedhar

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab and immunomodulators is superior to monotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and higher trough levels of infliximab. The role of concurrent immunomodulatory therapy on adalimumab trough levels has not been adequately investigated. We evaluated the impact of concomitant immunomodulation on adalimumab trough levels in patients on scheduled maintenance therapy. We conducted a prospective observational, cross-sectional study of all inflammatory bowel disease patients on maintenance therapy who had adalimumab trough levels measured between January 2013 and January 2016. Drug level and anti-drug antibody measurements were performed on sera using a solid phase assay. Pairwise comparison of means was used to compare trough levels in patients with and without concomitant immune modulator therapy. In total, 79 patients were included. Twenty-three patients (29.1%) were on weekly dosing whereas 56 (70.9%) were on alternate weeks. Median adalimumab trough levels were comparable in patients with and without clinical remission (6.8 μg/ml (IQR 5.6-8.1) versus 6.7 μg/ml (IQR 3.9-8.1), respectively. Patients with an elevated faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g had lower adalimumab trough levels (median 6.7, IQR 3.9-8) compared to patients with faecal calprotectin <250 μg/g (median 7.7, IQR 6.1-8.1) though this did not achieve statistical significance (p = .062). Median adalimumab trough levels among patients on concurrent immunomodulators was 7.2 μg/ml (IQR 5.7-8.1) compared to those not on concurrent immunomodulator, 6.1 μg/ml (IQR 2.7-7.7, p = .0297). Adalimumab trough levels were significantly higher in patients on concurrent immunomodulators during maintenance therapy. There was a trend towards a lower adalimumab trough level in patients with elevated calprotectin.

  19. Aeolian sand transport over complex intertidal bar-trough beach topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Ruz, Marie-Hélène; Vanhée, Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Aeolian sand transport on macrotidal beaches with complex intertidal bar-trough topography (ridge-and-runnel beaches) was assessed from experiments in northern France that involved measurements of wind speed, saltation, surface moisture contents, and rates of sand trapping across surveyed portions of the upper beach profile. Beaches exhibiting intertidal bars and troughs are much more complex, topographically, than simple reflective or dissipative beaches. Furthermore, the intertidal bar-trough morphology commonly exhibits strong cross-shore variations in the moisture contents of the beach surface and in patterns of bedform development. The results of four 30-minute experiments, conducted along topographically surveyed portions of the upper beach-dune toe profile, show that troughs act as extremely efficient sand interceptors, because of their permanently saturated state, which also inhibits sand mobilisation. Troughs, thus, limit or segment the dry fetch during conditions of intermittent saltation. Flow lines, inferred from the wind profiles, suggest that complex interactions at the boundary layer are generated by the bar-trough topography. Troughs systematically appear to be characterised by air expansion, while bar faces generate ramp wind acceleration for onshore winds, and sometimes immediate downwind deceleration for offshore winds. These effects may also contribute to cross-shore variations in the rates of sand trapping. Finally, a simple conceptual model of effective fetch development, integrating the effects of the spring-neap tidal range and of gross bar-trough morphological variability over time, is proposed for bar-trough beaches. The model highlights the key theme of fetch segmentation induced by cross-shore differentiation in the moisture contents of the beach surface hinged on the complex topography of multiple bars and troughs.

  20. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  1. Field occurrence and geochemical characteristics of the baryte mineralization in Lessel and Ihugh areas, Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Ngukposu A.; Ogunleye, Paul O.; Ibrahim, Aliyu A.

    2018-06-01

    The Lessel and Ihugh areas are underlain by Precambrian rocks comprising of banded gneiss, medium-grained muscovite granite, coarse-grained biotite muscovite granite, and Turonian arenaceous Lessel Sandstone in the Lower Benue Trough, southeastern Nigeria. Baryte mineralization occurs at Lessel-Mbagwa, Ihugh and Bunde commonly as vein and cavity type deposits within NE-SW and NW-SE trending fracture zones. Major oxides and trace element analysis of baryte and the host rocks was undertaken using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), in order to establish the geochemical characteristics and to constrain the origin of the baryte mineralization. The data revealed enrichment in Ba and Sr and depletion in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, LILEs, HFSEs relative to background values obtained from sandstones and granitic rocks in the area. Baryte mineralization from Lessel-Mbagwa, Bunde and Ihugh is marked by positive Gd (17.1-21.4) and negative Eu (0.02-0.05) anomalies. Negative Ce anomaly (0.06) is evident in barytes from Lessel-Mbagwa and Bunde whereas baryte from Ihugh is characterized by positive Ce anomaly (1.3). The structurally controlled nature of the mineralization, depleted major and trace elements concentration in the barytes in addition to REE anomalies indicate that mixing of a strongly differentiated residual Ba-bearing fluid and sulphur-rich seawater occurred under low temperature and oxidizing-reducing conditions. The tectonic event which occurred during the Santonian to Early Campanian reactivated the NE-SW, NW-SE structural pathways in the basement gneiss and also created similar structures in the Turonian Lessel Sandstone.

  2. Paleocene Pacific Plate reorganization mirrored in formation of the Suvarov Trough, Manihiki Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Ricarda; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The Suvarov Trough is a graben structure that deviates from the Danger Islands Troughs within the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. New high-resolution seismic reflection data provide evidence that the graben formed in two phases during the Paleocene (65-45 Ma). In a first phase extension occurred in southwestward direction, pulling apart the northern part of the Suvarov Trough and a parallel trending unnamed trough. In a second phase a change of extensional force direction occurred from southwest to west-northwest, forming the southern part of the Suvarov Trough that extends onto the High Plateau. The formation of the Suvarov Trough is accompanied by a series of normal fault systems that apparently formed simultaneously. Comparing the seismic results to existing Pacific paleo strain reconstructions, the timing of increased strain and local deformation direction fits well to our findings. We thus suggest that the multiple strike directions of the Suvarov Trough represent an extensional structure that was caused by the major, stepwise Pacific Plate reorganization during the Paleocene.

  3. Seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the quiet-time ionospheric trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Häggström, I.

    2014-08-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ionospheric F region trough, focusing on its seasonal variation and solar activity dependence under geomagnetically quiet and moderate conditions, using plasma parameter data obtained via Common Program 3 observations performed by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar between 1982 and 2011. We have confirmed that there is a major difference in frictional heating between the high- and low-latitude sides of the EISCAT field of view (FOV) at ~73°0'N-60°5'N (geomagnetic latitude) at an altitude of 325 km, which is associated with trough formation. Our statistical results show that the high-latitude and midlatitude troughs occur on the high- and low-latitude sides of the FOV, respectively. Seasonal variations indicate that dissociative recombination accompanied by frictional heating is a main cause of trough formation in sunlit regions. During summer, therefore, the occurrence rate is maintained at 80-90% in the postmidnight high-latitude region owing to frictional heating by eastward return flow. Solar activity dependence on trough formation indicates that field-aligned currents modulate the occurrence rate of the trough during the winter and equinox seasons. In addition, the trough becomes deeper via dissociative recombination caused by an increased ion temperature with F10.7, at least in the equinox and summer seasons but not in winter.

  4. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  5. Vancomycin AUC/MIC and Corresponding Troughs in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishk, Omayma A; Lardieri, Allison B; Heil, Emily L; Morgan, Jill A

    2017-01-01

    Adult guidelines suggest an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) > 400 corresponds to a vancomycin trough serum concentration of 15 to 20 mg/L for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, but obtaining these troughs in children are difficult. The primary objective of this study was to assess the likelihood that 15 mg/kg of vancomycin every 6 hours in a child achieves an AUC/MIC > 400. This retrospective chart review included pediatric patients >2 months to AUCs were calculated four times using three pharmacokinetic methods. A total of 36 patients with 99 vancomycin trough serum concentrations were assessed. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. For troughs in group 1 (n = 55), the probability of achieving an AUC/MIC > 400 ranged from 16.4% to 90.9% with a median trough concentration of 11.4 mg/L, while in group 2 (n = 44) the probability of achieving AUC/MIC > 400 ranged from 15.9% to 54.5% with mean trough concentration of 9.2 mg/L. The AUC/MICs were not similar between the different pharmacokinetic methods used; however, a trapezoidal equation (Method A) yielded the highest correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.59). When dosing every 6 hours, an AUC/MIC of 400 correlated to a trough serum concentration of 11 mg/L. The probability of achieving an AUC/MIC > 400 using only a trough serum concentration and an MIC with patients receiving 15 mg/kg every 6 hours is variable based on the method used to calculate the AUC. An AUC/MIC of 400 in children correlated to a trough concentration of 11 mg/L using a trapezoidal Method to calculate AUC.

  6. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  7. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs with modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Alexandre [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Llinares, Claudio, E-mail: barreira@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: sownak.bose@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: claudio.llinares@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road DH1 3LE, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    We study the imprints that theories of gravity beyond GR can leave on the lensing signal around line of sight directions that are predominantly halo-underdense (called troughs) and halo-overdense. To carry out our investigations, we consider the normal branch of DGP gravity, as well as a phenomenological variant thereof that directly modifies the lensing potential. The predictions of these models are obtained with N-body simulation and ray-tracing methods using the ECOSMOG and Ray-Ramses codes. We analyse the stacked lensing convergence profiles around the underdense and overdense lines of sight, which exhibit, respectively, a suppression and a boost w.r.t. the mean in the field of view. The modifications to gravity in these models strengthen the signal w.r.t. ΛCDM in a scale-independent way. We find that the size of this effect is the same for both underdense and overdense lines of sight, which implies that the density field along the overdense directions on the sky is not sufficiently evolved to trigger the suppression effects of the screening mechanism. These results are robust to variations in the minimum halo mass and redshift ranges used to identify the lines of sight, as well as to different line of sight aperture sizes and criteria for their underdensity and overdensity thresholds.

  8. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  9. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  10. Control concepts for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Almeria (Spain); Camacho, Eduardo F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    A new prototype parabolic-trough collector system was erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (1996-1998) to investigate direct steam generation (DSG) in a solar thermal power plant under real solar conditions. The system has been under evaluation for efficiency, cost, control and other parameters since 1999. The main objective of the control system is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the solar field outlet, so that changes in inlet water conditions and/or in solar radiation affect the amount of steam, but not its quality or the nominal plant efficiency. This paper presents control schemes designed and tested for two operating modes, 'Recirculation', for which a proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PID) control functions scheme has been implemented, and 'Once-through', requiring more complex control strategies, for which the scheme is based on proportional-integral (PI), feedforward and cascade control. Experimental results of both operation modes are discussed. (Author)

  11. Patient-reported non-adherence and immunosuppressant trough levels are associated with rejection after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jennifer; Reber, Sandra; Stoessel, Lisa; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Jank, Sabine; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grundmann, Franziska; Vitinius, Frank; de Zwaan, Martina; Bertram, Anna; Erim, Yesim

    2017-03-29

    Different measures of non-adherence to immunosuppressant (IS) medication have been found to be associated with rejection episodes after successful transplantation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether graft rejection after renal transplantation is associated with patient-reported IS medication non-adherence and IS trough level variables (IS trough level variability and percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels). Patient-reported non-adherence, IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels, and acute biopsy-proven late allograft rejections were assessed in 267 adult renal transplant recipients who were ≥12 months post-transplantation. The rate of rejection was 13.5%. IS trough level variability, percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels as well as patient-reported non-adherence were all significantly and positively associated with rejection, but not with each other. Logistic regression analyses revealed that only the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels and age at transplantation remained significantly associated with rejection. Particularly, the percentage of sub-therapeutic IS trough levels is associated with acute rejections after kidney transplantation whereas IS trough level variability and patient-reported non-adherence seem to be of subordinate importance. Patient-reported non-adherence and IS trough level variables were not correlated; thus, non-adherence should always be measured in a multi-methodological approach. Further research concerning the best combination of non-adherence measures is needed.

  12. Report on Radiocarbon Analysis of Surface Sediments from the Fore-Arc Basin of Nankai Trough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohlman, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Radiocarbon analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) on 30 sediment samples from two multicores and six piston cores was performed to investigate the fate of methane carbon in sediment of the Nankal Trough...

  13. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  14. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  15. Impact of convection over the equatorial trough on the summer monsoon activity over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Schulz, J.

    . There have been studies (Cadet and Olory Togbe, 1981; Sadhuram and Sastry, 1987) on the role of Equatorial Trough (ET) as well as Southern Hemispheric Equatorial Trough (SHET) on the rainfall over central India. Most of these studies are related... the ET, WET and EET behave in a similar fashion during different monsoon and El Nino conditions ? c) What role do the synoptic systems play during the BM over the Indian subcontinent? 2. Data and Methodology The pentad precipitation data used...

  16. Performance comparison of solar parabolic trough system with glass and film reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qian; Li, Longlong; Li, Huairui; Huang, Weidong; Li, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar trough model should consider refractive surface error with glass reflector. • Solar trough system with glass mirror has less efficiency than that with film mirror. • Solar trough system has very low efficiency in a winter day at high latitude. - Abstract: This paper considers the refractive surface error transfer process to present an optical performance model of solar trough system as well as the reflective surface error. We validate the optical model through comparing the calculation results with the experimental data. The optimized design parameters are presented based on the maximization of the annual average net heat efficiency. The results show that maximum relative error of 20% for the optical efficiency may produce if the refractive surface error transfer process is ignored. It indicates that the refractive surface error should be considered in predicting the performance of the solar trough system especially for the glass reflector as well as the reflective surface error. We apply the model to compare the performance of solar parabolic trough system with vacuum tube receiver under two kinds of reflectors, which are glass mirror and film mirror. The results indicate that both parabolic trough systems with a vacuum tube receiver and a north–south axis tracking system are relatively inefficient in winter days, and the net energy output in the winter solstice is less than one sixth of the summer. The net heat efficiency of solar trough system with film mirror is 50% less than that of the system with the glass mirror at noon of the winter solstice and latitude 40 if the design and parameter of the two systems are the same. The results indicate that film reflector is more preferable than glass reflector especially in high latitude if they have the same optical property

  17. Processes influencing differences in Arctic and Antarctic Trough Mouth Fan sedimentology

    OpenAIRE

    Gales, J; Hillenbrand, C-D; Larter, R; Laberg, J-S; Melles, M; Benetti, S; Passchier, S

    2018-01-01

    Trough Mouth Fans (TMFs) are sediment depocentres that form along high-latitude continental margins at the mouths of some cross-shelf troughs. They reflect the dynamics of past ice sheets over multiple glacial cycles and processes operating on (formerly) glaciated continental shelves and slopes, such as erosion, reworking, transport and deposition. The similarities and differences in TMF morphology and formation processes of the Arctic and Antarctic regions remain poorly constrained. Here, we...

  18. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  19. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  20. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  1. Optimising position control of a solar parabolic trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puramanathan Naidoo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concerns, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. This study is based on the implementation of a mathematical computation – the PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almeria computation developed at PSA (the European Test Centre for solar energy applications – embedded in a control algorithm to locate the position of the sun. Tests were conducted on a solar parabolic trough (SPT constructed at the Solar Thermal Applications Research Laboratory of the Mangosuthu University of Technology (Durban, South Africa for optimal position control using the PSA value. The designed control algorithm embedded in an industrial Siemens S7-314 C-2PtP programmable logic controller compared the PSA computation to a measured position of the SPT to optimally rotate the SPT to a desired position with the constant movement of the sun. The two main angles of the sun relative to the position of the SPT on earth, the zenith angle and the azimuth angle, both calculated in the PSA from the vertical and horizontal planes, respectively, were applied to the control algorithm to generate an appropriate final tracking angle within a 0.007 radian (0° 24′ 3.6″ tolerance, in accordance to the construction specifications and solar collector testing standards of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, 1991. These values, together with the longitude and latitude applicable to the geographical location of the SPT, were processed in the control software to rotate the SPT to an optimal position with respect to the position of the sun in its daily path, for solar-to-thermal conversion.

  2. Heat transfer analysis of parabolic trough solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez; Demirkaya, Gokmen; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; Rahman, Muhammad M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this paper a detailed one dimensional numerical heat transfer analysis of a PTC is performed. → The receiver and envelope were divided into several segments and mass and energy balance were applied in each segment. → Improvements either in the heat transfer correlations or radiative heat transfer analysis are presented. → The proposed heat transfer model was validated with experimental data obtained from Sandia National Laboratory. → Our results showed a better agreement with experimental data compared to other models. -- Abstract: Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTCs) are currently used for the production of electricity and applications with relatively higher temperatures. A heat transfer fluid circulates through a metal tube (receiver) with an external selective surface that absorbs solar radiation reflected from the mirror surfaces of the PTC. In order to reduce the heat losses, the receiver is covered by an envelope and the enclosure is usually kept under vacuum pressure. The heat transfer and optical analysis of the PTC is essential to optimize and understand its performance under different operating conditions. In this paper a detailed one dimensional numerical heat transfer analysis of a PTC is performed. The receiver and envelope were divided into several segments and mass and energy balance were applied in each segment. Improvements either in the heat transfer correlations or radiative heat transfer analysis are presented as well. The partial differential equations were discretized and the nonlinear algebraic equations were solved simultaneously. Finally, to validate the numerical results, the model was compared with experimental data obtained from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and other one dimensional heat transfer models. Our results showed a better agreement with experimental data compared to other models.

  3. Performance and durability testing of parabolic trough receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongqiang; Fu, Xuqiang; Zhao, Dongming; Yuan, Guofeng; Wang, Zhifeng; Guo, Minghuan

    2017-06-01

    The paper describes the key performance and durability testing facilities of the parabolic trough receiver developed by Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The indoor heat loss test can be applied at 4-7 different temperature levels within 200-550 on receivers. The optical efficiency test bench consists of 12 metal halide lamps as the solar simulator and a 5 m length half-elliptical cylinder reflector with flat end reflectors. 3 ultra-precision temperature sensors are used in receiver each end to get the temperature difference. The residual gas analysis test bench is applied to analyze and predict the vacuum lifetime of the receiver. It can test the variations of composition and partial pressure of residual gases with temperature and time in the receiver annulus space by a high sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometer gas analyzer. A coating accelerated ageing test bench, which is also used to test the thermal cycle, has been developed. This test bench uses the absorber tube of the recevier as the resistance heater to heat up the whole receiver. The coating lifetime can be predicted by the Arrhenius parameters. For the cycling test, the compressed air is used to directly cool the inner surface of the absorber tube. The thermal cycling test is performed with temperature cycles from 150 °C to 450 °C for 160 cycles. The maximum thermal cycling frequency is 8 cycles per day. The mechanical fatigue test bench is used to test the bellows and the glass-to-metal seals durability at the same time. Both bellows are expanded and compressed to 6.5 mm in turn with 10,000 cycles. A new rotating test bench was also developed to test the thermal efficiency of the receiver.

  4. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  5. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  6. Physics Motivations of SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, K.

    2007-01-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment for measuring neutrino-nucleus cross sections around one GeV region, which is important for the interpretaion of neutrino oscillation experiments. Physics motivations of the experiment are described here

  7. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Modeling in western Nankai Trough Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Wada, N.; Komatsu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2003, we have been conducting Gas Hydrate (GH) petroleum system models covering the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, and results of resource potential from regional model shows good match with the value depicted from seismic and log data. In this year, we have applied this method to explore GH potential in study area. In our study area, GH prospects have been identified with aid of bottom simulating reflector (BSR) and presence of high velocity anomalies above the BSR interpreted based on 3D migration seismic and high density velocity cubes. In order to understand the pathway of biogenic methane from source to GH prospects 1D-2D-3D GH petroleum system models are built and investigated. This study comprises lower Miocene to Pleistocene, deep to shallow marine sedimentary successions of Pliocene and Pleistocene layers overlain the basement. The BSR were interpreted in Pliocene and Pleistocene layers. Based on 6 interpreted sequence boundaries from 3D migration seismic and velocity data, construction of a depth 3D framework model is made and distributed by a conceptual submarine fan depositional facies model derived from seismic facies analysis and referring existing geological report. 1D models are created to analyze lithology sensitivity to temperature and vitrinite data from an exploratory well drilled in the vicinity of study area. The PSM parameters are applied in 2D and 3D modeling and simulation. Existing report of the explanatory well reveals that thermogenic origin are considered to exist. For this reason, simulation scenarios including source formations for both biogenic and thermogenic reaction models are also investigated. Simulation results reveal lower boundary of GH saturation zone at pseudo wells has been simulated with sensitivity of a few tens of meters in comparing with interpreted BSR. From sensitivity analysis, simulated temperature was controlled by different peak generation temperature models and geochemical parameters. Progressive folding

  8. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  9. Morphological evolution of Jinshan Trough in Hangzhou Bay (China) from 1960 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Xia, Xiaoming; Chen, Shenliang; Jia, Jianjun; Cai, Tinglu

    2017-11-01

    An extensive system of tidal channels, starting with Jinshan Trough in the east, is located along the north shore of Hangzhou Bay, China. This contribution investigates the morphological evolution of Jinshan Trough by using 17 bathymetric charts from a series covering a period of 51 years from 1960 to 2011. Three stages of evolution during this period are distinguishable based on the morphology and annual mean volume data. The first stage (1960-1987) is characterized by extension of the trough; the second stage (1987-1996) is a relatively stable period with some adjustments in the trough morphology; the third stage (1996-2011) is marked by the processes of erosion and deposition in the beginning of the period and a subsequent slow erosion process. Spatio-temporal variability of the trough was evaluated by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first eigenfunction indicates that erosion is the main evolution process and there exists three stages similar to those distinguished from volume variations. The second eigenfunction mainly reflects erosion and deposition in the northwest part of the trough located in the flood tidal current shadow area of the artificial headland in Jinshan. The third eigenfunction mainly reflects annual fluctuations of erosion and deposition in the side slope at the artificial headland in Jinshan. A particularly intense erosion process occurred between 1996 and 1998. The major effects on morphological evolution in Jinshan Trough from 1960 to 2011 were investigated and tentative conclusions were presented. Continuous coastal reclamations in Jinshan had the most pronounced effect on the morphological evolution during the first and the second stages. The storm surge had a pronounced effect on the evolution at the beginning of the third stage.

  10. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Salton Trough, southeast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; McCarthy, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents data and modelling results from a crustal and upper mantle wide-angle seismic transect across the Salton Trough region in southeast California. The Salton Trough is a unique part of the Basin and Range province where mid-ocean ridge/transform spreading in the Gulf of California has evolved northward into the continent. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the final leg of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE). Two perpendicular models of the crust and upper mantle were fit to wide-angle reflection and refraction travel times, seismic amplitudes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The first profile crossed the Salton Trough from the southwest to the northeast, and the second was a strike line that paralleled the Salton Sea along its western edge. We found thin crust (???21-22 km thick) beneath the axis of the Salton Trough (Imperial Valley) and locally thicker crust (???27 km) beneath the Chocolate Mountains to the northeast. We modelled a slight thinning of the crust further to the northeast beneath the Colorado River (???24 km) and subsequent thickening beneath the metamorphic core complex belt northeast of the Colorado River. There is a deep, apparently young basin (???5-6 km unmetamorphosed sediments) beneath the Imperial Valley and a shallower (???2-3 km) basin beneath the Colorado River. A regional 6.9-km/s layer (between ???15-km depth and the Moho) underlies the Salton Trough as well as the Chocolate Mountains where it pinches out at the Moho. This lower crustal layer is spatially associated with a low-velocity (7.6-7.7 km/s) upper mantle. We found that our crustal model is locally compatible with the previously suggested notion that the crust of the Salton Trough has formed almost entirely from magmatism in the lower crust and sedimentation in the upper crust. However, we observe an apparently magmatically emplaced lower crust to the northeast, outside of the Salton Trough, and propose that this layer in part

  11. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  12. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  13. High-resolution records of thermocline in the Okinawa Trough since about 10000 aBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present paper uses planktonic foraminifera and their stableisotopes to study the changes in the depth of thermocline (DOT) in the Okinawa Trough since the last 10000 a based on the analysis of Core B-3GC in the northern Okinawa Trough, together with that of the core in the southern Okinawa Trough. As results show, the thermocline was shallow before 6400 aBP, and deepened afterward, then became shallow again from 4000 to 2000 aBP. The DOT fluctuations display a positive correlation with those of sea surface temperature (SST). In addition, the changes in the northern Okinawa Trough are similar to those in the southern trough, implying a possible connection with the variation of the Kuroshio Current. The changes of SST and DOT suggest that the Kuroshio Current changed its intensity or main axis from 4000 to 2000 aBP and around about 6400 aBP respectively. Moreover, the changes of DOT from 8200 to 6400 aBP may indicate a gradual intensification of the Kuroshio Current.

  14. Comparative analyses of the bacterial community of hydrothermal deposits and seafloor sediments across Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yu, Min; Liu, Yan; Liu, Jiwen; Wu, Yonghua; Li, Li; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2018-04-01

    As an ideal place to study back-arc basins and hydrothermal eco-system, Okinawa Trough has attracted the interests of scientists for decades. However, there are still no in-depth studies targeting the bacterial community of the seafloor sediments and hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough. In the present study, we reported the bacterial community of the surface deposits of a newly found hydrothermal field in the southern Okinawa Trough, and the horizontal and vertical variation of bacterial communities in the sediments of the northern Okinawa Trough. The hydrothermal deposits had a relatively high 16S rRNA gene abundance but low bacterial richness and diversity. Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were predominant in hydrothermal deposits whereas Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant across all samples. The bacterial distribution in the seafloor of Okinawa Trough was significantly correlated to the content of total nitrogen, and had consistent relationship with total carbon. Gradual changes of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were found with the distance away from hydrothermal fields, while the hydrothermal activity did not influence the distribution of the major clades of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Higher abundance of the sulfur cycle related genes (aprA and dsrB), and lower abundance of the bacterial ammonia-oxidizing related gene (amoA) were quantified in hydrothermal deposits. In addition, the present study also compared the inter-field variation of Epsilonproteobacteria among multi-types of hydrothermal vents, revealing that the proportion and diversity of this clade were quite various.

  15. Structural control of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone east of Taiwan Island on the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yanpeng; LIU; Baohua; WU; Jinlong; LIANG; Ruicai; L

    2005-01-01

    Based on compositive analysis and interpretation of the observed and historical data, the geophysical field characters and structural properties of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone of the sea area east of Taiwan Island and the primary tectonic stress direction and its variabilities of backarc spreading in the southern Okinawa Trough are studied. It is concluded from the study results that the Gagua "Wedge" Zone is structurally consistent with the Gagua ridge and two fault basins on both sides of the Gagua ridge, and adjusts the moving direction and distance of the western Philippine Sea plate to make the northwestward motion of the plate on its east side change to the northward subduction of the plate on its west side so that the primary tectonic stress direction of the Okinawa Trough changed from NW-SE to nearly N-S, which provided the stress source for the Okinawa Trough to enter the second spreading stage.

  16. Balanced Cross Section for Restoration of Tectonic Evolution in the Southwest Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shiguo; Ni Xianglong; Guo Junhua

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the multi-channel seismic data and the other data, using 2DMove software,the tectonic evolution in three seismic profiles was restored since Pliocene. The tectonic restoration results show that: (1) the initial active center lay in the west slope and then was transferred to east and south via trough center during the evolution process; (2) several main normal faults controlled the evolution of the southern Okinawa Trough; (3) since Late Pliocene, the southern Okinawa Trough has experienced two spreading stages. The early is depression in Early-Middle Pleistocene and the late is back-arc spreading in Late Pleistocene and Holocene, which is in primary oceanic crust spreading stage.

  17. Evidence and mechanism of Hurricane Fran-Induced ocean cooling in the Charleston Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lian; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Bohm, E.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.

    Evidence of enhanced sea surface cooling during and following the passage of Hurricane Fran in September 1996 over an oceanic depression located on the ocean margin offshore of Charleston, South Carolina (referred to as the Charleston Trough), [Pietrafesa, 1983] is documented. Approximately 4C° of sea surface temperature (SST) reduction within the Charleston Trough following the passage of Hurricane Fran was estimated based on SST imagery from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-14 polar orbiting satellite. Simulations using a three-dimensional coastal ocean model indicate that the largest SST reduction occurred within the Charleston Trough. This SST reduction can be explained by oceanic mixing due to storm-induced internal inertia-gravity waves.

  18. Balancing vancomycin efficacy and nephrotoxicity: should we be aiming for trough or AUC/MIC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karisma; Crumby, Ashley S; Maples, Holly D

    2015-04-01

    Sixty years later, the question that still remains is how to appropriately utilize vancomycin in the pediatric population. The Infectious Diseases Society of America published guidelines in 2011 that provide guidance for dosing and monitoring of vancomycin in adults and pediatrics. However, goal vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL for invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were based primarily on adult pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data that achieved an area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (AUC/MIC) of ≥400. Recent pediatric literature shows that vancomycin trough concentrations needed to achieve the target AUC/MIC are different than the adult goal troughs cited in the guidelines. This paper addresses several thoughts, including the role of vancomycin AUC/MIC in dosing strategies and safety monitoring, consistency in laboratory reporting, and future directions for calculating AUC/MIC in pediatrics.

  19. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  20. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhai, Shikui; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-04-01

    The study of hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough can help us to uncover the hydrothermal mineralization characteristics in the back-arc basin during the early expanding stage. Mineralogy and geological significance of hydrothermal deposits from both the middle and southern trough are studied in this paper. First of all, using optical microscope to confirm the mineral compositions, characteristics of crystal shape, paragenetic relationship and minerals crystallization order. Then the minerals chemical composition were analyzed in virtue of electron microprobe. On these basis, the paragenetic sequence and the mineralization characteristics of the hydrothermal deposits were discussed. The results show that the hydrothermal deposit from the mid-Okinawa Trough belongs to Zn-Cu-rich type, consisting dominantly of sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, etc. The minerals crystallization order is first generation pyrite(PyI)-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-galena-second generation pyrite(PyII)-amorphous silica. While the deposit from the southern Okinawa Trough is Ba-Zn-Pb-rich type mainly composing of barite, sphalerite, galena, etc. The minerals crystallization order is barite-pyrite-sphalerite-tetrahedrite-galena-chalcopyrite-amorphous silica. Hydrothermal fluid temperature in the mid-Okinawa Trough undergoes a process from high to low, which is high up to 350 °C in the early stage, but decreasing gradually with the evolution of hydrothermal fluid. On the contrary, the hydrothermal activity in the southern Okinawa Trough is low temperature dominated, but the mineralization environment is unstable and the fluid temperature changes drastically during the period of hydrothermal activity.

  1. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona, J I; Alberdi, J; Gamero, E; Blanco, J

    1992-07-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  2. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector. Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  3. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-12-31

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  4. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  5. Many play concepts seen over wide area in Erris, Slyne troughs off Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, N.J.; Croker, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Erris and Slyne troughs are underexplored Mesozoic sedimentary basins off Ireland's northwest coast. The Irish Minister for Energy announced on Apr. 19, 1991, a frontier acreage licensing round of 128 blocks covering 29,000 sq km in these basins and the adjacent Rockall trough. Closing date for the round is June 30, 1993, set to allow two seasons for the acquisition of new geophysical and geological data over the area. Ireland has recently announced a new petroleum taxation regime. Revised licensing terms, which will acknowledge the specific circumstances of frontier acreage, will be announced

  6. The Nova-Canton Trough and the Late Cretaceous evolution of the central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Devorah; Taylor, Brain; Shor, Alexander N.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    Free-air gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry data show that the major Pacific fracture zones, from the Pau to Marquesas, are co-polar about an Euler pole located at 150.5°W, 34.6°S for the period preceding chron 33 and including a large portion of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. They also show continuity of the Clipperton Fracture Zone through the Line Islands to the Nova-Canton ridge and trough; this Canton-Clipperton trend is co-polar to the same pole. Sidescan-sonar and bathymetry data in the Nova-Canton Trough region reveal N140°E-striking abyssal hill topography south of the N70°E-striking structures of the Nova-Canton Trough and crustal fabric striking normal to the trough (N160°E) to the north. We conclude that the Nova-Canton Trough is the Middle Cretaceous extension of the Clipperton Fracture Zone. We propose that the anomalous depths (7000-8400 m) of the trough between 167°30'-168°30'W are the result of a complex plate reorganization. Conjugate magnetic anomaly lineations M1-M3 in the Phoenix lineations between the Central Pacific Fracture Zone and the Phoenix Fracture Zone and the absence of lineations younger than anomaly M3 west of the Phoenix Fracture Zone suggest that spreading may have gradually ceased along the Pacific-Phoenix system from west to east. We infer that the remaining active segment of the Pacific-Phoenix spreading system after anomaly M1 time was the easternmost section of the Phoenix lineations. At ˜M0 time, the Pacific-Phoenix spreading axis stretched from lineated bathymetric depressions lying between 180°W and the Phoenix Islands to ˜168°W and included the western deep of the Nova-Canton Trough. We hypothesize that accretion terminated on the Pacific-Phoenix spreading axis shortly after M0 time and that the absence of an M0 isochron in the region between the eastern Phoenix lineations and the Nova-Canton Trough, or along the Nova-Canton Trough itself, may be due to a decrease in spreading rate prior to

  7. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  8. Ne beam-Kr target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, V E; Kostin, V V; Vorob` ev, V S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center; Kulish, M I; Mintsev, V B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Hoffman, [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Energetic heavy ions of Ne - crystal Kr target interaction is investigated both experimentally and with the help of a 2-D computer code. The dynamics of the target matter heating, expansion, and destruction are described. A new equation of state for Kr was obtained and tested within a wide range of parameters. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  9. The DAΦNE cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, M.

    1997-12-01

    The DAΦNE Project utilises superconductivity technology for a total of six superconducting magnets: the two Experiment magnets (KLOE and FINUDA) and the four Compensator Solenoid magnets needed to compensate the magnetic effect of the Experiment magnets on the electron and positron beams. This effect, on beams of 510 MeV (nominal DAΦNE Energy), is expected to be relevant, especially with the aim of achieving a very high luminosity, which is the main target of the Project. The KLOE superconducting magnet has two possible working positions: the first in the DAΦNE Hall, when the Experiment will be in operation, and the second one in the KLOE Assembly Hall. This second position is the first to be utilised for the KLOE magnet Acceptance Test and magnetic field mapping, prior to the mounting of all the experimental apparatus inside the magnet. This note intends to present the DAΦNE Cryogenic System and how the authors have converged to the definition of a common Cryogenic System compatible with all the six superconducting magnets

  10. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for...

  11. A comparison of the relative locations of the mid-latitude electron density trough and the scintillation boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, Y.K.; Demir, O.; Tauriainen, A.

    1976-01-01

    The mid-latitude electron density trough position and the scintillation boundary have been compared for magnetically quiet periods by using the data returned by Ariel 3 and Explorer 22 satellites. The scintillation boundary is found southward of the trough during daytime, but at night the positions are reversed. (author)

  12. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  13. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  14. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  15. Influence of pen area and trough space on feedlot performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performance. There was no advantage in allowing more than 170 mm trough space or more than 5,5 m2 floor area per animal with the conditions and climate under which these trials were conducted ... pen area on feed intake and feedlot performance. A total of 196 dehorned ... Standard deviation (kg). 0,19. 0,18. 0,19. 0,15.

  16. Altitude variation of the plasmapause signature in the main ionospheric trough

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Benson, R. F.; Webb, P. A.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 16 (2009), s. 1669-1676 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Plasmapause * Ionosphere * Midlatitude Trough Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009

  17. Numerical simulation of tropical-temperate troughs over Southern Africa using the CSU RAMS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Heever, SC

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available ) and the wet (1981) late summer case studies has been examined. Model simulations reveal that the tropical-temperate troughs form when an upper westerly wave coincides with an easterly, wave or depression in lower levels. These systems occur preferentially over...

  18. Investigation on the dynamic behaviour of a parabolic trough power plant during strongly cloudy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maliki, Wisam Abed Kattea; Alobaid, Falah; Starkloff, Ralf; Kez, Vitali; Epple, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant is done. • Simulated results are compared to the experimental data from the real power plant. • Discrepancy between model result and real data is caused by operation strategy. • The model strategy increased the operating hours of power plant by around 2.5–3 h. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the development of a full scale dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant with a thermal storage system, operated by the Actividades de Construcción y Servicios Group in Spain. The model includes solar field, thermal storage system and the power block and describes the heat transfer fluid and steam/water paths in detail. The parabolic trough power plant is modelled using Advanced Process Simulation Software (APROS). To validate the model, the numerical results are compared to the measured data, obtained from “Andasol II” during strongly cloudy periods in the summer days. The comparisons show a qualitative agreement between the dynamic simulation model and the measurements. The results confirm that the thermal storage enables the parabolic trough power plant to provide a constant power rate when the storage energy discharge is available, despite significant oscillations in the solar radiation.

  19. A numerical analysis of the energy behavior of a parabolic trough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solar power is a clean and a durable energy; there are several techniques for using them. When necessary to elevated temperatures of heat transfer fluid, this energy must concentration. This paper presents the efficiencies study of a linear solar concentrator of a parabolic trough type. This study was conducted on the ...

  20. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 t...

  1. Basinal Structure Of Yola Arm Of The Upper Benue Trough Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic data interpretation of the Yola arm of the Upper Benue Trough has previously been carried out. However, no detail modeling of the Crustal Structures has been undertaken. Two composite reduced Aeromagnetic maps on a scale of 1:250,000 were digitized and processed using computer techniques.

  2. O+ trough zones in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James; Zeng, Wen; Jaafari, Fajer

    Regions of low-density troughs in O+ have been observed at 1 RE altitude in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere region by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment(TIDE) on the POLAR spacecraft. In this presentation, the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) code is employed to investigate the formation of such O+ density troughs. We utilize convection paths of flux tubes in the high-latitude region as prescribed by an empirical convection model with solar wind inputs to track the evolution of ionospheric plasma transport and in particular O+ densities along these tubes with time/space. The flux tubes are subjected to auroral processes of precipitation and wave-driven ion heating when they pass through the auroral oval, which tends to elevate the plasma densities in these tubes. When the F-regions of such tubes traverse locations where the F-region is in darkness, recombination there causes the higher-altitude regions to drain and the densities to decline throughout. Owing to the varying effects of these processes, significant and low trough-like densities at higher altitudes developed along these flux tubes. The modeled densities near 6000 km altitudes will be compared with multiple POLAR passes featuring POLAR/TIDE-measured O+ densities for inside and outside of such trough regions.

  3. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  4. Radiometric evidence of Middle Devonian inversion of the Hill End Trough, northeast Lachlan Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakham, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The publication of a new geological time-scale by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation and radiometric dates from the Hill End goldfield have prompted the re-examination of the timing of deformation of the Hill End Trough to determine whether it occurred in Middle Devonian or Early Carboniferous time. Palaeontological evidence from the western trough margin and the Capertee High dates the end of deposition in the trough as late Emsian or early Eifelian (385-382 Ma). After a mid-Devonian hiatus of at least 15 million years, paralic sedimentation commenced on the Molong and Capertee Highs in late Frasnian or early Famennian time (367-363 Ma). No Upper Devonian sedimentary formations occur in the Hill End Trough. Structural relationships indicate that the oldest mineral veins at Hill End preceded cleavage formation in the deformed trough sedimentary rocks. Early vein muscovites have Middle Devonian 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 380-370 Ma. Regional metamorphic biotites from Hill End have well constrained 40 Ar/ 39 Ar closing ages of 360-358 Ma (mid-Famennian). The metamorphic (thermal) maximum which outlasted penetrative deformation. is estimated here by modelling to have been about 370 Ma (latest Givetian). This clearly places the earlier main deformation in the Middle Devonian. Deformation probably began by terminating trough deposition in latest Emsian to early Eifelian time and ended in early Givetian time at about 375 Ma ago. Published pressure and temperature data from the Hill End goldfield suggest that deformation thickened the 6 km sediment column to around 11 km. The thermal model suggests there was post-deformation erosion of about 4km and little if any further erosion occurred during Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. The shortening accompanying the inversion of the northern Hill End Trough may have been taken up in the region to the south, both east and west of the Copperhannia Thrust, and east of the southern termination of the Capertee High

  5. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  6. Paleoceanographic records in the sedimentary cores from the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two gravity piston cores (Cores 155 and 180) involved in this study were collected from the middle Okinawa Trough. Stratigraphy of the two cores was divided and classified based on the features of planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope changes together with depositional sequence, millennium-scale climatic event comparison, carbonate cycles and AMS14C dating. Some paleoclimatic information contained in sediments of these cores was extracted to discuss the paleoclimatic change rules and the short-time scale events presented in interglacial period. Analysis on the variation of oxygen isotope values in stage two shows that the middle part of the Okinawa Trough may have been affected by fresh water from the Yellow River and the Yangtze River during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The oxygen isotope value oscillating ranges of the cores have verified that the marginal sea has an amplifying effect on climate changes. The Δ13c of benthic foraminifera Uvigerina was lighter in the glacial period than that in the interglacial period, which indicates that the Paleo-Kuroshio's main stream moved eastward and its influence area decreased. According to the temperature difference during the "YD" period existing in Core 180 and other data, we can reach the conclusion that the climatic changes in the middle Okinawa Trough area were controlled by global climatic changes, but some regional factors had also considerable influence on the climate changes. Some results in this paper support Fairbanks's point that the "YD" event was a brief stagnation of sea level rising during the global warming up procession. Moreover, the falling of sea level in the glacial period weakened the exchange between the bottom water of the Okinawa Trough and the deep water of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and resulted in low oxygen state of bottom water in this area. These procedures are the reasons for carbonate cycle in the Okinawa Trough area being consistent with the "Atlantic type " carbonate cycle.

  7. Paleoceanographic records in the sedimentary cores from the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYanguang; FUYunxia; DUDewen; MENGXianwei; LIANGRuicai; LITiegang; WUShiying

    2003-01-01

    Two gravity piston cores (Cores 155 and 180) involved in this study were collected from the middle Okinawa Trough. Stratigraphy of the two cores was divided and classified based on the features of planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope changes together with depositional sequence,millennium-scale climatic event comparison, carbonate cycles and AMS14C dating. Some paleoclimatic information contained in sediments of these cores was extracted to discuss the paleoclimatic change rules and the short-time scale events presented in interglacial period. Analysis on the variation of oxygen isotope values in stage two shows that the middle part of the Okinawa Trough may have been affected by fresh water from the Yellow River and the Yangtze River during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The oxygen isotope value oscillating ranges of the cores have verified that the marginal sea has an amplifying effect on climate changes.The δ13C of benthic foraminifera Uvigerina was lighter in the glacial period than that in the interglacial period, which indicates that the Paleo-Kuroshio's main stream moved eastward and its influence area decreased. According to the temperature difference during the “YD” period existing in Core 180 and other data, we can reach the conclusion that the climatic changes in the middle Okinawa Trough area were controlled by global climatic changes, but some regional factors had also considerable influence on the climatechanges. Some results in this paper support Fairbanks's point that the “YD” event was a brief stagnation of sea level rising during the global warming up procession. Moreover,the falling of sea level in the glacial period weakened the exchange between the bottom water of the Okinawa Trough and the deep water of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and resulted in low oxygen state of bottom water in this area.These procedures are the reasons for carbonate cycle in the Okinawa Trough area being consistent with the “Atlantic type”carbonate cycle.

  8. Model and control scheme for recirculation mode direct steam generation parabolic trough solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Su; Liu, Deyou; Chen, Xingying; Chu, Yinghao; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qunming; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A nonlinear dynamic model of recirculation DSG parabolic trough is developed. •Collector row, water separator and spray attemperator are modeled, respectively. •The dynamic behaviors of the collector field are simulated and analyzed. •Transfer functions of water level and outlet fluid temperature are derived. •Multi-model switching generalized predictive control strategy is developed. -- Abstract: This work describes and evaluates a new nonlinear dynamic model, and a new generalized predictive control scheme for a collector field of direct steam generation parabolic troughs in recirculation mode. Modeling the dynamic behaviors of collector fields is essential to design, testing and validation of automatic control systems for direct steam generation parabolic troughs. However, the behaviors of two-phase heat transfer fluids impose challenges to simulating and developing process control schemes. In this work, a new nonlinear dynamic model is proposed, based on the nonlinear distributed parameter and the nonlinear lumped parameter methods. The proposed model is used to simulate and analyze the dynamic behaviors of the entire collector field for recirculation mode direct steam generation parabolic troughs under different weather conditions, without excessive computational costs. Based on the proposed model, transfer functions for both the water level of the separator and outlet steam temperatures are derived, and a new multi-model switching generalized predictive control scheme is developed for simulated control of the plant behaviors for a wide region of operational conditions. The proposed control scheme achieves excellent control performance and robustness for systems with long delay, large inertia and time-varying parameters, and efficiently solves the model mismatching problem in direct steam generation parabolic troughs. The performances of the model and control scheme are validated with design data from the project of Integration of Direct

  9. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K

    2012-12-20

    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  10. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  11. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, H.; collaboration, for the MiniBooNE

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  12. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1982-08-01

    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  13. Tectonics of the southern Bleckenstedt trough in the mining area of the oolitic iron ore deposit (midle coral oolithe) of Konrad mine near Salzgitter, Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloenbach, R.

    1985-01-01

    The regional tectonic development of the Bleckenstedt trough and the large-scale faults in Konrad mine (N-S, trough fault, NW-SE, Sauingen trough, E-W, Bleckenstedt fault), which date from a different period, were evaluated, and a tectogenetic analysis of the small-scale tectonic structure was related to halokinetic movements. (DG) [de

  14. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, M.P.I.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  15. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig

  16. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  17. Late Quaternary paleoseismicity and seismic potential of the Yilan-Yitong Fault Zone in NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyuan; Yin, Na; Shu, Peng; Li, Jincheng; Wei, Qinghai; Min, Wei; Zhang, Peizhen

    2018-01-01

    The Yilan-Yitong Fault Zone (YYFZ), which is composed of two nearly parallel branches with a spacing of 5-30 km and a length of ∼1100 km, is considered to be the key branch of the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) in NE China. It was traditionally believed that the YYFZ experienced weak activity or was inactive during the Late Quaternary, without the capability to generate strong earthquakes (M ≥ 7), based on the absence of typical outcrops and large historical or instrumental earthquakes (M > 6). However, our paleoseismic study shows that the YYFZ is the primary seismotectonic structure (M ≥ 7) that poses significant earthquake threats to NE China. The synthesis of data collected from geologic investigations, geomorphic mapping, trench logging and the dating of samples indicates that the YYFZ is an active structure that has undergone segmented strong tectonic deformation since the Late Quaternary with a characteristic assemblage of landforms, including linear scarps and troughs, offset or deflected streams, linear sag ponds, small horsts and grabens. The latest ruptures of the YYFZ migrated from previous boundary faults into the basin interior, forming a left-stepping en echelon pattern in plain view, and the kinematics of these events in the Late Quaternary were dominated by reverse dextral slipping. Multi-segment cluster faulting might have occurred during three cluster periods, i.e., ∼34750-35812 a BP, ∼21700-22640 a BP, and ∼4000 a BP-present, which implies that the recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the YYFZ may be as long as tens of thousands of years.

  18. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  19. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  20. Discordant Early Miocene palaeomagnetic directions at the vicinity of the North Aegean Trough: tectonic or palaeofield feature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulou, D.; Valet, J. P.; Zananiri, I.; Voidomatis, P.

    2017-12-01

    The North Aegean Trough (N.A.T) is a major tectonic feature of North Aegean Sea. This is a large NE-SW transcurrent lineament that is interpreted as the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, with a prominent dextral strike-slip motion. IAn intense igneous activity has developed along the N.A.T to its north through the presence of abundant plutonism and volcanism from Early Oligocene to Pliocene. A considerable amount of palaeomagnetic data display a systematic pattern of clockwise rotations with angles varying between 20°-40° since the Early Oligocene. In order to document the impact of the N.A.T to regional rotations, early Miocene lava flows have been extensively sampled in the islands of Samothrace and Lemnos located to the north and south of N.A.T, respectively. Two sets of directions have been defined from the palaeomagnetic studies. The first one corresponds to the expected North-East declinations with positive inclinations or to reversed South-West declinations with negative inclinations that were previously interpreted as a dextral rotations of this area. The second set, exhibits discordant and apparently erratic directions despite quite acceptable demagnetization behaviour and magnetic characteristics. In order to constrain further these directions we performed new samplings. The new measurements which include Thellier absolute palaeointensity experiments reveal that the intermediate directions are associated with low field values for Samothrace with a transitional field recorded between 21 and 17 Ma. The presence of single magnetization component and the variability of the lavas do not favor the possibility of self-reversal mechanisms. The consistency of the directions within each flow but also between lava flows of comparable ages in the two islands and the presence of normal and reverse polarities point to records of transitional directions. In both islands, the intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles exhibit a preference for equatorial latitudes

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  2. Interseismic Coupling-Based Earthquake and Tsunami Scenarios for the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, H.; Woodruff, J. D.; Loveless, J. P.; Hyodo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical modeling and investigations of recent subduction zone earthquakes show that geodetic estimates of interseismic coupling and the spatial distribution of coseismic rupture are correlated. However, the utility of contemporary coupling in guiding construction of rupture scenarios has not been evaluated on the world's most hazardous faults. Here we demonstrate methods for scaling coupling to slip to create rupture models for southwestern Japan's Nankai Trough. Results show that coupling-based models produce distributions of ground surface deformation and tsunami inundation that are similar to historical and geologic records of the largest known Nankai earthquake in CE 1707 and to an independent, quasi-dynamic rupture model. Notably, these models and records all support focused subsidence around western Shikoku that makes the region particularly vulnerable to flooding. Results imply that contemporary coupling mirrors the slip distribution of a full-margin, 1707-type rupture, and Global Positioning System measurements of surface motion are connected with the trough's physical characteristics.

  3. Heat Loss Testing of Schott's 2008 PTR70 Parabolic Trough Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kutscher, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Two Schott 2008 model year PTR70 HCEs were tested on NREL's heat loss test stand from 100 - 500 deg C in 50 deg C increments. Absorber emittance was determined from the laboratory testing so that the performance of the HCEs could be modeled in a parabolic trough collector. Collector/HCE simulation results for many different field operation conditions were used to create heat loss correlationcoefficients for Excelergy and SAM. SAM estimates that the decreased emittance of the 2008 PTR70 will decrease the LCOE for parabolic trough power plants by 0.5 cents/kWh and increase the electricity generated by 5% relative to previous PTR70s. These conclusions assume that the 2008 PTR70 is supplied at the same cost and with the same optical performance as earlier PTR70 models.

  4. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  5. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of key parameters on the performance of parabolic trough solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlen, Luis S. W.; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio; Marchesi, Renzo

    2014-04-01

    Solar troughs are amongst the most commonly used technologies for collecting solar thermal energy and any attempt to increase the performance of these systems is welcomed. In the present study a parabolic solar trough is simulated using a one dimensional finite element model in which the energy balances for the fluid, the absorber and the envelope in each element are performed. The developed model is then validated using the available experimental data . A sensitivity analysis is performed in the next step in order to study the effect of changing the type of the working fluid and the corresponding Reynolds number on the overall performance of the system. The potential improvement due to the addition of a shield on the upper half of the annulus and enhancing the convection coefficient of the heat transfer fluid is also studied.

  6. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of key parameters on the performance of parabolic trough solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlen, Luis S W; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio; Marchesi, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Solar troughs are amongst the most commonly used technologies for collecting solar thermal energy and any attempt to increase the performance of these systems is welcomed. In the present study a parabolic solar trough is simulated using a one dimensional finite element model in which the energy balances for the fluid, the absorber and the envelope in each element are performed. The developed model is then validated using the available experimental data . A sensitivity analysis is performed in the next step in order to study the effect of changing the type of the working fluid and the corresponding Reynolds number on the overall performance of the system. The potential improvement due to the addition of a shield on the upper half of the annulus and enhancing the convection coefficient of the heat transfer fluid is also studied.

  7. Study on a Mid-Temperature Trough Solar Collector with Multisurface Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengliang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new trough solar concentrator which is composed of multiple reflection surfaces is developed in this paper. The concentrator was analyzed firstly by using optical software. The variation curves of the collecting efficiency affected by tracking error and the deviation angle were given out. It is found that the deviation tolerance for the collector tracking system is about 8 degrees when the receiver is a 90 mm flat. The trough solar concentrators were tested under real weather conditions. The experiment results indicate that, the new solar concentrator was validated to have relative good collecting efficiency, which can be more than 45 percent when it operated in more 145°C. It also has the characteristics of rdust, wind, and snow resistance and low tracking precision requirements.

  8. Studies of sporadic E (Es) associated with the main ionospheric trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, A.S.; Morrell, C.; Dudeney, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Sporadic E, or E(s) events under the main F region trough have been confirmed on the basis of ionograms from a vertical incidence ionosonde at Halley Bay, Antarctica. Analyses indicate that E(s) is frequently observable under both the equatorward and the poleward edges of the trough, as well as poleward of it. Before magnetic midnight, E(s) layers whose semithickness resembles those of the normal E layer are common, in contrast to layers seen after magnetic midnight which show the characteristics of thin E(s) layers. A possible explanation of the observed change in the E(s) layer characteristics at magnetic midnight is related to differences in the type and spectra of the precipitating particles. It is shown that the redistribution of ionization by the convection electric field may be important. 40 references

  9. Sedimentary response to volcanic activity in the Okinawa Trough since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋富清; 李安春; 李铁刚

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between volcanic activity and sediment record on regional and temporal scales,158 surface sediment samples were collected from the East China Sea Shelf to the northern Okinawa Trough (OT),and two cores recovered in the northern and southern OT,respectively.Mineralogy,grain-size,and geochemical analyses of those samples show that:1) volcanic glass,volcanic-type pyroxene,hypersthenes,and magnetite increase in sediment influenced by volcanic activity;2) sediment grain sizes (and...

  10. Simulation of the parabolic trough solar energy generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ya-Ling; Mei, Dan-Hua; Tao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Huai-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A parabolic trough solar power generation system with ORC is numerically simulated. ► The effects of key parameters on collector field and system performance are studied. ► Collector heat loss increases with small absorber and glass tube interlayer pressure. ► Heat collecting efficiency increases with initial increase of absorber HTO flow rate. ► Recommended thermal storage system volumes are different in year four typical days. -- Abstract: A model for a typical parabolic trough solar thermal power generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle (PT-SEGS–ORC) was built within the transient energy simulation package TRNSYS, which is formed by integrating several submodels for the trough collector system, the single-tank thermal storage system, the auxiliary power system and the heat-electricity conversion system. With this model, the effects of several key parameters, including the interlayer pressure between the absorber tube and the glass tube (p inter ), the flow rate of high temperature oil in the absorber tube (v), solar radiation intensity (I dn ) and incidence angle (θ), on the performance of the parabolic trough collector field based on the meteorological data of Xi’an city were examined. The study shows that the heat loss of the solar collector (q loss ) increases sharply with the increase in p inter at beginning and then reaches to an approximately constant value. The variation of heat collecting efficiency (η hc ) with v is quite similar to the variation of q loss with p inter . However, I dn and θ exhibit opposite effect on η hc . In addition, it is found that the optimal volume of the thermal storage system is sensitively dependent on the solar radiation intensity. The optimal volumes are 100, 150, 50, and 0 m 3 for spring equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice, respectively.

  11. Main Ionospheric Trough and Equatorial Ionization Anomaly During Substorms With the Different UT Onset Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    In the given work the numerical calculation results of ionospheric effects of four modeling substorms which have begun in 00, 06, 12 and 18 UT are presented. Calculations are executed on the basis of Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP), developed in WD IZMIRAN, added by the new block of calculation of electric fields in the ionosphere of the Earth for vernal equinox conditions in the minimum of solar activity. In calculations we considered superposition of magnetospheric convection electric field (at set potential differences through polar caps and field aligned currents of the second zone with taking into account of particle precipitation) and dynamo field generated by thermospheric winds without taking into account the tides. It is shown, that in the given statement of problem the substorms cause strong positive disturbances in F-region of ionosphere in night sector. Negative disturbances are much less and arise, mainly, at night in the middle and low latitudes. During substorms longitudinal extent of main ionospheric trough increases. The substorm beginning in 18 UT, causes negative disturbances in high latitudes except for a southern polar cap. Besides there is "stratification" of the main ionospheric trough. As a result in southern hemisphere the additional high-latitude trough which is absent in quiet conditions is formed. "Stratification" of the main ionospheric trough occurs in northern hemisphere at 6 hours after the beginning of the substorm. These "stratifications" are consequence non-stationary magnetospheric convection. Distinction between these events consists that "stratification" in a southern hemisphere occurs in active phase of substorm, and in northern hemisphere in recovery phase. During a substorm beginning in 00 UT, foF2 increases in all northern polar cap. Positive disturbances of foF2 in the equatorial anomaly region cause all presented substorms, except for a substorm beginning in 18 UT

  12. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  13. Use of deep seismic shooting to study graben-like troughs. [Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makalovskiy, V.V.; Silayev, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the Southeast Perm Oblast, in the zone of articulation of the Russian platform and the Cisural trough, in order to study the structure of the graben-like troughs together with deep drilling, well seismic exploration is used by the method of deep seismic shooting (DSS). The DSS method developed by the Kamskiy department of the VNIGNI consists of blasting in the well shaft and recording of the elastic fluctuations on the Earth's surface. The use of the DSS made it possible to pinpoint structural details of the graben-like trough, and to clarify that this is in essence a zone of fracturing, where the lowered blocks alternated with elevated, and to establish the location and amplitude of the tectonic disorders. High geological information content, low labor intensity and rapidity of obtaining the results make it possible to recommend the DSS together with prospecting and exploratory drilling to study complexly constructed objects in order to reduce the number of unproductive wells.

  14. A new desalination system using a combination of heat pipe, evacuated tube and parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari Mosleh, H.; Jahangiri Mamouri, S.; Shafii, M.B.; Hakim Sima, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new desalination uses a combination of heat pipe and parabolic trough collector. • A twin-glass evacuated tube is used to decrease the thermal losses from heat pipe. • Adding oil into the space between heat pipe and tube collector enhances the yield. • The yield and efficiency reach up to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively. - Abstract: The solar collectors have been commonly used in desalination systems. Recent investigations show that the use of a linear parabolic trough collector in solar stills can improve the efficiency of a desalination system. In this work, a combination of a heat pipe and a twin-glass evacuated tube collector is utilized with a parabolic trough collector. Results show that the rate of production and efficiency can reach to 0.27 kg/(m 2 h) and 22.1% when aluminum conducting foils are used in the space between the heat pipe and the twin-glass evacuated tube collector to transfer heat from the tube collector to the heat pipe. When oil is used as a medium for the transfer of heat, filling the space between heat pipe and twin-glass evacuated tube collector, the production and efficiency can increase to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively

  15. Geological records of marine environmental changes in the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Indexes of sediment grain size, sedimentation rates, geochemical composition, heavy minerals, benthic foraminiferal fauna, indicator species of the Kuroshio Current, paleo-SST and carbonate dissolution of core E017 conformably suggest a great marine environmental change occurring at about 10.1-9.2 cal. kaBP in the southern Okinawa Trough, which may correspond to the strengthening of the Kuroshio Warm Current and re-entering the Okinawa Trough through the sea area off northeast Taiwan. The invasion of Kuroshio current has experienced a process of gradual strengthening and then weakening, and its intensity became more fluctuation during the last 5000 years. Compared to the transition of sediment grain size, geochemical composition and heavy minerals, the foraminiferal faunas show a 900-year lag, which may indicate that the invasion of Kuroshio Current and the consequent sea surface and deep-water environmental changes is a gradual process, and fauna has an obvious lag compared to environment altering. The carbonate dissolution of the Okinawa Trough has had an apparent strengthening since 9.2 cal. kaBP, and reached a maximum in the late 3000 years, which may be caused by the deep-water environmental changes due to the invasion of Kuroshio Current.

  16. Elemental geochemical records of seafloor hydrothermal activities in the sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; YU Zenghui; DU Tongjun

    2007-01-01

    The major and minor element contents in the sediment core H9 from the hydrothermal fields of the Okinawa Trough show a sharp change at the depth of 80 cm. The elements enriched in the upper 80 cm core are those enriched in the hydrothermal deposits and in the surface sediments recovered from the hydrothermal fields in the trough, which indicates the input of hydrothermal materials. Comparing with other hydrothermal sediments from Mid-ocean Ridges or the Lau Basin, the degree of the enrichment of elements iron, copper, cobalt, and nickel is relatively low. However, the enrichment of elements manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury is remarkable. The average contents of these elements in the upper 80 cm core sediments are three to six times those in the lower section, and 3 ~ 12 times those in the surface sediments which are not influenced by hydrothermal activities. Hydrothermal activities have contributed significant manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury to the sediments, and these elements are distinct indicators for the hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough. The significant enrichment of these elements in Core H9 upward from the depth 80 cm indicates the start or the significant enhancing of the hydrothermal activity in this area at about 5 740 aB. P. The average accumulation rate of manganese during this period is about 40 461 μg/( cm2 · ka), which is similar to the hydrothermal sediments in the Lau Basin or the East Pacific Rise.

  17. Mercury Anomaly in the Okinawa Trough Sediments—An Indicator of Modern Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一阳; 鄢明才

    1995-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is located between the shelf-sea area of the East China Sea and the deep-sea area of western Pacific Ocean.More than 60 chemical elements in the sediments from the shelf area of the East China Sea,the Okinawa Trough and western Pacific Ocean were determined by advanced techniques including neutron acti-vation analysis,X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,atomic fluorescence spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry.Quantitative comparisons of the element abundances of the sediments were made in terms of the enrichment coefficients(K) of the elements.K>1.5 indicates enrichment (K=1.5-2, weak enrichment;K=2-4,strong enrichment) and K>4,anomalous enrichment.The results show that the Okinawa Trough sediments are characterized by Hg anomaly and the enrichment of such elements as Au,Ag,Se,Te,Sb,Cd,Mn,Mo,etc.Detailed studies show that the excess Hg comes from hydrothermal solutions rather than from the continent,sea water ,marine organisms,cosmic dust or vol-canic rocks.Attributed to modern hydrothermal activities on the sea floor ,Hg anomaly can be used as a geochemical indicator of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity.

  18. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  19. Numerical simulation of solar parabolic trough collector performance in the Algeria Saharan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marif, Yacine; Benmoussa, Hocine; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Belhadj, Mohamed M.; Zerrouki, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The parabolic trough collector performance is examined. • The finite difference method is proposed and validated. • Two fluids are considered water and TherminolVP-1™. - Abstract: In order to determine the optical and thermal performance of a solar parabolic trough collector under the climate conditions of Algerian Sahara, a computer program based on one dimensional implicit finite difference method with energy balance approach has been developed. The absorber pipe, glass envelope and fluid were divided into several segments and the partial derivation in the differential equations was replaced by the backward finite difference terms in each segment. Two fluids were considered, liquid water and TherminolVP-1™ synthetic oil. Furthermore, the intensity of the direct solar radiation was estimated by monthly average values of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor for different tracking systems. According to the simulation findings, the one axis polar East–West and horizontal East–West tracking systems were most desirable for a parabolic trough collector throughout the whole year. In addition, it is found that the thermal efficiency was about 69.73–72.24%, which decreases with the high synthetic oil fluid temperatures and increases in the lower water temperature by 2%

  20. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  1. MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T Sammour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

  2. Practicality and Performance of Daylight Trough in The Tropics: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Harn Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of office daylighting is vital for both energy efficiency practice and occupants’ visual comfort. With the emergence of green building in Malaysia, building designers are exploring avenues for energy efficiency design; one common strategy is daylighting. The majority literature reviews on daylighting are skewed towards temperate or developed countries, where sky luminous condition is different from that of the Tropics. Conventional daylighting system designs redirect daylight from the envelope or atrium openings, such as light shelves. Presumed to be the pioneer daylight trough in the Tropics, this paper presents the simulated and in-situ lighting level measurements prior to occupancy. This case study presents an as-built daylight trough design which is able to daylight the office space as deep as 6 meters sufficiently. It achieves a lighting power density 1.90W/m2 and saves 39.2% of lighting energy over conventional office lighting energy. Discussed further is the practicality of working with such a system, including cost implication, return on investment and contractual challenges in reaching a consensus on the design. The results reinforce that the effectiveness of daylighting design is very dependable on the sun path and obstacles surrounding the office tower. The RADIANCE simulation correlates well to field measurement results. Further investigation into the light trough, its lighting energy savings, users’ interaction, visual comfort, and glare is still ongoing.

  3. Cascade system using both trough system and dish system for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yanping; Arauzo, Inmaculada; Gao, Wei; Zou, Chongzhe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar cascade system using both trough and dish collectors is proposed. • Heat rejected by the Stirling engines is collected by the condensed water. • The directions to increase the efficiency improvement has been pointed out • Influence of flow type of heating/cooling fluids of Stirling engines is considered. - Abstract: This paper represents a novel solar thermal cascade system using both trough and dish systems for power generation. An effective structure using the condensed fluid of Rankine cycle to cool the Stirling engines to use the heat released by Stirling engines was proposed. The cascade system model with different fluid circuits was developed. The models of some important components of the system, such as dish collector, trough collector and Stirling engine array, are presented with detail explanation in this paper. Corresponding stand-alone systems were also developed for comparison. Simulations were conducted with the models to find out efficiency difference between cascade system and corresponding stand-alone systems. The directions to increase the efficiency difference were also considered. Results show that the cascade system can achieve a higher efficiency with a high solar irradiance (>550 W/m"2). The flow type of fluids between heating and cooling Stirling engine array is also required to concern on designing a cascade system with Stirling engine array.

  4. The Effect of Changing Focal Trough in a Panoramic Device on the Accuracy of Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Magnification and distortion are the most important limitations of panoramic radiography. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of changing focal trough option of Planmeca SCARA 3 on the accuracy of linear distance measurements.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 28 pieces of gutta-percha were attached to the assumptive place of each lost root of an adult dry skull with average size and normal shape. The actual measurements were obtained by a digital caliper. The panoramic images of the skull were taken in six different sizes and shapes of focal trough. This procedure was repeated ten times with new gutta-percha. Paired t-test was used to compare the values of different actual and radiographic images of gutta-percha dimensions.Results: The mean difference [standard deviation (SD] between actual measurement and panoramic radiography in the different groups was from 0.37 (1.1 to 0.58 (2.87 mm. The mean (SD difference of linear measurements between real and radiographic images was 0.52 (0.43 mm in average size, V-shaped group, which was statistically and clinically significant (P = 0.00.Conclusion: Changing the focal trough option of Planmeca SCARA 3 has minimal effects on the accuracy of linear measurements in panoramic radiographs.

  5. The cost of integration of parabolic trough CSP plants in isolated Mediterranean power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis; Kourtis, George

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a technical and economic analysis concerning the integration of parabolic trough concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies, with or without thermal storage capability, in an existing typical small isolated Mediterranean power generation system, in the absence of a feed-in tariff scheme, is carried out. In addition to the business as usual (BAU) scenario, five more scenarios are examined in the analysis in order to assess the electricity unit cost with the penetration of parabolic trough CSP plants of 50 MWe or 100 MWe, with or without thermal storage capability. Based on the input data and assumptions made, the simulations indicated that the scenario with the utilization of a single parabolic trough CSP plant (either 50 MWe or 100 MWe and with or without thermal storage capability) in combination with BAU will effect an insignificant change in the electricity unit cost of the generation system compared to the BAU scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis on natural gas price, showed that increasing fuel prices and the existence of thermal storage capability in the CSP plant make this scenario marginally more economically attractive compared to the BAU scenario. (author)

  6. Rheological considerations for the modelling of submarine sliding at Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanidou, D. M.; Georgiopoulou, A.; Guillas, S.; Dias, F.

    2018-03-01

    Recent scientific research indicates that the Rockall Bank Slide Complex in the NE Atlantic Ocean has formed as the result of repetitive slope failures that can be distinguished in at least three major phases. These sliding episodes took place during and before the Last Glacial Maximum. This work attempts the modelling of each sliding episode with the incorporation of the landslide's rheological properties. The objective is to study the landslide kinematics and final deposition of each episode under a rheological framework that comes in agreement with the field observations. To do so in the present work, we use different types of rheological models to compute the total retarding stress and simulate submarine failure. The Bingham rheology and the frictional rheology are used to model the flow behavior. The scope of this approach is to understand the effect of the two classical laws in landslide kinematics. A rheological model that combines the two regimes is also used. To account for the hydrodynamic drag, the Voellmy model is employed. The results are validated against the field observations on the seabed of the Rockall Trough. The simulations show that for this particular case the Bingham rheology with a small or negligible basal friction produces the best results. The tsunamigenic potential of the episodes is also briefly examined.

  7. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa

    2014-01-01

    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  8. The Relationship Between Vancomycin Trough Concentrations and AUC/MIC Ratios in Pediatric Patients: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Stacey; Collins, Kyle; Ensom, Mary H H

    2018-04-01

    In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC. This review aimed to determine the relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC in pediatric patients. We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using the medical subject heading (MeSH) terms vancomycin and AUC and pediatric* or paediatric*. Articles were included if they were published in English and reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC. Of 122 articles retrieved, 11 met the inclusion criteria. One trial reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations, AUC/MIC, and clinical outcomes but was likely underpowered. Five studies found troughs 6-10 mg/l were sufficient to attain an AUC/MIC > 400 in most general hospitalized pediatric patients. One study in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery found a trough of 18.4 mg/l achieved an AUC/MIC > 400. Two oncology studies reported troughs ≥ 15 mg/l likely attained an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. In critical care patients: one study found a trough of 9 mg/l did not attain the AUC/MIC target; another found 7 mg/l corresponded to an AUC/MIC of 400. Potential vancomycin targets varied based on the population studied but, for general hospitalized pediatric patients, troughs of 6-10 mg/l are likely sufficient to achieve AUC/MIC ≥ 400. For MIC ≥ 2 mg/l, higher troughs are likely necessary to achieve an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. More

  9. Splitter magnets for DAΦNE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanelli, C.; Hsieh, H.

    1992-01-01

    A 510 MeV electron positron colliding beam facility is under design and construction. The project consists of two storage rings, accumulator, electron/positron linac and transfer lines. The design of the splitter magnets which separate the circulating beams immediately after passing through the DAΦNE interaction point is presented. The results of 2-D and 3-D magnetic calculations is presented, and the electrical and mechanical design of the magnet are described. A 1/3 length prototype of this magnet is under construction. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Real-time dynamic analysis for complete loop of direct steam generation solar trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Su; Liu, Deyou; Chu, Yinghao; Chen, Xingying; Shen, Bingbing; Xu, Chang; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nonlinear distribution parameter dynamic model has been developed. • Real-time local heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient are adopted. • The dynamic behavior of the solar trough collector loop are simulated. • High-frequency chattering of outlet fluid flow are analyzed and modeled. • Irradiance disturbance at subcooled water region generates larger influence. - Abstract: Direct steam generation is a potential approach to further reduce the levelized electricity cost of solar trough. Dynamic modeling of the collector loop is essential for operation and control of direct steam generation solar trough. However, the dynamic behavior of fluid based on direct steam generation is complex because of the two-phase flow in the pipeline. In this work, a nonlinear distribution parameter model has been developed to model the dynamic behaviors of direct steam generation parabolic trough collector loops under either full or partial solar irradiance disturbance. Compared with available dynamic model, the proposed model possesses two advantages: (1) real-time local values of heat transfer coefficient and friction resistance coefficient, and (2) considering of the complete loop of collectors, including subcooled water region, two-phase flow region and superheated steam region. The proposed model has shown superior performance, particularly in case of sensitivity study of fluid parameters when the pipe is partially shaded. The proposed model has been validated using experimental data from Solar Thermal Energy Laboratory of University of New South Wales, with an outlet fluid temperature relative error of only 1.91%. The validation results show that: (1) The proposed model successfully outperforms two reference models in predicting the behavior of direct steam generation solar trough. (2) The model theoretically predicts that, during solar irradiance disturbance, the discontinuities of fluid physical property parameters and the moving back and

  11. A modelling study of the post-sunset formation of plasma temperature troughs in the equatorial topside ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.J.; Moffett, R.J.; Simmons, P.A.; Footitt, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of model calculations are used to study the post-sunset development of plasma temperature troughs along tubes of plasma at equatorial latitudes. The calculations show that for about 90 minutes after sunset the ion field-aligned velocities are directed poleward in both hemispheres even though the meridional neutral air wind blows from the summer hemisphere to the winter hemisphere. After about 90 minutes the ion field-aligned velocities become directed from the summer hemisphere to the winter hemisphere in both hemispheres. As time advances plasma temperature troughs are formed along the tubes of plasma. Initially the plasma temperature troughs increase in depth, but because in the calculations the tubes of plasma are taken to be moving towards the Earth, the plasma temperature troughs then decrease in depth. At sunspot maximum the plasma temperature troughs are deep and narrow in dip latitude; at sunspot minimum they are shallow and wide. It is shown that the ion field-aligned velocities and the depth of the plasma temperature troughs are extremely sensitive to the neutral atomic hydrogen concentration, especially when the topside ionosphere is dominated by O + . Indications are that the MSIS-83 sunspot maximum concentrations of neutral atomic hydrogen in the topside ionosphere at equatorial latitudes are too low by a factor of about 2. The neutral atomic hydrogen concentration determines whether the transequatorial O + flow is a subsonic ''breeze'' or a supersonic ''wind''

  12. Exploring Unconventional Hydrocarbons in the Makó Trough, Pannonian basin, Hungary: Results and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Anita; Bada, Gabor; Szafian, Peter; Sztano, Orsolya; Law, Ben; Wallis, Rod

    2010-05-01

    The latest phase exploration in the Makó Trough, which commenced a few years ago, has focused on the utilization of unconventional hydrocarbons. Accumulations are regarded as "unconventional" when they cannot be produced economically except by means of some sort of stimulation, usually hydraulic fracturing. The model we have developed for the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential indicates a significant gas accumulation in the area of the Makó Trough. The tally of the distinctive attributes of the hydrocarbon system and the combined analysis of the available geological data led to the conclusion that the Makó Trough represents an area of active basin-centered gas accumulation (BCGA), with very significant perspective reserves. In a BCGA, hydrocarbons do not accumulate conventionally, in structural or stratigraphic traps, but rather in cells. Due to the geological setting of the Makó Trough, the hydrocarbon cell here forms a relatively continuous zone marked by considerable internal lithological and petrophysical variability. The most prolific parts, called sweet spots, possess a reservoir potential higher than the average. The identification of these sweet spots constitutes one of the most important, and quite possibly the most challenging task of the entire exploration project. The hemipelagic Endrőd Formation, which acts as the source rock, contains organic-rich marls in a depth delimited by the 170-230 °C isotherms. These marls constitute the still active hydrocarbon "kitchen" of the BCGA in the Makó Trough. The top and bottom boundaries of the cell essentially coincide with the turbidites of the Szolnok Formation and the top of the pre-Neogene basement, respectively. In light of the fact that pressure, temperature, and maturity tests have produced rather similar results in a number of wells in the area, we have reason to believe that the extension of the Makó Trough's BCGA is of regional dimensions (>1000 km2). The thickness and lateral extension of

  13. Metastable He (n=2) - Ne potential interaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, H.

    1983-10-01

    Diabatic potential terms corresponding to He (2 1 S)-Ne and He (2 3 S)-Ne interactions are calculated. These potentials reproduce the experimental results thermal metastable atom elastic scattering on Ne target. A model which reduces the interaction to a one-electron problem is proposed: the He excited electron. Its interaction with the He + center is reproduced by a ''l'' dependent potential model with a 1/2 behaviour at short range. The electron interaction facing the Ne is described by a l-dependent pseudopotential reproducing with accuracy the electron elastic scattering on a Ne atom. The importance of the corrective term related to the Ne polarizations by the electron and the He + ion is showed in this work. In the modelling problems, the accuracy cannot be better than 0.1 MeV [fr

  14. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  15. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  16. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  17. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  18. Study of 19F and 19Ne mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the mirror nuclei 19 F and 19 Ne were studied using the 18 O(d,nγ) 19 F, 17 O( 3 He,nγ) 19 Ne and 19 F(p,nγ) 19 Ne reactions. Lifetimes of 8 levels in 19 F and 11 levels in 19 Ne have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. Weak and strong components of M 1 , E 1 and E 2 transition strengths are compared with shell model predictions. M 1 and E 2 transition strengths of conjugated nuclei (A=18 to A=34) are compiled and compared with wide configuration space shell models [fr

  19. The state of the NeXus data format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange format for neutron, muon and X-ray scattering. NeXus has six levels: a physical file format, a file structure, rules for storing individual data items in a file, a dictionary of names, instrument definitions and an application programming interface (API) to NeXus files. The authors will present the large steps forward which have been made both with instrument definitions and the NeXus-API

  20. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/L Associated With Increased Attainment of an AUC/MIC ≥ 400 in Patients With Presumed MRSA Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Cory M; Seabury, Robert W; Steele, Jeffrey M; Darko, William; Miller, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there is an association between higher vancomycin trough concentrations and attainment of a calculated area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥400. A retrospective analysis was conducted among vancomycin-treated adult patients with a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) culture. Attainment of a calculated AUC/MIC ≥400 was compared between patients with troughs in the reference range of 15 to 20 mg/L and those with troughs in the following ranges: 20 mg/L. Nephrotoxicity was assessed as a secondary outcome based on corrected average vancomycin troughs over 10 days of treatment. Overall, 226 patients were reviewed and 100 included. Relative to troughs ≥10, patients with vancomycin troughs AUC/MIC ≥400 (odds ratio [OR] 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.75). No difference was found in the attainment of an AUC/MIC ≥400 in patients with troughs of 10 to 14.9 mg/L and >20 mg/L when compared to patients with troughs of 15 to 20 mg/L. The mean corrected average vancomycin trough was higher in patients developing nephrotoxicity compared to those who did not (19.5 vs 14.5 mg/L, P AUC/MIC target relative to troughs of 10 to 14.9 mg/L but may increase nephrotoxicity risk.

  1. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.

    1974-01-01

    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  2. A New Model of Lithosphere Deformation Beneath the Okinawa Trough Based on Gravity Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lihong; JIANG Xiaodian; ZHANG Weigang

    2002-01-01

    The Ryukyu trench-arc system can be divided into two types according to its subduction model. The normal sub-duction in the northern part of the Philippine Sea plate creates a hinge sedimentary wedge with large deformation at the col-lision front, while the oblique subduction in the southern part gives rise to a smaller accretion with small deformation thanthat in the northern part. The mechanisms that cause the distinction between these two types have been analysed and calcu-lated by using gravity data based on the lithosphere rheology and the stress state of the lithosphere in the subduction bound-ary. The two types of subduction model are associated with the internal extension in the southern Okinawa Trough and thesmall extension in the northern part. The difference of the stress state between the two types of subduction model is alsomanifested in other tectonic features, such as topography, volcanic activity and crust movement. Modeling bathymetric andgravity data from this area suggests that the oblique subduction of low angle, together with smooth geometry of the overlyingplate crust, results in small stress released on the south of the trench by the subduction plate. The intraplate faults in thesouthern Okinawa Trough behind the trench stand in surplus intensive stress. On the other hand, the normal subduction ofhigh angle, together with strong undulation geometry of the overlying crust, results in more intensive stress released in thenorthern Ryukyu Trench than that in the south. The intraplate faults in the northern Okinawa Trough behind the northernRyukyu Trench stand in small stress.

  3. LCOE reduction potential of parabolic trough and solar tower CSP technology until 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Hennecke, Klaus; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), with an installed capacity of 4.9 GW by 2015, is a young technology compared to other renewable power generation technologies. A limited number of plants and installed capacity in a small challenging market environment make reliable and transparent cost data for CSP difficult to obtain. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the DLR German Aerospace Center gathered and evaluated available cost data from various sources for this publication in order to yield transparent, reliable and up-to-date cost data for a set of reference parabolic trough and solar tower plants in the year 2015 [1]. Each component of the power plant is analyzed for future technical innovations and cost reduction potential based on current R&D activities, ongoing commercial developments and growth in market scale. The derived levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 2015 and 2025 are finally contrasted with published power purchase agreements (PPA) of the NOOR II+III power plants in Morocco. At 7.5% weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and 25 years economic life time, the levelized costs of electricity for plants with 7.5 (trough) respectively 9 (tower) full-load hours thermal storage capacity decrease from 14-15 -ct/kWh today to 9-10 -ct/kWh by 2025 for both technologies at direct normal irradiation of 2500 kWh/(m².a). The capacity factor increases from 41.1% to 44.6% for troughs and from 45.5% to 49.0% for towers. Financing conditions are a major cost driver and offer potential for further cost reduction with the maturity of the technology and low interest rates (6-7 - ct/kWh for 2% WACC at 2500 kWh/(m2.a) in 2025).

  4. Thermal and chemical variations of the Nigerian Benue trough lead-zinc-barite-fluorite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundipe, Ibukun Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    The Benue trough is an intra-continental rift initiated in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lead-zinc-barite-fluorite mineralization occurs along the 600 km axis of the trough in three discrete sub-basins which coincide with the lower, middle and upper mineral districts of the Benue Valley. Lithologically these sub-basins are dominated by black carbonaceous shale in the Lower Benue, platform carbonates in the Middle Benue and sandstones in the Upper Benue. Micro-thermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in sphalerite, fluorite, barite and quartz have shown that each mineral district has its own unique thermal and chemical imprint. For example, the temperature can be bracketed between 109 °C and 160 °C for lower Benue, 89 °C-144 °C for the Middle Benue and 176 °C-254 °C for the Upper Benue. Chemical differentiation also exists between each mineral district with the Lower Benue having 22 wt % equivalent NaCl while the Middle and Upper Benue have 18 and 16 wt % equivalent NaCl respectively. This study shows that inter-district thermal and chemical variations exist between the ore-stage sulfide and post-sulfide gangue minerals of the entire Benue Valley. Similarly, intra-district thermal and chemical variations have also been observed among all the paragenetic minerals of each district. The thermal variations may be as a result of variations in the geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting from one district to the other. The variations in the chemistry between the Lower Benue and the Upper Benue paragenic minerals may be as a result of the distinct lithological differences across the Benue Trough.

  5. Towards to Resilience Science -Research on the Nankai trough seismogenic zone-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Fujisawa, Kazuhito; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    For the last few decades, many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis occurred in the world. Based on lessons learnt from 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis, 2010 Chilean Earthquake/Tsunami and 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami, we recognized the importance of real time monitoring on Earthquakes and Tsunamis for disaster mitigation. Recently, Kumamoto Earthquake occurred in 2006. This destructive Earthquake indicated that multi strong motions including pre shock and main shock generated severe earthquake damages buildings. Furthermore, we recognize recovers/ revivals are very important and difficult. In Tohoku area damaged by large tsunamis, recovers/revivals have been under progressing after over 5 years passed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Therefore, we have to prepare the pre plan before next destructive disasters such as the Nankai trough mega thrust earthquake. As one of disaster countermeasures, we would like to propose that Disaster Mitigation Science. This disaster mitigation science is including engineering, science, medicine and social science such as sociology, informatics, law, literature, art, psychology etc. For Urgent evacuations, there are some kinds of real time monitoring system such as Dart buoy and ocean floor network. Especially, the real time monitoring system using multi kinds of sensors such as the accelerometer, broadband seismometer, pressure gauge, difference pressure gauge, hydrophone and thermometer is indispensable for Earthquakes/ Tsunamis monitoring. Furthermore, using multi kind of sensors, we can analyze and estimate broadband crustal activities around mega thrust earthquake seismogenic zones. Therefore, we deployed DONET1 and DONET2 which are dense ocean floor networks around the Nankai trough Southwestern Japan. We will explain about Resilience Science and real time monitoring systems around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone.

  6. Experimental test of a novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongfei; Tao Tao; Ma Ming; Kang Huifang; Su Yuehong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We made a prototype novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating. ► Circular and rectangular types of receiver were chosen for air heating in the test. ► The changes of instantaneous system efficiency with different air flow were obtained. ► The system has the advantage of high collection temperature, which can be over 140 °C. ► The average efficiency can exceed 45% at the outlet temperature of above 60 °C. - Abstract: This study presents the experimental test of a novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating. Three receivers of different air flow channels are individually combined with the solar concentrator. The air outlet temperature and solar irradiance were recorded for different air flow rates under the real weather condition and used to determine the collection efficiency and time constant of the air heater system. The characteristics of the solar air heater with different airflow channels are compared, and the variation of the daily efficiency with the normalized temperature change is also presented. The testing results indicates that the highest temperature of the air heater with a circular glass receiver can be over 140 °C. When the collection temperature is around 60 °C, the collection efficiency can be over 45%. For the rectangular receivers, the system also has a considerable daily efficiency at a larger air flow rate. The air heater based on the novel trough solar concentrator would be suitable for space heating and drying applications.

  7. Multi-Scale Peak and Trough Detection Optimised for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Neuroscience Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven M; Ercole, Ari

    2018-01-01

    The reliable detection of peaks and troughs in physiological signals is essential to many investigative techniques in medicine and computational biology. Analysis of the intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform is a particular challenge due to multi-scale features, a changing morphology over time and signal-to-noise limitations. Here we present an efficient peak and trough detection algorithm that extends the scalogram approach of Scholkmann et al., and results in greatly improved algorithm runtime performance. Our improved algorithm (modified Scholkmann) was developed and analysed in MATLAB R2015b. Synthesised waveforms (periodic, quasi-periodic and chirp sinusoids) were degraded with white Gaussian noise to achieve signal-to-noise ratios down to 5 dB and were used to compare the performance of the original Scholkmann and modified Scholkmann algorithms. The modified Scholkmann algorithm has false-positive (0%) and false-negative (0%) detection rates identical to the original Scholkmann when applied to our test suite. Actual compute time for a 200-run Monte Carlo simulation over a multicomponent noisy test signal was 40.96 ± 0.020 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the original Scholkmann and 1.81 ± 0.003 s (mean ± 95%CI) for the modified Scholkmann, demonstrating the expected improvement in runtime complexity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. The accurate interpretation of waveform data to identify peaks and troughs is crucial in signal parameterisation, feature extraction and waveform identification tasks. Modification of a standard scalogram technique has produced a robust algorithm with linear computational complexity that is particularly suited to the challenges presented by large, noisy physiological datasets. The algorithm is optimised through a single parameter and can identify sub-waveform features with minimal additional overhead, and is easily adapted to run in real time on commodity hardware.

  8. DAΦNE magnet power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Stecchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The e + -e - , 1020 MeV at center of mass, Particle Accelerator Complex DAΦNE, consists of a linear accelerator (Linac), a damping ring (D.A.), nearly 180 m of transfer lines (T.L.) and two storage rings (S.R.), that intersect each other in two points (I.P.), for Φ particle production. The D.A., T.L. and S.R. magnets are powered by means of 462 power supplies, rating from 100 W to 1 MW. The very different output currents, from 10 A to 2300 A, and output voltages, from 8 V to 1300 V, imposed many different technical solution realized by the world industry. This paper describes the Power Supply System giving also a description of the different typologies, their characteristics and control systems. The paper reports also the power supply performances and gives information on their installation and first year operation period

  9. KN scattering at DA{Phi}NE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, A

    1995-06-01

    Existing measurements of the KN and K-bar N scattering lengths suffer from large uncertainties, particularly in the I=0 channel. The low energy kaons from {phi} decay available at DA{Phi}NE can be used to improve this situation. Three experimental approaches are discussed: a solid hydrogen target and silicon colorimeter surrounding the collision point. This would also use the magnet and tracking detectors of the FINUDA experiment; a hydrogen TPC is proposed as an active target in the magnetic field of the FINUDA magnet; the FINUDA detector with a CH{sub 2} target could be used to measure an important cross-section. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Martin Szekely : ne plus dessiner

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Ce livret, publié à l’issue d’une exposition éponyme au Centre Pompidou en 2011-12, présente, sous la conduite de Françoise Guichon les « recherches » et les « projets industriels » du designer qui en 1996 avait déclaré « ne plus dessiner ». Un texte de Philippe-Alain Michaud explicite en deuxième partie de l’opuscule la rencontre de Martin Szekely avec l’artiste Mark Lewis qui réalisa un film à partir du miroir Soleil noir (2007) installé dans les salles de peinture hollandaise de la Nationa...

  11. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  12. Prospecting for a Blind Geothermal System Utilizing Geologic and Geophysical Data, Seven Troughs Range, Northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Corina

    To aid in the discovery and evaluation of blind resources, it is important to utilize geologic, geophysical, and geochemical techniques to find the required elements (e.g., heat source, fluid to transport the heat, and permeability in a reservoir) for geothermal energy production. Based on a regional low resistivity anomaly discovered through a reconnaissance magnetotelluric (MT) survey, detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and a 2 m temperature survey were conducted to delineate the most likely areas for blind geothermal activity in the Seven Troughs Range, Nevada. The Seven Troughs Range resides in the northwestern Basin and Range province 190 km northeast of Reno and 50 km northwest of Lovelock in western Nevada. There is no known geothermal system in the area. Mesozoic metasedimentary strata and intrusions dominate the northern and southern parts of the range but are nonconformably overlain by a thick sequence (~ 1.5 km) of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and Quaternary sediments in the central part of the range. The southern part of the range consists of a basement horst block bounded by two major range-front faults, with Holocene fault scarps marking the more prominent fault on the east side of the range. In contrast, several gently to moderately west-tilted fault blocks, with good exposures of the Tertiary volcanic strata and bounded by a series of steeply east-dipping normal faults, characterize the central part of the range. Kinematic analysis of faults in the range and regional relations indicate a west-northwest-trending extension direction. Accordingly, slip and dilation tendency analyses suggest that north-northeast striking faults are the most favorably oriented for reactivation and fluid flow under the current stress field. Two areas in the Seven Troughs Range have a favorable structural setting for generating permeability and channeling geothermal fluids to the near surface: 1) A major right step in the range

  13. Nonimaging secondary concentrators for large rim angle parabolic troughs with tubular absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H; Spirkl, W

    1996-05-01

    For parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers, we design new tailored secondary concentrators. The design is applicable for any rim angle of a parabolic reflector. With the secondary, the concentration can be increased by a factor of more than 2 with a compact secondary reflector consisting of a single piece, even for the important case of a rim angle of 90 deg. The parabolic reflector can be used without changes; the reduced absorber is still tubular but smaller than the original absorber and slightly displaced toward the primary.

  14. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.

    2009-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  15. Object-oriented simulation model of a parabolic trough solar collector: Static and dynamic validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubieta, Eduardo; Hoyo, Itzal del; Valenzuela, Loreto; Lopez-Martín, Rafael; Peña, Víctor de la; López, Susana

    2017-06-01

    A simulation model of a parabolic-trough solar collector developed in Modelica® language is calibrated and validated. The calibration is performed in order to approximate the behavior of the solar collector model to a real one due to the uncertainty in some of the system parameters, i.e. measured data is used during the calibration process. Afterwards, the validation of this calibrated model is done. During the validation, the results obtained from the model are compared to the ones obtained during real operation in a collector from the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA).

  16. Manic-Like Psychosis Associated with Elevated Trough Tacrolimus Blood Concentrations 17 Years after Kidney Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bersani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several neurological side effects induced by tacrolimus are described in the scientific literature, ranging from mild neurological symptoms to delirium and psychosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history who suddenly manifested manic-like psychosis associated with elevated trough tacrolimus blood concentrations 17 years after kidney transplant. The use of antipsychotics may improve the severity of symptoms; but in order to obtain a complete remission, the reduction in the dose of tacrolimus, or its replacement with alternative immunosuppressant therapies, is recommended.

  17. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  18. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, U.F.

    2009-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a cubic-kilometre scale neutrino telescope and nodes for associated sciences such as marine biology, oceanology and geophysics. The status of the KM3NeT project and the progress made in the EU-funded Design Study is reviewed. Some physics studies indicating the sensitivity of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope are highlighted and selected major technical design options to be further pursued are described. Finally, the remaining steps towards construction of KM3NeT will be discussed. This document reflects the status of the KM3NeT Conceptual Design Report (CDR), which has been presented to the public for the first time at the VLVnT08 Workshop.

  20. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704 749, 0.705 062, 0.708 771, 0.704 840 and 0.720 301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORB and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORB magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  1. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪伟; 陈志华; 杜德文; 吴金龙

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704749, 0.705062, 0.708771, 0.704840 and 0.720301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORE and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORE magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  2. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Bahaidarah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  3. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  4. Geophysical identification and geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  5. Paleoenvironmental informa-tion recorded by pollen in B-3GC gravity core in Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on pollen records in B-3GC gravity core, environmental change since 9500 aBP of Okinawa Trough and its adjacent islands was derived. The result showed that the most time during this period was in a warm temperate climate except in middle Holocene (6800-4400 aBP) that was under subtropical climate control. During 9500-8300 aBP and 3100-2000 aBP periods, it appeared colder and drier than the rest time. The original area of pollen sources surrounding Okinawa Trough was covered by evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest alternatively with mixed broad-leaf-conifer forest distributed in high mountainous areas. Usually, these three kinds of forests existed at the same time with difference in altitude. Pollen from subtropical and tropical plants increased obviously in about 5000-6000 aBP, reflecting a great lifting of vegetation zone and expansion of evergreen broad-leaf forest in the study area. However, there was a slight descending of plant zone and shrinking of evergreen broadleaf forest during 9500-8300 aBP and 3000-2000 aBP. During the remaining periods vegetation zone was higher than the present but in a limited range.

  6. The paleoclimatic events and cause in the Okinawa Trough during 50 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal d18O record for core DGKS9603 from the Okinawa Trough shows a series of climatic fluctuations and sudden cooling events in short time scale during 50 kaBP, which appear to correlate closely to the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events H1-5 recorded in Chine-se loess, the South China Sea, the North Atlantic cores and the Greenland ice cores. Three polarity reversal events, cor-relating to Gothenburg, Mungo and Laschamp events, ap-proximately correspond to Heinrich events H1, H3 and H5 respectively, which could be a cause of global climate changes. The d18O curve of the Okinawa Trough is well asso-ciated with the grain size record of the Lijiayuan loess profile in northwestern China and is somewhat different from the climate fluctuations documented in the Greenland ice cores. These correlation results indicate that regional factors play an important role in controlling the climate changes in the East Asia, and the East Asian Monsoon could be the promi-nent regional controlling factor.

  7. Isotopic Characteristics and Age Dating of the Pumice in Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽蓉; 翟世奎; 申顺喜

    1994-01-01

    The data on the isotope compositions of rubidium,strontium and oxygen in the pumice ofOkinawa Trough are reported for the first time.The ages of the pumice were successfully dated with themethod of U-series disequilibrium.Then,the material source,crystallization evolution of magma and activi-ty cycles of volcanos are explored.Isotopic data show that pumice magma was originally from the mantle,but had undergone a full crystal-lization differentiation and had been contaminated to a fair extent by crust-derived materials before the mag-ma was erupted out of the sea floor.According to the dating results available so far,the earliest volcaniceruption in Okinawa Trough occurred about 70,000 a ago and the latest eruption was about 10,000 a B.P.During this period,there were three volcanic eruption cycles which were respectively corresponding to themiddle Late Pleistocene,the late Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC. The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  9. Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.

  10. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  11. A review of Andasol 3 and perspective for parabolic trough CSP plants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinter, Frank; Möller, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Andasol 3 is a 50 MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant with thermal energy storage in Andalusia, southern Spain. Having started operating in 2011 as one of the first plants of its kind in Spain it has been followed by more than 50 in the country since. For the reason that CSP plants with storage have the potential to compete against fossil fuel fired plants much better than any other renewable energy source a long-term review of such a plant operating on a commercial scale is needed. With data at hand documenting Andasol 3's operation over the course of one year between July 2013 and June 2014 we intend to provide such a review. We calculated the plants overall efficiency, its capacity factor, the gross energy generation as well as auxiliary powers on a monthly basis to reflect upon its overall performance. It was also looked at the benefits caused by the thermal energy storage and especially how steadily and reliably the plant was able to operate. With basic background information about physical, geographical and meteorological aspects influencing the solar resource, its variation and a CSP plant's performance a qualitative estimation for a parabolic trough plant located in South Africa was made.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a new design of temperature controlled parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, İlhan; Ergun, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This new design parabolic trough collector has been made as temperature control. • The TCPTC system is very appropriate for the industrial systems which require high temperatures. • With TCPTC can provide hot water with low solar radiation. • TCPTC system costs are cheaper than other systems (thermo siphon systems, pomp systems, etc.). - Abstract: Numerous types of solar water heater are used throughout the world. These heaters can be classified into two groups as pumped systems and thermo siphon systems. However, water temperature cannot be controlled by these systems. In this study, a new temperature-controlled parabolic trough collector (TCPTC) was designed and analyzed experimentally. The analysis was made at a temperature range of 40–100 °C, with at intervals of 10 °C. A detailed analysis was performed by calculating energy efficiencies, exergy efficiencies, water temperatures and water amounts. The highest energy efficiency of TCPTC was calculated as 61.2 for 100 °C. As the set temperature increased, the energy efficiency increased as well. The highest exergy efficiency was calculated as 63 for 70 °C. However, as the set temperature increased, the exergy efficiency did not increase. Optimum exergy efficiency was obtained for 70 °C

  13. Impact of pressure losses in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors for direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobón, David H.; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2013-01-01

    Using PTC (parabolic-trough solar collectors) for industrial thermal processes in the temperature range up to 300 °C is not new, but in recent years there is a boosted interest in this type of concentrating solar technology. One of the problems that arise when designing PTC solar fields is how to deal with the pressure losses which are critical when producing saturated steam directly in the collectors. Depending on the characteristics of the collector, mainly on the receiver diameter, and on the nominal process conditions defined, a solar field configuration can be feasible or not. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis done using a software tool developed to study the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of PTC systems using water-steam as heat transfer fluid. In the case study presented, a small-sized PTC designed for industrial process heat applications is considered, which has a focal length of 0.2 m, an aperture area of 2 m 2 , and its receiver pipe has an inner diameter of 15 mm. Varied process conditions are inlet water pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate, solar irradiance and incidence angle of solar radiation. Results show that working pressure definition is particularly critical to make feasible or not the direct steam generation in solar collectors. - Highlights: • DSG (Direct steam generation) in small-sized parabolic-trough collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic sensitivity analysis. • Influence of working pressure and receiver geometry in DSG process

  14. Tsunami Scenarios Based on Interseismic Models Along the Nankai Trough, Japan, From Seafloor and Onshore Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego; Tadokoro, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    The recent availability of Global Positioning System-Acoustic seafloor geodetic observations enables us to resolve the spatial distribution of the slip deficit rate near the Nankai trough, southwestern Japan. Considering a tectonic block model and the transient deformation due to the major earthquakes in this area, the slip deficit rate between the two relevant blocks can be estimated. In this study, we remove the time-dependent postseismic deformation of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4), which had led to the underestimation of the slip deficit rate in earlier studies. We model the postearthquake viscoelastic relaxation using the 3D finite element model with bi-viscous Burgers rheology, as well as the afterslip on the finite faults. The corrected Global Positioning System-Acoustic and land-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems data are aligned to the existing tectonic model and used to estimate the slip deficit rate on the plate boundary. We then calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation with the simple assumption that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation was released instantaneously. To evaluate the influence of uncertainties in the plate interface geometry on a tsunami model for the Nankai trough, we investigated two different geometries and performed checkerboard inversion simulations. Although the two models indicate roughly similar results, the peak height of the tsunami wave and its arrival time at several points are significantly different in terms of the expected hazard.

  15. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  16. Trough and pot crop systems with leaching recirculation and defoliation levels for mini tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Perin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of raw rice husk as substrate allows the use of crop systems that promote the recirculation of leachate in long crop cycles. Mini tomatoes present relatively low demand for photoassimilates. Thus, partial defoliation of the sympodium could benefit the crop without damage to the production or quality of the fruits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the plant growth, fruit yield and fruit quality of Cherry Hybrid Wanda and Grape Hybrid Dolcetto mini tomatoes cultivated in two recirculation crop systems (pots and troughs, using raw rice husk as substrate, under three defoliation conditions (without defoliation, removal of one and two leaves of the sympodium. The Cherry cultivar showed higher plant growth, fruit yield and mean fruit size. The Grape cultivar produced fruits with higher sugar concentration. For the Grape cultivar, the removal of one sympodium leaf did not affect the plant responses. However, for the Cherry cultivar, it was necessary to maintain the complete sympodium. The trough cultivation system improved plant growth and yield, whereas the pot system increased fruit sugar concentration.

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC) employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC). The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed. PMID:28347112

  18. Organic geochemical characterization of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the upper Benue Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Pearson, M. J.; Suh, C. E.; Dada, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria is the northeastern most portion of the Benue rift structure that extends from the northern limit of the Niger Delta in the south to the southern limit of the Chad basin int he northeast. this portion of the trough is made up of two arms: the Gongola Arm and the Yola Arm. Stratigraphic sequence in the Gongola Arm comprises the continental Albian Bima Sandstone, the transitional Cenomanian Yolde Formation and the marine Turonian - Santonian Gongila, Pindiga, and Fika Formations. Overlying these are the continental Campane - Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone and the Tertiary Kerri - Kerri Formation. In the Yola Arm, the Turonian - Santonian sequence is replaced by the equally marine Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye Formations, Numanha Shale, and the Lamja Sandstone. Organic geochemical studies have been carried on outcrop sample form the Gongila, Pindiga, Dukul Formations, the Fika shale and the shaly units of the Gombe Sandstone, with the aim of assessing their source rock potential. Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (C - MS), and Rock Eval Pyrolysis were the major organic geochemical tools employed. Biomaker hydrocarbon signatures obtained from the GC - MS and the Rock Eval Pyrolysis results indicate that all he formations studied, except the Dukul formation, are immature and are all lean in organic matter

  19. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  20. Shifting sources and transport paths for the late Quaternary Escanaba Trough sediment fill (northeast Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffa, G.G.; De Rosa, R.; Normark, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Escanaba Trough, which forms the southernmost part of the axial valley of the actively spreading Gorda Ridge, is filled with several hundred meters of sediment of presumed late Quaternary age. Surficial sediment samples from gravity cores, deeper samples (as much as 390 m) from Site 35 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (Leg 5), and the acoustic character of the sediment fill observed on seismic-reflection profiles indicate that much of the sediment fill is of turbidite origin. Gross composition and heavy- mineral analyses of sand samples show that two distinct petrofacies comprise the sediment fill. The lower part of the fill was derived primarily from the Klamath River source of northern California while the younger fill, including the surficial sand beds, are from the Columbia River drainage much farther north. The Escanaba Trough sediment provides an opportunity to evaluate concepts for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions that are based on facies analysis and compositional and textural data for the volcanic components because both intrabasinal and extrabasinal sources are present as well as coeval (neovolcanic) and non coeval (paleovolcanic) sourcre This study of a modern basin shows, that although the sediment sources could be identified, it was useful to have some knowledge of the sediment pathway(s), the effects of diagenesis, and the possible effects of sediment sorting as a result of long transport distances from the source area for some components. Application of these same techniques to ancient deposits without benefit of the additional parameters will face limitations.

  1. NanTroSEIZE: The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Tobin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE will, for the fi rst time ever, attempt to drill into, sample, and instrument the seismogenic portion of a plate-boundary fault or megathrust within a subduction zone. Access to the interior of active faults where in situ processes can be monitored and fresh fault zone materials can be sampled is of fundamental importance to the understanding of earthquake mechanics. As the December 2004 Sumatraearthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami so tragically demonstrated,large subduction earthquakes represent one of the greatest natural hazards on the planet. Accordingly, drilling into and instrumenting an active interplate seismogenic zone is a very high priority in the IODP Initial Science Plan (2001. Through a decade-long series of national and international workshops, a consensus emerged that the Nankai Trough is an ideal place to attempt drilling and monitoring of the seismogenic plate interface. The fi rst phase of NanTroSEIZE drilling operations has now been scheduled for the late summer of 2007. It involves parallel deployment of both the new U.S. Scientifi c Ocean Drilling Vessel (SODV, this volume and the riser drilling vessel Chikyu.

  2. Oscillatory behaviour of Rydberg state total cross sections in the collisions Ne+-He and He+-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Ne + -He and He + -Ne collisions have been studied by means of optical spectrometry in the projectile energy range 10-150 keV. Very similar and regular oscillations in the Rydberg state total cross sections are found for HeI in both collisions and for singlet as well as triplet excitation. These oscillations are well described by the Rosenthal model. The HeI 4d sup(1,3)D states display two superimposed oscillations for center-of-mass collision energies above 6.4 keV. This is interpreted as the opening of a third exit channel, believed to be the HeI 4f sup(1,3)F. No, or very little structure is found in the Rydberg state total cross sections for HeII, NeI, NeII and NeIII levels. (Auth.)

  3. Glass inclusions in volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin: constraints on magma genesis and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major elemnt compositions of glass inclusions in plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts of basalt and pumice in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin are determined by electron microprobe. The results indicate that basalt and pumice are cognate and respectively represent the proluots at early stages of mgmtism and at late stage of crystal fractionation. The initial magrma in the trough is rich in H2O. The variation of H2O content in magma may play an important role in the magma evolution. Plagioclase is the mineral crystallized throughout the whole magrmatic process and accumulates in the zoned magma chamber. From these features it can he inferred that the initial magma in the Okinawa Trough, whose opening began in recent years, is serious ly affected by fluid or other materials carried by subducting slab and the geocbemical feature of volcanic rocks is in some degree similar to that of lavas in island-arc environments.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Sun, Xiaoxi; Liu, Ning; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-05-01

    With the advantages of high treatment capacity and low operational cost, large-scale trough composting has become one of the mainstream composting patterns in composting plants in China. This study measured concentrations of O 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and NH 3 on-site to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that the temperature in the center of the pile was obviously higher than that in the side of the pile. Pore O 2 concentration rapidly decreased and maintained composting process during large-scale trough composting when the pile was naturally aerated, which will contribute to improving the current undesirable atmosphere environment in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional circulation around Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, central Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Esmee M.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Ronai, Belinda M.; Williams, Guy D.

    2010-05-01

    The fine-scale circulation around the Heard and McDonald Islands and through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau, is described using data from three high-resolution CTD sections, Argo floats and satellite maps of chlorophyll a, sea surface temperature (SST) and absolute sea surface height (SSH). We confirm that the Polar Front (PF) is split into two branches over the Kerguelen Plateau, with the NPF crossing the north-eastern limits of our survey carrying 25 Sv to the southeast. The SPF was associated with a strong eastward-flowing jet carrying 12 Sv of baroclinic transport through the deepest part of Fawn Trough (relative to the bottom). As the section was terminated midway through the trough this estimate is very likely to be a lower bound for the total transport. We demonstrate that the SPF contributes to the Fawn Trough Current identified by previous studies. After exiting the Fawn Trough, the SPF crossed Chun Spur and continued as a strong north-westward flowing jet along the eastern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau before turning offshore between 50°S and 51.5°S. Measured bottom water temperatures suggest a deep water connection between the northern and southern parts of the eastern Kerguelen Plateau indicating that the deep western boundary current continues at least as far north as 50.5°S. Analysis of satellite altimetry derived SSH streamlines demonstrates a southward shift of both the northern and southern branches of the Polar Front from 1994 to 2004. In the direct vicinity of the Heard and McDonald islands, cool waters of southern origin flow along the Heard Island slope and through the Eastern Trough bringing cold Winter Water (WW) onto the plateau. Complex topography funnels flow through canyons, deepens the mixed layer and increases productivity, resulting in this area being the preferred foraging region for a number of satellite-tracked land-based predators.

  6. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  7. Chemical composition of hydrothermal ores from Mid-Okinawa trough and Suiyo Seamount determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Takuroh; Taira, Naoto; Oomori, Tamotsu; Taira, Hatsuo; Tanahara, Akira; Takada, Jitsuya

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of 13 hydrothermal ore samples (70 subsamples) collected from the Mid-Okinawa Trough and Suiyo Seamount revealed higher contents of precious metal such as Au and Ag, and those of As, Sb, Ga, and Hg than those from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Mid-Okinawa Trough samples were richer in Ag and Sb than those from the Suiyo Seamount. The geochemical differences among these hydrothermal ore deposits are regarded as reflecting both differences in the chemical composition of the hosted magma of hydrothermal system and the abundance of sediments that is reacted with hydrothermal fluids. (author)

  8. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of volcanic rocks from the northern East China Sea shelf margin and the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; YU Shaoxiong; WANG Xiaoyuan; FU Yongtao; YIN Xuebo; ZHANG Guoliang; WANG Xiaomei; CHEN Shuai

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks both from the northern East China Sea (NECS) shelf margin and the northern Okinawa Trough are subalkaline less aluminous,and lower in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE).These rocks are higher in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE),thorium and uranium contents,positive lead anomalies,negative Nb-Ta anomalies,and enrichment in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE).Basalts from the NECS shelf margin are akin to Indian Ocean Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB),and rhyolites from the northern Okinawa Trough have the highest 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios.The NECS shelf margin basalts have lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios,εNd and σ18O than the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks.According to 40K-40Ar isotopic ages of basalts from the NECS shelf margin,rifting of the Okinawa Trough may have been active since at least 3.65-3.86 Ma.The origin of the NECS shelf margin basalt can be explained by the interaction of melt derived from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with enriched subcontinental lithosphere.The basalts from both sides of the Okinawa Trough may have a similar origin during the initial rifting of the Okinawa Trough,and the formation of basaltic magmas closely relates to the thinning of continental crust.The source of the formation of the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks was different from that of the middle Okinawa Trough,which could have been generated by the interaction of basaltic melt with an enriched crustal component.From the Ryukyu island arc to East China,the Cenozoic basalts have apparently increasing trends of MgO contents and ratios of LREE to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE),suggesting that the trace element variabilities of basalts may have been influenced by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate,and that the effects of subduction of the Philippine Sea plate on the chemical composition of basaltic melts have had a decreasing effect from the Ryukyu island arc to East China.

  9. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  10. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Y.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Bertulani, C.A.; Borge, M.J.G.; Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Chartier, M.; Taylor, J.; Chulkov, L.V.; Egorova, I.A.; Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C.; Forssen, C.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Tengborn, E.; Zhukov, M.V.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.; Riisager, K.; Grigorenko, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Karakoc, M.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.; Parfenova, Y.L.; Paschalis, S.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500 MeV/u 17 Ne beams on a carbon target at the R 3 B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15 O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17 Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16 F momentum distribution resulted in an s 2 contribution in the 17 Ne ground state of about 40 %. (authors)

  11. Depositional evolution of the Melville Bay trough-mouth fan, NW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik

    2015-04-01

    The continental margin of NW Greenland bordering northern Baffin Bay is characterized by major sediment accumulations, known as Trough-Mouth Fans (TMF). The fan depocentres represent intense sediment dispersal at the terminus of ice streams that during cold climate periods provided major drainage routes of the northern Greenland Ice Sheet into Baffin Bay. The imprint of paleo-icestreams is seen by erosional troughs crossing a >250 km broad shelf region, which caps a series of sedimentary basins containing thick Mesozoic-Tertiary strata packages. This presentation provides an overview of the seismic stratigraphic division, depositional architecture and examples of seismic facies of the Melville Bay TMF using a 5-10 km grid of industry-quality 2D seismic data (TGS). The focus will primarily be on the inception and early stage of glacial fan development. Comparing the present-day topography with the regional geology shows that the paleo-icestreams exploited the Cenozoic infill of former rift basins that are more conducive to erosion than the adjoining ridges and structural highs. The TMF sequence is constructed by a series of progradational seismic units that represent successive steps in location of ice stream terminus and associated depocenters. The slope fronts of the prograding units show abundant signatures of sediment instability and mass-wasting but evidence of along-slope current-driven processes is also recognized presumably linked to interglacial sea level high-stands. The topset of each unit is characterized by planar erosion that merges landward into hummocky positive geometries with low internal reflectivity. These features are generally interpreted as subglacial landforms, e.g. terminal moraines and ice-contact deposits, associated with grounding zone wedges. Unlike the most recent TMF units deposited in front of the present trough, the oldest glacigenic units have built out from a Neogene sediment prism that forms the core of modern shallow-water banks

  12. Petrology of the axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc spreading center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.; Lonsdale, P.F.; Macdougall, J.D.; Volpe, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc basin, between 17deg40'N and 18deg30'N rises as much as 1 km above the floor of a 10-15 km wide rift valley. Physiographic segmentation, with minor ridge offsets and overlaps, coincides with a petrologic segmentation seen in trace element and isotope chemistry. Analyses of 239 glass and 40 aphyric basalt samples, collected with ALVIN and by dredging, show that the axial ridge is formed largely of (olivine) hypersthene-normative tholeiitic basalt. About half of these are enriched in both LIL elements and volatiles, but are depleted in HFS elements like other rocks found throughout much of the Mariana Trough. The LIL enrichments distinguish these rocks from N-MORB even though Nd and Sr isotope ratios indicate that much of the crust formed from a source similar to that for N-MORB. In addition to LIL-enriched basalt there is LIL depleted basalts even more closely resembling N-MORB in major and trace elements as well as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. Both basalt varieties have higher Al and lower total Fe than MORB at equivalent Mg level. Mg ranges from relatively ''primitive'' (e.g. Mg 65-70) to more highly fractionated (e.g. Mg 45-50). Highest parts of the axial ridge are capped by pinnacles with elongated pillows of basaltic andesite (e.g. 52-56%) SiO 2 . These are due to extreme fractional crystallization of basalts forming the axial ridge. Active hydrothermal vents with chimneys and mats of opaline silica, barite, sphalerite and lesser amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena formed near these silicic rocks. The vents are surrounded by distinctive vent animals, polychaete worms, crabs and barnacles. Isotope data indicate that the Mariana Trough crust was derived from a heterogeneous source including mantle resembling the MORB-source and an ''arc-source'' component. The latter was depleted in HFS elements in previous melting events and later modified by addition of H 2 O and LIL elements. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of three optical models and analysis of geometric parameters for parabolic trough solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Hongbo; You, Shijun; Zhang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    A PTC (parabolic trough solar collector) focuses direct solar radiation reflected by the reflector onto a receiver located on its focal line. The solar flux distribution on the absorber is non-uniform generally, thus it needs to carry out optical simulation to analyze the concentrated flux density and optical performance. In this paper, three different optical models based on ray tracing for a PTC were proposed and compared in detail. They were proved to be feasible and reliable in comparison with other literature. Model 1 was based on MCM (Monte Carlo Method). Model 2 initialized photon distribution with FVM (Finite Volume Method), and calculated reflection, transmission, and absorption by means of MCM. Model 3 utilized FVM to determine ray positions initially, while it changed the photon energy by multiplying reflectivity, transmissivity and absorptivity. The runtime and computation effort of Model 3 were approximately 40% and 60% of that of Model 1 in the present work. Moreover, the simulation result of Model 3 was not affected by the algorithm for generating random numbers, however, it needed to take account of suitable grid configurations for different sections of the system. Additionally, effects of varying the geometric parameters for a PTC on optical efficiency were estimated. Effect of offsetting the absorber in width direction of aperture was greater than that in its normal direction at the same offset distance, which was more obvious with offset distance increasing. Furthermore, absorber offset at the opposite direction of tracking error was beneficial for improving optical performance. The larger rim angle (≤90°) was, the less sensitive optical efficiency was to tracking error for the same aperture width of a PTC. In contrast, a larger aperture width was more sensitive to tracking error for a certain rim angle. - Highlights: • Three different optical models for parabolic trough solar collectors were derived. • Their running time, computation

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  15. Parameiosis in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (METSH.) Sorokin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagagli, E.; Valadares, M.C.C.; Azevedo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the parasexual cycle, especially in relation to diploid instability, have been described in several fungal species. The process has been designated parameiosis; it is characterized by the emergence, from heterokaryons, of haploid and diploid recombinants, as well as the typical diploids normally recovered in a parasexual cycle. In the present work the occurrence of a similar process in Metarhizium anisopliae has been investigated. Conidia from heterokaryons formed between well-marked mutant strains, when plated onto appropriate selective media, resulted in the recovery of at least three main groups of colonies. The first group consisted of very unstable diploids or hyperhaploids; these, on plating of their conidia, produced several types of recombinant haploids. The second group consisted of already stable haploid recombinants formed by the breakdown of diploid heterozygous nuclei before conidial formation; and a third group, heterokaryotic colonies, which segregate only parental types. Parameiosis has been found in several Deuteromycetes and may play an important role in increasing genetic variability in these fungi. (author)

  16. Linnadisaini lõpp(eesmärgid) / Michael Sorokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sorokin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Autori arvates on linnadisain (urban design) jõudnud tupikusse. Ta on järjest vähem võimeline leidma leidlikke lahendusi linnade ja linnakodanike morfoloogilistele, funktsionaalsetele ja inimlikele vajadustele. Samal ajal kui ülesanded muutuvad keerukamaks ja pakilisemaks, on eriala peavoolustunud, muutudes potensiaalselt laiast ja lootusrikkast kontseptuaalsest kategooriast järjest enam paindumatuks, piiravaks ja igavaks vanade tavade järgimiseks

  17. Influence of the monsoon trough on air-sea interaction in the head of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon of 1990 (monsoon trough boundary layer experiment - 90)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Seetaramayya, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.

    programme reveals considerable temporal variability in sea-level pressure, sea-surface temperature (SST) and the fluxes of heat and momentum at the air-sea interface. This variability is related closely to the north-south movement of the monsoon trough...

  18. Structure of the San Andreas Fault Zone in the Salton Trough Region of Southern California: A Comparison with San Andreas Fault Structure in the Loma Prieta Area of Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Catchings, R.; Scheirer, D. S.; Goldman, M.; Zhang, E.; Bauer, K.

    2016-12-01

    The San Andreas fault (SAF) in the northern Salton Trough, or Coachella Valley, in southern California, appears non-vertical and non-planar. In cross section, it consists of a steeply dipping segment (75 deg dip NE) from the surface to 6- to 9-km depth, and a moderately dipping segment below 6- to 9-km depth (50-55 deg dip NE). It also appears to branch upward into a flower-like structure beginning below about 10-km depth. Images of the SAF zone in the Coachella Valley have been obtained from analysis of steep reflections, earthquakes, modeling of potential-field data, and P-wave tomography. Review of seismological and geodetic research on the 1989 M 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, in central California (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1550), shows several features of SAF zone structure similar to those seen in the northern Salton Trough. Aftershocks in the Loma Prieta epicentral area form two chief clusters, a tabular zone extending from 18- to 9-km depth and a complex cluster above 5-km depth. The deeper cluster has been interpreted to surround the chief rupture plane, which dips 65-70 deg SW. When double-difference earthquake locations are plotted, the shallower cluster contains tabular subclusters that appear to connect the main rupture with the surface traces of the Sargent and Berrocal faults. In addition, a diffuse cluster may surround a steep to vertical fault connecting the main rupture to the surface trace of the SAF. These interpreted fault connections from the main rupture to surface fault traces appear to define a flower-like structure, not unlike that seen above the moderately dipping segment of the SAF in the Coachella Valley. But importantly, the SAF, interpreted here to include the main rupture plane, appears segmented, as in the Coachella Valley, with a moderately dipping segment below 9-km depth and a steep to vertical segment above that depth. We hope to clarify fault-zone structure in the Loma Prieta area by reanalyzing active

  19. Study of a new solar adsorption refrigerator powered by a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fadar, A.; Mimet, A.; Azzabakh, A.; Perez-Garcia, M.; Castaing, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the study of solar adsorption cooling machine, where the reactor is heated by a parabolic trough collector (PTC) and is coupled with a heat pipe (HP). This reactor contains a porous medium constituted of activated carbon, reacting by adsorption with ammonia. We have developed a model, based on the equilibrium equations of the refrigerant, adsorption isotherms, heat and mass transfer within the adsorbent bed and energy balance in the hybrid system components. From real climatic data, the model computes the performances of the machine. In comparison with other systems powered by flat plate or evacuated tube collectors, the predicted results, have illustrated the ability of the proposed system to achieve a high performance due to high efficiency of PTC, and high flux density of heat pipe

  20. Fat transposition with a single subdermal stitch for the treatment of deep tear trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel, Ramón; Hristodulopulos, Vanessa; Vásquez, LuzMaría

    2014-12-01

    To describe a fixation technique of the medial and central fat pads in the subperiosteal pocket for transconjunctival fat transposition, using a single subdermal, non-removable, non-absorbable stitch. Retrospective study of 19 patients with bilateral deep tear through treated by means of transconjunctival fat transposition. Charts and photographic records were reviewed. Photographical and clinical improvement of the deep tear through and fat prolapse was observed in all patients in variable degrees. There were no intraoperative complications. Significant periocular hematoma occurred in 1 patient and solved without complications. Two patients presented transitory fat pedicle hardening and one patient presented a conjunctival inferior fornix granuloma, surgically removed. All patients were satisfied. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat transposition with single subdermal stitch to fix the medial and central fat pads, for the treatment of deep tear trough and fat prolapse demonstrated high patient satisfaction, good aesthetic results with no significant or permanent complications.

  1. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  2. Economic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    -water mixture evaporates and condenses with a temperature glide, thus providing a better match with the heat source/sink temperature profile. This better match results in reduced thermal irreversibility, but at the cost of relatively larger heat exchanger areas. The parabolic trough collector is the most mature...... heat transfer correlations, and appropriate cost functions were used to estimate the costs for the various plant components. The optimal capital investment costs were determined for several values of the turbine inlet ammonia mass fraction and among the compared cases, the Kalina cycle has the minimum......The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as a replacement for the more traditional steam Rankine cycle for geothermal, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion and waste heat recovery applications. The Kalina cycle uses a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid. The ammonia...

  3. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  4. Evidence for chaotic fault interactions in the seismicity of the San Andreas fault and Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Turcotte, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamical behavior introduced by fault interactions is examined here using a simple spring-loaded, slider-block model with velocity-weakening friction. The model consists of two slider blocks coupled to each other and to a constant-velocity driver by elastic springs. For an asymmetric system in which the frictional forces on the two blocks are not equal, the solutions exhibit chaotic behavior. The system's behavior over a range of parameter values seems to be generally analogous to that of weakly coupled segments of an active fault. Similarities between the model simulations and observed patterns of seismicity on the south central San Andreas fault in California and in the Nankai trough along the coast of southwestern Japan.

  5. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  6. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  7. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  8. Complementarity and completed trials: reforming the Ne bis in idem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper is concerned with the question whether article 20(3) of the Rome Statute is ... Rome Statute, Ne bis in idem, double jeopardy, International Criminal Court ...

  9. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  10. An air-based corrugated cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Roman; Pedretti, Andrea; Barbato, Maurizio; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze a novel tubular cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough collectors. • Four-fold solar concentration ratio is reached compared to conventional receivers. • Efficient operation at up to 500 °C is possible. • The pumping power requirement is found to be acceptably low. - Abstract: A tubular cavity-receiver that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is evaluated numerically using a validated heat transfer model. The receiver is designed for use on a large-span (9 m net concentrator aperture width) solar parabolic trough concentrator. Through the combination of a parabolic primary concentrator with a nonimaging secondary concentrator, the collector reaches a solar concentration ratio of 97.5. Four different receiver configurations are considered, with smooth or V-corrugated absorber tube and single- or double-glazed aperture window. The collector’s performance is characterized by its optical efficiency and heat loss. The optical efficiency is determined with the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Radiative heat exchange inside the receiver is calculated with the net radiation method. The 2D steady-state energy equation, which couples conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer, is solved for the solid domains of the receiver cross-section, using finite-volume techniques. Simulations for Sevilla/Spain at the summer solstice at solar noon (direct normal solar irradiance: 847 W m −2 , solar incidence angle: 13.9°) yield collector efficiencies between 60% and 65% at a heat transfer fluid temperature of 125 °C and between 37% and 42% at 500 °C, depending on the receiver configuration. The optical losses amount to more than 30% of the incident solar radiation and constitute the largest source of energy loss. For a 200 m long collector module operated between 300 and 500 °C, the isentropic pumping power required to pump the HTF through the receiver is between 11 and 17 kW

  11. The Neo-Tectonic Structure of the South western Tip of the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Ku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the south western tip of the Okinawa Trough backarc basin, which prop a gates west ward into the Taiwan orogen. From three moderate earthquakes which occurred near the coast line of the Ilan Plain, one of magnitude 6.2 on 15 May 2002 and the other two of magnitudes 5.51 and 5.49 on 5 March 2005, we at tempted to understand the relation ship between the earthquake mechanisms and the geological context. Seven seismic reflection pro files collected roughly parallel to the coast line of the Ilan Plain were used in this work. A structural fault, with a significant normal faulting component trending approximately ENE-WSW, is identified to the east of the doublet earth quakes of 5 March 2005. Be cause this fault follows the ENE-WSW trend of the after shock seismicity, we named it the Ilan Shelf Fault, which might ex tend to the east be yond the Ilan continental shelf spur. How ever, the centroid seismic moment ten sorsolutions for the doublet earth quakes of 5 March 2005 are of a left-lateral strike-slip faulting type which are consistent with onland GPS observations. Hence, the Ilan Shelf Fault may have a left-lateral strike-slip component. Based on GPS data, we suggest that the northern Central Range block, bounded in the west by the Lishan Fault and in the north by the Ilan Shelf Fault, rotates clock wise. This rotation is ascribed to the northwestward collision of the Luzon Arc against Tai wan. Thus, there is a left-lateral strike-slip and an extensional motion along the Ilan Shelf Fault. The northern Central Range block is tilting north ward which may also in duce the normal faulting component of the Ilan Shelf Fault. In short, the Ilan Shelf Fault could be a major tectonic and structural feature bounding the southern end of the Okinawa Trough backarc basin.

  12. Field test of thermoelectric generator using parabolic trough solar concentrator for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, Rommel R.; Alagao, Feliciano B.

    2018-03-01

    A 2.4587 square meter effective area cylindrical parabolic solar concentrator was fabricated. The trough concentrator is a 4-ft by 8-ft metal sheet with solar mirror film adhered on it and it is laid on a frame with steel tubes bent in a shape of a parabola. On the focal region of the parabolic trough is the 1.22-m by 0.10-m absorber plate made of copper and coated flat black. This plate served as high temperature reservoir of the eight equally spaced TEC1-12710T125 thermoelectric modules. On the cold side of the modules is a 2.5-in. by 1-in. rectangular aluminum tube with coolant flowing inside. The coolant loop included a direct contact cooling tower which maintained the module cold side assembly inlet temperature of about 28°C. Collector temperature was also kept below the 125°C module maximum operating temperature by controlling the effective area. This was accomplished by adjusting the reflector covering. Using a dummy load and with 8 modules in series, tests results indicated current readings up to 179.4 mA with a voltage of 10.6 VDC and 27% of reflector area or voltage reading up to 12.7 VDC with a current of 165 mA. A steady voltage of 12 VDC was achieved with the use of a voltage regulator. A voltage above 12 VDC will be required to charge a storage battery. Overall results showed the potential of thermoelectric generator (TEG) in combination with solar energy in power generation.

  13. New Geological Evidence of Past Earthquakes and Tsunami Along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Batist, M. A. O.; Heyvaert, V.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fujiwara, O.; Shishikura, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Brückner, H.; Garrett, E.; Boes, E.; Lamair, L.; Nakamura, A.; Miyairi, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-12-01

    The east coast of Japan is prone to tsunamigenic megathrust earthquakes, as tragically demonstrated in 2011 by the Tōhoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) and tsunami. The Nankai Trough subduction zone, to the southwest of the area affected by the Tōhoku disaster and facing the densely populated and heavily industrialized southern coastline of central and west Japan, is expected to generate another megathrust earthquake and tsunami in the near future. This subduction zone is, however, segmented and appears to be characterized by a variable rupture mode, involving single- as well as multi-segment ruptures, which has immediate implications for their tsunamigenic potential, and also renders the collection of sufficiently long time records of past earthquakes and tsunami in this region fundamental for an adequate hazard and risk assessment. Over the past three decades, Japanese researchers have acquired a large amount of geological evidence of past earthquakes and tsunami, in many cases extending back in time for several thousands of years. This evidence includes uplifted marine terraces, turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Despite these efforts, current understanding of the behaviour of the subduction zone still remains limited, due to site-specific evidence creation and preservation thresholds and issues over alternative hypotheses for proposed palaeoseismic evidence and insufficiently precise chronological control. Within the QuakeRecNankai project we are generating a long and coherent time series of megathrust earthquake and tsunami recurrences along the Nankai Trough subduction zone by integrating all existing evidence with new geological records of paleo-tsunami in the Lake Hamana region and of paleo-earthquakes from selected lakes in the Mount Fuji area. We combine extensive fieldwork in coastal plain areas and lakes, with advanced sedimentological and geochemical analyses and innovative dating techniques.

  14. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ingalls, Jerrell [Desert Radiologists, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kenter, Keith [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  15. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant in the Middle East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen R. P.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East is one among the areas of the world that receive high amounts of direct solar radiation. As such, the region holds a promising potential to leverage clean energy. Owing to rapid urbanization, energy demands in the region are on the rise. Along with the global push to curb undesirable outcomes such as air pollution, emissions of greenhouse gases, and climate change, an urgent need has arisen to explore and exploit the abundant renewable energy sources. This paper presents the design, performance analysis and optimization of a 100 MWe parabolic trough collector Solar Power Plant with thermal energy storage intended for use in the Middle Eastern regions. Two representative sites in the Middle East which offer an annual average direct normal irradiance (DNI of more than 5.5 kWh/m2/day has been chosen for the analysis. The thermodynamic aspect and annual performance of the proposed plant design is also analyzed using the System Advisor Model (SAM version 2017.9.5. Based on the analysis carried out on the initial design, annual power generated from the proposed concentrating solar power (CSP plant design in Abu Dhabi amounts to 333.15 GWh whereas that in Aswan recorded a value of 369.26 GWh, with capacity factors of 38.1% and 42.19% respectively. The mean efficiency of the plants in Abu Dhabi and Aswan are found to be 14.35% and 14.98% respectively. The optimization of the initial plant design is also carried out by varying two main design parameters, namely the solar multiple and full load hours of thermal energy storage (TES. Based on the findings of the study, the proposed 100 MW parabolic trough collector solar power plant with thermal energy storage can contribute to the sustainable energy future of the Middle East with reduced dependency on fossil fuels.

  16. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  17. Theoretical investigation of solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.I.; El-Minshawy, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We evaluated the performance of sea water HDD system powered by solar PTC. → The proposed design to the expected desalination plant performance was introduced. → The collector thermal efficiency was a function of solar radiation value. → The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season. → The production time reaches 42% of the day time in the summer season. - Abstract: This paper deals with the status of solar energy as a clean and renewable energy applications in desalination. The object of this research is to theoretically investigate the principal operating parameters of a proposed desalination system based on air humidification-dehumidification principles. A parabolic trough solar collector is adapted to drive and optimize the considered desalination system. A test set-up of the desalination system was designed and a theoretical simulation model was constructed to evaluate the performance and productivity of the proposed solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system. The theoretical simulation model was developed in which the thermodynamic models of each component of the considered were set up respectively. The study showed that, parabolic trough solar collector is the suitable to drive the proposed desalination system. A comparison study had been presented to show the effect of the different parameters on the performance and the productivity of the system. The productivity of the proposed system showed also an increase with the increase of the day time till an optimum value and then decreased. The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season, when high direct solar radiation and long solar time are always expected. The production time reaches a maximum value in the summer season, which is 42% of the day.

  18. Salton Trough regional deformation estimated from combined trilateration and survey-mode GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Agnew, D.C.; Johnson, H.O.

    2003-01-01

    The Salton Trough in southeastern California, United States, has one of the highest seismicity and deformation rates in southern California, including 20 earthquakes M 6 or larger since 1892. From 1972 through 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured a 41-station trilateration network in this region. We remeasured 37 of the USGS baselines using survey-mode Global Positioning System methods from 1995 through 1999. We estimate the Salton Trough deformation field over a nearly 30-year period through combined analysis of baseline length time series from these two datasets. Our primary result is that strain accumulation has been steady over our observation span, at a resolution of about 0.05 ??strain/yr at 95% confidence, with no evidence for significant long-term strain transients despite the occurrence of seven large regional earthquakes during our observation period. Similar to earlier studies, we find that the regional strain field is consistent with 0.5 ?? 0.03 ??strain/yr total engineering shear strain along an axis oriented 311.6?? ?? 23?? east of north, approximately parallel to the strike of the major regional faults, the San Andreas and San Jacinto (all uncertainties in the text and tables are standard deviations unless otherwise noted). We also find that (1) the shear strain rate near the San Jacinto fault is at least as high as it is near the San Andreas fault, (2) the areal dilatation near the southeastern Salton Sea is significant, and (3) one station near the southeastern Salton Sea moved anomalously during the period 1987.95-1995.11.

  19. Effects of confinement on the Rydberg molecule NeH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Waz, D; Diercksen, G H F; Schreiner, E W S

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio potential energy curves of the Rydberg NeH molecule in the presence of cylindrical spatial confinement were computed by the method of multi-reference configuration interaction with extended basis sets. The influence of the applied potential to the structures and spectra of the ground and excited states of NeH was analysed in terms of perturbation theory. In addition, the phenomenon of field-induced ionization was discussed

  20. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  1. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-02-24

    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high-intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  2. Dermal fillers for the treatment of tear trough deformity: A review of anatomy, treatment techniques, and their outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishree Sharad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tear trough deformity is a major concern in a lot of individuals seeking periorbital rejuvenation. A prominent tear trough deformity is characterised by a sunken appearance of the eye that results in the casting of a dark shadow over the lower eyelid, giving the patient a fatigued appearance despite adequate rest, and is refractory to attempts at cosmetic concealment. The tear trough deformity is a natural consequence of the anatomic attachments of the periorbital tissues. A variety of techniques have evolved to address this cosmetic issue. Traditional techniques relied on surgical excision of skin, muscle, and fat as well as chemical peels. Treatment is now tailored towards specific anatomic abnormalities and often employs multiple modalities including surgery, botulinum toxin, and replacement of volume. Various original research articles, text book publications and review articles were studied. Data specific to the historical aspect and anatomy of tear trough have been enumerated. Techniques of different authors were analysed and their results and complications have been summarised. The technique of the author has also been described here.

  3. Detectability of Middle Mesial Root Canal Orifices by Troughing Technique in Mandibular Molars: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the orifice depth of middle mesial canals (MMCs) and evaluate the detectability of orifices using troughing preparation. For this study, 85 mandibular molar teeth with MMCs were selected from the scanned micro-computed tomographic images. The MMCs were categorized, and the distances between the MMC orifices and the cementoenamel junctions (CEJ) were recorded as the depth of the orifice. Data were evaluated with frequency analysis and a chi-square test using SPSS (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and the results indicated a 5% significance level. It was found that 77.41% of the MMC orifices were at the CEJ level, whereas 5.38% and 9.69% of the MMC orifices were detectable within 1-mm and 2-mm depths from the CEJ, respectively. Of the specimens, 7.52% had MMC orifices deeper than 2 mm from the CEJ. Confluent anatomy was the most frequent configuration. No significant relation was detected between the orifice depth and MMC configuration (P > .05). It was concluded that 77.41% of the specimens did not require troughing preparation, the remaining 15.07% would require troughing, and 7.52% could not be accessed even with the troughing preparation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of Thermal Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants; Period of Performance: September 13, 1999 - June 12, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington Solar International GmbH

    2000-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and selectively review previous work done on the evaluation and use of thermal energy storage systems applied to parabolic trough power plants. Appropriate storage concepts and technical options are first discussed, followed by a review of previous work.

  5. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  6. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed

  7. Comparison of electromagnetic and nuclear dissociation of 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lehr, C.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2018-03-01

    The Borromean drip-line nucleus 17Ne has been suggested to possess a two-proton halo structure in its ground state. In the astrophysical r p -process, where the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne plays an important role, the calculated reaction rate differs by several orders of magnitude between different theoretical approaches. To add to the understanding of the 17Ne structure we have studied nuclear and electromagnetic dissociation. A 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam was directed toward lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets. Oxygen isotopes in the final state were measured in coincidence with one or two protons. Different reaction branches in the dissociation of 17Ne were disentangled. The relative populations of s and d states in 16F were determined for light and heavy targets. The differential cross section for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) shows a continuous internal energy spectrum in the three-body system 15O+2 p . The 17Ne EMD data were compared to current theoretical models. None of them, however, yields satisfactory agreement with the experimental data presented here. These new data may facilitate future development of adequate models for description of the fragmentation process.

  8. Benthic foraminifera and bottom water evolution in the middle-southern Okinawa Trough during the last 18 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; XIANG Rong; SUN Rongtao; CAO Qiyuan

    2005-01-01

    A piston sediment core E017 from the middle-southern Okinawa Trough was investigated. A preliminary study of the deep-water evolution since 18 cal. ka BP was performed based on the quantitative census data of benthic foraminiferal fauna, together with planktonic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope, AMS14C dating, and the previous results achieved in the southern Okinawa Trough. The result shows that the benthic fauna was dominated by Bulimina aculeata (d'Orbigny), Uvigerina peregrina (Cushman), Hispid Uvigerina and Uvigerina dirupta (Todd) during the glaciation-deglaciation before 9.2 cal. ka BP, while Epistominella exigua (Brady), Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny), Cibicidoides hyalina (Hofker), Sphaeroidina bulloides (d'Orbigny) and Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady) predominated the fauna in the post-glacial period after 9.2 cal. ka BP. The benthic foraminifera accumulation rate (BFAR), paleoproductivity estimates and benthic foraminiferal assemblage conformably indicate that surface water paleoproductivity and organic matter flux during the glaciation-deglaciation were higher than those of the post-glacial period in the middle-southern Okinawa Trough, and gradually enhanced from the southern to the central Okinawa Trough during the glaciation-deglaciation, which could be caused by the discrepancy of the terrigenous nutrients supply. High abundances of E. exigua, an indicator of pulsed organic matter input, after 9.2 cal. ka BP may indicate that the intensity of seasonally riverine pulsed flux during the post-glacial period was stronger than that of the glaciation-deglaciation period, and the seasonal influx in the central trough might be stronger than in the south. The temporal distributions of the typical species indicating bottom water oxygen content and ventilation condition show that the ventilation of the bottom water during the post-glacial period is more active than the glaciation-deglaciation, which reflects that the evolution of the intermediate and

  9. Evaluating the Relationship between Vancomycin Trough Concentration and 24-Hour Area under the Concentration-Time Curve in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Hsuan; Lim, Chuan Poh; Chen, Qi; Tang, Cheng Cai; Kong, Sing Teang; Ho, Paul Chi-Lui

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially those involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommend the vancomycin 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to MIC ratio (AUC 24 /MIC) of >400 as the best predictor of successful treatment against MRSA infections when the MIC is ≤1 mg/liter. The relationship between steady-state vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC 24 values (mg·h/liter) has not been studied in an Asian neonatal population. We conducted a retrospective chart review in Singapore hospitals and collected patient characteristics and therapeutic drug monitoring data from neonates on vancomycin therapy over a 5-year period. A one-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was built from the collected data, internally validated, and then used to assess the relationship between steady-state trough concentrations and AUC 24 A Monte Carlo simulation sensitivity analysis was also conducted. A total of 76 neonates with 429 vancomycin concentrations were included for analysis. Median (interquartile range) was 30 weeks (28 to 36 weeks) for postmenstrual age (PMA) and 1,043 g (811 to 1,919 g) for weight at the initiation of treatment. Vancomycin clearance was predicted by weight, PMA, and serum creatinine. For MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC of ≤1, our major finding was that the minimum steady-state trough concentration range predictive of achieving an AUC 24 /MIC of >400 was 8 to 8.9 mg/liter. Steady-state troughs within 15 to 20 mg/liter are unlikely to be necessary to achieve an AUC 24 /MIC of >400, whereas troughs within 10 to 14.9 mg/liter may be more appropriate. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Comments on Auger electron production by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S V; Ferrante, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1979-09-01

    In this letter, the authors first report rather conclusive experimental evidence showing that the Ne Auger signal is due to asymmetric Ne-metal collisions and not symmetric Ne-Ne collisions. Next it is shown that the Ne Auger signal is in fact observable by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Si and with signal strength comparable to that of the Si Auger signal for 3 keV incident ion energy. Finally, they comment on some trends in the relative amplitudes of the 21.9 and 25.1 eV Ne Auger signals as a function of incident ion energy and target species.

  11. Sedimentological Properties of Natural Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sands in the Nankai Trough and Mallik Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Tsuji, T.; Waseda, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nankai Trough parallels the Japanese Island, where extensive BSRs have been interpreted from seismic reflection records. High resolution seismic surveys have definitely indicated gas hydrate distributions, and drilling the MITI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 and the METI Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada wells in 2004 have revealed subsurface gas hydrate in the eastern part of Nankai Trough. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that also clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. During the field operations, the LWD and wire-line well log data were continuously obtained and plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand cores were recovered. Subsequence sedimentological and geochemical analyses performed on those core samples revealed the crucial geologic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrate in sediments. Pore-space gas hydrates reside in sandy sediments mostly filling intergranular porosity. Pore waters chloride anomalies, core temperature depression and core observations on visible gas hydrates confirm the presence of pore-space gas hydrates within moderate to thick sandy layers, typically 10 cm to a meter thick. Sediment porosities and pore-size distributions were obtained by mercury porosimetry, which indicate that porosities of gas hydrate-bearing sandy strata are approximately 45 %. According to grain size distribution curves, gas hydrate is dominant in fine- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Gas hydrate saturations are typically up to 80 % in pore volume throughout most of the hydrate-dominant sandy layers, which are estimated by well log analyses as well as pore water chloride anomalies. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicated that highly saturated

  12. Topography and distribution of central graben in Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, X.; Qin, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Based on geophysical data obtained by R/V "Science 1¡± of Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) and R/V "Xiangyanghong 9¡± of State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in a 200 km long area of Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section recent years, we show the topography and distribution of central graben in great detail for the first time. Central graben within Miyoko Section is separated into 9 discontinuous segments by strike slip faults, from north to south namely Laoshan, Huangdao, Jiaonan, Jiaozhou, Pingdu, Jimo, Laixi, Chengyang and Licang Segment respectively, and shows a dextral echelon pattern in general. By cross shapes, three types of central graben can be distinguished, namely U type, V type and half graben. U type is the most common central graben among those found in our study area. The depth of central graben is from 40 m to 250 m, wide from 6 km to 14 km, length from 17 km to 33 km. The largest water depth of Miyoko Section is 2244.4 m, found at the east side of north end bottom of Chengyang Segment (125°19.3'E, 25°49.8'N). Within the dextral echelon pattern, Huangdao, Chengyang, Licang Segment moves to the west relatively to Laoshan, Laixi and Chengyang Segment respectively, showing a local sinistral echelon pattern. The striking direction of central graben is N60°E roughly, that is 15° more to the east comparing to the striking of the Okinawa Trough. There is 6 km long overlap distance between Laixi Segment and Chengyang Segments, simile with an overlap spreading center in the Mid-Ocean Ridge. Two volcanic chains, the central axis volcanic chain which located within the central graben and the island arc volcanic chain which located at the west side of Ryukyu Island Arc are clearly found in this section. The island volcanic chain has a good continuity, but the axis volcanic chain is sporadic comparatively. From seismic profile, we understand that the development of central axis volcanic chain is after the development of central graben

  13. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.

    2015-06-01

    A synthetic study was carried out based on sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and mineralogical data of the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian carbonate platform of the Preafrican Trough (eastern Morocco) in order to (1) propose a 3D representation of the platform and constrain the temporal framework of the dysoxic/anoxic episodes recorded during the OAE2, (2) define and discuss the prevailing climate on the platform during this period, and (3) make comparisons with other Cenomanian-Turonian platforms. During the late Cenomanian, both before and during the CCIE (Cenomanian Carbon Isotope Excursion), the platform displayed an east-west polarity. Three third-order sequences of transgression-regression can be defined. Dysoxic conditions were developed in the sediments and the bottom waters of the deepest environment (mid- to outer-ramp setting), in the western part of the platform. Well-oxygenated waters were present in the eastern part of the platform (peritidal zone to mid-ramp environment). The climate was arid before the CCIE, becoming warm with contrasted seasons during the CCIE. This climate is associated with a low palaeoproductivity over the entire platform, along with the presence of photozoan followed by heterozoan carbonate-producers, as found also in other parts of the Saharan platform. However, such conditions are not in accordance with many studies which suggest a wet climate during the CCIE, leading to intense chemical weathering of the continent favouring the appearance of high palaeoproductivity at a global scale and the establishment of dysoxic/anoxic conditions. In the Preafrican Trough, poorly-oxygenated waters spread outwards from the deep basins and covered the platform in response to sea-level rise. Many disturbances are recorded in the platform succession during the early Turonian, after the CCIE. Indeed, just after the C/T boundary, the development of an outer-ramp environment over the entire Preafrican Trough reflects flooding of

  14. Optimization, selection and feasibility study of solar parabolic trough power plants for Algerian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of solar resources in the absence of measured data. • Optimization of 2 PTSTPPs integrated with TES and FBS and using oil and salt as HTFs. • 4E comparative study of the two optimized plants alongside the Andasol 1 plant. • The salt plant resulting as the best one and has been chosen for the viability study. • Tamanrasset is the best location for construction of PTSTPPs. - Abstract: In the present study, optimization of two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants integrated with thermal energy storage (TES), and fuel backup system (FBS) has been performed. The first plant uses Therminol VP-1 as heat transfer fluid in the solar field and the second plant uses molten salt. The optimization is carried out with solar multiple (SM) and full load hours of TES as the parameters, with an objective of minimizing the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and maximizing the annual energy yield. A 4E (energy–exergy–environment–economic) comparison of the optimized plants alongside the Andasol 1 as reference plant is studied. The molten salt plant resulting as the best technology, from the optimization and 4E comparative study has been chosen for the viability analysis of ten locations in Algeria with semi-arid and arid climatic conditions. The results indicate that Andasol 1 reference plant has the highest mean annual energy efficiency (17.25%) and exergy efficiency (23.30%). Whereas, the highest capacity factor (54.60%) and power generation (236.90 GW h) are exhibited by the molten salt plant. The molten salt plant has least annual water usage of about 800,482 m 3 , but demands more land for the operation. Nevertheless the oil plant emits the lowest amount of CO 2 gas (less than 40.3 kilo tonnes). From the economic viewpoint, molten salt seems to be the best technology compared to other plants due to its lowest investment cost (less than 360 million dollars) and lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) (8.48 ¢/kW h). The

  15. Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Munoz, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar hybridization improves the performance of CCGT in a very hot and dry weather. → The scheme analyzed is a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the Rankine cycle. → An annual simulation has been carried out for two locations: Almeria and Las Vegas. → Economical analysis shows that this scheme is a cheaper way to exploit solar energy. → For that, solar hybridization must be limited to a small fraction of the CCGT power. - Abstract: The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant proposed consists of a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the bottoming steam cycle of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power plant. For this analysis, the solar thermal power plant performs in a solar dispatching mode: the gas turbine always operates at full load, only depending on ambient conditions, whereas the steam turbine is somewhat boosted to accommodate the thermal hybridization from the solar field. Although the analysis is aimed to studying such complementary effects in the widest perspective, two relevant examples are given, corresponding to two well-known sites: Almeria (Spain), with a mediterranean climate, and Las Vegas (USA), with a hot and dry climate. The annual simulations show that, although the conventional CCGT power plant works worse in Las Vegas, owing to the higher temperatures, the ISCC system operates better in Las Vegas than in Almeria, because of solar hybridization is especially well coupled to the CCGT power plant in the frequent days with great solar radiation and high temperatures in Las Vegas. The complementary effect will be clearly seen in these cases, because the thermal

  16. AUC versus peak-trough dosing of vancomycin: applying new pharmacokinetic paradigms to an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel L; Lalla, Christina D; Masselink, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    To compare and contrast the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic foundations of traditional "peak-trough" vancomycin dosing methods versus newer "area under the curve" (AUC) strategies. To propose a new AUC-based dosing chart for empirically determining an initial vancomycin dosing regimen designed to achieve a desired AUC24 using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and vancomycin clearance (ClVanco). Peak-trough vancomycin dosing is designed to achieve a Cpeak of 20-40 mg/L and a Ctrough of 10-15 or 15-20 mg/L, depending on the severity of the infection and the nature of the pathogen. New treatment guidelines for vancomycin suggest that therapy should achieve an AUC24/MIC of ≥400. AUC-based vancomycin dosing derives the daily dose from ClVanco, MIC, and the desired AUC24/MIC, without consideration of the patient's weight. A vancomycin dosing chart is proposed that estimates ClVanco using the following formula developed by Matzke et al: ClVanco in L/h = [(CrClmL/min × 0.689) + 3.66] × 0.06, which simplifies to (CrClmL/min × 0.41) + 0.22. Two levels of dosing are included-high dose (Ctrough: 15-20 mg/L) and moderate dose (Ctrough: 10-15 mg/L). Although the chart has not been validated clinically, it represents the product of standard dosing equations that are used to determine a starting dosing regimen based on well-established vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters. An understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, including the relevance of AUC in relation to MIC, enables clinicians to make the best use of vancomycin dosing options. The proposed dosing chart is pharmacokinetically valid but has yet to be applied clinically. It provides a foundation for further study of how clinicians can determine an optimal AUC-based starting vancomycin dosing regimen without having to derive ClVanco or AUC24.

  17. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  18. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  19. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  20. Tsunami Scenario in the Nankai Trough, Japan, Based on the GPS-A and GNSS Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Watanabe, S. I.; Melgar, D.; Tadokoro, K.

    2017-12-01

    We present two local tsunami scenarios for the Nankai trough, Japan, an area of significant seismic risk, using GPS-A and GNSS velocities and two different plate interface geometries to better assess the slip deficit rate. We expand on the work of Yokota et al. [2016, Nature] by: (1) Adding seafloor data collected by Nagoya University [Tadokoro et al., 2012 GRL] at the Kumano basin, (2) Aligning the geodetic data to the Nankai block (forearc sliver) to the tectonic model of Loveless and Meade [2010 JGR] - the earlier work ignored block boundaries such as the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and may have overestimated the slip deficit rate, (3) Considering two different plate interface geometries - it is essential to use the accurate depth of the plate interface, especially for the offshore region where the faults are located near the observation sites, (4) Estimating and correcting for the postseismic displacements of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4). Based upon the refined model, we calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation assuming that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation is released instantaneously. We used the open source software GeoClaw v5.3.1, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations with the finite volume technique [LeVeque, 2002 Cambridge University Press], for the local tsunami scenarios. We present the expected tsunami propagation models and wave profiles based on the geodetically-derived distribution of slip, stressing the importance of identifying fault locations and geometries. The location of the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture is essential to assess whether the coastal area would subside or not. The sensitivity to the plate interface geometries is increased in the near-trough region. From the point of view of disaster prevention, subsidence at the southern coast would heighten the tsunami runup distance (e.g., at gauges in Shimotsu and Irago). Further

  1. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  2. Flaking and blistering on He and Ne bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Naramoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    Large scale exfoliation formed by 300 keV He + bombardment of niobium without any preceding blistering is investigated, in comparison with the blistering due to 450 and 850 keV Ne + bombardments. In-situ observations of the erosion processes were performed in a scanning electron microscope connected to the Van de Graaff. Critical doses of 7.2 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 , 2.4 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 and 4.0 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 were obtained for the 300 keV He flaking, 450 keV Ne blistering and 850 keV Ne blistering, respectively. The He flaking was presumed to be due to brittle fashion peeling-off of the surface layer by the bending moment driven by the internal gas pressure. The blistering, on the other hand, was presumed to be the result of the ductile fashion spreading of the lenticular bubble in the sub-surface layer. The necessary pressure for the peeling-off of the cover was calculated, and was speculated to be able to work as the driving force for the flaking from its unexpectedly low values. Fractographies under the exfoliations were discussed for both flaking and blistering. (author)

  3. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  4. Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Masafumi Seki,1,* Kaori Yabuno,1,2,* Koji Miyawaki,1,2 Yoshihiro Miwa,2 Kazunori Tomono11Division of Infection Control and Prevention, 2Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.Method: A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1, 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2, and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3 of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28 with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27 of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively.Results: The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively. However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively.Conclusion: These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L. However, 15–20

  5. Withdrawal of immunomodulators after co-treatment does not reduce trough level of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, David; Bossuyt, Peter; Breynaert, Christine; Cattaert, Tom; Vande Casteele, Niels; Compernolle, Griet; Jürgens, Matthias; Ferrante, Marc; Ballet, Vera; Wollants, Willem-Jan; Cleynen, Isabelle; Van Steen, Kristel; Gils, Ann; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Severine; Van Assche, Gert

    2015-03-01

    The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated with immunomodulators. However, there are questions about the effect of withdrawing immunomodulator therapy from these patients. We studied the effects of treatment with infliximab and immunomodulators (co-treatment) and then immunomodulator withdrawal on long-term outcomes of patients, as well as trough levels of infliximab and formation of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI). In a retrospective study with the median follow-up period of 34 months (interquartile range, 19-58 months), we analyzed data from 223 patients treated for Crohn's disease between May 1999 and December 2010 at the University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (65 received infliximab monotherapy, 158 received infliximab and an immunomodulator). Trough levels of infliximab and levels of ATI were measured in blood samples collected from 117 patients throughout co-treatment, as well as the time of immunomodulator withdrawal and after withdrawal. Patients receiving co-treatment had higher trough levels of infliximab (adjusted mean increase, 1.44-fold) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .02). A smaller percentage of patients receiving co-treatment developed ATI (35 of 158, 22%) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (25 of 65, 38%; P = .01). Among co-treated patients, levels of infliximab remained stable after immunomodulators were withdrawn (before: 3.2 μg/mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8 μg/mL and after: 3.7 μg/mL; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3 μg/mL; P = .70). After withdrawal of immunomodulators, 45 of 117 patients (38%) required increasing doses of infliximab, and 21 of 117 (18%) discontinued infliximab. At the time of immunomodulator withdrawal, trough levels of infliximab and C-reactive protein were most strongly associated with response to infliximab thereafter. In a retrospective

  6. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  7. DSA lifetime measurements in 21Ne at high recoil velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Heidinger, F.; Kaendler, K.

    1977-01-01

    States in 21 Ne up to 5 MeV excitation energy have been populated using the inverted reaction 2 H( 20 Ne,pγ). The Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) analysis of the pγ coincidence spectra taken in a Ge(Li) detector at 45 0 and 135 0 and an annular silicon surface barrier detector near 0 0 yielded the lifetimes of 8 states in 21 Ne. Due to the large recoil of vi/c approximately equal to 4% three new lifetimes were determined for the short lived levels at 2.80, 4.68 and 4.73 MeV, namely 10 +- 4 fs, 16 +- 4 fs and 10 +- 4 fs, respectively. The results are compared with rotational and shell model calculations. (orig.) [de

  8. Enhanced diffusion of Zn in Al under Ne irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion rate of Zn in Al has been enhanced by factors approximately 10 2 --10 4 under 80 keV Ne irradiation at 130 0 C. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of Zn, and the concentration profiles were determined by ion backscattering. The data are analyzed by numerically solving the coupled diffusion equations for vacancies, interstitials and atoms, and by scaling the profiles of vacancy and interstitial production rates from the theoretical profile of Ne energy into atomic processes. The enhanced diffusion rate is linear in flux, indicating that the mobile point defects annihilate predominantly at fixed sinks. The average distance to annihilation is approximately 700 A, except for the first approximately 500 A of the solid where it is much less. Free vacancies and interstitials are found to be created by the Ne at a smaller rate than the atomic displacement rate, suggesting a high annihilation probability within the parent damage cascade

  9. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  10. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the φ meson produced at DAΦNE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DAΦNE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DAΦNE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors

  11. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  12. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  13. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  14. [Survival of VTEC O157 and non-O157 in water troughs and bovine feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L

    2014-01-01

    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Nagakubo, S.; Nakamizu, M.; Yokoi, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology and Research Center

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the methane hydrate (MH) in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan as a potential natural gas resource. The resource assessment of MH was determined from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) exploratory test wells Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) campaigns were launched at 16 sites, coring at 4 sites and wirelogging at 2 sites. This study used high resolution 2D/3D seismic data and introduced a new concept for the MH concentrated zone and applied it to resource assessment. MH bearing layers in the survey area were classified into 2 categories, notably MH concentrated zones and MH bearing layers other than relatively thin, low saturated MH layers. The total amount of methane gas in place was estimated to be 40 tcf as Pmean value (10 tcf as P90, 82 tcf as P10). More than 10 prospective MH concentrated zones were extracted. They were characterized by high resistivity well logs, strong seismic reflectors, high p-wave interval velocity and turbidite deposits delineated by sedimentary facies analysis. The total gas in place for MH concentrated zones was estimated to be 20 tcf (half of the total amount) as Pmean value. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the net-to-gross ratio and methane pore saturation have higher sensitivity than other parameters. As such, they are important for further detail analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Simulation of solar lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloumi, M.; Naghashzadegan, M.; Javaherdeh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N-S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m 2 , which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy

  17. Biomarkers, carbon isotopic composition and source rock potentials of Awgu coals, middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedosu, Taofik A.; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O.; Tuo, Jincai; Ekundayo, Olusegun

    2012-05-01

    Coal and carbonaceous shale samples were collected from two boreholes (BH 94 and BH 120) in Awgu formation of Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Source rock potentials of the samples were studied using biomarkers and carbon isotopic composition. Biomarkers in the aliphatic fractions in the samples were studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Carbon isotope analysis of individual n-alkanes in the aliphatic fraction was performed using Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GC-IRMS). The abundance of hopanes, homohopanes (C31-C35), and C29 steranes in the samples indicate terrestrial plant, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria contributions to the organic matter that formed the coal. High (Pr/Ph) ratio (3.04-11.07) and isotopic distribution of individual alkanes showed that the samples consisted of mixed terrestrial/marine organic matter deposited under oxic condition in lacustrine-fluvial/deltaic depositional environment. The maturity parameters derived from biomarker distributions showed that the samples are in the main phase of oil window.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Dual-axis Tracking System of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Fahim; Min, Kang

    2018-01-01

    A parabolic trough solar collector with the concentration ratio of 24 was developed in the College of Engineering; Nanjing Agricultural University, China with the using of the TracePro software an optical model built. Effects of single-axis and dual-axis tracking modes, azimuth and elevating angle tracking errors on the optical performance were investigated and the thermal performance of the solar collector was experimentally measured. The results showed that the optical efficiency of the dual-axis tracking was 0.813% and its year average value was 14.3% and 40.9% higher than that of the eat-west tracking mode and north-south tracking mode respectively. Further, form the results of the experiment, it was concluded that the optical efficiency was affected significantly by the elevation angle tracking errors which should be kept below 0.6o. High optical efficiency could be attained by using dual-tracking mode even though the tracking precision of one axis was degraded. The real-time instantaneous thermal efficiency of the collector reached to 0.775%. In addition, the linearity of the normalized efficiency was favorable. The curve of the calculated thermal efficiency agreed well with the normalized instantaneous efficiency curve derived from the experimental data and the maximum difference between them was 10.3%. This type of solar collector should be applied in middle-scale thermal collection systems.

  19. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  20. Distribution of dehalogenation activity in subseafloor sediments of the Nankai Trough subduction zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Kaksonen, Anna H; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-04-19

    Halogenated organic matter buried in marine subsurface sediment may serve as a source of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration of subseafloor microbes. Detection of a diverse array of reductive dehalogenase-homologous (rdhA) genes suggests that subseafloor organohalide-respiring microbial communities may play significant ecological roles in the biogeochemical carbon and halogen cycle in the subseafloor biosphere. We report here the spatial distribution of dehalogenation activity in the Nankai Trough plate-subduction zone of the northwest Pacific off the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incubation experiments with slurries of sediment collected at various depths and locations showed that degradation of several organohalides tested only occurred in the shallow sedimentary basin, down to 4.7 metres below the seafloor, despite detection of rdhA in the deeper sediments. We studied the phylogenetic diversity of the metabolically active microbes in positive enrichment cultures by extracting RNA, and found that Desulfuromonadales bacteria predominate. In addition, for the isolation of genes involved in the dehalogenation reaction, we performed a substrate-induced gene expression screening on DNA extracted from the enrichment cultures. Diverse DNA fragments were obtained and some of them showed best BLAST hit to known organohalide respirers such as Dehalococcoides, whereas no functionally known dehalogenation-related genes such as rdhA were found, indicating the need to improve the molecular approach to assess functional genes for organohalide respiration.

  1. Small-Sized Parabolic Trough Collector System for Solar Dehumidification Application: Design, Development, and Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadar Chaudhary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a numerical and real-time performance analysis of a parabolic trough collector (PTC system designed for solar air-conditioning applications. Initially, a thermodynamic model of PTC is developed using engineering equation solver (EES having a capacity of around 3 kW. Then, an experimental PTC system setup is established with a concentration ratio of 9.93 using evacuated tube receivers. The experimental study is conducted under the climate of Taxila, Pakistan in accordance with ASHRAE 93-1986 standard. Furthermore, PTC system is integrated with a solid desiccant dehumidifier (SDD to study the effect of various operating parameters such as direct solar radiation and inlet fluid temperature and its impact on dehumidification share. The experimental maximum temperature gain is around 5.2°C, with the peak efficiency of 62% on a sunny day. Similarly, maximum thermal energy gain on sunny and cloudy days is 3.07 kW and 2.33 kW, respectively. Afterwards, same comprehensive EES model of PTC with some modifications is used for annual transient analysis in TRNSYS for five different climates of Pakistan. Quetta revealed peak solar insolation of 656 W/m2 and peak thermal energy 1139 MJ with 46% efficiency. The comparison shows good agreement between simulated and experimental results with root mean square error of around 9%.

  2. Two-stage solar concentrators based on parabolic troughs: asymmetric versus symmetric designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Max; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-11-20

    While nonimaging concentrators can approach the thermodynamic limit of concentration, they generally suffer from poor compactness when designed for small acceptance angles, e.g., to capture direct solar irradiation. Symmetric two-stage systems utilizing an image-forming primary parabolic concentrator in tandem with a nonimaging secondary concentrator partially overcome this compactness problem, but their achievable concentration ratio is ultimately limited by the central obstruction caused by the secondary. Significant improvements can be realized by two-stage systems having asymmetric cross-sections, particularly for 2D line-focus trough designs. We therefore present a detailed analysis of two-stage line-focus asymmetric concentrators for flat receiver geometries and compare them to their symmetric counterparts. Exemplary designs are examined in terms of the key optical performance metrics, namely, geometric concentration ratio, acceptance angle, concentration-acceptance product, aspect ratio, active area fraction, and average number of reflections. Notably, we show that asymmetric designs can achieve significantly higher overall concentrations and are always more compact than symmetric systems designed for the same concentration ratio. Using this analysis as a basis, we develop novel asymmetric designs, including two-wing and nested configurations, which surpass the optical performance of two-mirror aplanats and are comparable with the best reported 2D simultaneous multiple surface designs for both hollow and dielectric-filled secondaries.

  3. Low-cost small scale parabolic trough collector design for manufacturing and deployment in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Matthew; Mathaha, Paul; Tsiu, Anadola; Taele, B. M.; Mabea, Lengeta; Ntee, Marcel; Khakanyo, Makoanyane; Teker, Tamer; Stephens, Jordan; Mueller, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power is expanding its deployment on the African subcontinent, highlighting the importance of efforts to indigenize manufacturing of this technology to increase local content and therefore local economic benefits of these projects. In this study a design for manufacturing (DFM) exercise was conducted to create a locally produced parabolic trough collector (the G4 PTC). All parts were sourced or fabricated at a production facility in Lesotho, and several examples of the design were prototyped and tested with collaborators in the Government of Lesotho's Appropriate Technology Services division and the National University of Lesotho. Optical and thermal performance was simulated and experimentally validated, and pedagogical pre-commercial versions of the PTC have been distributed to higher education partners in Lesotho and Europe. The cost to produce the PTC is 180 USD/m2 for a locally manufactured heat collection element (HCE) capable of sustaining 250C operation at ~65% efficiency. A version with an imported evacuated HCE can operate at 300°C with 70% efficiency. Economically relevant applications for this locally produced PTC include industrial process heat and distributed generation scenarios where cogeneration is required.

  4. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); McBride, Troy O. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Brambles, Oliver J. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Cashin, Emil A. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  5. Higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough predict greater attentional bias towards threat in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Izawa, Shuhei; Sato, Eisuke; Komi, Shotaro; Murayama, Norio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yusuke; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2013-11-01

    Attentional bias (AB), selective information processing towards threat, can exacerbate anxiety and depression. Despite growing interest, physiological determinants of AB are yet to be understood. We examined whether stress hormone cortisol and its diurnal variation pattern contribute to AB. Eighty-seven healthy young adults underwent assessments for AB, anxious personality traits, depressive symptoms, and attentional function. Salivary cortisol was collected at three time points daily (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime) for 2 consecutive days. We performed: (1) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between AB and the other measures and (2) analysis of variance (ANOVA) between groups with different cortisol variation patterns for the other measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime (pattention and cortisol measurement at three time points daily. We showed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime and blunted cortisol variation are associated with greater AB. Individuals who have higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough might be at risk of clinical anxiety or depression but could also derive more benefits from the attentional-bias-modification program. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Pyramid Trough Wetland: environmental and biological diversity in a newly created Antarctic protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Anne D; Wood, Susanna A; Hawes, Ian; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Harris, Colin

    2012-11-01

    The Pyramid Trough (Lat 78°S) has recently gained protection under the Antarctic Treaty system, owing to its wetland values. Here, we describe the microbial diversity of this system, with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and evaluate environment-biota relationships. Geochemistry separates ponds along hydrological gradients receiving recent inflows of dilute meltwater, from a second group that is rarely inundated and where chemistry is dominated by evaporation. Cyanobacteria-based microbial mats dominated the biota throughout. Mats were characterized by light-microscopy, pigment analysis, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. A total of 17 morphotypes and 21 ribotypes were identified, mostly Oscillatoriales and several taxa that are usually rare in continental Antarctica, including Chroococcales and scytomin-rich Calothrix/Dichothrix, were abundant. There was a general decline in cyanobacterial diversity with increasing conductivity, but weak support for either differences in community composition between the two groups of ponds or sorting of taxa along the hydrological gradients with the pond groups. This implies a broad environmental tolerance and a prevalence of neutral assembly mechanisms in cyanobacterial communities of Antarctic wetland ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The magma plumbing system in the Mariana Trough back-arc basin at 18° N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiqing; Zhao, Guangtao; Han, Zongzhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Min; Tian, Liyan; Liu, Bo; Bu, Xuejiao

    2018-04-01

    Mafic magmas are common in back-arc basin, once stalled in the crust, these magmas may undergo different evolution. In this paper, compositional and textural variations of plagioclase as well as mineral-melt geothermobarometry are presented for basalts erupted from the central Mariana Trough (CMT). These data reveal crystallization conditions and we attempt a reconstruction of the magma plumbing system of the CMT. Plagioclase megacrysts, phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, microlites, olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene have been recognized in basalt samples, using BSE images and compositional features. The last three minerals are homogeneous as microphenocrysts. Mineral-melt barometry indicates that plagioclase crystals crystallized and eventually grew into phenocrysts and megacrysts in mush zone with depth of 5-9 km, in which the normal zoning plagioclases crystallized in the interval of various batches of basic magma recharging. Plagioclase megacrysts and phenocrysts were dissolved and/or resorbed, when new basic magmas injected into the mush zone near Moho depth. It is inferred that magma extracted from the mush zone, and adiabatically ascended via different pathways. Some basaltic magmas underwent plagioclase and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts crystallization in low-pressure before eruption. Plagioclase microlites and outermost rims probably crystallized after eruption.

  8. The Characteristics of Fluid Potential in Mud Diapirs Associated with Gas Hydrates in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mud diapirs have been identified in the southern Okinawa Trough from a seismic survey using R/V KEXUE I in 2001. The movement and accumulation of free gas related to mud diapirs are discussed in detail by an analysis of fluid potential which is based upon velocity data. It can be found that free gas moves from the higher fluid potential strata to the lower ones and the gas hydrate comes into being during free gas movement meeting the proper criteria of temperature and pressure. In fact, gas hydrates have been found in the upper layers above the mud diapirs and in host rocks exhibiting other geophysical characteristics. As the result of the formation of the gas hydrate, the free gas bearing strata are enclosed by the gas hydrate bearing strata. Due to the high pressure anomalies of the free gas bearing strata the fluid potential increases noticeably. It can then be concluded that the high fluid potential anomaly on the low fluid potential background may be caused by the presence of the free gas below the gas hydrate bearing strata.

  9. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. A study of panoramic focal trough for the six-year-old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yeon; Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Lee, Sul Mi

    2004-01-01

    To make a focal trough (image layer) for an average maxillary dental arch of 6-year-old Korean in panoramic radiography. Phantom for the maxillary dental arch was designed using intercanine width, intermolar width, tooth size, and interdental spacing to record the data of 6-year-old child. The characteristics of pre-corrected panoramic machine (for adult) was evaluated using the phantom, resolution test pattern for margin of the image layer, and metal ball for the center of the image layer. Panoramic image layer of the child was developed by means of decreasing the speed of film-cassette and positioning the phantom backwards, and then the characteristics of post-corrected panoramic machine (for child) were reevaluated. At post-corrected panoramic image layer, beam projection angles at all interdental areas increased for about 2.6 - 3.8 .deg., the position of the image layer was shifted toward the rotation center for about 2.5 mm at the deciduous central incisior area. The width of image layer decreased at all areas. Increased beam projection angle will reduce the disadvantage of tooth overlap, and the same form between the center of the image layer and dental arch will improve image resolution.

  11. Permeability of sediment cores from methane hydrate deposit in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and absolute permeability are key parameters for gas production from methane-hydrate-bearing sandy sediments. Effective and/or absolute permeability have been measured using methane-hydrate-bearing sandy cores and clayey and silty cores recovered from Daini Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. Liquid-nitrogen-immersed cores were prepared by rapid depressurization of pressure cores recovered by a pressure coring system referred to as the Hybrid PCS. Cores were shaped cylindrically on a lathe with spraying of liquid nitrogen to prevent hydrate dissociation. Permeability was measured by a flooding test or a pressure relaxation method under near in-situ pressure and temperature conditions. Measured effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments is less than tens of md, which are order of magnitude less than absolute permeability. Absolute permeability of clayey cores is approximately tens of μd, which would perform a sealing function as cap rocks. Permeability reduction due to a swelling effect was observed for a silty core during flooding test of pure water mimicking hydrate-dissociation-water. Swelling effect may cause production formation damage especially at a later stage of gas production from methane hydrate deposits. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  12. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  13. Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Román

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, the climatic conditions of the city of Queretaro (Mexico are considered. Two periods were taken into account: from July 2006 to June 2007 and on 6 January 2011. The prototype, located at CICATA-IPN, Qro, was analyzed in two different scenarios i.e., with 100% of electricity and 100% of solar energy. The results showed that thermoeconomic costs for the heating process with electricity, inside the chamber, are less than those using solar heating. This may be ascribed to the high cost of the materials, fittings, and manufacturing of the solar equipment. Also, the influence of the mass flow, aperture area, length and diameter of the receiver of the solar prototype is a parameter for increasing the efficiency of the prototype in addition to the price of manufacturing. The optimum design parameters are: length is 3 to 5 m, mass flow rate is 0.03 kg/s, diameter of the receiver is around 10 to 30 mm and aperture area is 3 m2.

  14. Optimization of a Solar-Driven Trigeneration System with Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bellos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is powered by the rejected heat of the ORC. Toluene, n-octane, Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM and cyclohexane are the examined working fluids in the ORC. The use of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Syltherm 800 (base fluid is investigated in the solar field loop. The analysis is performed with Engineering Equation Solver (EES under steady state conditions in order to give the emphasis in the exergetic optimization of the system. Except for the different working fluid investigation, the system is optimized by examining three basic operating parameters in all the cases. The pressure in the turbine inlet, the temperature in the ORC condenser and the nanofluid concentration are the optimization variables. According to the final results, the combination of toluene in the ORC with the CuO nanofluid is the optimum choice. The global maximum exergetic efficiency is 24.66% with pressure ratio is equal to 0.7605, heat rejection temperature 113.7 °C and CuO concentration 4.35%.

  15. Control scheme for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs under recirculation operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, L.; Zarza, E. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, E-04120 Almeria (Spain); Camacho, E.F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Electricity production using solar thermal energy is one of the main research areas at present in the field of renewable energies, these systems being characterised by the need of reliable control systems aimed at maintaining desired operating conditions in the face of changes in solar radiation, which is the main source of energy. A new prototype of solar system with parabolic trough collectors was implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, South-East Spain) to investigate the direct steam generation process under real solar conditions in the parabolic solar collector field of a thermal power plant prototype. This paper presents details and some results of the application of a control scheme designed and tested for the recirculation operation mode, for which the main objective is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the outlet of the solar field, so that changes produced in the inlet water conditions and/or solar radiation will only affect the amount of steam produced by the solar field. The steam quality and consequently the nominal efficiency of the plant are thus maintained. (author)

  16. Cenomanian-Turanian anoxic event and potential petroleum source rocks of the Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, B.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal palaeoenviromental studies particularly planktonic/benthonic (p/b) ratio have been used to demarcate anoxic horizon within the Cenomanian-Turonian sequence of the Upper Benue trough. The foraminiferal faunal assemblages indicate a deep marine .anoxic I sequences. Geochemical analysis of organic matter yielded TOC values that are generally fair to moderate with average of 0.70,2.05 and 0.44% in Dukkul, Pindiga and Gongila Formations respectively. Hydrogen indices also indicate preponderance of gas -prone terrestrial type III organic matter. This seems to be inconsistent with anoxic/dysoxic environments in which organic matter is generally expected to be commonly more abundant, better preserved and more lipid rich. Therefore, it is suggested here that such a relatively deep marine anoxic environment was subsequently raised tectonically to very shallow levels (raised oxygen-minimum zone) where terrestrial organic matter were washed into the anoxic water. These terrestrial contributions diluted and downgraded the anoxic level such that TOCs are generally low to moderate and organic matter became generally of type III and IV

  17. Thermal Energy Recovery through Optimal Salt concentration in a Parabolic Trough Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsurn Rikesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Making a PVT system hybrid is to support the use of thermal and electrical energy simultaneously or independently, to control the thermal effect to improve electrical efficiency or vice-versa. This project makes use of the Parabolic Trough design with emphasis on making the system to be sustainable and also increasing the thermal efficiency of the system. Polystyrene and acrylic foam is utilized to maximize the heat retention capability of the system. To power, the pump that moves the heat transfer fluid (tested with salt water proportions within the copper tube, a set of solar PV panel is to support its power demand making it sustainable. The closed loop setup designed achieved an improved thermal efficiency level of 66.2%, which contributes to having a reliable heat energy source for applications such as hot showers. The novel setup design also makes use of PV cells to support other energy demands through power electronic control designs. Using a similar heat dissipation technique, a novel setup has been designed to improve the voltage supply by making use of liquid cooling and translucent glass PV panels. Cooling the PV panel restored up to 11.7% of its rated voltage supply. This is achieved by keeping the PV panels within its best thermal operating conditions using an energy efficient electronically controlled cooling system.

  18. Response to long-period seismic waves recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure sensor at IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Saffer, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Long term in situ monitoring of seismic activity, slow slip event, and pore fluid behavior around mega earthquake zone is important for understanding the processes of earthquake generation and strain accumulation. In order to characterize the response to long-period seismic waves, we compared waveforms and hydroseismograms recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure transducers, respectively, which were installed at IODP Site C0002 in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin. The borehole monitoring system sensor array at Site C0002 is designed to collect multiparameter observations covering a dynamic range of events, including local microearthquakes, low frequency earthquakes, and large-scale earthquakes similar to the Tonankai earthquake. The suite of sensors for the downhole portion of the observatory includes a broadband seismometer (CMG3TBD, Guralp Systems Ltd.) with sampling rate of 100Hz at the depth of 907mbsf, and four pressure ports connected to pressure gauges located at 948mbsf, 917mbsf, 766mbsf, and at the seafloor. The sampling rate of the data logger was set to 1Hz after successful connection to the DONET seafloor cable network for real-time monitoring on 24 Jan 2013. Since then, we processed 12 earthquakes between a moment magnitude of 6.5 to 8.3. In addition to the comparison of long-period surface waves waveform and pressure data, we compared the records with theoretical strain seismograms. The latter were calculated by normal mode summation using the earth model PREM of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). A Butterworth bandpass filter was applied to the records with cut-off frequencies of 0.003 and 0.1 Hz. Our initial results indicate that the hydroseismograms correspond well with the vertical rather than the horizontal (radial and transverse) components in seismic data. The observed hydroseismogram have a good correlation with the predicted volumetric strain seismogram, especially for the Okhotsk (2013/05/24 14:17UT, Mw8.3, 632km depth), the Chishima

  19. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal record of the paleoceanography in the southern Okinawa Trough over the last 20 000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 陈荣华; 李保华

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analyses have been carried out on benthic foraminifera from 66 samples of Core 255 in the southern Okinawa Trough, in combination with the stable isotopic analyses of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and AMS 14C dating, in order to reconstruct the history of change under deep water conditions and surface paleoproduclivity over the last 20 000 years. The variations in the ratio of agglutinants in benthic foraminiferal fauna and the ratio of fragments in planktonic foraminifera] fauna indicate higher carbonate dissolution during the postglacial stage than during the glacial stage. The distribution of species and the results of Q-mode factor analysis show that there are three distinctly different benthic foraminiferal assemblages during the glacial, deglacial and postglacial stages in the Okinawa Trough over the last 20000 years: the glacial Bulimina aculeata assemblage (especially the dominant species Uvigerina pereyrina) is associated with high surface primary productivity and organic mat

  20. Second Generation Novel High Temperature Commercial Receiver & Low Cost High Performance Mirror Collector for Parabolic Solar Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Norwich Technologies (NT) is developing a disruptively superior solar field for trough concentrating solar power (CSP). Troughs are the leading CSP technology (85% of installed capacity), being highly deployable and similar to photovoltaic (PV) systems for siting. NT has developed the SunTrap receiver, a disruptive alternative to vacuum-tube concentrating solar power (CSP) receivers, a market currently dominated by the Schott PTR-70. The SunTrap receiver will (1) operate at higher temperature (T) by using an insulated, recessed radiation-collection system to overcome the energy losses that plague vacuum-tube receivers at high T, (2) decrease acquisition costs via simpler structure, and (3) dramatically increase reliability by eliminating vacuum. It offers comparable optical efficiency with thermal loss reduction from ≥ 26% (at presently standard T) to ≥ 55% (at high T), lower acquisition costs, and near-zero O&M costs.

  1. Post-early cretaceous landform evolution along the western margin of the banca~nnia trough, western nsw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously undated post-Devonian sediments outcropping north of Fowlers Gap station near the western margin of the Bancannia Trough are shown by plant macro- and microfossil determinations to be of Early Cretaceous (most likely Neocomian and/or Aptian) age, and thus part of the Eromanga Basin. They are assigned to the previously defined Telephone Creek Formation. Study of the structural configuration of this unit and the unconformably underlying Devonian rocks suggests that the gross landscape architecture of the area results from post-Early Cretaceous monoclinal folding along blind faults at the western margin of the trough, combined with the effects of differential erosion. This study shows that, while landscape evolution in the area has been dynamic, the major changes that have occurred are on a geological rather than human timescale.

  2. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...... to be induced by advection of strong turbulence during accelerating currents. Fluid mud layers in dune troughs were entrained at an earlier point in time after slack water, compared to adjacent layers formed on a comparatively flat bed, where dune crests did not protrude from the lutocline....

  3. DAΦNE Control System status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Milardi, C.; Sannibale, F.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.

    1998-01-01

    The DAΦNE Control System allowed the step by step commissioning of the major subsystems as they were installed, proving to be modular and extensible. Recently the guidelines of the Control System evolution concerned the development of machine operational procedures and the integration of diagnostic tools. Particular attention has been reserved to the problem of saving and restoring element data sts as well as to the DAΦNE general data handling. A system overview including installation status, features, and operation results is presented

  4. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ne-N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, A.F.V.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors, such as the ALICE TPC or in the NEXT experiment. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Ne-N 2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two peaks for different gas ratios of Ne-N 2 , low reduced electric fields, E / N , 10–20 Td (2.4–4.8 kV·cm −1 ·bar −1 ), low pressures 6–8 Torr (8–10.6 mbar) and at room temperature.

  5. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  7. Constraints on mantle melt geometries from body wave attenuation in the Salton Trough and Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Bezada, M.

    2017-12-01

    Melt can be retained in the mantle at triple junctions between grain boundaries, be spread in thin films along two-grain boundaries, or be organized by shear into elongate melt-rich bands. Which of these geometries is most prevalent is unknown. This ambiguity makes the interpretation of anomalous seismic velocities and quality factors difficult, since different geometries would result in different mechanical effects. Here, we compare observations of seismic attenuation beneath the Salton Trough and the Snake River Plain; two regions where the presence of melt has been inferred. The results suggest that seismic attenuation is diagnostic of melt geometry. We measure the relative attenuation of P waves from deep focus earthquakes using a time-domain method. Even though the two regions are underlain by comparably strong low-velocity anomalies, their attenuation signature is very different. The upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough is sufficiently attenuating that the presence of melt must lower Qp, while attenuation beneath the Snake River Plain is not anomalous with respect to surrounding regions. These seemingly contradictory results can be reconciled if different melt geometries characterize each region. SKS splitting from the Salton Trough suggests that melt is organized into melt-rich bands, while this is not the case for the Snake River Plain. We infer that beneath the Snake River Plain melt is retained at triple junctions between grain boundaries, a geometry that is not predicted to cause seismic attenuation. More elongate geometries beneath the Salton Trough may cause seismic attenuation via the melt-squirt mechanism. In light of these results, we conclude that prior observations of low seismic velocities with somewhat high quality factors beneath the East Pacific Rise and Southern California suggest that melt does not organize into elongate bands across much of the asthenosphere.

  8. Analysis of fine ELF wave structures observed poleward from the ionospheric trough by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Nĕmec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 3 (2014), s. 2052-2060 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : trough * EMIC * substorm Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019557/abstract

  9. Thermo-economic design optimization of parabolic trough solar plants for industrial process heat applications with memetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.; Berenguel, M.; Pérez, M.; Fernández-Garcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic-trough solar plant for industrial process heat applications is developed. • An analysis of the influence of economic cost functions on optimal design point location is presented. • A multi-objective optimization approach to the design routine is proposed. • A sensitivity analysis of the optimal point location to economic, operational, and ambient conditions is developed. • Design optimization of a parabolic trough plant for a reference industrial application is developed. - Abstract: A thermo-economic design optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial processes with memetic algorithms is developed. The design domain variables considered in the optimization routine are the number of collectors in series, number of collector rows, row spacing, and storage volume. Life cycle savings, levelized cost of energy, and payback time objective functions are compared to study the influence on optimal design point location. Furthermore a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to analyze the design problem from a multi-economic criteria point of view. An extensive set of optimization cases are performed to estimate the influence of fuel price trend, plant location, demand profile, operation conditions, solar field orientation, and radiation uncertainty on optimal design. The results allow quantifying as thermo-economic design optimization based on short term criteria as the payback time leads to smaller plants with higher solar field efficiencies and smaller solar fractions, while the consideration of optimization criteria based on long term performance of the plants, as life cycle savings based optimization, leads to the reverse conclusion. The role of plant location and future evolution of gas prices in the thermo-economic performance of the solar plant has been also analyzed. Thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant design for the reference industrial

  10. Magnetic properties of different grain-sized particles of sediments from the Okinawa Trough and their relationships to sedimentary environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LI Peiying; ZHANG Xiaolong; CAO Chengxiao; XU Xingyong; DU Jun; LIU Lejun

    2005-01-01

    Multiple magnetic parameters were measured for nine different grain-sized fractions separated from the sediment samples that are representatives of four different sedimentary environments of the Okinawa Trough. Based on the measured results, the contributions of different grain-sized particles to total magnetic susceptibility of bulk sediments, the magnetic mineral assemblage and magnetic domain state as well as their relationships to sedimentary environment were discussed. Our research shows that the magnetic mineral is dominated by magnetite with a small amount of hematite and is primarily in pseudo-single-domain state. That indicates that the different sedimentary environments in the Okinawa Trough have certain correlation in material provenance. The magnetic minerals enrich in different grain-sized particles in response to different sedimentary environments. The contribution of the grain sizes from coarse to fine to coarse and fine to the magnetic susceptibility from the west to the east is in accordance with terrigenous material transportation from continental shelf of the East China Sea to the Okinawa Trough. It also shows difference in magnetic properties as a result of some environmental factors.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Optical Evaluation and Comparison of Symmetric 2D CPC and V-Trough Collector for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental optical evaluation and comparison of symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC and V-trough collector. For direct optical properties comparison, both concentrators were deliberately designed to have the same geometrical concentration ratio (1.96, aperture area, absorber area, and maximum concentrator length. The theoretical optical evaluation of the CPC and V-trough collector was carried out using a ray-trace technique while the experimental optical efficiency and solar energy flux distributions were analysed using an isolated cell PV module method. Results by simulation analysis showed that for the CPC, the highest optical efficiency was 95% achieved in the interval range of 0° to ±20° whereas the highest outdoor experimental optical efficiency was 94% in the interval range of 0° to ±20°. For the V-tough collector, the highest optical efficiency for simulation and outdoor experiments was about 96% and 93%, respectively, both in the interval range of 0° to ±5°. Simulation results also showed that the CPC and V-trough exhibit higher variation in non-illumination intensity distributions over the PV module surface for larger incidence angles than lower incidence angles. On the other hand, the maximum power output for the cells with concentrators varied depending on the location of the cell in the PV module.

  12. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  13. Performance study on evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, P.; Somasundaram, P.; Thangavel, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Instant hot water at temperatures between 40 °C and 68 °C in the low solar radiation range of 240–540 W/m 2 . • Usage of therminol D-12 and parabolic trough in low temperature application. • Stability of thermal and flow properties of therminol D-12 are studied. - Abstract: Fossil fuels and electrical energy are widely used for instant hot water generation in rural and urban areas. Also, conventional solar water heaters do not support instant hot water generation because of various problems. A new system with evacuated tube collector using synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is developed and studied experimentally for instant hot water generation in the presence of low solar irradiance. Among the different grades of therminol, therminol D-12 is chosen for the study because of its thermal stability. Parabolic trough is coupled to evacuated tube to enhance the flow as well as heating characteristics of therminol. Heating efficiency and temperature characteristics are determined for the newly developed system under low solar irradiance conditions. Instant hot water can be produced by the new system at a temperature of 60 °C in the presence of low solar radiation. This newly developed system has the ability to check the fossil fuel consumption and electrical energy consumption for instant hot water generation in household applications. The stability of the heat transfer fluid is also ensured by repeated experiments

  14. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T., E-mail: nakano.tomohide@jaea.go.jp

    2015-08-15

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  15. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...

  16. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  17. Measurement of the response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Arnold, W.; Herdtweck, J.; Mertens, G.

    1986-01-01

    The response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons has been measured via elastic neutron-proton and neutron-deuteron scattering using the two mixtures of C 6 H 12 /C 6 D 12 and C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 and ''pure'' scintillators. The energy range covered for protons and deuterons was about 1-16 MeV. The light output relation Lsub(p)(E)=(1/2)Lsub(d) (2E) has been observed. (orig.)

  18. Collective effects in {sup 17}F and {sup 19}Ne; Effets collectifs dans {sup 17}F et {sup 19}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Grjebine, T; Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The quadrupolar transition periods {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ and {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ have been measured, and are compatible with the model of a weak coupling between core and external nucleons. (author) [French] Les periodes des transitions quadrupolaires {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ et {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ ont ete mesurees et sont compatibles avec le modele d'un couplage faible entre coeur et nucleons exterieures. (auteur)

  19. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  20. Hygiëne en infectiepreventie, constant voortschrijdende inzichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Crielaard, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat het voor het orale microbioom niet altijd gunstig is om patiënten te behandelen met chloorhexidine. Daarnaast baart de groeiende groep bacteriën die resistent zijn tegen alle ontwikkelde antibiotica zorgen en kunnen 'te veel' hygiëne en infectiepreventie ook

  1. "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." : [luuletused] / Georgi Kirillov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirillov, Georgi, 1952-2016

    2002-01-01

    Autorist lk. 187. Sisu: "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." ; "Za molitvoi molitva..." ; "Zaklannõi prezhde veka Agnets..." ; "Ja zhdal tebja i tõ voshol..." ; "Nepodrazhajemoje solntse..." ; "Tshto obshtshego mezh mnoju i toboi..." ; "Pogruzhenije v odinotshestvo..." ; "Shag za shagom - k stupenjam svjatõm..." ; "Nedvizhnõ dveri sozertsanja..." ; "Vessenni vozduh..." ; "Jesli mozhno - bud miloserdnõm..."

  2. Stress tolerant plant species spread in the road-ne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, Vol.14 (2011), s. 45-46 ISSN 1644-7298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : weed * invasive * road-ne * salinity * Poaceae Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  3. Half-life of the superallowed β+ emitter Ne18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, G. F.; Smith, M. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Ball, G. C.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Daoud, J. J.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-08-01

    The half-life of Ne18 has been determined by detecting 1042-keV γ rays in the daughter F18 following the superallowed-Fermi β+ decay of samples implanted at the center of the 8πγ-ray spectrometer, a spherical array of 20 HPGe detectors. Radioactive Ne18 beams were produced on-line, mass-separated, and ionized using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ionization source at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. This is the first high-precision half-life measurement of a superallowed Fermi β decay to utilize both a large-scale HPGe spectrometer and the isotope separation on-line technique. The half-life of Ne18, 1.6656 ± 0.0019 s, deduced following a 1.4σ correction for detector pulse pile-up, is four times more precise than the previous world average. As part of an investigation into potential systematic effects, the half-life of the heavier isotope Ne23 was determined to be 37.11 ± 0.06 s, a factor of 2 improvement over the previous precision.

  4. LabVIEW Data Acquisition for NE213 Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2003-01-01

    A neutron spectroscopy system based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center measures neutron energies from a few MeV up to 800 MeV. The neutrons are produced from the electron beam and target interactions. The NE 213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into electric pulses for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. The processed pulses are then fed into a CAMAC analog to digital converter module (ADC). The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into one of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW version 7.0 acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy in MeVee is obtained, resulting in a calibration curve. This project is focused on the development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is also created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system

  5. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  6. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  7. Teorijske i praktične osnove TIG postupka zavarivanja

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko; Kondić, Veljko; Brezovački, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    TIG/GTAW postupak zavarivanja je elektrolučni postupak zavarivanja netaljivom elektrodom u zaštitnoj atmosferi inertnih plinova ili smjesa plinova. U radu je prikazana kratka povijest i teorijske osnove postupka, prednosti i nedostaci te osvrt na praktične osnove primjene postupka.

  8. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  9. Deformation effects in the 20Ne+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gupta, D.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present work has been performed with the aim to investigate the possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations of the 32 S di-nuclear systems which may be formed in the 20 Ne+ 12 C reaction by studying the properties of emitted light charged particles

  10. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  11. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  12. Influence of trough versus pasture feeding on average daily gain and carcass characteristics in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agastin, A; Sauvant, D; Naves, M; Boval, M

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative meta-analysis was run on 108 publications featuring 116 experiments and 399 treatments dealing with the effect of trough or pasture feeding environment (FE) on ruminant performances. The objective was to compare the effect of trough or pasture FE on ADG, diet OM digestibility (OMD), various carcass characteristics, and the interaction between FE and complementation modalities. Live weight was adjusted to compare results between species. Results showed that trough-fed animals had higher ADG (+17.89%; P carcass yield (HYield; + 2.47%; P carcass fat content (+ 24.87%; P animals but lower carcass muscle and bone percentages (-1.60% [P = 0.010] and -7.63% [P = 0.003], respectively). Feeding environment had no effect on diet OMD (P = 0.818), but the number of observations was low. After considering the addition or not of concentrate in the diet (addiCO), FE effect persisted on ADG (P = 0.024) and carcass fat content (P = 0.027) but not on HYield (P = 0.078) or muscle and bone percentages (P = 0.119 and P = 0.581, respectively). After considering the nature of the concentrate (natCO), FE effect persisted on ADG (P carcass fat and muscle contents (P = 0.040 and P = 0.040, respectively) although the FE effect on carcass bone content persisted (P = 0.550). Animal species and physiological stage had no effect on any of the variables studied (P > 0.05) but experiment did (P ≤ 0.001). The increase in ADG was positively correlated to HYield in cattle (P = 0.002) and small ruminants (P = 0.003) and positively linked to carcass fat content (P = 0.007) but not carcass muscle content, which actually decreased (P = 0.001). Overall, this meta-analysis confirmed previous reports of FE effects and revealed how the differences generally reported result from a confounding effect of FE and nature of the diet. Indeed, in most of the studies used, trough-fed animals were supplemented with concentrate whereas pasture-fed animals were not. This research also highlighted the fact

  13. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  14. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  15. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  16. Development of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Low Latency Salton Trough Radio Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, C.; Miller, S.; Wilson, B.; Lawrence, S.; Arnitz, E.

    2008-05-01

    UNAVCO is developing a 20 GPS station low latency radio network that spans the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in the region of highest strain in southern California and the narrowest part of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The Salton Trough Radio Network (STRN) is instrumented with Ethernet bridge Intuicom EB6+ (900 MHz) radios to transmit a high rate low latency data stream from each permanent GPS site for the purpose of the following: 1) telemeter 15 second data (1 MB/day/station) to the Plate Boundary Observatory archive, 2) accommodate the timely download of 1 and 5 sample per second data following large earthquakes (4 MB/hour/station), and 3) test the UStream of 1Hz BINEX and RTCM data. Three of four phases have been completed. Office radio testing yielded transfer rates of 30-50 KB/s with subsecond latency while streaming 1 Hz data. Latency climbed to ~1.8 seconds while simultaneously streaming 1 Hz and downloading hourly 1 and 5 sample per second data files. Field testing demonstrated rates on the order of 30 KB/s. At present the radios are installed and have transfer rates of 10-40 KB/s between sites that span 10-32 km. The final phase will be the installation of the main telemetry relay where master radios will be connected to a high speed ISP near the town of Brawley. The high-rate low latency UStream data will be available to researchers who are developing prototype earthquake early warning systems in Southern California. A goal of the STRN is to make the data available rapidly enough for GPS-derived coseismic and dynamic displacements to be integrated into early warning system earthquake models. The improved earthquake models will better assist emergency response. UStream data will also aid surveyors who wish to use PBO GPS stations as permanent, high-quality base stations in real-time kinematic surveys.

  17. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  18. The impact of internal longitudinal fins in parabolic trough collectors operating with gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Daniil, Ilias; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In this study, the impact of internal fins in PTC operating with gases is presented. • Air, helium and CO_2 are tested in smooth absorber and with fins of 5–10 mm and 15 mm. • Greater fin length leads to higher thermal efficiency and 10 mm is the optimum length exergetically. • Helium is the best working fluid exergetically, with CO_2 and air to follow. • Up to 290 °C, helium performs better energetically, while CO_2 in higher temperatures. - Abstract: In this study, the use of internal fins in parabolic trough collectors operating with gas working fluids is examined. Air, helium and carbon dioxide are the investigated working fluids, while Eurotrough ET-150 is the examined solar collector. The design and the simulation of this solar collector are performed with the commercial software Solidworks Flow Simulation. The internal fins lead to higher thermal efficiency but also to higher pressure losses; something very important for the solar fields of Concentrated Power Plants. Thus, the collector is examined energetically and exergetically in order to take into account the increase in the useful output with the simultaneous greater need of pumping power. Various fin lengths are examined and finally the fin of 10 mm was proved to be the most appropriate exergetically. In working fluid comparison, helium is the most efficient working fluid exergetically for all the examined cases. In the thermal efficiency comparison, helium performs better up to 290 °C, while carbon dioxide is the best choice in higher temperature levels. Moreover, the optimum mass flow rate for the helium was proved to be 0.03 kg/s and for the other working fluids the value of 0.015 kg/s seems to lead to the most satisfying results.

  19. Micrinite maceral evidence of hydrocarbon generation in cretaceous coal measures of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Ukpabio, E. J.; Funtua, I. I.

    1999-01-01

    Maceral analysis on samples from the coal and coal-bearing strata of the Awgu Formation in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria allows the subdivision of the coal beds and inter seam sediments into three different petrographic/coal facies, namely: a vitrinite-fusinite coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, poor in liptinite, with variable amounts of inertinite and low mineral matter content; a trimaceritic coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite with low mineral matter content; and a shaley coal facies which, expectedly, is dominated by mineral matter and has variable amounts of vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Micrinite macerals constitute 8.2% and 4.5 on mineral matter-counted basis in samples from the trimaceritic and shaley coal facies respectively. These amounts, in both cases, are considered to be very high. They occur as finely particulate, rounded grains approximately I um in diameter. Most of the micrinite are closely associated with highly reflecting, almost unrecognizable liptinite. The nature and origin of micrinite and its significance to oil and gas generation have been studied extensively. As secondary macerals, they are generally believed to be relics of oil generation from oil-prone macerals, mainly liptinitic and vitrinitic macerals with which they are closely associated. Reflectance measurements on the associated vitrinite macerals indicate a thermal maturity range of 0.74 - 1.25 % Rm. This range corresponds to the zone of oil generation in most minerogenic oil source rocks. In the study area, however, only the trimaceritic coal facies and some parts of the shaley coal facies that are rich in liptinite alongside the associated micrinite macerals are considered to have generated oil. The vitrinite-fusinite coal facies with its high content of humic organic matter (vitrinite + Inertinite) can only generate gas (wet + dry) within the given thermal maturity range

  20. Mineralogy and rheology of raw and activated Turonian to Coniacian clays from Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Arabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of oil and gas in Oloibiri, an onshore oilfield located in Oloibiri in Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria on Sunday 15th January 1956 by Shell Darcy, hundreds of oil wells have been drilled and not a single of these oil wells was drilled without the use of bentonite. This work is aimed at evaluating the rheological properties of raw and beneficiated Nigerian clays to ascertain their worth for use as drilling mud in oil and gas well drilling. This will save foreign earnings used in the importation of bentonite by the oil and gas development companies, create employment opportunity and open a new frontier for solid mineral development. Five clay samples from Pindiga Formation in Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were collected and subjected to elemental, rheological and other physical properties tests and analysis, while another portion of same samples were beneficiated using sodium carbonate, gum Arabic and poly-anionic cellulose for rheological enhancement then subjected to same cycle of tests and analysis above. Results obtained indicates that wet beneficiation as adopted in this study has proved to be more effective in Ca and Na ionic exchange. The rheological and other physical properties of the clays attained the standard that is required for use in oil and gas well drilling after addition of 12% sodium carbonate and 1.5 g poly-anionic cellulose. It was also discovered that when the formulation was allow to age (stay for 24 h, it attained optimum rheological requirement with 12% sodium carbonate and just 0.8 g poly-anionic cellulose. The clays studies do not require addition of weighing additive such as barite because of their high iron content which made their density attain the require standard even without additives. Keywords: Bentonitic clay, Beneficiation, Nigeria, Pindiga, Rheology, Mineralogy

  1. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  2. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  3. Evidence of displacement-driven maturation along the San Cristobal Trough transform plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, James S.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2018-03-01

    The San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon Islands, provides an opportunity to study the transform boundary development process. Recent seismicity (2013-2016) along the 280 km long SCT, known as a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault, highlights the tearing process and ongoing development of the plate boundary. The region's earthquakes reveal two key characteristics. First, earthquakes at the western terminus of the SCT, which we interpret to indicate the Australia plate tearing, display disparate fault geometries. These events demonstrate that plate tearing is accommodated via multiple intersecting planes rather than a single through-going fault. Second, the SCT hosts sequences of Mw ∼7 strike-slip earthquakes that migrate westward through a rapid succession of events. Sequences in 1993 and 2015 both began along the eastern SCT and propagated west, but neither progression ruptured into or nucleated a large earthquake within the region near the tear. Utilizing b-value and Coulomb Failure Stress analyses, we examine these along-strike variations in the SCT's seismicity. b-Values are highest along the youngest, western end of the SCT and decrease with increasing distance from the tear. This trend may reflect increasing strain localization with increasing displacement. Coulomb Failure Stress analyses indicate that the stress conditions were conducive to continued western propagation of the 1993 and 2015 sequences suggesting that the unruptured western SCT may have fault geometries or properties that inhibit continued rupture. Our results indicate a displacement-driven fault maturation process. The multi-plane Australia plate tearing likely creates a western SCT with diffuse strain accommodated along a network of disorganized faults. After ∼90 km of cumulative displacement (∼900,000 yr of plate motion), strain localizes and faults align, allowing the SCT to host

  4. Exergy analysis of parabolic trough solar collectors integrated with combined steam and organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • As the solar irradiation increases, the exergetic efficiency increases. • The R134a combined cycle has best exergetic performance, 26%. • The R600a combined cycle has the lowest exergetic efficiency, 20%. • The main source of exergy destruction is the solar collector. • There is an exergetic improvement potential of 75% in the systems considered. - Abstract: In this paper, detailed exergy analysis of selected thermal power systems driven by parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs) is presented. The power is produced using either a steam Rankine cycle (SRC) or a combined cycle, in which the SRC is the topping cycle and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is the bottoming cycle. Seven refrigerants for the ORC were examined: R134a, R152a, R290, R407c, R600, R600a, and ammonia. Key exergetic parameters were examined: exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction rate, fuel depletion ratio, irreversibility ratio, and improvement potential. For all the cases considered it was revealed that as the solar irradiation increases, the exergetic efficiency increases. Among the combined cycles examined, the R134a combined cycle demonstrates the best exergetic performance with a maximum exergetic efficiency of 26% followed by the R152a combined cycle with an exergetic efficiency of 25%. Alternatively, the R600a combined cycle has the lowest exergetic efficiency, 20–21%. This study reveals that the main source of exergy destruction is the solar collector where more than 50% of inlet exergy is destructed, or in other words more than 70% of the total destructed exergy. In addition, more than 13% of the inlet exergy is destructed in the evaporator which is equivalent to around 19% of the destructed exergy. Finally, this study reveals that there is an exergetic improvement potential of 75% in the systems considered

  5. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  6. Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O--20Ne scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.; Schneider, W.F.W.; Jahnke, U.; Hendrie, D.L.; Mahoney, J.; Maguire, C.F.; Scott, D.K.; Wolschin, G.

    1975-01-01

    The cluster structure of the ground state rotational band of 20 Ne was studied via the elastic and inelastic scattering of 50 MeV 20 Ne from 16 O. Angular distributions are compared with microscopic calculations

  7. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  8. Proton capture in the nuclei 21Ne and 22Ne and its influence on the solar hydrogen burning in the neon-sodium cyclus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to remove the uncertainties in the reaction rates of 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na and 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na in order to can make founded statements about the hydrogen burning in the NeNa cyclus. After the description of the experimental arrangement the search for resonances in the reaction 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na below Esub(p)=355 keV is reported. While the theory of the direct radiation capture is discussed the experimental results of the search for this transitions in 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na respectively 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na are presented. The astrophysical aspects of the results of this thesis are discussed and summarizingly presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Geological evidence for Holocene earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai-Suruga Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Fujiwara, Osamu; Garrett, Philip; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Shishikura, Masanobu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Brückner, Helmut; Nakamura, Atsunori; De Batist, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Nankai-Suruga Trough, lying immediately south of Japan's densely populated and highly industrialised southern coastline, generates devastating great earthquakes (magnitude > 8). Intense shaking, crustal deformation and tsunami generation accompany these ruptures. Forecasting the hazards associated with future earthquakes along this >700 km long fault requires a comprehensive understanding of past fault behaviour. While the region benefits from a long and detailed historical record, palaeoseismology has the potential to provide a longer-term perspective and additional insights. Here, we summarise the current state of knowledge regarding geological evidence for past earthquakes and tsunamis, incorporating literature originally published in both Japanese and English. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces and biota, marine and lacustrine turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. We enhance available results with new age modelling approaches. While publications describe proposed evidence from > 70 sites, only a limited number provide compelling, well-dated evidence. The best available records allow us to map the most likely rupture zones of eleven earthquakes occurring during the historical period. Our spatiotemporal compilation suggests the AD 1707 earthquake ruptured almost the full length of the subduction zone and that earthquakes in AD 1361 and 684 were predecessors of similar magnitude. Intervening earthquakes were of lesser magnitude, highlighting variability in rupture mode. Recurrence intervals for ruptures of the a single seismic segment range from less than 100 to more than 450 years during the historical period. Over longer timescales, palaeoseismic evidence suggests intervals ranging from 100 to 700 years. However, these figures reflect thresholds of evidence creation and preservation as well as genuine recurrence intervals. At present, we have

  10. An Optimal Design for Placements of Tsunami Observing Systems Around the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, I. E.; Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.

    2017-12-01

    Presently, there are numerous tsunami observing systems deployed in several major tsunamigenic regions throughout the world. However, documentations on how and where to optimally place such measurement devices are limited. This study presents a methodological approach to select the best and fewest observation points for the purpose of tsunami source characterizations, particularly in the form of fault slip distributions. We apply the method to design a new tsunami observation network around the Nankai Trough, Japan. In brief, our method can be divided into two stages: initialization and optimization. The initialization stage aims to identify favorable locations of observation points, as well as to determine the initial number of observations. These points are generated based on extrema of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spatial modes derived from 11 hypothetical tsunami events in the region. In order to further improve the accuracy, we apply an optimization algorithm called a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) to remove redundant measurements from the initially generated points by the first stage. A combinatorial search by the MADS will improve the accuracy and reduce the number of observations simultaneously. The EOF analysis of the hypothetical tsunamis using first 2 leading modes with 4 extrema on each mode results in 30 observation points spread along the trench. This is obtained after replacing some clustered points within the radius of 30 km with only one representative. Furthermore, the MADS optimization can improve the accuracy of the EOF-generated points by approximately 10-20% with fewer observations (23 points). Finally, we compare our result with the existing observation points (68 stations) in the region. The result shows that the optimized design with fewer number of observations can produce better source characterizations with approximately 20-60% improvement of accuracies at all the 11 hypothetical cases. It should be note, however, that our

  11. Thermal and optical study of parabolic trough collectors of Shiraz solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A.; Yaghoubi, M.; Vadiee, A.; Hessami, R. [Shiraz Univ, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kanan, P. [Renewable Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The construction of the first 250 KW solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran was discussed. The power plant is comprised of a steam and oil cycle which includes 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs). Solar thermal power plants based on PTCs are currently the most successful solar technologies for electricity generation. These power plants are basically composed of a solar collector field and a power block. The solar collector field is designed to collect heat from the sun which it is continuously tracking. The reflecting surface concentrates direct solar radiation in the optical focal line of the collector where the heat collecting element (HCE) is located. The HCE absorbs the reflected energy and transmits it to the heat transfer fluid which is pumped to the conventional power block where electricity is generated. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. However, it is necessary to characterize the optical performance and determine the optical losses of PTCs in order to improve the optical efficiency of these systems and to ensure the desired power quality. In this study, thermocouple sensors were used to record the collector oil inlet and outlet temperature along with the ambient temperature in the PTCs. In addition to measuring the wind speed, the solar beam radiation intensity was measured along with the oil's mass flow rate. All parameters were measured as a function of time. Based on these measurements, the intercept factor value and collector's incidence angle was determined and compared with other large size constructed commercial parabolic collectors. The maximum beam radiation during the experimental period was 735 2mW. The useful heat gain and the collector's instantaneous efficiency as a whole was evaluated on an hourly basis. All these parameters were strongly influenced by the incident beam radiation and found to follow each other. The optical and thermal

  12. Biogeochemical processes controlling authigenic carbonate formation within the sediment column from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Bai, Shijie; Chen, Zhiyan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.

    2018-02-01

    Authigenic carbonates are one type of conspicuous manifestation in seep environments that can provide long-term archives of past seepage activity and methane cycling in the oceans. Comprehensive investigations of the microbial community functional structure and their roles in the process of carbonate formation are, however, lacking. In this study, the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial functional composition were examined in seep carbonate deposits collected from the west slope of the northern section of the Okinawa Trough (OT). The aim of this work was to explore the correspondence between the mineralogical phases and microbial metabolism during carbonate deposit formation. The mineralogical analyses indicated that authigenic carbonate minerals (aragonite, magnesium-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite) and iron-bearing minerals (limonite, chlorite, and biotite) were present in these carbonate samples. The carbon and oxygen isotopic values of the carbonate samples varied between -51.1‰ to -4.7‰ and -4.8‰ to 3.7‰, respectively. A negative linear correlation between carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions was found, indicating a mixture of methane-derived diagenetic (low δ13C/high 18O) carbonates and detrital origin (high δ13C/low 18O) carbonates at the OT. GeoChip analyses suggested that various metabolic activities of microorganisms, including methanogenesis, methane oxidation, sulfite oxidation, sulfate reduction, and metal biotransformations, all occurred during the formation process. On the basis of these findings, the following model for the methane cycle and seep carbonate deposit formation in the sediment column at the OT is proposed: (1) in the upper oxidizing zone, aerobic methane oxidation was the main way of methane consumption; (2) in the sulfate methane transition zone, sulfate-dependent AOM (anaerobic oxidation of methane) consumes methane, and authigenic minerals such as aragonite, magnesium-calcite, and sulfide minerals

  13. Hydro-bio-geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments from Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J.C.; Dai, Shifeng; Terzariol, M.; Jang, Jeonghwan; Waite, William F.; Winters, William J.; Nagao, J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh < 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation

  14. Performance analysis of solar parabolic trough collectors driven combined supercritical CO2 and organic Rankine cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwinder Singh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, attempts have been made on the detailed energy and exergy analysis of solar parabolic trough collectors (SPTCs driven combined power plant. The combination of supercritical CO2 (SCO2 cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC integrated with SPTCs has been used to produce power, in which SCO2 cycle and ORC are arranged as a topping and bottoming cycle. Five organic working fluids like R134a, R1234yf, R407c, R1234ze, and R245fa were selected for a low temperature bottoming ORC. Five key exergetic parameters such as exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction rate, fuel depletion ratio, irreversibility ratio, and improvement potential were also examined. It was revealed that exergetic and thermal efficiency of all the combined cycles enhances as the direct normal irradiance increases from 0.5 kW/m2 to 0.95 kW/m2. As can be seen, R407c combined cycle has the maximum exergetic as well as thermal efficiency which is around 78.07% at 0.95 kW/m2 and 43.49% at 0.95 kW/m2, respectively. Alternatively, the R134a and R245fa combined cycle yields less promising results with the marginal difference in their performance. As inferred from the study that SCO2 turbine and evaporator has a certain amount of exergy destruction which is around 9.72% and 8.54% of the inlet exergy, and almost 38.10% of the total exergy destruction in case of R407c combined cycle. Moreover, the maximum amount of exergy destructed by the solar collector field which is more than 25% of the solar inlet exergy and around 54% of the total destructed exergy. Finally, this study concludes that R407c combined cycle has a minimum fuel depletion ratio of 0.2583 for a solar collector and possess the highest power output of 3740 kW. Keywords: Supercritical CO2cycle, Organic Rankine cycle, Exergetic performance, SPTCs, Organic fluids

  15. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  16. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  17. Character and Implications of a Newly Identified Creeping Strand of the San Andreas fault NE of Salton Sea, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Markowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Valley to join the blind Palm Spring dextral fault- a source of microearthquakes and differential subsidence. The ESS may also continue north parallel to the margin of the Salton Trough or have both a NW and NE branch. The risk of a future large earthquake directly beneath the greater Palm Springs metropolitan area may be larger if the first or last options are correct.

  18. Thermodynamic optimisation of the performance of a parabolic trough receiver using synthetic oil–Al2O3 nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwesigye, Aggrey; Huan, Zhongjie; Meyer, Josua P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a parabolic trough receiver with nanofluids is presented. • Syltherm800–Al 2 O 3 nanofluid is used as the heat transfer fluid in the receiver. • Influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on receiver performance is investigated. • There is an optimal Reynolds number at each temperature and volume fraction. • Receiver thermal and thermodynamic performance improves below some Reynolds number. - Abstract: In this paper, results of a thermodynamic analysis using the entropy generation minimisation method for a parabolic trough receiver tube making use of a synthetic oil–Al 2 O 3 nanofluid as a heat transfer fluid are presented. A parabolic trough collector system with a rim angle of 80° and a concentration ratio of 86 was used. The temperature of the nanofluid considered was in the range of 350–600 K. The nanofluid thermal physical properties are temperature dependent. The Reynolds number varies from 3,560 to 1,151,000, depending on the temperature considered and volume fraction of nanoparticles in the base fluid. Nanoparticle volume fractions in the range 0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 8% were used. The local entropy generation rates due to fluid flow and heat transfer were determined numerically and used for the thermodynamic analysis. The study shows that using nanofluids improves the thermal efficiency of the receiver by up to 7.6%. There is an optimal Reynolds number at each inlet temperature and volume fraction for which the entropy generated is a minimum. The optimal Reynolds number decreases as the volume fraction increases. There is also a Reynolds number at every inlet temperature and volume fraction beyond which use of nanofluids is thermodynamically undesirable

  19. The day-night variation of cosmic rays intensity at sea level under the influence of meteorological fronts and troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, H.M.; Cheng, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    The day-night variation of cosmic rays (CR) intensity at sea level has been observed by a simple G-M counter telescope. We perform two 5 hours counting during the day and the night and find that the pattern of variation is closely related to the atmospheric disturbance. The normal pattern shows that the day counts is a few percents lower than that of the night counts. This can be simply explained by the temperature effect. But when our observation station is being affected by a meteorological front or trough, a reversal occurs. At times the reversal pattern occurs even up to a few days ahead the formation of the troughs at a few hundred kilometers away. Such a reversal may lasts for a few days until the influence of the front or trough has significantly weakened. This effect also overrides the barometric effect, except when there is a sharp change of air pressure, such as during the approach of a tropical cyclone. Our further investigation shows that the pattern of variation may be negatively correlated to the altitude of the 0degC level in the atmosphere. A 150 m upward shift of the 0degC level reduces the CR intensity by about 3-4%. Our postulation is that this variation of CR intensity is related to the relativistic effect of the muon decay, and is an indication of the height of the mid-level pressure distribution. The phenomenon should be further investigated for possible application in weather forecasting and better understanding of the phenomenon could be of use in differentiating the atmospheric effect and the solar effects in CR data. (author)

  20. (e, 2e) processes on Ne, Ar and Xe targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K, E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.i [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur-313 601 (India)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to explain the features of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for the (e, 2e) processes on inert targets Ne, Ar and Xe but there are still certain discrepancies in theoretical results and measurements, which require more theoretical efforts to understand the collision dynamics of these targets. We present in this paper the results of our modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculation of TDCS for the ionization of Ne (2p), Ar (3p) and Xe (5p) targets. We modify the standard DWBA formalism by including the correlation-polarization potential (which is function of electron density) and compare our computed results with the available experimental and theoretical data. We observe that the polarization potential is able to improve the agreement with experimental results.

  1. MicroBooNE and its Cross Section Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [SLAC

    2017-05-22

    MicroBooNE (the Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment) is a short-baseline neutrino experiment based on the technology of a liquid-argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC), and has recently completed its first year of data-taking in the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. It aims to address the anomalous excess of events with an electromagnetic final state in MiniBooNE, to measure neutrino-argon interaction cross sections, and to provide relevant R\\&D for the future LArTPC experiments, such as DUNE. In these proceedings, we present the first reconstructed energy spectrum of Michel electrons from cosmic muon decays, the first kinematic distributions of the candidate muon tracks from $\

  2. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivan, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R and D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R and D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  3. Neutral bremsstrahlung radiation of Ne, Ar and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, R.T.V.; Chang, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral Bremsstrahlung cross-sections of Ne, Ar and atomic oxygen around the 3 and 10μ wavelength regions were measured in a high temperature plasma generated in a shock tube. The results were generally a factor of three higher than the theoretical values calculated by Geltman (Geltman, S., JQSRT vol.13, 601 (1973)). Agreement with the experimental results of Taylor and Caledonia (Taylor, R.L. and Caledonia, G., JQSRT vol.9, 657; 681, 1969) around 3μ was good except for the case of Ne. The cross-sections around 10μ are the first measurements in this wavelength region. Enhanced radiation due to atomic line emission on top of the Bremsstrahlung continuum, as predicted by Hyman (Hyman, H.A. and Von Rosenberg, C.W. Jr., JQSRT, vol.15, 919, 1975) was observed around 7.44μ. (author)

  4. Single electron capture in N^+ -(Ne, Kr, Xe) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pedro G.; Castillo, Fermin; Martinez, Horacio

    2001-05-01

    Total cross sections for single electron capture of N^+ ions impinging on Ne, Kr and Xe were measured in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron capture cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in excellent agreement with previous data in the low-energy range. The present data together with previous measurements give a general shape of the whole curve of single electron capture cross sections for the N^+ - Ne system. For the cases of N^+ - (Kr, Xe) systems, semiempirical calculation using the two-state approximation are in very good agreement with present cross sections data. Research supported by DGAPA IN-100392 and CONACyT 32175-E

  5. A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhimeng; Lu, Guangfeng; Yang, Kaiyong; Long, Xingwu; Huang, Yun

    2012-02-01

    A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser is developed. Based on a switching power IC to design laser power supply and a general purpose microcontroller to realize digital PID control, the system constructs a closed loop to stabilize the laser intensity by regulating its discharge current. The laser tube is made of glass ceramics and its integrated structure is steady enough to eliminate intensity fluctuations at high frequency and attenuates all intensity fluctuations, and this makes it easy to tune the control loop. The control loop between discharge current and photodiode voltage eliminates the long-term drifts. The intensity stability of the HeNe laser with this system is 0.014% over 12 h.

  6. Toward Solution of the MiniBooNE-LSND Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiorgi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The LSND experiment has observed an anomalous excess of ν ¯ e events in a ν ¯ μ beam which can be interpreted as two-neutrino ν ¯ μ →ν ¯ e oscillations at Δm 2 ∼1 eV 2 , suggesting new physics. The MiniBooNE experiment has ruled out the LSND two-neutrino oscillation interpretation by looking for corresponding flavor oscillations in a neutrino beam, and assuming CP and CPT conservation. However, it has observed an anomalous excess of ν e events at low energy, which, to date, remains unexplained. The two excess signatures are discussed within the context of light sterile neutrino oscillations, and are further confronted with the latest results from a MiniBooNE search for ν ¯ μ →ν ¯ e oscillations in an antineutrino beam. Alternative interpretations are also referenced, along with possible future experimental tests.

  7. Cluster structure of 20Ne and 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2004-01-01

    A d-constraint for calculating the wave functions of various kinds of configurations of cluster structure and optimizing the inside wave functions of the cluster was developed. The wave functions of various kinds of cluster structures were calculated by constraining and energy variation of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics wave functions. The cluster structure of nucleus was reproduced by linear combination of the above wave functions by the generator coordinate method. By superposition of both wave functions calculated using d-constraint and β-constraint, K π =O 3 + rotation band of 20 Ne was reproduced. The excitation energies of 20 Ne were calculated. The result of calculation energies of α- 36 Ar structure of 40 Ca are higher values than expected them. Framework, AMD wave function, constraint, calculation results and discussions are stated. (S.Y.)

  8. 2He decay from excited states: the 18Ne case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raciti, G.; Sfienti, C.; De Napoli, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Giacoppo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Two-proton radioactivity studies have been performed on excited states of 18 Ne produced by 20 Ne fragmentation at the FRIBs facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. The study of the relative-momentum correlations of the two protons allowed to disentangle the diproton, democratic and sequential decay contributions to the 2p emission. In order to extend the study on two-proton decay to other light-masses nuclei, an upgrade of the FRIBs facility is planned. A new configuration of the Fragment Separator would be able to increase the acceptance of the beam line and therefore the yield of the produced radioactive beams. Also the present tagging setup will be modified in view of the gain intensity, in order to sustain the higher foreseen incoming rate. Status and perspectives of the facility will be presented. (author)

  9. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez Martinez, J.; Butragueno Casado, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs

  10. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... la flore des champs. REFERENCES. Bâ AT, Noba K. 2001. Science et changements planétaires. Sécheresse. 12(3) : 149-155. Bassène C. 2014. La flore adventice dans les cultures de maïs (Zea mays L.) dans le sud du Bassin Arachidier : structure, nuisibilité et mise au point d'un itinéraire de désherbage. Thèse Unique.

  11. Investigation of the parity forbidden alpha decay of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disque, M.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis the alpha decay of excited states in 20 Ne is investigated. The excited neon states are formed by proton bombardment of 19 F at proton energie of 340 and 670 kev. The ratio E of the parity forbidden alpha decays leading to the ground state of 160 to the allowed decays is determined. The results are E = 7.4 x 10 -5 resonance at 340 kev, E = 4.2 x 10 -3 resonance at 670 kev. (FKS)

  12. LabVIEW DAQ for NE213 Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adeeb, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    A neutron spectroscopy system, based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector, to be placed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to measure neutron spectra from a few MeV up to 800 MeV, beyond shielding. The NE213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into current for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. CAMAC is a computer automated data acquisition and handling system. Pulses are properly prepared and fed into an analog to digital converter (ADC), a standard CAMAC module. The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into 1 of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW, version 7.0, acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy [units of MeVee] is obtained. A complete calibration curve results (at a given applied voltage to the PMT and pre-amplification gain) when the Compton edge and reference energy for each source is plotted. This project is focused to development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system. Future high-energy neutron measurements can be referenced and normalized according to this calibration curve

  13. Modeling Ne-21 NMR parameters for carbon nanosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupka, T.; Nieradka, M.; Kaminský, Jakub; Stobinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2013), s. 676-681 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ne-21 NMR * GIAO NMR * molecular modeling * carbon nanostructures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2013

  14. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and doub...... of the complexes, providing valuable results for future experimental investigations. Comparing our results to those previously available for other phosgene complexes, we suggest that the results for Cl2-phosgene should be revised....

  15. U,Th-21Ne dating and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Murty, S.V.S.; Anil Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The potential of radiogenic and fissiogenic noble gas isotopes as dating tools has been well exploited. U, Th- 4 He , K- 40 Ar and U- fission Xe pairs as well as their variants like 39 Ar- 40 Ar and induced fission Xe- spontaneous fission Xe pairs have been extensively used as geochronological tools. A new dating method that utilizes the nucleogenic isotope 21 Ne and demonstrate its application for an apatite separate from a carbonatite is proposed

  16. Back-flow ripples in troughs downstream of unit bars: Formation, preservation and value for interpreting flow conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Christopher; Alexander, Jan; Martinez De Alvaro, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Back-flow ripples are bedforms created within the lee-side eddy of a larger bedform with migration directions opposed or oblique to that of the host bedform. In the flume experiments described in this article, back-flow ripples formed in the trough downstream of a unit bar and changed with mean flow velocity; varying from small incipient back-flow ripples at low velocities, to well-formed back-flow ripples with greater velocity, to rapidly migrating transient back-flow ripples formed at the g...

  17. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  18. Tectonic and volcanic history of Rhea as inferred from studies of scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The 13 geomorphic feature types presently defined through the analysis of landforms on Rhea are with only one exception interpretable as of tectonic or volcanic-tectonic origin. The troughs, grabens, grooves, pit chains, scarps, and other lineaments are purely extensional in nature, while the ridges are volcanic features formed in an extensional stress field; this extension was followed by a global compression era generating megaridges and megascarps. The extensional landforms seem to form a global grid pattern that is directionally similar to the theoretically projected pattern of a tidally distorted planet. 17 references

  19. The effects of thick sediment upon continental breakup: seismic imaging and thermal modeling of the Salton Trough, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lázaro-Mancilla, O.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting ultimately creates a deep accommodation space for sediment. When a major river flows into a late-stage rift, thick deltaic sediment can change the thermal regime and alter the mechanisms of extension and continental breakup. The Salton Trough, the northernmost rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary, has experienced the same extension as the rest of the Gulf, but is filled to sea level by sediment from the Colorado River. Unlike the southern Gulf, seafloor spreading has not initiated. Instead, seismicity, high heat flow, and minor volcanoes attest to ongoing rifting of thin, transitional crust. Recently acquired controlled-source seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data in the Salton Trough provide constraints upon crustal architecture and active rift processes. The crust in the central Salton Trough is only 17-18 km thick, with a strongly layered but relatively one-dimensional structure for ~100 km in the direction of plate motion. The upper crust includes 2-4 km of Colorado River sediment. Crystalline rock below the sediment is interpreted to be similar sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow and geothermal activity. Meta-sediment extends to at least 9 km depth. A 4-5 km thick layer in the middle crust is either additional meta-sediment or stretched pre-existing continental crust. The lowermost 4-5 km of the crust is rift-related mafic magmatic intrusion or underplating from partial melting in the hot upper mantle. North American lithosphere in the Salton Trough has been almost or completely rifted apart. The gap has been filled by ~100 km of new transitional crust created by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. These processes create strong lithologic, thermal, and rheologic layering. While heat flow in the rift is very high, rapid sedimentation cools the upper crust as compared to a linear geotherm. Brittle extension occurs within new meta-sedimentary rock. The lower crust, in comparison, is

  20. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Khakhalin, S.Ya.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l', 2s 2 2p 5 3l4l', 2s2p 6 3l3l' and 2s2p 6 3l4l' levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l'3l '' and 2s2p 6 3l3l'3l '' levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution λ/Δλ∼3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with λ/Δλ>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.)

  1. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  2. Estimation of the effective population size (Ne) and its application in the management of small populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Mena, Belen

    2016-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is an important concept to understand the evolution of a population. In conservation, Ne is used to assess the threat status of a population, evaluate its genetic viability in the future and set conservation priorities. An accurate estimation of Ne is thus essential....... The main objective of this thesis was to better understand how the estimation of Ne using molecular markers can be improved for use in conservation genetics. As a first step, we undertook a simulation study where three different methods to estimate Ne were investigated. We explored how well these three...... methods performed under different scenarios. This study showed that all three methods performed better when the number of unlinked loci used to make the estimation increased and the minimum number of loci need for an accurate estimation of Ne was 100 SNPs. A general assumption in the estimation of Ne...

  3. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.

    Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  4. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    and AUC by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and pairs of correlation coefficients were compared by an asymptotic Wald-type test. RESULTS: AUC varied five-fold despite near-equal dosing. Pearson's correlation coefficient for trough level, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h were 0.84, 0.60, 0.81, 0.95, 0.95, and 0.......94 on day 3 and 0.94, 0.69, 0.92, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92 on day 14. Three-, 4- and 6-h levels had significantly higher correlation coefficients compared to trough, 1- and 2-h levels. One-hour samples had significantly lower correlation coefficients compared to all other sampling times on day 14. The patient...... with the highest AUC developed nephrotoxicity despite trough levels in the desired range. CONCLUSIONS: Two-hour levels are not superior to trough levels in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients. Despite good correlation between trough level and AUC, some patients may still receive nephrotoxic doses despite...

  5. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  6. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy; Calibracion de un detector de NE213 para espectroscopia de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Martinez, J; Butragueno Casado, J L

    1974-07-01

    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. Different effects of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on the plasma voriconazole trough levels in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasu, Takeo; Konuma, Takaaki; Kato, Seiko; Kurokawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tojo, Arinobu

    2016-10-01

    Voriconazole (VRC) is widely used as prophylaxis and in the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We retrospectively examined the results of VRC therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in allogeneic HCT recipients. A total of 474 samples were obtained from 59 adult patients who received VRC during the first 100 days following HCT between 2009 and 2014 in our institute. Seventeen patients received VRC for prophylaxis of IFD, and 42 received VRC for the empirical or preemptive therapy for IFD. A total of 299 samples (63 %) were obtained during the administration of the intravenous form of VRC. The median VRC daily dose based on the actual body weight was 6.68 mg/kg/day (range, 1.92-10.41 mg/kg/day). The median VRC trough level was 0.99 mg/l (range, lansoprazole as compared to rabeprazole (P lansoprazole and rabeprazole have different effects on the plasma VRC trough levels in the allogeneic HCT recipients.

  8. Preparing for the Future Nankai Trough Tsunami: A Data Assimilation and Inversion Analysis From Various Observational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Iyan E.; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2017-10-01

    The future Nankai Trough tsunami is one of the imminent threats to the Japanese coastal communities that could potentially cause a catastrophic event. As a part of the countermeasure efforts for such an occurrence, this study analyzes the efficacy of combining tsunami data assimilation (DA) and waveform inversion (WI). The DA is used to continuously refine a wavefield model whereas the WI is used to estimate the tsunami source. We consider a future scenario of the Nankai Trough tsunami recorded at various observational systems, including ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges, global positioning system (GPS) buoys, and ship height positioning data. Since most of the OBP gauges are located inside the source region, the recorded tsunami signals exhibit significant offsets from surface measurements due to coseismic seafloor deformation effects. Such biased data are not applicable to the standard DA, but can be taken into account in the WI. On the other hand, the use of WI for the ship data may not be practical because a considerably large precomputed tsunami database is needed to cope with the spontaneous ship locations. The DA is more suitable for such an observational system as it can be executed sequentially in time and does not require precomputed scenarios. Therefore, the combined approach of DA and WI allows us to concurrently make use of all observational resources. Additionally, we introduce a bias correction scheme for the OBP data to improve the accuracy, and an adaptive thinning of observations to determine the efficient number of observations.

  9. neXtA5: accelerating annotation of articles via automated approaches in neXtProt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottin, Luc; Gobeill, Julien; Pasche, Emilie; Michel, Pierre-André; Cusin, Isabelle; Gaudet, Pascale; Ruch, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of published articles poses a challenge for curated databases to remain up-to-date. To help the scientific community and database curators deal with this issue, we have developed an application, neXtA5, which prioritizes the literature for specific curation requirements. Our system, neXtA5, is a curation service composed of three main elements. The first component is a named-entity recognition module, which annotates MEDLINE over some predefined axes. This report focuses on three axes: Diseases, the Molecular Function and Biological Process sub-ontologies of the Gene Ontology (GO). The automatic annotations are then stored in a local database, BioMed, for each annotation axis. Additional entities such as species and chemical compounds are also identified. The second component is an existing search engine, which retrieves the most relevant MEDLINE records for any given query. The third component uses the content of BioMed to generate an axis-specific ranking, which takes into account the density of named-entities as stored in the Biomed database. The two ranked lists are ultimately merged using a linear combination, which has been specifically tuned to support the annotation of each axis. The fine-tuning of the coefficients is formally reported for each axis-driven search. Compared with PubMed, which is the system used by most curators, the improvement is the following: +231% for Diseases, +236% for Molecular Functions and +3153% for Biological Process when measuring the precision of the top-returned PMID (P0 or mean reciprocal rank). The current search methods significantly improve the search effectiveness of curators for three important curation axes. Further experiments are being performed to extend the curation types, in particular protein-protein interactions, which require specific relationship extraction capabilities. In parallel, user-friendly interfaces powered with a set of JSON web services are currently being

  10. The Evidence from Inclusions in Pumices for the Direct Degassing of Volatiles from the Magma to the Hydrothermal Fluids in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zenghui; ZHAI Shikui; ZHAO Guangtao

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the evidence in support of the direct magma degassing as the principal mechanism of volatilesreleasing into the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough, as contrasted to the argument for the hydrothermal strippingof volatiles from the volcanic rocks.Laser Raman microprobe and stepped-heating techniques are employed to determine the compositions and contents of thevolatiles in pumices in the middle Okinawa Trough. The results show that the volatiles are similar to the gases in the hy-drothermal fluids and hydrothermal minerals in composition, the mean percent content of each component and variationtrend. This indicates the direct influence of magma degassing on the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, the contents ofvolatiles in pumices are rather low and do not support the hydrothermal stripping as the main mechanism to enrich the fluidswith gases. The results are consistent with the idea that the direct magma degassing is more important than hydrothermalstripping in supplying gases to the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough.

  11. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Khakhalin, S.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.

    1996-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l4l`, 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l` and 2s2p{sup 6}3l4l` levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`3l{sup ``} and 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l`3l{sup ``} levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.).

  12. Impact of Serum Vancomycin Trough Levels in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Shunt Infections Caused by Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ashley; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Vallejo, Jesus G

    2018-04-26

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a common cause of pediatric ventricular shunt infections. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends vancomycin serum troughs of 15-20 µg/mL when treating CoNS shunt infections in adult patients. We report a series of pediatric cases of CoNS shunt infections in which clinical cure was obtained with troughs < 15 µg/mL. These findings question the relevance of this recommendation in pediatric patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  14. Neutron spectrometry with the NE-213 organic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A. da.

    1980-12-01

    A neutron spectrometer with the NE-213 organic scintillator detector (5,08cm x 5,08cm) was mounted, tested, and calibrated at the Argonaut Reactor Laboratory of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, to measure and study spectra of available fast neutron sources. The time zero-crossover technique was employed to discriminate the pulse of neutrons and gammas. The neutron spectrum from a 241 Am-Be source was determined experimentally in the range 1,0 MeV to 12,0 MeV and good agreement with other researchers was obtained. (Author) [pt

  15. Testing quantum mechanics at Da{phi}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenica, A. [Rome Univ. 2 (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-12-31

    After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell`s inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a {Phi}-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author) 13 refs.

  16. Testing quantum mechanics at DaφNe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenica, A.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell's inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a Φ-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author)

  17. PLESNA VZGOJA IN RAZLIČNE GLASBENE ZVRSTI

    OpenAIRE

    Trstenjak, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Namen diplomskega dela Plesna vzgoja in različne glasbene zvrsti je s pomočjo teoretičnih izhodišč, ob opazovanju plesnega izražanja otrok, ugotoviti vpliv posamezne glasbene zvrsti na otroka pri plesni vzgoji. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz dveh delov, teoretičnega in empiričnega. V teoretičnem delu smo predstavili teorijo plesne vzgoje v predšolskem obdobju, kjer smo podrobneje opisali sam pomen in vpliv plesne vzgoje na predšolskega otroka, vsebine, cilje in načela ter metode plesne vzgo...

  18. Installation and alignment of the DAΦNE accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C.; Sgamma, F.

    1998-01-01

    Installation, alignment and survey of the magnetic elements and vacuum chambers of DAΦNE are described. The networks of the Damping Ring and two Main Rings are described, focusing the techniques chosen to obtain the required precision. A description of the mechanical measurements, coupled to the magnetic ones, to refer the magnetic axis of quadrupoles and sextupoles to their fiducial is underlined: emPHIasis is put on the strategy to couple precision with quickness. The results of first PHIase alignment job and its refinement are analyzed using the orbit measurement

  19. [p,q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J P

    1995-05-22

    In this short note, it is argued that [p, q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}, contrary to the oiginal claims of Born and Jordan, and Dirac. Rather, [p, q] is equal to something that is infinitesimally different from i{Dirac_h}. While this difference is usually harmless, it does provide the solution of the Born-Jordan `trace paradox` of [p, q]. More recently, subtleties of a very similar form have been found to be of fundamental importance in quantum field theory. 3 refs.

  20. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  1. A transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoshiaki

    1987-06-01

    The performance of a transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser system, developed for a wavelength-optical frequency standard according to the 1983 Comite Consultatif pour la Definition du Metier, is discussed. An offset-locked laser system using a phase comparison technique is described which is used to evaluate the stabilized laser system. A frequency stability of 2.5 x 10 to the -12th tau exp -1/2, and a resettability of 1 x 10 to the -11th, are estimated for the stabilized laser system.

  2. Accurate Ne-heavier rare gas interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candori, R.; Pirani, F.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    1983-01-01

    Accurate interatomic potential curves for Ne-heavier rare gas systems are obtained by a multiproperty analysis. The curves are given via a parametric function which consists of a modified Dunham expansion connected at long range with the van der Waals expansion. The experimental properties considered in the analysis are the differential scattering cross sections at two different collision energies, the integral cross sections in the glory energy range and the second virial coefficients. The transport properties are considered indirectly by using the potential energy values recently obtained by inversion of the transport coefficients. (author)

  3. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  4. Mass distribution in 20Ne+232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Mass distribution was measured in 20 Ne+ 232 Th reaction at E lab =145 MeV using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Significant contribution from transfer fission was observed in the yield of comparatively neutron rich fission products. The variance of mass distribution for complete fusion fission, obtained by excluding neutron rich fission products, was observed to be consistent with the values reported in literature for similar reaction systems which showed a deviation from the systematics obtained using random neck rupture and liquid drop model. (author)

  5. Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported

  6. Mise en scène ja kertova lavastus

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii mise en scèneä ja lavastuksen kerronnallista vaikutusta elokuvassa. Työ on toteutettu toiminnallisena ja koostuu kirjallisesta osasta ja teososasta. Teososa on vuonna 2012 ensi-iltansa saanut fiktiivinen lyhytelokuva Varjelus. Toimin elokuvassa lavastajana ja rekvisitöörinä. Kirjallinen osuus alkaa käsittelemällä mise en scènen, eli ’näyttämöllepanon’ määritelmää ja sen syntyä elokuvalliseksi konseptiksi. Työ etenee esittelemään ja tarkastelemaan käsitteen eri vis...

  7. Recent results from KLOE at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report in the following, latest results from the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. KLOE has collected 2.5 fb -1 of e + e - collisions at center of mass energy around the φ mass. We are completing the analyses of the 2001–2002 data sample of 450 pb -1 and we present selected results based on the complete data sample. KLOE results could be divided into two categories kaonic and hadronic physics. We present last results on both topics describing the impact of the KLOE physics. (author)

  8. Assessing the Relative Mobility of Submarine Landslides from Deposit Morphology and Physical Properties: an Example from Nankai Trough, Offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Moore, Z. T.

    2014-12-01

    A prominent landslide deposit in the Slope Basin seaward of the Megasplay Fault in the Nankai Trough was emplaced by a high-mobility landslide based on analysis of physical properties and seismic geomorphology. Slide acceleration is a critical variable that determines amplitude of slide-generated tsunami but is many times a variable with large uncertainty. In controlled laboratory experiments, the ratio of the shear stress to yield strength, defined as the Flow Factor, controls a wide spectrum of mass movement styles from slow, retrogressive failure to rapid, liquefied flows. We apply the laboratory Flow Factor approach to a natural landslide in the Nankai Trough by constraining pre-failure particle size analysis and porosity. Several mass transport deposits (MTDs), were drilled and cored at Site C0021 in the Nankai Trough during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338. The largest, MTD-6, occurs at 133-176 meters below seafloor and occurred approximately 0.87 Mya. Slide volume is 2 km3, transport distance is 5 km, and average deposit thickness is 50 m (maximum 180 m). Pre-failure water content was estimated from shallow sediments at Site C0018 (porosity = 72%). The average grain size distribution is 39% clay-sized, 58% silt-sized, and 3% sand-size particles as determined by hydrometer analyses of the MTD. Together, the porosity and clay fraction predict a Flow Factor of approximately 4, which corresponds to a relatively high mobility slide. We interpret this result to indicate the landslide that created MTD-6 was a single event that transported the slide mass relatively rapidly as opposed to a slow, episodic landslide event. This is supported by the observation of a completely evacuated source area with no remnant blocks or retrogressive headscarp and the internally chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks. Future works will focus on the tsunamigenic potential of this high mobility slide. This approach can be extended to other field

  9. Shallow Crustal Structure in the Northern Salton Trough, California: Insights from a Detailed 3-D Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, R.; Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Coachella Valley is the northern extent of the Gulf of California-Salton Trough. It contains the southernmost segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) for which a magnitude 7.8 earthquake rupture was modeled to help produce earthquake planning scenarios. However, discrepancies in ground motion and travel-time estimates from the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) velocity model of the Salton Trough highlight inaccuracies in its shallow velocity structure. An improved 3-D velocity model that better defines the shallow basin structure and enables the more accurate location of earthquakes and identification of faults is therefore essential for seismic hazard studies in this area. We used recordings of 126 explosive shots from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) to SSIP receivers and Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) stations. A set of 48,105 P-wave travel time picks constituted the highest-quality input to a 3-D tomographic velocity inversion. To improve the ray coverage, we added network-determined first arrivals at SCSN stations from 39,998 recently relocated local earthquakes, selected to a maximum focal depth of 10 km, to develop a detailed 3-D P-wave velocity model for the Coachella Valley with 1-km grid spacing. Our velocity model shows good resolution ( 50 rays/cubic km) down to a minimum depth of 7 km. Depth slices from the velocity model reveal several interesting features. At shallow depths ( 3 km), we observe an elongated trough of low velocity, attributed to sediments, located subparallel to and a few km SW of the SAF, and a general velocity structure that mimics the surface geology of the area. The persistence of the low-velocity sediments to 5-km depth just north of the Salton Sea suggests that the underlying basement surface, shallower to the NW, dips SE, consistent with interpretation from gravity studies (Langenheim et al., 2005). On the western side of the Coachella Valley, we detect depth-restricted regions of

  10. Separation of the 1+ /1- parity doublet in 20Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, J.; Stumpf, C.; Scheck, M.; Pietralla, N.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D. M.; Glodariu, T.; Haxton, W.; Idini, A.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Roth, R.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wagner, J.; Weller, H. R.; Zamfir, N.-V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-02-01

    The (J , T) = (1 , 1) parity doublet in 20Ne at 11.26 MeV is a good candidate to study parity violation in nuclei. However, its energy splitting is known with insufficient accuracy for quantitative estimates of parity violating effects. To improve on this unsatisfactory situation, nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using linearly and circularly polarized γ-ray beams were used to determine the energy difference of the parity doublet ΔE = E (1-) - E (1+) = - 3.2(± 0.7) stat(-1.2+0.6)sys keV and the ratio of their integrated cross sections Is,0(+) /Is,0(-) = 29(± 3) stat(-7+14)sys. Shell-model calculations predict a parity-violating matrix element having a value in the range 0.46-0.83 eV for the parity doublet. The small energy difference of the parity doublet makes 20Ne an excellent candidate to study parity violation in nuclear excitations.

  11. Beta-delayed particle decay of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, A.C.; Chow, J.C.; King, J.D.; Boyd, R.N.; Bateman, N.P.T.; Buchmann, L.; D'Auria, J.M.; Davinson, T.; Dombsky, M.; Galster, W.; Gete, E.; Giesen, U.; Iliadis, C.; Jackson, K.P.; Powell, J.; Roy, G.; Shotter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The β-delayed particle decay of 17 Ne has been studied via proton-γ coincidences, time-of-flight measurements and the ''ratio-cut technique'', allowing cleanly-separated proton and α-particle spectra to be obtained. A complete set of proton and α branching ratios for the decay of 14 excited states in 17 F to the ground and excited states of 16 O and 13 N has been determined and branching ratios for the β decay of 17 Ne to these states have been deduced. From the branching ratios, f A t values and reduced Gamow-Teller matrix elements were calculated; no indication of isospin mixing in the isobaric analog state in 17 F was observed. From the measurement of proton-γ angular correlations, combined with the selection rules for an allowed β decay, we obtain J π =((1)/(2)) - for states at 8.436 and 9.450 MeV and ((3)/(2)) - for the state at 10.030 MeV in 17 F. Probabilities for the β-delayed pα decay to 12 C through the tails of the subthreshold 7.117 and 6.917 MeV states in 16 O have been calculated and the feasibility of using such decays to provide information about the rates for the E1 and E2 components of the 12 C(α,γ) 16 O reaction is discussed

  12. Response of zircon to electron and Ne+ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Weber, W.J.; Boatner, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) is an actinide host phase in vitreous ceramic nuclear waste forms and a potential host phase for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. In the present work, the effects of 800 and 900 keV electron and 1 MeV Ne + irradiations on the structure of single crystals of ZrSiO 4 have been investigated. The microstructural evolution during the irradiations was studied in situ using a high-voltage electron microscope interfaced to an ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The results indicate that electron irradiation at 15 K cannot amorphize ZrSiO 4 even at fluences an order of magnitude higher than that required for amorphization by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions. However, the material is readily amorphized by 1 MeV Ne + irradiation at 15 K. The temperature dependence of this amorphization is discussed in light of previous studies of radiation damage in ZrSiO 4

  13. Absorbed dose to water comparison between NE 2561 and NE 2671 chambers using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols for gamma ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Noriah Mod Ali; Taiman Kadni

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study to evaluate the performance of NE 2571 chamber in comparison with NE 2561 chamber in determination of the absorbed dose to water in gamma ray beam. In this study NE 2561 is taking as a reference standard chamber while NE 2571 as a working standard. Irradiation of chamber (alternately) was performed at a reference depth, 5 cm, inside the IAEA water phantom. Both chambers were exposed to 13 difference exposures of gamma rays. The values of absorbed dose to water were then determined using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols. Deviations of absorbed dose determined by NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calculated for each protocol. result obtained in terms of [protocol, μ (mean deviation) ± σ s e (standard error)] were (IAEA, 1.12 ± 0.04], [HPA, 0.09 ± 0.04], and [NCP, 0.09 ± 0.04]. It can be concluded that NE 2571 shown acceptable performance as it is within acceptable limit ± 3%. (Author)

  14. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP aastal 2004

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tabelid: Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Vt. samas: Viktor Sepp, Merike Lees. Lääne-Virumaal üllatavad uued tegijad

  15. Simulation of thermal fluid dynamics in parabolic trough receiver tubes with direct steam generation using the computer code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Merk, Bruno [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung

    2014-06-15

    In the present feasibility study the system code ATHLET, which originates from nuclear engineering, is applied to a parabolic trough test facility. A model of the DISS (DIrect Solar Steam) test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almeria in Spain is assembled and the results of the simulations are compared to measured data and the simulation results of the Modelica library 'DissDyn'. A profound comparison between ATHLET Mod 3.0 Cycle A and the 'DissDyn' library reveals the capabilities of these codes. The calculated mass and energy balance in the ATHLET simulations are in good agreement with the results of the measurements and confirm the applicability for thermodynamic simulations of DSG processes in principle. Supplementary, the capabilities of the 6-equation model with transient momentum balances in ATHLET are used to study the slip between liquid and gas phases and to investigate pressure wave oscillations after a sudden valve closure. (orig.)

  16. Forecasts of the capacity properties of Goterisskiy deposits of the eastern closure of the Predkopetdhskiy trough. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odekov, O.A.; Tulayev, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    Primary sedimentation porosity varies due to gravitational compaction of sediments, therefore its regular reduction with increase of bed depth is suggested. Relationships for determining the value of sediment compaction, coefficient of rock compaction, value of porosity, which is forecasted for a certain horizon are given. Based on data for the territory of Eastern Turkmenistan the pattern of change of collector properties of the Shatlyk horizon of Murgaskaya gas-bearing region and its analogs is established. A general emperical formula of porosity for the Eastern Turkmenistan is presented. Graphs of the relationships of capacity properties of the Lower Goterisskiy deposits for Eastern Turkmenistan and for the region of the eastern closure of the Predkopetdhskiy trough are plotted. Evidence is given of the good prospects of the Lower Cretaceous and especially the Lower Goterisskiy deposits of the region for natural gas from collector properties and from tectonic and lithofacial reasons.

  17. Modeling and simulations of a 30 MWe solar electric generating system using parabolic trough collectors in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, Yasemin [Anyl Asansor Ltd (Turkey)], email: syusta@gmail.com; Baker, Derek [Middle East Technical University (Turkey)], email: dbaker@metu.edu.tr; Kaftanoglu, Bilgin [Atilim University (Turkey)], email: bilgink@atilim.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing concerns about climate change, the interest in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems is growing in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of a CSP system using a field of parabolic trough collectors and to assess the predicted performance of the system. A model was developed for a 30MWe solar generating system in Antalya, Turkey, using TRNSYS software, the solar thermal electric components library and information on an existing system in Kramer Junction, California, United States. Annual simulations were then performed for both systems in Antalya and California using weather data. It was found that the predictions were in good agreement with published data. In addition results showed that Antalya's system would generate 30% less than Kramer Junction's system on an annual basis. This paper provides useful information on modeling and simulation of CSP systems.

  18. Element enrichment and U-series isotopic characteristics of the hydrothermal sulfides at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The geochemical and U-series isotopic characteristics of hydrothermal sulfide samples from the Jade site (127°04.5′E, 27°15′N, water depth 1300-1450 m) at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough were analyzed. In the hydrothermal sulfide samples bearing sulfate (samples HOK1 and HOK2), the LREEs are relatively enriched. All the hydrothermal sulfide samples except HOK1 belong to Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide. In comparison with Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfides from other fields, the contents of Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Au and Hg are higher, the contents of Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Te, Cs, Ti and U lower, and the 210Pb radioactivity ratios and 210Pb/Pb ratios very low. In the hydrothermal sulfide mainly composed of sphalerite, the correlations between rare elements Hf and U, and Hf and Mn as well as that between dispersive elements Ga and Zn, are strongly positive; also the contents of Au and Ag are related to Fe-sulfide, because the low temperature promotes enrichment of Au and Ag. Meanwhile, the positive correlations between Fe and Bi and between Zn and Cd are not affected by the change of mineral assemblage. Based on the 210Pb/Pb ratios of hydrothermal sulfide samples (3.99×10-5-5.42×10?5), their U isotopic composition (238U content 1.15-2.53 ppm, 238U activity 1.07-1.87 dpm/g, 234U activity 1.15-2.09 dpm/g and 234U/238U ratio 1.07-1.14) and their 232Th and 230Th contents are at base level, and the chronological age of hydrothermal sulfide at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough is between 200 and 2000 yr.

  19. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  20. Amplitude versus offset analysis to marine seismic data acquired in Nankai Trough, offshore Japan where methane hydrate exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, M.; Inamori, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Shimizu, S.

    2003-04-01

    Occurrence of methane hydrates in the Nankai Trough, located off the south-eastern coast of Japan, was confirmed by the exploratory test well drilling conducted by Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1999. Confirmation of methane hydrate has given so big impact to the Japan's future energy strategy and scientific and technological interest was derived from the information of the coring and logging results at the well. Following the above results, Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC) launched the national project, named as MH21, for establishing the technology of methane hydrate exploration and related technologies such as production and development. As one of the research project for evaluating the total amount of the methane hydrate, Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) was applied to the seismic data acquired in the Nankai Trough area. The main purpose of the AVO application is to evaluate the validity of delineation of methane hydrate-bearing zones. Since methane hydrate is thought to accompany with free-gas in general just below the methane hydrate-bearing zones, the AVO has a possibility of describing the presence of free-gas. The free-gas is thought to be located just below the base of methane hydrate stability zone which is characterized by the Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on the seismic section. In this sense, AVO technology, which was developed as gas delineation tools, can be utilized for methane hydrate exploration. The result of AVO analysis clearly shows gas-related anomaly below the BSRs. Appearance of the AVO anomaly has so wide variety. Some of the anomalies might not correspond to the free-gas existence, however, some of them may show free-gas. We are now going to develop methodology to clearly discriminate free-gas from non-gas zone by integrating various types of seismic methods such as seismic inversion and seismic attribute analysis.

  1. Shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes accompanied with slow slip event along the plate boundary of the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Hori, T.; Araki, E.; Kodaira, S.; Ide, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent improvements of seismic and geodetic observations have revealed the existence of a new family of slow earthquakes occurring along or close to the plate boundary worldwide. In the viewpoint of the characteristic time scales, the slow earthquakes can be classified into several groups as low-frequency tremor or tectonic tremor (LFT) dominated in several hertz, very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) dominated in 10 to 100 s, and short- and long-term slow-slip event (SSE) with durations of days to years. In many cases, these slow earthquakes are accompanied with other types of slow events. However, the events occurring offshore, especially beneath the toe of accretionary prism, are poorly understood because of the difficulty to detect signals. Utilizing the data captured from oceanfloor observation networks which many efforts have recently been taken to develop is necessary to improve our understandings for these events. Here, we investigated CMT analysis of shallow VLFEs using data obtained from DONET oceanfloor observation networks along the Nankai trough, southwest of Japan. We found that shallow VLFEs have almost identical history of moment release with that of synchronous SSE which occurred at the same region recently found by Araki et al. (2017). VLFE sources show updip migrations during the activity, coincident with the migration of SSE source. From these findings we conclude that these slow events share the same fault slip, and VLFE represent high-frequency fluctuations of slip during SSE. This result imply that shallow SSE along the plate interface would have occurred in the background during the shallow VLFE activities repeatedly observed along the Nankai trough, but the SSE was not reported because of difficult detections.

  2. Effect of infliximab dose increase in rheumatoid arthritis at different trough concentrations: a cohort study in clinical practice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamaida ePlasencia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence supporting treatment intensification in rheumatoid arthritis is limited and controversial. We explored outcomes of infliximab dose increases and accounted for pre-existing trough levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsThis study was a retrospective study of 42 RA patients who received increased infliximab following an insufficient response (DAS28 > 3.2. Serum concentrations of infliximab and antibodies to infliximab (ATI and DAS28 and EULAR clinical response parameters were recorded for one year. Analyses were performed in three patient groups that were defined by infliximab serum concentration prior to treatment enhancement: No detectable, Low (< 1.1 µg/mL or High (≥ 1.1 µg/mL drug levels. Results No circulating infliximab was detected in 20 patients (47.6 %, but 13 (30.9 % and 9 (21.4 % patients exhibited Low and High levels, respectively. ATI were only detected in patients with No detectable drug levels because the drug interferes with ELISA. DAS28 disease activity globally showed a modest improvement after dose escalation, but this improvement did not persist after 6 and 12 months. Infliximab serum levels increased significantly in the High group (p=0.016, but no increase was achieved in the Low and No detectable groups. The three study groups exhibited similar disease activity over time, and no improvement was observed in the non-responder EULAR rates. ConclusionsThese results suggest that the efficacy of an infliximab dose increase is limited, and the response is independent of the infliximab trough serum concentration that is achieved prior to escalation.

  3. A ∼180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, F. S.; Drescher-Schneider, R.; Furrer, H.; Graf, H. R.; Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F.; Riedi, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a ∼ 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between ∼ 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called M ammoth peat , previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  4. A {approx}180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, F. S. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Drescher-Schneider, R. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Karl-Fanzen-Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria); Furrer, H. [Palaeontologisches Institut und Museum, Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Graf, H. R. [Matousek, Baumann und Niggli AG, Baden (Switzerland); Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Riedi, M. A. [Marc A. Riedi, Susenbuehlstrasse 41, Chur (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a {approx} 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between {approx} 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called {sup M}ammoth peat{sup ,} previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  5. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; D' Amato, V.; D' Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via Santa Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  6. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km 3 -scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT

  7. Confinement and electron correlation effects in photoionization of atoms in endohedral anions: Ne-Cz-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolmatov, V K; Craven, G T; Keating, D

    2010-01-01

    Trends in resonances, termed confinement resonances, in photoionization of atoms A in endohedral fullerene anions A-C z- 60 are theoretically studied and exemplified by the photoionization of Ne in Ne-C z- 60 . Remarkably, above a particular nl ionization threshold of Ne in neutral Ne-C 60 (I z=0 nl ), confinement resonances in corresponding partial photoionization cross sections σ nl of Ne in any charged Ne-C z- 60 are not affected by a variation in the charge z of the carbon cage, as a general phenomenon. At lower photon energies, ω z=0 nl , the corresponding photoionization cross sections of charged Ne-C z- 60 (i.e., those with z ≠ 0) develop additional, strong, z-dependent resonances, termed Coulomb confinement resonances, as a general occurrence. Furthermore, near the innermost 1s ionization threshold, the 2p photoionization cross section σ 2p of the outermost 2p subshell of thus confined Ne is found to inherit the confinement resonance structure of the 1s photoionization spectrum, via interchannel coupling. As a result, new confinement resonances emerge in the 2p photoionization cross section of the confined Ne atom at photoelectron energies which exceed the 2p threshold by about a thousand eV, i.e., far above where conventional wisdom said they would exist. Thus, the general possibility for confinement resonances to resurrect in photoionization spectra of encapsulated atoms far above thresholds is revealed, as an interesting novel general phenomenon.

  8. IKONIČNE REPREZENTACIJE NEKATERIH MATEMATIČNIH POJMOV PRI OSNOVNOŠOLCIH

    OpenAIRE

    Podgoršek, Manja

    2015-01-01

    Ikonične reprezentacije so reprezentacije, ki predstavljajo prehod med enaktivnimi in simbolnimi reprezentacijami. Ikonične reprezentacije matematičnih pojmov na razredni stopnji so v veliki večini primerov grafične. V magistrski nalogi smo s pomočjo preizkusa znanja želeli ugotoviti, na kakšen način učenci od 5. do 8. razreda osnovne šole grafično ponazarjajo vnaprej podane matematične pojme (odštevanje s prehodom, številski izraz z oklepaji, izraz dela celote in potenca). Zanimalo nas je tu...

  9. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts of Laurentian affinity from blocks of limestone in the Rosroe Formation, South Mayo Trough, western Ireland and their palaeogeographic implication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouge, Svend; Harper, David A. T.; Sevastopulo, George D.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Ordovician Rosroe Formation consists of some 1350m of coarse, mainly siliciclastic to volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, deposited in a submarine fan environment, and is restricted to the southern limb of the South Mayo Trough, western Ireland. Discrete allochthonous blocks, reaching 5m...

  10. Gravimetric model of the Gastre trough, province of Chubut, Argentina; Modelo gravimetrico en la fosa de Gastre, provincia de Chubut, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lince Klinger, F.; Nacif, S.; Martinez, M. P.; Gimenez, M. E.; Ruiz, F.; Alvarez, O.

    2011-07-01

    A gravimetric study of the Gastre trough in the Province of Chubut, to the southwest of the Canadon Asfalto basin, has allowed us to determine the geometry of its crystalline basement. Using filtering techniques we were able to map residual Bouguer anomalies, which show the heterogeneities situated within the upper crust, some of which are linked to recognised geological structures. The gravimetric minima in the residual Bouguer anomaly map are associated with graben-type basins, flanked by positive gravity values associated with alignments identified on the surface and with the overall topographic relief of the Gastre trough. After suitable treatment of the density values of the outcrops and seismic data we were able to construct a 2D density model, perpendicular to the trough, which indicated a depth of 3600 m. The importance of this study lies in the fact that it has been possible to arrive at a gravimetric characterization of the Gastre trough in the Canadon Asfalto basin sector, a potentially hydrocarbon-bearing area hitherto lacking in reliable data concerning its subsoil. (Author)

  11. Linezolid Trough Concentrations Correlate with Mitochondrial Toxicity-Related Adverse Events in the Treatment of Chronic Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taeksun; Lee, Myungsun; Jeon, Han-Seung; Park, Yumi; Dodd, Lori E; Dartois, Véronique; Follman, Dean; Wang, Jing; Cai, Ying; Goldfeder, Lisa C; Olivier, Kenneth N; Xie, Yingda; Via, Laura E; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Chen, Ray Y

    2015-11-01

    Long-term linezolid use is limited by mitochondrial toxicity-associated adverse events (AEs). Within a prospective, randomized controlled trial of linezolid to treat chronic extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, we serially monitored the translational competence of mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood of participants by determining the cytochrome c oxidase/citrate synthase activity ratio. We compared this ratio with AEs associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Linezolid trough concentrations were determined for 38 participants at both 600 mg and 300 mg doses. Those on 600 mg had a significantly higher risk of AE than those on 300 mg (HR 3·10, 95% CI 1·23-7 · 86). Mean mitochondrial function levels were significantly higher in patients before starting linezolid compared to their concentrations on 300 mg (P = 0·004) or 600 mg (P linezolid trough concentrations were associated with lower mitochondrial function levels (Spearman's ρ = - 0.48; P = 0.005). Mitochondrial toxicity risk increased with increasing linezolid trough concentrations, with all patients with mean linezolid trough > 2 μg/ml developing an AE related to mitochondrial toxicity, whether on 300 mg or 600 mg. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful to prevent the development of mitochondrial toxicity associated with long-term linezolid use.

  12. Economic analysis of power generation from parabolic trough solar thermal plants for the Mediterranean region. A case study for the island of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the Mediterranean region is economically feasible. The case study takes into account the available solar potential for Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources policy of the Cyprus Government, including the relevant feed-in tariff. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the parabolic trough solar thermal plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters, such as, parabolic trough solar thermal plant capacity, parabolic trough solar thermal capital investment, operating hours, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that under certain conditions such projects can be profitable. (author)

  13. [Successful cyclosporine treatment in 2 patients with refractory CIDP, involving monitoring of both AUC(0-4h) and trough levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akiko; Shirai, Shinichi; Horiuchi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Ikuko; Matsushima, Masaaki; Hirotani, Makoto; Kano, Takahiro; Yabe, Ichiro; Matumoto, Akihisa; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2012-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CYA) treatment has been reported to be probably useful for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) that is resistant to conventional treatment. Although several studies have shown that appropriate area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) monitoring of CYA levels results in improved outcomes for refractory nephrotic syndrome patients, the importance of using AUC analysis for CIDP remains unclear. In this study, we measured both trough and AUC from 0 to 4 h (AUC(0-4 h)) levels of CYA in 2 patients with CIDP and compared the findings for the clinical parameters. On the basis of the CYA dosing recommendations for patients with nephrotic syndrome, we used a CYA concentration of 150 ng/ml for the trough level and an AUC(0-4 h) value of 2,500 ng/(ml·h). Patient 1 showed a significant increase in grip strength and a prolonged remission period. Patient 2 showed improvement in the modified Rankin scale and manual muscle test (MMT) scores. Monitoring both AUC(0-4 h) and trough levels of CYA seems to be a better option than monitoring the trough level alone because it leads to improved estimation of the efficacy and safety of CYA treatment in the case of CIDP patients.

  14. A Novel Volume CT With X-Ray on a Trough-Like Surface and Point Detectors on Circle-Plus-Arc Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel imaging mode of cone-beam volume CT is proposed in this paper. It adopts a raster scanning x-ray source on a trough-like surface, and a group of point detectors distributing on a large circle plus an orthogonal arc...

  15. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  16. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Efficient Sensor Integration on Platforms (NeXOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memè, S.; Delory, E.; Del Rio, J.; Jirka, S.; Toma, D. M.; Martinez, E.; Frommhold, L.; Barrera, C.; Pearlman, J.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ ocean observing platforms provide power and information transmission capability to sensors. Ocean observing platforms can be mobile, such as ships, autonomous underwater vehicles, drifters and profilers, or fixed, such as buoys, moorings and cabled observatories. The process of integrating sensors on platforms can imply substantial engineering time and resources. Constraints range from stringent mechanical constraints to proprietary communication and control firmware. In NeXOS, the implementation of a PUCK plug and play capability is being done with applications to multiple sensors and platforms. This is complemented with a sensor web enablement that addresses the flow of information from sensor to user. Open standards are being tested in order to assess their costs and benefits in existing and future observing systems. Part of the testing implied open-source coding and hardware prototyping of specific control devices in particular for closed commercial platforms where firmware upgrading is not straightforward or possible without prior agreements or service fees. Some platform manufacturers such as European companies ALSEAMAR[1] and NKE Instruments [2] are currently upgrading their control and communication firmware as part of their activities in NeXOS. The sensor development companies Sensorlab[3] SMID[4] and TRIOS [5]upgraded their firmware with this plug and play functionality. Other industrial players in Europe and the US have been sent NeXOS sensors emulators to test the new protocol on their platforms. We are currently demonstrating that with little effort, it is also possible to have such middleware implemented on very low-cost compact computers such as the open Raspberry Pi[6], and have a full end-to-end interoperable communication path from sensor to user with sensor plug and play capability. The result is an increase in sensor integration cost-efficiency and the demonstration will be used to highlight the benefit to users and ocean observatory

  18. Calprotectin and TNF trough serum levels identify power Doppler ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis patients in remission or with low disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciarte-Mundo, José; Ramirez, Julio; Hernández, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Cuervo, Andrea; Cabrera-Villalba, Sonia Raquel; Pascal, Mariona; Yagüe, Jordi; Cañete, Juan D; Sanmarti, Raimon

    2016-07-08

    Serum levels of calprotectin, a major S100 leucocyte protein, are associated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Higher drug trough serum levels are associated with good response in patients treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) synovitis is predictive of flare and progression of structural damage in patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to analyse the accuracy of calprotectin and TNFi trough serum levels in detecting PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission or with low disease activity who were receiving TNFi. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 92 patients (42 with RA, 50 with PsA) receiving adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) or infliximab who were in remission or had low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate ultrasound scores (all r coefficients >0.50 in RA). Calprotectin correlated with the PDUS synovitis score in patients treated with ADA and ETN. Using PDUS synovitis (yes or no) as the reference variable, calprotectin had an AUC of 0.826. The best cut-off was ≥1.66 μg/ml, with a likelihood ratio of 2.77. C-reactive protein (AUC 0.673) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (AUC 0.731) had a lower discriminatory capacity. TNFi trough serum levels were significantly associated with PDUS synovitis (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.52-0.85, p < 0.001) but their accuracy (AUC <0.5) was less than that of calprotectin. TNFi trough serum levels were inversely correlated with calprotectin and PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients receiving ADA and ETN. Calprotectin and TNFi trough serum levels may help identify PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission or with low disease activity.

  19. Plate Tectonic Cycling and Whole Mantle Convection Modulate Earth's 3He/22Ne Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, N. J.; Jackson, C.; Hesse, M. A.; Tremblay, M. M.; Shuster, D. L.; Gu, J.

    2016-12-01

    3He and 22Ne are not produced in the mantle or fractionated by partial melting, and neither isotope is recycled back into the mantle by subduction of oceanic basalt or sediment. Thus, it is a surprise that large 3He/22Ne variations exist within the mantle and that the mantle has a net elevated 3He/22Ne ratio compared to volatile-rich planetary precursor materials. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle have distinctly higher 3He/22Ne compared to ocean island basalt (OIB) sources ( 4-12.5 vs. 2.5-4.5, respectively) [1,2]. The low 3He/22Ne of OIBs approaches chondritic ( 1) and solar nebula values ( 1.5). The high 3He/22Ne of the MORB mantle is not similar to solar sources or any known family of meteorites, requiring a mechanism for fractionating He from Ne in the mantle and suggesting isolation of distinct mantle reservoirs throughout geologic time. We model the formation of a MORB source with elevated and variable 3He/22Ne though diffusive exchange between dunite channel-hosted basaltic liquids and harzburgite wallrock beneath mid-ocean ridges. Over timescales relevant to mantle upwelling beneath spreading centers, He may diffuse tens to hundreds of meters into wallrock while Ne is relatively immobile, producing a regassed, depleted mantle lithosphere with elevated 3He/22Ne. Subduction of high 3He/22Ne mantle would generate a MORB source with high 3He/22Ne. Regassed, high 3He/22Ne mantle lithosphere has He concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than undegassed mantle. To preserve the large volumes of high 3He/22Ne mantle required by the MORB source, mixing between subducted and undegassed mantle reservoirs must have been limited throughout geologic time. Using the new 3He/22Ne constraints, we ran a model similar to [3] to quantify mantle mixing timescales, finding they are on the order of Gyr assuming physically reasonable seafloor spreading rates, and that Earth's convecting mantle has lost >99% of its primordial

  20. Stellar reaction rate for 22Mg+p→23Al from the asymptotic normalization coefficient in the mirror nuclear system 22Ne+n→23Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abdullah, T.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Lui, Y.-W.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    The production of 22 Na in ONe novae can be influenced by the 22 Mg(p,γ) 23 Al reaction. To investigate this reaction rate at stellar energies, we have determined the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for 22 Mg+p→ 23 Al through measurements of the ANCs in the mirror nuclear system 22 Ne+n→ 23 Ne. The peripheral neutron-transfer reactions 13 C( 12 C, 13 C) 12 C and 13 C( 22 Ne, 23 Ne) 12 C were studied. The identical entrance and exit channels of the first reaction make it possible to extract independently the ground-state ANC in 13 C. Our experiment gives C p 1/2 2 ( 13 C)=2.24±0.11 fm -1 , which agrees with the value obtained from several previous measurements. The weighted average for all the obtained C p 1/2 2 is 2.31±0.08 fm -1 . This value is adopted to be used in obtaining the ANCs in 23 Ne. The differential cross sections for the reaction 13 C( 22 Ne, 23 Ne) 12 C leading to the J π =5/2 + and 1/2 + states in 23 Ne have been measured at 12 MeV/u. Optical model parameters for use in the DWBA calculations were obtained from measurements of the elastic scatterings 22 Ne+ 13 C and 22 Ne+ 12 C. The extracted ANC for the ground state in 23 Ne, C d 5/2 2 =0.86±0.08±0.12 fm -1 , is converted to its corresponding value in 23 Al using mirror symmetry to give C d 5/2 2 ( 23 Al)=(4.63±0.77)x10 3 fm -1 . The astrophysical S factor S(0) for the 22 Mg(p,γ) reaction was determined to be 0.96±0.11 keV b. The consequences for nuclear astrophysics are discussed.